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Sample records for partners controls gamete

  1. Determination of n+1 gamete transmission rate of trisomics and location of gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-He; Li, Xiao-Feng; Shen, Shu-Xing; Yuan, He; Xuan, Shu-Xin

    2009-01-01

    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on the corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosomes in different trisomics varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the nine F(2) populations derived from the hybridizations between each trisomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4xBp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38:1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. In other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3:1 segregation ratio of the bisomics (Aa). These results suggested that the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.

  2. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  3. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Justin W.; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person’s intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a “trembling hand” economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator’s intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner’s intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  4. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer or intrauterine insemination after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for treatment of infertility due to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, S; Abdel Fattah, A; Abozaid, T; Murphy, J; Formantini, E; Sasy, M; Barber, K; Abuzeid, M

    2004-09-01

    We compared the effectiveness of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in the treatment of infertility due to endometriosis. This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary teaching medical center. A total of 127 consecutive patients with endometriosis were treated with GIFT or IUI after COH between June 1990 and December 1998. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 97) included patients with stages 1 and 2 endometriosis, and group 2 (n = 30) included patients with stages 3 and 4 endometriosis. Laparoscopic conservative surgery for endometriosis was performed prior to IUI for patients in both group 1 and group 2. In group 1, 55 patients underwent 95 cycles of IUI after COH and 42 patients underwent 57 cycles of GIFT. In group 2, 14 patients underwent 16 cycles of IUI after COH, while 16 patients underwent 22 cycles of GIFT. The stimulation protocol for both GIFT and IUI was mid-luteal pituitary down-regulation with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) followed by gonadotropins. In group 1, the pregnancy rates (GIFT = 50.9%, IUI = 29.4%) and the delivery rates (GIFT = 28.1%, IUI = 14.7%) per cycle were significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). There was no significant differences in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 69%, IUI 50.9%, respectively) or the delivery rate (GIFT 38.1%, IUI 25.5%) per patient. In group 2, there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 54.5%, IUI 31.3%) or the delivery rate (GIFT 40.9%, IUI 12.5%) per cycle, but the difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 75%, IUI 35.7%) and the delivery rate (GIFT 56.3%, IUI 14.3%) per patient was significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). We conclude that, when the same stimulation protocol is used in the early stages of endometriosis, a few cycles of IUI can achieve similar results to GIFT, and

  5. [Anonymity and gamete donation].

    PubMed

    Bujan, L; Le Lannou, D; Kunstmann, J-M

    2012-08-01

    In France the gamete donation is based on the major principles: anonymity, no payment, solidarity and this mode of procreation can be used only if a medical indication is present in recipient couples. In prerequisite and during the revision of the law of bioethics, a wide debate took place about the anonymity of gamete donation. The objectives of this article is to review the concept of the anonymity and its links with the questions of the origin, the secret of the modalities of the conception and the mourning of the fertility, children, donors and the recipient couples waiting for gamete donation. The international situation is also addressed. The contribution of the CECOS, the centers which practice the sperm and the egg donations is highlighted. The anonymity cannot be discussed without addressing all these links and the complexity of this particular mode of conception. To date, the French society has maintained the anonymity in the new law of bioethics. PMID:23141592

  6. Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and central cells (female gametes) within an ovule ( Fig. 1 ). The precise mechanism of sperm cell movement after the pollen tube bursts remains unknown. Ultimately, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and the other one fuses with the central cell, producing an embryo and an endosperm, respectively. Fertilization in which 2 sets of gamete fusion events occur, called double fertilization, has been known for over 100 y. The fact that each morphologically identical sperm cell precisely recognizes its fusion partner strongly suggests that an accurate gamete interaction system(s) exists in flowering plants. PMID:25517689

  7. 2006 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    The 2006 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation provide the latest recommendations for evaluation of potential sperm, oocyte, and embryo donors, incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections, genetic diseases, and psychological assessments. This revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine Practice Committee document incorporates recent information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gamete and embryo donation services must be thoroughly familiar. PMID:17055844

  8. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance…

  9. Gamete Dialogs in Green Lineages.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Igawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Gamete fusion is a core process of sexual reproduction and, in both plants and animals, different sex gametes fuse within species. Although most of the molecular factors involved in gamete interaction are still unknown in various sex-possessing eukaryotes, reports of such factors in algae and land plants have been increasing in the past decade. In particular, knowledge of gamete interaction in flowering plants and green algae has increased since the identification of the conserved gamete fusion factor generative cell specific 1/hapless 2 (GCS1/HAP2). GCS1 was first identified as a pollen generative cell-specific transmembrane protein in the lily (Lilium longiflorum), and was then shown to function not only in flowering plant gamete fusion but also in various eukaryotes, including unicellular protists and metazoans. In addition, although initially restricted to Chlamydomonas, knowledge of gamete attachment in flowering plants was also acquired. This review focuses on recent progress in the study of gamete interaction in volvocine green algae and flowering plants and discusses conserved mechanisms of gamete recognition, attachment, and fusion leading to zygote formation.

  10. In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

  11. Spermatids as male gametes.

    PubMed

    Ogura, A; Yanagimachi, R

    1995-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is becoming increasingly popular in human infertility clinics as an efficient method for the treatment of male infertility. It is proposed that spermatids can be used as substitutes for spermatozoa if men are unable to produce sperm in their testes. At least in the hamster and mouse, the nuclei of round spermatids were capable of participating in syngamy when incorporated into homologous mature oocytes either by microsurgical ICSI or electrofusion. Normal mouse offspring were born after after electrofusion of oocytes with round spermatids. When culture in vitro of spermatogonia and spermatocytes is perfected, then spermatids, transforming spermatids and spermatozoa will all be able to be used as male gametes. PMID:7480833

  12. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn. PMID:26161331

  13. Sex Differences in Intimate Partner Violence and the Use of Coercive Control as a Motivational Factor for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…

  14. Studies show partner notification contributes to STD control.

    PubMed

    Steen, R

    1996-05-01

    The Centres pour le Developpement et la Sante launched a partner referral program in its antenatal clinics in Cite Soleil, Port-au-Prince. Pregnant women found to have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) were educated about STDs, treated, and encouraged to refer their partners to the clinic for treatment. 418 of 1001 women enrolled in the program over the period April-September 1993 tested positive for infection with STD. More than 90% of these women agreed to inform their partners. The 384 women treated for a STD named 331 partners, of whom 101 went to the clinic for treatment after referral by the women, while 38 men sought treatment following health worker referral. The researchers emphasized the importance of communication and recommended treating partners at the same facility as the index patient and removing barriers to partner treatment such as clinic fees. More STD patients could be encouraged to refer their partners for treatment through community-based educational campaigns which stress the asymptomatic nature of most STDs and that many STDs are curable. Improving the communication skills of community health workers who refer partners may also increase referral rates. The results of partner referral practiced in two Rwandan primary health care facilities and gender and partner referral are discussed. PMID:12291850

  15. Gamete Donor Consent and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on whether the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos remaining after infertility treatment morally require the informed consent of third-party gamete donors who contributed to the creation of the embryos. The principal guidelines for oversight and funding of hESC research in the United States make minimal or no demands for consent from gamete donors. In this article, I consider the arguments supporting and opposing gamete donor consent for hESC research and embryo research more broadly. I argue that it is not morally permissible to use leftover embryos in research without the informed consent of gamete donors, and that we should place restrictions on the use of existing hESC lines that may have been derived without informed consent. While the standard argument for this position relies on an appeal to gamete donors' interest in controlling what happens with their genetic material, I identify shortcomings with the standard approach and seek instead to locate the deeper moral foundations for gamete donor consent in rights to bodily integrity.

  16. III. Gamete and embryo donation.

    PubMed

    2002-05-01

    Ethical considerations concerning gametes and embryo donation are discussed. Basic principles are outlined, focusing on the issues raised by the meaning of genetic links, regulation and the necessity for taking into account the welfare of the child. Relevant specific aspects concern anonymity, compensation for donation and the consent, screening and assessment of donors and recipients. PMID:11980773

  17. "Manejar la Situacion": Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jesse L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Salazar, Ximena

    2015-12-01

    Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of PN was believed to reveal other potentially stigmatizing information related to sexual identity and practices such as homosexuality, promiscuity, and HIV co-infection. In this context, the potential development of visible, biological STI symptoms represented a risk for disruption of the boundary between secrecy and disclosure that could result in involuntary disclosure of STI status. To address the conflict between concealment and disclosure, participants cited efforts to "manejar la situacion" (manage the situation) by controlling the biological risks of STI exposure without openly disclosing STI status. We use this concept of "managing the situation" as a practical and theoretical framework for comprehensive Partner Management for HIV/STI control systems among MSM in Latin America.

  18. Is Partner Violence Worse in the Context of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…

  19. Recommendations for gamete and embryo donation: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This document provides the latest recommendations for evaluation of potential sperm, oocyte, and embryo donors, incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections, genetic diseases, and psychological assessments. This revised document incorporates recent information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gamete and embryo donation services must be thoroughly familiar, and replaces the document titled, "2008 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation: A Practice Committee Report," last published in Fertil Steril 2008;90:S30-44. PMID:23095142

  20. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors. PMID:26520059

  1. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  2. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  3. The Centers for Disease Control partners with Lysol manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and the makers of Lysol join a partnership to create a program for prevention methods called "An Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away." This program teaches the general public, especially families with young children ages 2 to 12, seven simple and inexpensive ways to prevent the spread of infectious disease. PMID:10186409

  4. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6 weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  5. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants.

  6. Natural Variation in Epigenetic Pathways Affects the Specification of Female Gamete Precursors in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  7. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  8. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, A.M; Magurran, A.E

    2006-01-01

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a ‘native’ male from the female's own population and a ‘foreign’ male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation. PMID:16959638

  9. Oviductal response to gametes and early embryos in mammals.

    PubMed

    Maillo, Veronica; Sánchez-Calabuig, Maria Jesus; Lopera-Vasquez, Ricaurte; Hamdi, Meriem; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Lonergan, Patrick; Rizos, Dimitrios

    2016-10-01

    The oviduct is a complex and organized thin tubular structure connecting the ovary with the uterus. It is the site of final sperm capacitation, oocyte fertilization and, in most species, the first 3-4days of early embryo development. The oviductal epithelium is made up of ciliary and secretory cells responsible for the secretion of proteins and other factors which contribute to the formation of the oviductal fluid. Despite significant research, most of the pathways and oviductal factors implicated in the crosstalk between gametes/early embryo and the oviduct remain unknown. Therefore, studying the oviductal environment is crucial to improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fertilization and embryo development. In vitro systems are a valuable tool to study in vivo pathways and mechanisms, particularly those in the oviducts which in livestock species are challenging to access. In studies of gamete and embryo interaction with the reproductive tract, oviductal epithelial cells, oviductal fluid and microvesicles co-cultured with gametes/embryos represent the most appropriate in vitro models to mimic the physiological conditions in vivo. PMID:27512123

  10. How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

    1998-04-01

    Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

  11. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression.

  12. Ion currents involved in gamete physiology.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Gametes are electrogenic cells that modify their electrical properties in response to different stimuli. This behavior is due to the occurrence of ion currents flowing through ion channels located on the plasma membranes. The modulation of ion channels has been described during the processes of gamete maturation, activation and fertilization in most of the animal models studied. In particular, predominant ions involved in physiological events in oocyte and sperm have been recognized to be sodium, potassium and calcium. In this review, we give an overview on the occurrence, modulation and function of ion fluxes, from gametogenesis to early fertilization events, from marine animals to human. The implications for a dynamic role of ion currents in gamete physiology and their possible clinical and technological applications are discussed.

  13. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  14. Random Genetic Drift and Gamete Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Shuhei

    2005-01-01

    An analytic expression of conditional expectation of transient gamete frequency, given that one of the two loci remains polymorphic, is obtained in terms of the diffusion process by calculating the moments of the distribution. Using this expression, a model where linkage disequilibrium is introduced by a single mutation is considered. The conditional expectation of the gamete frequency given that the locus with the mutant allele remains polymorphic is presented. The behavior is significantly different from the monotonic decrease observed in the deterministic model without random genetic drift. PMID:16371518

  15. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  16. Gamete formation without meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Marimuthu, Mohan P A; Siddiqi, Imran

    2008-02-28

    Apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds in plants, leads to populations that are genetically uniform maternal clones. The transfer of apomixis to crop plants holds great promise in plant breeding for fixation of heterozygosity and hybrid vigour because it would allow the propagation of hybrids over successive generations. Apomixis involves the production of unreduced (diploid) female gametes that retain the genotype of the parent plant (apomeiosis), followed by parthenogenetic development of the egg cell into an embryo and the formation of functional endosperm. The molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis are unknown. Here we show that mutation of the Arabidopsis gene DYAD/SWITCH1 (SWI1), a regulator of meiotic chromosome organization, leads to apomeiosis. We found that most fertile ovules in dyad plants form seeds that are triploid and that arise from the fertilization of an unreduced female gamete by a haploid male gamete. The unreduced female gametes fully retain parental heterozygosity across the genome, which is characteristic of apomeiosis. Our results show that the alteration of a single gene in a sexual plant can bring about functional apomeiosis, a major component of apomixis.

  17. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2016-10-19

    The gametes of unicellular eukaryotes are morphologically identical, but are nonetheless divided into distinct mating types. The number of mating types varies enormously and can reach several thousand, yet most species have only two. Why do morphologically identical gametes need to be differentiated into self-incompatible mating types, and why is two the most common number of mating types? In this work, we explore a neglected hypothesis that there is a need for asymmetric signalling interactions between mating partners. Our review shows that isogamous gametes always interact asymmetrically throughout sex and argue that this asymmetry is favoured because it enhances the efficiency of the mating process. We further develop a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the evolution of the number of mating types based on the strength of signalling interactions between gametes. Novel mating types have an advantage as they are compatible with all others and rarely meet their own type. But if existing mating types coevolve to have strong mutual interactions, this restricts the spread of novel types. Similarly, coevolution is likely to drive out less attractive mating types. These countervailing forces specify the number of mating types that are evolutionarily stable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619695

  18. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The gametes of unicellular eukaryotes are morphologically identical, but are nonetheless divided into distinct mating types. The number of mating types varies enormously and can reach several thousand, yet most species have only two. Why do morphologically identical gametes need to be differentiated into self-incompatible mating types, and why is two the most common number of mating types? In this work, we explore a neglected hypothesis that there is a need for asymmetric signalling interactions between mating partners. Our review shows that isogamous gametes always interact asymmetrically throughout sex and argue that this asymmetry is favoured because it enhances the efficiency of the mating process. We further develop a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the evolution of the number of mating types based on the strength of signalling interactions between gametes. Novel mating types have an advantage as they are compatible with all others and rarely meet their own type. But if existing mating types coevolve to have strong mutual interactions, this restricts the spread of novel types. Similarly, coevolution is likely to drive out less attractive mating types. These countervailing forces specify the number of mating types that are evolutionarily stable. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619695

  19. Control of the self: partner-violent men's experience of therapy.

    PubMed

    Shamai, Michal; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-07-01

    This study explores the experience of men who participated in programs for partner-violent men by understanding their perceptions of the treatment process, the treatment outcomes, and the meaning they attached to it. The sample included 25 men who completed these programs in agencies that specialized in treating domestic violence in Israel. A qualitative methodology was used to collect and analyze the data. The findings revealed that most of the men experienced therapy as positive and meaningful and underwent personal changes, especially the acquisition of self-control. Deeper analysis of the data, however, shows that the men still used a power scheme in understanding and creating relationships with others, especially with their woman partner. The findings are discussed in light of the complex and contradictory impact of the treatment process as it appears in the participants' experiences and in the meaning they attached to it.

  20. Circadian clock control of hepatic lipid metabolism: role of small heterodimer partner (Shp).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis, the accumulation of triglyceride droplets in the hepatocytes, is a common hepatic pathology seen in subjects with obesity/metabolic syndrome and those with excessive alcohol use. The pathogenesis underlying hepatic steatosis is complex. Recent studies have shown the specific role played by the molecular clock mechanism in the control of lipid metabolism and that the disruption of these tissue clocks may lead to the disturbances in lipid homeostasis. This review reports a novel role of small heterodimer partner in maintaining triglyceride and lipoprotein homeostasis through neuronal PAS domain protein 2. PMID:27473715

  1. [Cultural diversity in gamete and embryos donation].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, S

    2014-09-01

    Through gamete and embryo donation have successively emerged new ways of designing individuals who, in turn, have generated mutations in the concept of parenthood. A debate is open to the society, which often raises ideological cleavages. Indeed, donation practices mobilize the conflicting interests of donor of gametes, the recipient couple, child, whose origins are complex, although his filiation is legally clear. Its place in the family genealogy can be examined in relation to other societies, which admit plural concepts called "classificatory" kinship. They set up role partition between parents and educators. Setting anthropological perspective provides a broadening of the reflection to answer questions from the donation practices, including genealogical questions of revelation to the child of his conception, his incorporation in family and social group and the importance of compensation of donation. PMID:25153433

  2. Reinforcement of gametic isolation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R

    2010-03-01

    Reinforcement, a process by which natural selection increases reproductive isolation between populations, has been suggested to be an important force in the formation of new species. However, all existing cases of reinforcement involve an increase in mate discrimination between species. Here, I report the first case of reinforcement of postmating prezygotic isolation (i.e., barriers that act after mating but before fertilization) in animals. On the slopes of the African island of São Tomé, Drosophila yakuba and its endemic sister species D. santomea hybridize within a well-demarcated hybrid zone. I find that D. yakuba females from within this zone, but not from outside it, show an increase in gametic isolation from males of D. santomea, an apparent result of natural selection acting to reduce maladaptive hybridization between species. To determine whether such a barrier could evolve under laboratory conditions, I exposed D. yakuba lines derived from allopatric populations to experimental sympatry with D. santomea, and found that both behavioral and gametic isolation become stronger after only four generations. Reinforcement thus appears to be the best explanation for the heightened gametic isolation seen in sympatry. This appears to be the first example in animals in which natural selection has promoted the evolution of stronger interspecific genetic barriers that act after mating but before fertilization. This suggests that many other genetic barriers between species have been increased by natural selection but have been overlooked because they are difficult to study.

  3. Ancestor embryos: embryonic gametes and genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen

    2014-11-01

    The proposal for reproducing human generations in vitro raises the question to what extent parenthood is possible in embryos and to what extent human rights and interests are dependent on conscious awareness. This paper argues that the interest in not being made a parent non-consensually for the benefit of others persists throughout the lifespan of the individual human organism. We do not become genetic parents by learning that we are parents; rather, we discover (or fail to discover) an existing genetic relationship between our offspring and ourselves. The claim to genetic parenthood of an embryo used for reproduction in vitro is, if anything, clearer than the claim of the adult for whom gametes are derived via ips cells, in that an embryo's cells, unlike an adult's somatic cells, are already functionally geared to producing gametes (among other types of cell). An embryo used to make gametes that are used in reproduction is immediately and non-consensually made a genetic parent and to that extent is wronged whether or not the parent embryo survives-as some could survive-the harvesting of cells. All human individuals carry objective interests in benefits appropriate to the kind of being they are; these include the stake in not being made a parent without one's consent, whether posthumously or otherwise.

  4. 2008 Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation: a Practice Committee report.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    The 2008 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation provide the latest recommendations for evaluation of potential sperm, oocyte, and embryo donors, incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), genetic diseases, and psychological assessments. This revised document incorporates recent information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gamete and embryo donation services must be thoroughly familiar. PMID:19007645

  5. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  6. Gamete intrafallopian transfer: benefits of programmed stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pouly, J L; Janny, L; Canis, M; Vye, P; Boyer, C

    1989-12-01

    Fifty-six cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) were performed after programming by administration of norethisterone in the previous cycle. Ovarian hyperstimulation was achieved with clomifene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropins. Only one GIFT was performed during a weekend (1.8%). The implantation rate was 41.1% and the evolutive pregnancy rate 30.4%. The endocrinological influence of these regimens are discussed by comparison of those observed in an in vitro fertilization program. The main influence is a decreased serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level in the preovulatory phase. PMID:2591558

  7. The functional domain of GCS1-based gamete fusion resides in the amino terminus in plant and parasite species.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2010-01-01

    Fertilization is one of the most important processes in all organisms utilizing sexual reproduction. In a previous study, we succeeded in identifying a novel male gametic transmembrane protein GCS1 (GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1), also called HAP2 (HAPLESS 2) in the male-sterile Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, as a factor critical to gamete fusion in flowering plants. Interestingly, GCS1 is highly conserved among various eukaryotes covering plants, protists and invertebrates. Of these organisms, Chlamydomonas (green alga) and Plasmodium (malaria parasite) GCS1s similarly show male gametic expression and gamete fusion function. Since it is generally believed that protein factors controlling gamete fusion have rapidly evolved and different organisms utilize species-specific gamete fusion factors, GCS1 may be an ancient fertilization factor derived from the common ancestor of those organisms above. And therefore, its molecular structure and function are important to understanding the common molecular mechanics of eukaryotic fertilization. In this study, we tried to detect the central functional domain(s) of GCS1, using complementation assay of Arabidopsis GCS1 mutant lines expressing modified GCS1. As a result, the positively-charged C-terminal sequence of this protein is dispensable for gamete fusion, while the highly conserved N-terminal domain is critical to GCS1 function. In addition, in vitro fertilization assay of Plasmodium berghei (mouse malaria parasite) knock-in lines expressing partly truncated GCS1 showed similar results. Those findings above indicate that the extracellular N-terminus alone is sufficient for GCS1-based gamete fusion.

  8. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... modified certificate of public convenience and necessity in STB Finance Docket No. 35383, Eastern Berks...--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company US Rail Partners, Ltd. (USRP), a... filed a verified notice of exemption to continue in control of Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad...

  9. Cultural challenges faced by American mission control personnel working with international partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    INTRODUCTION Operating the International Space Station ISS involves an indefinite continuous series of long-duration international missions and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites organizations and nations Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work but neither have had systematic training in how to do so The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples METHODS Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies RESULTS The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies

  10. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    PubMed

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  11. Study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, A; Louanjli, N; Ziane, Y; Louanjli, T; Le Roy, C; Gueganic, N; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated meiotic segregation in spermatozoa to determine if severe teratozoospermia should prevent the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of the high production of gametes with chromosomal aneuploidies and analysed DNA fragmentation in gametes from the same semen to determine if DNA integrity was worse in patients with severe teratozoospermia. Sperm samples from 12 infertile patients were studied by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 and by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling. Four patients with a majority of macrocephalic forms with multiple flagella had more than 99% spermatozoa with abnormal chromosomal content. The other patients (globozoospermia or other abnormalities concerning sperm heads) had no increased aneuploidy or a slightly significant increase (P<0.05). The rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in infertile patients than in the controls (P<0.001; 14.3% versus 1.20%, respectively) but presented important variability. Therefore, ICSI should not be attempted if men have macrocephalic gametes with multiple flagella but morphology is not always a good predictor of chromosomal content, depending upon the kind of teratozoospermia. Evaluation of the rate of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia is recommended.

  12. Dimensional and temporal controls of three-dimensional cell migration by zyxin and binding partners

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Feng, Yunfeng; Giri, Anjil; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. But to our knowledge, periodic cell migratory patterns have not been observed. Here we report the highly regular, periodic migration of cells along rectilinear tracks generated inside three-dimensional matrices, with each excursion encompassing several cell lengths, a phenotype that does not occur on conventional substrates. Short hairpin RNA depletion shows that these one-dimensional oscillations are uniquely controlled by zyxin and binding partners α-actinin and p130Cas, but not vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and cysteine-rich protein 1. Oscillations are recapitulated for cells migrating along one-dimensional micropatterns, but not on two-dimensional compliant substrates. These results indicate that although two-dimensional motility can be well described by speed and persistence, three-dimensional motility requires two additional parameters, the dimensionality of the cell paths in the matrix and the temporal control of cell movements along these paths. These results also suggest that the zyxin/α-actinin/p130Cas module may ensure that motile cells in a three-dimensional matrix explore the largest space possible in minimum time. PMID:22395610

  13. Mammalian diversity: gametes, embryos and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Richard R; Eakin, Guy S; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    The class Mammalia is composed of approximately 4800 extant species. These mammalian species are divided into three subclasses that include the monotremes, marsupials and eutherians. Monotremes are remarkable because these mammals are born from eggs laid outside of the mother's body. Marsupial mammals have relatively short gestation periods and give birth to highly altricial young that continue a significant amount of 'fetal' development after birth, supported by a highly sophisticated lactation. Less than 10% of mammalian species are monotremes or marsupials, so the great majority of mammals are grouped into the subclass Eutheria, including mouse and human. Mammals exhibit great variety in morphology, physiology and reproduction. In the present article, we highlight some of this remarkable diversity relative to the mouse, one of the most widely used mammalian model organisms, and human. This diversity creates challenges and opportunities for gamete and embryo collection, culture and transfer technologies.

  14. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  15. Oxidative stress–induced assembly of PML nuclear bodies controls sumoylation of partner proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO–SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324

  16. Oxidative stress-induced assembly of PML nuclear bodies controls sumoylation of partner proteins.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2014-03-17

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO-SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss.

  17. Fungal Polyketide Synthase Product Chain-Length Control by Partnering Thiohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are an enigmatic group of multidomain enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally diverse compounds. This variety stems from their intrinsic programming rules, which permutate the use of tailoring domains and determine the overall number of iterative cycles. From genome sequencing and mining of the producing strain Eupenicillium brefeldianum ATCC 58665, we identified an HRPKS involved in the biosynthesis of an important protein transport-inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), followed by reconstitution of its activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro. Bref-PKS demonstrated an NADPH-dependent reductive tailoring specificity that led to the synthesis of four different octaketide products with varying degrees of reduction. Furthermore, contrary to what is expected from the structure of BFA, Bref-PKS is found to be a nonaketide synthase in the absence of an associated thiohydrolase Bref-TH. Such chain-length control by the partner thiohydrolase was found to be present in other HRPKS systems and highlights the importance of including tailoring enzyme activities in predicting fungal HRPKS functions and their products. PMID:24845309

  18. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario.

  19. Enigmas of mammalian gamete form and function.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J Michael

    2004-05-01

    The gametes of man and some other Eutheria have been manipulated successfully for practical reasons, but many gaps remain in our basic understanding of the way that they function. This situation stems not least from a failure to recognize the extent to which eutherian spermatozoa and eggs, and elements related to their operation, have come to differ from those of other groups. Novel features in the male that reflect this include a radical design of the sperm head with the acrosome seeming to function primarily in egg-coat binding rather than its lysis, a multifaceted post-testicular sperm maturation and an androgen/low-temperature-regulated system of sperm storage--both tied to the epididymis, a variable male accessory sex gland complex, and descent of the testis and epididymis to a scrotum. In the female, such novelties are represented in a need for sperm capacitation, in an unusual regulation of sperm transport within the oviduct, in the cumulus oophorus and character of the zona pellucida around the small egg, and in a unique configuration of gamete fusion. The collective evidence now suggests that many of these features reflect a new fertilisation strategy or its consequences, with most being causally linked. One initial 'domino' in this regard appears to be the small yolkless state of the egg and its intolerance for polyspermy, as determinants of the unusual mode of oviductal sperm transport and possibly the existence and form of the cumulus oophorus. However, a particularly influential first 'domino' appears to be the physical character of the eutherian zona pellucida. This differs from the egg coats of other animal groups by virtue of a resilient elasticity and thickness. These qualities allow this primary and often only coat to stretch and so persist during later expansion of the blastocyst, usually until close to implantation. At the same time, the dimensions, physical character, and particularly the relative protease-insensitivity of the zona appear to

  20. Control of the Self: Partner-Violent Men's Experience of Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Michal; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the experience of men who participated in programs for partner-violent men by understanding their perceptions of the treatment process, the treatment outcomes, and the meaning they attached to it. The sample included 25 men who completed these programs in agencies that specialized in treating domestic violence in Israel. A…

  1. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  2. Hypothalamic and olfactory control of sexual behavior and partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D A; Walter, B; Liang, P

    1996-11-01

    Sexually active male rats prefer a sexually receptive female to a nonreceptive female, and partner-preference tests provide one way of studying sexual motivation. Surgical deafferentation of the olfactory bulbs from all the known chemosensory systems of the nasal septum renders rats anosmic. In Experiment 1, we show that, although bulb deafferentation of male rats decreases some aspects of sexual performance, most deafferented males copulate and partner preference is not affected. In Experiment 2, we show that large excitotoxin lesions of the preoptic hypothalamus eliminate copulation, an effect that is correlated with damage to the anterior portions of the medial and lateral preoptic area. Lesions also decrease partner preference, an effect that is correlated (r = 0.82) with damage to a small part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Most males who do not copulate after hypothalamic lesions show a persistent, albeit reduced, preference for receptive females over nonreceptive females. This preference appears to depend on olfactory ability because bulb deafferentation of lesioned, noncopulating males virtually eliminates partner preference.

  3. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) transfer tokens repeatedly with a partner to accumulate rewards in a self-control task.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    There has been extensive research investigating self-control in humans and nonhuman animals, yet we know surprisingly little about how one's social environment influences self-control. The present study examined the self-control of chimpanzees in a task that required active engagement with conspecifics. The task consisted of transferring a token back and forth with a partner animal in order to accumulate food rewards, one item per token transfer. Self-control was required because at any point in the trial, either chimpanzee could obtain their accumulated rewards, but doing so discontinued the food accumulation and ended the trial for both individuals. Chimpanzees readily engaged the task and accumulated the majority of available rewards before ending each trial, and they did so across a number of conditions that varied the identity of the partner, the presence/absence of the experimenter, and the means by which they could obtain rewards. A second experiment examined chimpanzees' self-control when given the choice between immediately available food items and a potentially larger amount of rewards that could be obtained by engaging the token transfer task with a partner. Chimpanzees were flexible in their decision-making in this test, typically choosing the option representing the largest amount of food, even if it involved delayed accumulation of the rewards via the token transfer task. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can exhibit self-control in situations involving social interactions, and they encourage further research into this important aspect of the self-control scenario. PMID:23381691

  4. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete's positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D.

  5. Epigenetic effects of methoxychlor and vinclozolin on male gametes.

    PubMed

    Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that mediates a parent-of-origin-dependent expression of the alleles of a number of genes. Imprinting, which occurs at specific sites within or surrounding the gene, called differentially methylated domains, consists in a methylation of CpGs. The appropriate transmission of genomics imprints is essential for the control of embryonic development and fetal growth. A number of endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect male reproductive tract development and spermatogenesis. It was postulated that the genetic effects of EDs might be induced by alterations in gene imprinting. We tested two EDs: methoxychlor and vinclozolin. Their administration during gestation induced in the offspring a decrease in sperm counts and significant modifications in the methylation pattern of a selection of paternally and maternally expressed canonical imprinted genes. The observation that imprinting was largely untouched in somatic cells suggests that EDs exert their damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. Interestingly, the effects were transgenerational, although disappearing gradually from F1 to F3. A systematic analysis showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to EDs. We propose that the deleterious effects of EDs on the male reproductive system are mediated by imprinting defects in the sperm. The reported effects of EDs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by analogous imprinting alterations.

  6. Regulation of mouse gamete interaction by a sperm tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Leyton, L; LeGuen, P; Bunch, D; Saling, P M

    1992-12-15

    A 95-kDa mouse sperm protein has been previously identified as a putative receptor involved in the sperm-egg interactions that lead to fertilization. The ligand for this receptor is the zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3. This constituent of the oocyte-specific extracellular matrix mediates not only sperm binding to the zona but also triggers acrosomal exocytosis. The latter, also termed the acrosome reaction, is a key regulatory event upon which fertilization is absolutely dependent. Previously, we showed that the 95-kDa protein that binds ZP3 is a substrate for tyrosine kinase, and its phosphotyrosine content increases after sperm-zona pellucida binding. Here, we show the presence of protein tyrosine kinase activity in sperm plasma membranes and in electroeluted 95-kDa protein. The tyrosine kinase activity of the isolated protein is stimulated by solubilized zona pellucida and inhibited by tyrphostin RG-50864, a membrane-permeable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, tyrphostin inhibits zona-triggered acrosomal exocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the 95-kDa protein participates in a critical regulatory event of gamete interaction; moreover, our experiments suggest that sperm protein tyrosine kinase may be an excellent target for the control of fertility.

  7. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  8. Conundrums with penumbras: the right to privacy encompasses non-gamete providers who create preembryos with the intent to become parents.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Lainie M C

    2003-05-01

    To date, five state high courts have resolved disputes over frozen preembryos. These disputes arose during divorce proceedings between couples who had previously used assisted reproduction and cryopreserved excess preembryos. In each case, one spouse wished to have the preembryos destroyed, while the other wanted to be able to use or donate them in the future. The parties in these cases invoked the constitutional right to privacy to argue for dispositional control over the preembryos; two of the five cases were resolved by relying on this right. The constitutional right to privacy protects intimate decisions involving procreation, marriage, and family life. However, when couples use donated sperm or ova to create preembryos, a unique circumstance arises: one spouse--the gamete provider--is genetically related to the preembryos and the other is not. If courts resolve frozen preembryo disputes that involve non-gamete providers based on the constitutional right to privacy, they should find that the constitutional right to privacy encompasses the interests of both gamete and non-gamete providers. Individuals who create preembryos with the intent to become a parent have made an intimate decision involving procreation, marriage, and family life that falls squarely within the the right to privacy. In such cases, the couple together made the decision to create a family through the use of assisted reproduction, and the preembryos would not exist but for that joint decision. Therefore, gamete and non-gamete providers should be afforded equal constitutional protection in disputes over frozen preembryos.

  9. Gamete quality in fish: evaluation parameters and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, Iván I; Gallegos, Patricia C; Effer, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    The quality of fish gametes, both male and female, are determined by several factors (age, management, feeding, chemical and physical factors, water quality, etc.) that have an impact on the survivability of embryos, larvae and/or fry in the short or long term. One of the most important factors is gamete ageing, especially for those species that are unable to spawn naturally in hatcheries. The chemical and physical factors in hatcheries and the nutrition that they provide can significantly alter harvest quality, especially from females; as a rule, males are more tolerant of stress conditions produced by inadequate feeding, management and/or poor water conditions. The stress produced on broodstock by inadequate conditions in hatcheries can produce adverse effects on gamete quality, survival rates, and the embryonic eggs after hatching.

  10. Comprehensive cancer control programs and coalitions: partnering to launch successful colorectal cancer screening initiatives.

    PubMed

    Seeff, Laura C; Major, Anne; Townsend, Julie S; Provost, Ellen; Redwood, Diana; Espey, David; Dwyer, Diane; Villanueva, Robert; Larsen, Leslie; Rowley, Kathryn; Leonard, Banning

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal cancer control has long been a focus area for Comprehensive Cancer Control programs and their coalitions, given the high burden of disease and the availability of effective screening interventions. Colorectal cancer control has been a growing priority at the national, state, territorial, tribal, and local level. This paper summarizes several national initiatives and features several Comprehensive Cancer Control Program colorectal cancer control successes.

  11. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. PMID:26074667

  12. Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of non-domestic species.

    PubMed

    Leibo, S P; Songsasen, N

    2002-01-01

    Many species of mammals are threatened or endangered. Methods of assisted reproduction that are being used with increasing frequency to produce offspring of domestic animals and humans are often viewed as offering innovative ways to reproduce non-domestic species as well. Uncounted millions of live young of domestic or laboratory species have been produced from gametes and embryos stored at -70 degrees C or below, sometimes for as long as 25 to 35 yrs. Such methods of cryopreservation are now being applied with increasing frequency and urgency to preserve gametes and embryos of non-domestic and threatened species to establish "genome resource banks" or "frozen zoos." But levels of success to produce live young from such cryopreserved gametes or embryos vary considerably from species to species, as well as from individual to individual. It is sometimes thought that differences among species in fundamental characteristics of their gametes may determine the efficacy of cryopreservation and the production of live young. However, it may not be that ineffective cryopreservation is responsible for low success rates. Rather, the limiting factor may be insufficient information and knowledge of the most basic reproductive biology of such non-domestic species. Even standard methods of cryopreservation may be completely adequate to act as a "temporary" expedient to preserve germplasm of non-domestic species to permit time to acquire a fuller understanding of the biology and behavior of non-domestic species.

  13. DURATIONS OF GAMETE MOTILITY AND CONJUGATION ABILITY OF ULVA COMPRESSA (ULVOPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Hashioka, Takashi; Nishihara, Gregory N; Iima, Masafumi

    2012-04-01

    The present study was designed to develop a technique for crossing and to gain insight into how sexual reproduction contributes to the maintenance of local populations of Ulva compressa L. To examine the durations of gamete motility and conjugation ability, freshly released gametes were incubated for various periods of time prior to mixing both mating types. The conjugation ability of the gametes gradually declined after being released from the thalli when the gametes were incubated without mixing with the opposite mating type. The ability to conjugate decreased by half after 6 h, although most of the gametes remained motile. The gametes released 4 h later had the same level of conjugation ability when mixed immediately after releasing. When the mature thalli were wrapped in a moist paper towel to prevent gametes from being released, the gametes were preservable for 7 h without a significant decrease in their conjugation ability. Conjugation occurred soon after mixing gametes of both mating types and reached a plateau after 30 s. However, conjugation rates did not exceed a rate of ∼70%, even though freshly released gametes were used. Interestingly, a portion of the gametes newly conjugated 30 min after mixing both mating types, and conjugation rates reached a second plateau at ∼90%. Gametes with delayed conjugation are provided some period of time that allows them to be transported away and increases their chances of mating with more distant populations, thus contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation. PMID:27009729

  14. Gamete manipulation for development: new methods for conception.

    PubMed

    Yanagimachi, R

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes microsurgically injected with spermatozoa can develop into normal offspring. Apparently the oocyte has the ability to decompose or eliminate such sperm components as the plasma membrane and acrosomal contents, which normally do not enter its cytoplasm. Species in which normal offspring were obtained by direct sperm injection include: human, mouse, rabbit, horse, sheep, cattle, pig, and monkey. In the mouse, normal offspring can also be obtained routinely by the injection of round spermatid nuclei into oocytes. This suggests that all post-meiotic modifications of spermatozoa (spermiogenesis, sperm maturation, capacitation and the acrosome reaction) evolved as processes solely dedicated to delivering male genomes into female gametes. Birth of normal offspring after injection of spermatocytes into maturing or mature oocytes suggests that the mechanisms controlling meiosis of male and female germ cells are similar, if not the same. Spermatozoa do not need to be morphologically normal or alive in the conventional sense to participate in embryo development; as long as they have intact genomes, they are able to produce normal offspring. Chromosomes within the first and second polar bodies can be used as substitutes for female pronuclei for the production of normal offspring. The nuclei of adult somatic cells can be used for production of animals. This procedure, involving introduction of cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes (genomic cloning), is rather inefficient at present. Many obstacles must be overcome before it is accepted as a safe, novel method to reproduce scientifically, medically or economically valuable animals. For human cloning the prime consideration must be the welfare of the child. PMID:11545162

  15. Retinoblastoma and Its Binding Partner MSI1 Control Imprinting in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Pauline E; Mosquna, Assaf; Ingouff, Mathieu; Sakata, Tadashi; Ohad, Nir; Berger, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Parental genomic imprinting causes preferential expression of one of the two parental alleles. In mammals, differential sex-dependent deposition of silencing DNA methylation marks during gametogenesis initiates a new cycle of imprinting. Parental genomic imprinting has been detected in plants and relies on DNA methylation by the methyltransferase MET1. However, in contrast to mammals, plant imprints are created by differential removal of silencing marks during gametogenesis. In Arabidopsis, DNA demethylation is mediated by the DNA glycosylase DEMETER (DME) causing activation of imprinted genes at the end of female gametogenesis. On the basis of genetic interactions, we show that in addition to DME, the plant homologs of the human Retinoblastoma (Rb) and its binding partner RbAp48 are required for the activation of the imprinted genes FIS2 and FWA. This Rb-dependent activation is mediated by direct transcriptional repression of MET1 during female gametogenesis. We have thus identified a new mechanism required for imprinting establishment, outlining a new role for the Retinoblastoma pathway, which may be conserved in mammals. PMID:18700816

  16. Tensin 3 is a new partner of Dock5 that controls osteoclast podosome organization and activity.

    PubMed

    Touaitahuata, Heiani; Morel, Anne; Urbach, Serge; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; de Rossi, Sylvain; Blangy, Anne

    2016-09-15

    Bone resorption by osteoclasts is mediated by a typical adhesion structure called the sealing zone or actin ring, whose architecture is based on a belt of podosomes. The molecular mechanisms driving podosome organization into superstructures remain poorly understood to date, in particular at the osteoclast podosome belt. We performed proteomic analyses in osteoclasts and found that the adaptor protein tensin 3 is a partner of Dock5, a Rac exchange factor necessary for podosome belt formation and bone resorption. Expression of tensin 3 and Dock5 concomitantly increase during osteoclast differentiation. These proteins associate with the osteoclast podosome belt but not with individual podosomes, in contrast to vinculin. Super-resolution microscopy revealed that, even if they colocalize in the x-y plane of the podosome belt, Dock5 and tensin 3 differentially localize relative to vinculin in the z-axis. Tensin 3 increases Dock5 exchange activity towards Rac, and suppression of tensin 3 in osteoclasts destabilizes podosome organization, leading to delocalization of Dock5 and a severe reduction in osteoclast activity. Our results suggest that Dock5 and tensin 3 cooperate for osteoclast activity, to ensure the correct organization of podosomes. PMID:27505886

  17. 76 FR 67790 - National Express Acquisition Corporation-Control-Petermann Partners, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... No. MC-749360); MV Student Transportation, Inc. (MC-148934); Carrier Management, Inc. (no MC number... all motor carrier parties and all motor carriers controlling, controlled by, or under common...

  18. The technology, law, and ethics of in vitro fertilization, gamete donation, and surrogate motherhood.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Wachbroit, R

    1992-09-01

    This article examines some of the legal, ethical, and policy issues raised by the development and use of technologies for noncoital reproduction: gamete transfer and manipulation, in vitro fertilization, and zygote transfer and manipulation. After briefly describing these technologies, this article examines three closely related concerns raised by their introduction: (1) the effect of new technologies on the social understanding of parenthood and the legal regulation of the family; (2) the impact on women and children of a market in the material and services for producing children; and (3) the rights and interests involved in conflicts over the control and disposition of extrauterine embryos. PMID:1521422

  19. A controlled trial of Partners in Dementia Care: veteran outcomes after six and twelve months

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction “Partners in Dementia Care” (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer’s Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Methods and Findings Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Results Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B = −0.09; p = 0.05), depression (B = −0.10; p = 0.03), and unmet need (B = −0.28; p = 0.02; and B = −0.52; p = 0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B = −0.24; p = 0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B = −0.96; p < 0.01) and embarrassment (B = −0.05; p = 0.02). Limitations included use of matched comparison sites rather than within-site randomization and lack of consideration for variation within the PDC

  20. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of providing information on childbirth and postnatal period to partners of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Okamura, Makoto; Sugiura, Naomi; Suto, Maiko; Sasaki, Hatoko; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the distribution of a booklet providing information to fathers during their partners' pregnancies on fathers' and mothers' postpartum mental health and quality of life (QOL), as well as on fathers' childcare participation and living situations. Methods and analysis This randomised controlled trial will comprise 554 couples consisting of pregnant women due to give birth at an obstetric institution in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and their partners. Participants will be recruited during prenatal check-ups in the third trimester, and those who provide written consent will be allocated randomly to an intervention and a control group. The pregnant women's partners allocated to the intervention group will be given a booklet written for men containing information on childbirth and postnatal period. Its content will include matters such as what preparations the partner should make before birth and tips for housework and childcare as well as how to prevent unintentional injury to the baby. The control group will not receive any intervention. A baseline survey in the third trimester and follow-up surveys at 1 and 3 months post partum will be carried out using self-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome is the proportion of new mothers' partners at risk for paternal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥8). Secondary outcomes include the risk of postnatal depression in new mothers, QOL of new mothers and their partners, partners' knowledge of and engagement in housework and childcare, marital relations and parenting stress on the part of new mothers. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethical Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. The results of the study will be widely disseminated as peer-reviewed papers and at international conferences, with the aim of improving public health services in Japan. Trial

  1. Acrosome Reaction as a Preparation for Gamete Fusion.

    PubMed

    Cuasnicú, Patricia S; Da Ros, Vanina G; Weigel Muñoz, Mariana; Cohen, Débora J

    2016-01-01

    The acrosome reaction (AR) is a universal requisite for sperm-egg fusion. However, whereas through the animal kingdom fusion of spermatozoa with the egg plasma membrane occurs via the inner acrosomal membrane exposed after the AR, in eutherian mammals, gamete fusion takes place through a specialized region of the acrosome known as the equatorial segment (ES) which becomes fusogenic only after the AR is completed. This chapter focuses on the different molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of the fusogenicity of the ES after the AR. We provide an update of the knowledge about the proteins proposed to have a role in this process either by modifying cytoskeletal and/or membrane molecules or by relocalizing to the ES after the AR to subsequently participate in gamete fusion. PMID:27194355

  2. Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place.

  3. Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have recently been shown to be capable of differentiating in vitro into oocytes or sperm. Should these findings be duplicated using human embryonic stem cells, this would raise a number of social and ethical concerns, some specific to these particular developments, others shared with other aspects of stem cell research. This review outlines the properties of stem cells and their conversion to gametes. Concerns raised include embryo destruction, quality of gametes derived in this way, possibility for children with two male biological parents, movement towards germ line gene therapy and 'designer babies', and the future impacts on health service provisions. It is important that public discussion of some of these issues should take place. PMID:17454202

  4. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  5. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Theuring, Stefanie; Jefferys, Laura F.; Nchimbi, Philo; Mbezi, Paulina; Sewangi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC) remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT), and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9%) returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5%) returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59). Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy. PMID:27043707

  6. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  7. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  8. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  9. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  10. Embryonic stem-cell gametes: the new frontier in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin

    2006-04-01

    As infertility increases and gamete donations decline, an alternate source of sex cells may prove valuable for research and infertility treatment. This article examines the social and scientific value of gametes derived from the differentiation of established human embryonic stem (ES)-cell lines (ES-cell-derived gametes) and customized gametes created using nuclear transfer technologies to contain a haploid set of genes creating children genetically related to parent(s). ES-cell-derived gametes may be valuable as a resource for biomedical research, instruction and training in assisted reproductive technologies and perhaps for creating children. The creation of children by ES-cell-derived and customized gametes may not result in psychological harm to children but customized gametes may lead to physical harm to children or an accumulation of gene mutations in a population. Although the creation of new types of children using ES-cell gametes provides more reproductive choices to both fertile and infertile individuals, the risk or physical harm to children from customized gametes may be so severe that the scope of reproductive liberty must be limited. Further scientific and ethical analysis of the creation of children by ES-cell gametes is required.

  11. Segregation for Sexual Seed Production in Paspalum as Directed by Male Gametes of Apomictic Triploid Plants

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Eric J.; Acuña, Carlos A.; Hojsgaard, Diego H.; Tcach, Mauricio A.; Quarin, Camilo L.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gametophytic apomixis is regularly associated with polyploidy. It has been hypothesized that apomixis is not present in diploid plants because of a pleiotropic lethal effect associated with monoploid gametes. Rare apomictic triploid plants for Paspalum notatum and P. simplex, which usually have sexual diploid and apomictic tetraploid races, were acquired. These triploids normally produce male gametes through meiosis with a range of chromosome numbers from monoploid (n = 10) to diploid (n = 20). The patterns of apomixis transmission in Paspalum were investigated in relation to the ploidy levels of gametes. Methods Intraspecific crosses were made between sexual diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants as female parents and apomictic triploid plants as male parents. Apomictic progeny were identified by using molecular markers completely linked to apomixis and the analysis of mature embryo sacs. The chromosome number of the male gamete was inferred from chromosome counts of each progeny. Key Results The chromosome numbers of the progeny indicated that the chromosome input of male gametes depended on the chromosome number of the female gamete. The apomictic trait was not transmitted through monoploid gametes, at least when the progeny was diploid. Diploid or near-diploid gametes transmitted apomixis at very low rates. Conclusions Since male monoploid gametes usually failed to form polyploid progenies, for example triploids after 4x × 3x crosses, it was not possible to determine whether apomixis could segregate in polyploid progenies by means of monoploid gametes. PMID:17766843

  12. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  13. Imprinting: a gamete's point of view.

    PubMed

    Barlow, D P

    1994-06-01

    The recent isolation of imprinted mammalian genes has at last allowed the analysis of the molecular controls that regulate monoparental gene expression. Remarkably, many expectations as to how the imprinting mechanism works have been confounded by these studies. As a result, the time now seems right to reconsider our current understanding of the nature of imprinting, and how best it can be defined. Here, I discuss the past and present understanding of imprinting in the light of results obtained from studies of endogenous imprinted genes, and finally propose that the current multiplicity of imprinting terms and definitions be replaced by a single term and definition.

  14. Imprinting: a gamete's point of view.

    PubMed

    Barlow, D P

    1994-06-01

    The recent isolation of imprinted mammalian genes has at last allowed the analysis of the molecular controls that regulate monoparental gene expression. Remarkably, many expectations as to how the imprinting mechanism works have been confounded by these studies. As a result, the time now seems right to reconsider our current understanding of the nature of imprinting, and how best it can be defined. Here, I discuss the past and present understanding of imprinting in the light of results obtained from studies of endogenous imprinted genes, and finally propose that the current multiplicity of imprinting terms and definitions be replaced by a single term and definition. PMID:7864936

  15. Soft targets or partners in health? Retail pharmacies and their role in Tanzania's malaria control program.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level.

  16. Changes in spawning time led to the speciation of the broadcast spawning corals Acropora digitifera and the cryptic species Acropora sp. 1 with similar gamete recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shun; Kowalski, Radoslaw K.; Kitanobo, Seiya; Morita, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Multi-species spawning is reported in the coral genus Acropora, but hybridization in nature rarely occurs because of the incompatibility of gametes and the timing of spawning. However, the evolutionary relationships between gamete compatibility and spawning time are obscure. Investigations of gamete compatibility in sister species that spawn at different times may provide clues to answering this question. Acropora sp. 1 has been defined as a cryptic species of Acropora digitifera, and they are morphologically similar, but spawn in different months, suggesting that they are either a cryptic species or a different species. We examined the morphology and conducted crossing experiments using cryopreserved sperm. The morphologies (branch length, branch width, and outer diameter of axial corallites) of A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 differed significantly. A phylogenetic tree of partial Pax- C nuclear sequences from A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 shows that they are monophyletic and closely related genetically, based on F ST values and P-distance. These results imply that these two species originated recently from a common ancestor. In addition, cryopreserved sperm from both A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 showed bidirectional inter-crossing (cryopreserved sperm of A. digitifera and eggs of Acropora sp. 1 from Sesoko: 32.1 ± 6.7 %, control-conspecific cryopreserved sperm and eggs: 46.1 ± 10.6 %; cryopreserved sperm of Acropora sp. 1 and eggs of A. digitifera from Oku: 63.3 ± 16.6 %, control: 83.6 ± 6.0 %). The results suggest that the gametes of these two species are compatible and that the pre-zygotic isolation mechanism is relaxed because their gametes do not interact. Overall, these two species should be classified as distinct species, and changes in spawning time are related to speciation in a similar gamete recognition system.

  17. Drosophila Stardust is a partner of Crumbs in the control of epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, A; Schneider, M; Theilenberg, E; Grawe, F; Knust, E

    2001-12-01

    The polarized architecture of epithelial cells depends on the highly stereotypic distribution of cellular junctions and other membrane-associated protein complexes. In epithelial cells of the Drosophila embryo, three distinct domains subdivide the lateral plasma membrane. The most apical one comprises the subapical complex (SAC). It is followed by the zonula adherens (ZA) and, further basally, by the septate junction. A core component of the SAC is the transmembrane protein Crumbs, the cytoplasmic domain of which recruits the PDZ-protein Discs Lost into the complex. Cells lacking crumbs or the functionally related gene stardust fail to organize a continuous ZA and to maintain cell polarity. Here we show that stardust provides an essential component of the SAC. Stardust proteins colocalize with Crumbs and bind to the carboxy-terminal amino acids of its cytoplasmic tail. We introduce two different Stardust proteins here: one MAGUK protein, characterized by a PDZ domain, an SH3 domain and a guanylate kinase domain; and a second isoform comprising only the guanylate kinase domain. The Stardust proteins represent versatile candidates as structural and possibly regulatory constituents of the SAC, a crucial element in the control of epithelial cell polarity.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  19. Intrafallopian transfer of gametes and early stage embryos for in vivo culture in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wetscher, F; Havlicek, V; Huber, T; Gilles, M; Tesfaye, D; Griese, J; Wimmers, K; Schellander, K; Müller, M; Brem, G; Besenfelder, U

    2005-07-01

    It may be possible to avoid inadequate in vitro culture conditions by incubating gametes or embryos in the oviducts for a short time. Ideally, an optimized procedure should be devised, combining in vitro and in vivo systems, in order to achieve synchronization in cattle. We transferred gametes as well as embryos in various stages of development and placed them into the oviducts. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 by flushing of oviducts and uterine horns. Blastocyst rates were determined on Day 7 and on Day 8. Experimental designs included transfer of in vitro matured cumulus oocyte complexes into previously inseminated heifers (COCs group), transfer of in vitro matured COCs simultaneously with capacitated spermatozoa (GIFTs group), transfer of four to eight cell stage embryos developed in vitro after IVM/IVF (Cleaved Stages group) and a group of solely in vitro produced embryos (IVP control group). Our results indicate that in vivo culture of IVM/IVF embryos in the homologous bovine oviduct has a positive influence on subsequent pre-implantation development. In addition, we have evidence that in vitro maturation and in vivo fertilization cannot be synchronized. PMID:15935840

  20. Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding.

  1. 2The role of controlling behaviour in intimate partner violence and its health effects: a population based study from rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, Gunilla; Vung, Nguyen Dang

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in North America and other high-income regions support the distinction between extreme "intimate terrorism" and occasional "situational couple violence", defined conceptually in terms of the presence or absence of controlling behaviour in the violent member of the couple. Relatively little research has been conducted on the different forms intimate partner violence may take in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these expressions of intimate partner violence in one low-income country, Vietnam, adhere to patterns observed in western industrialised countries as well as to investigate the resulting health effects. Methods This cross-sectional study collected structured interview data from 883 married women aged 17–60, using the Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire developed by WHO. Intimate partner violence was assessed by past-year experience of physical or sexual violence and control tactics were assessed using six items combined into a scale. Three different health parameters constituted the dependent variables. Bi- and multivariate analyses, including effect modification analyses, were performed. Results Of the participants, 81 (9.2%) had been exposed to physical or sexual violence during the past 12 months; of these, 26 (32.1%) had been subjected to one or more controlling behaviours by their partners. The risk of ill health associated with combined exposure was elevated eight to 15 times, compared to a two-fourfold risk increase after exposure to only one of the behaviours, i.e. violent acts or control tactics. Conclusion Physical or sexual violence combined with control tactics acted synergistically to worsen health in rural Vietnamese women. The occurrence of such violence calls for altered policies, increased research and implementation of preventive and curative strategies. The unacceptability of intimate partner violence as a part of normal Vietnamese family life must be recognised in the

  2. Understanding transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Daxinger, Lucia; Whitelaw, Emma

    2012-01-31

    It is known that information that is not contained in the DNA sequence - epigenetic information - can be inherited from the parent to the offspring. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the extent and mechanisms of such inheritance. In this Review, we consider the evidence for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes, including cases of environmentally induced epigenetic changes. The molecular basis of this inheritance remains unclear, but recent evidence points towards diffusible factors, in particular RNA, rather than DNA methylation or chromatin. Interestingly, many cases of epigenetic inheritance seem to involve repeat sequences.

  3. [In vitro strategies for human gametes production from stem cells].

    PubMed

    Tosca, Lucie; Courtot, Anne-Marie; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2011-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are self-renewal and pluripotent cells that are able to differentiate in vitro into several cell types in favourable conditions. Technical protocols for in vitro gametes production have been developed in mice and human species. The functionality of such differentiated cells is not always analysed and an early meiotic arrest is a current observation. These kinds of experimentations have also been tested from human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC). However, differentiation ends shortly at the primordial germ cell stage.

  4. Mandatory counseling for gamete donation recipients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Benward, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569

  5. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation.

  6. Regulatory considerations for global transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Tiersch, Terrence R.; Green, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state resource managers, scientists, lawmakers, business and development investors, and the general public all struggle with issues surrounding the conservation of our biological heritage, especially in the face of increased population growth and consequent anthropogenic disturbances. Conservation interests include recovering exploited aquatic populations, decreasing the loss of genetic diversity, and reintroducing locally depleted species. However, research on husbandry and other techniques critical to implementing conservation strategies is often not started until few individuals remain. A program in the cryopreservation of gametes and embryos from aquatic species would address several of these conservation concerns by allowing the establishment of gene banks

  7. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. PMID:25801423

  8. The Exercising Together project: design and recruitment for a randomized, controlled trial to determine the benefits of partnered strength training for couples coping with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Lyons, Karen S; Nail, Lillian M; Beer, Tomasz M

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer can threaten quality of life for the patient and his spouse and the quality of his marital relationship. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effects of "Exercising Together" - a partnered strength training program for married couples coping with prostate cancer - on the physical and emotional health of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) and their spouses and on marital quality. We are conducting a 6-month randomized controlled trial with two groups: 1) Exercising Together - a progressive, supervised strength training program and 2) a usual care control condition. The primary aims of this exploratory study are to: 1) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health (muscle strength, physical function, body composition and self-report physical and mental health) in PCS, 2) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health in spouses and 3) Explore the effect of partnered strength training on marital quality (incongruence, communication, relationship quality, intimacy) of the PCS and spouse. Target accrual has been met in this study with 64 couples enrolled and randomized to exercise (n=32) or usual care (n=32) groups. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of this exercise format in both the chronically ill patient and spouse and explore benefits at the individual and couple level.

  9. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes.

  10. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Adán; Carneiro, Jorge; Pimentel, Arturo; Wood, Christopher D.; Corkidi, Gabriel; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The spermatozoon must find its female gamete partner and deliver its genetic material to generate a new individual. This requires that the spermatozoon be motile and endowed with sophisticated swimming strategies to locate the oocyte. A common strategy is chemotaxis, in which spermatozoa detect and follow a gradient of chemical signals released by the egg and its associated structures. Decoding the female gamete’s positional information is a process that spermatozoa undergo in a three-dimensional (3D) space; however, due to their speed and small size, this process has been studied almost exclusively in spermatozoa restricted to swimming in two dimensions (2D). This review examines the relationship between the mechanics of sperm propulsion and the physiological function of these cells in 3D. It also considers whether it is possible to derive all the 3D sperm swimming characteristics by extrapolating from 2D measurements. It is concluded that full insight into flagellar beat dynamics, swimming paths and chemotaxis under physiological conditions will eventually require quantitative imaging of flagellar form, ion flux changes, cell trajectories and modelling of free-swimming spermatozoa in 3D. PMID:21642645

  11. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  12. The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-André; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, Édouard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-01

    Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility.

  13. Fertilization success in marine invertebrates: the influence of gamete age.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark Elliott; Bentley, Matthew Graeme

    2002-02-01

    Gamete age has been postulated to be unimportant to the fertilization ecology of marine invertebrates. However, recent research suggests that, for some species at least, it may have a direct impact upon fertilization success. We present comparative data on the influence of gamete age on fertilization and development success in several marine invertebrates: the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the asteroid echinoderm Asterias rubens. Oocytes are much longer lived in the polychaetes than in the echinoderm, with A. marina oocytes still capable of fertilizing and developing normally 96 h post-spawning. Developmental abnormalities and failure to reach blastula tend to occur well before the fertilizable life of the oocytes has expired. Sperm are similarly longer lived in the polychaetes; however, fertilizing capacity is markedly reduced following incubation in conspecific egg-conditioned seawater. These results are discussed in terms of the fertilization strategies of the three species. We further suggest that, for A. marina at least, longer-lived sperm and eggs are central to the fertilization strategy of this species.

  14. Tetramerization and interdomain flexibility of the replication initiation controller YabA enables simultaneous binding to multiple partners

    PubMed Central

    Felicori, Liza; Jameson, Katie H.; Roblin, Pierre; Fogg, Mark J.; Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Ventroux, Magali; Cherrier, Mickaël V.; Bazin, Alexandre; Noirot, Philippe; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Molina, Franck; Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    YabA negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. The protein exerts its control through interactions with the initiator protein DnaA and the sliding clamp DnaN. Here, we combined X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering (SAXS), modeling and biophysical approaches, with in vivo experimental data to gain insight into YabA function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of YabA solved at 2.7 Å resolution reveals an extended α-helix that contributes to an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Homology modeling and biochemical analysis indicates that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of YabA is a small Zn-binding domain. Multi-angle light scattering and SAXS demonstrate that YabA is a tetramer in which the CTDs are independent and connected to the N-terminal four-helix bundle via flexible linkers. While YabA can simultaneously interact with both DnaA and DnaN, we found that an isolated CTD can bind to either DnaA or DnaN, individually. Site-directed mutagenesis and yeast-two hybrid assays identified DnaA and DnaN binding sites on the YabA CTD that partially overlap and point to a mutually exclusive mode of interaction. Our study defines YabA as a novel structural hub and explains how the protein tetramer uses independent CTDs to bind multiple partners to orchestrate replication initiation in the bacterial cell. PMID:26615189

  15. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  16. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

  17. [Gamete donation in an in vitro fertilization program].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Z

    1993-12-01

    Two cases of gamete donation in an IVF program were reported in this paper. In the first case the wife with recurrent abortions was found to have chromosomal abnormality, her karyotype was 45,XX,-14,-14 + rob (14 Q 14 Q). She became pregnant after IVF-ET with donated ova, and was delivered of a normal male baby on June 12, 1992. The baby's karyotype was normal. The blood group of both the husband and wife was O, while that of the baby was B. The baby suffered from icterus neonatorum as a result of ABO incompatibility but recovered quickly after treatment. Further DNA finger print analysis of the husband, wife and baby, combined with the history of egg donation IVF, proved the relationship of the parents with the baby. In the second case the husband's karyotype was 46,XY, t(4; 9) (4Q+; 9Q-). The wife had also history of recurrent abortions. Since 1989, the wife received sperm donation IUI 5 times in another hospital without success. IVF-ET with donated sperms was performed in November 1991 resulting in clinical pregnancy. She was delivered of a pair of twins, one male and one female on July 20, 1992. The possibilities of different types of gamete formation during meiosis in carriers of chromosomal balanced translocation were briefly discussed. Donation of oocytes could be realized only in an IVF program, which is also the only way to propagate for the family. However, IVF with donated sperms is indicated in women with blocked tubes besides the male factor or after repeated failures of other assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:8137642

  18. Assessing UAS Flight Testing and It's Importance for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control in Cooperation with Partnering Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Jong, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight-­-testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond-­-Line-­-Of-­-Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west-­-coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip

  19. Gamete compatibility and sperm competition affect paternity and hybridization between sympatric Asterias sea stars.

    PubMed

    Harper, F M; Hart, M W

    2005-10-01

    Gamete interactions may strongly influence speciation and hybridization in sympatric broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates. We examined the role of gamete compatibility in species integrity using cross-fertilization studies between sympatric Asterias sea stars from a secondary contact zone in the northwest Atlantic. In crosses between single males and single females, gametes of both species were compatible and produced viable, fertile hybrid offspring, but with considerable variation in the receptivity of eggs to heterospecific sperm. Differential compatibility of heterospecific gametes was detected in sperm competition studies in which we used a nuclear DNA marker to assign paternity to larval offspring. Several families showed conspecific sperm precedence in A. forbesi eggs, and one family showed competitive superiority of A. forbesi sperm fertilizing A. rubens eggs. Gametic interactions are an important component of prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatric Asterias. The interaction between gametes of these closely related sea stars is consistent with the function of gamete recognition systems that are known to mediate fertilization success and speciation in other marine invertebrates.

  20. Synchronous multispecific spawning on coral reefs: potential for hybridization and roles of gamete recognition.

    PubMed

    Babcock, R

    1995-01-01

    Problems of gamete recognition in corals and other mass-spawning invertebrates are potentially great. In 'mass spawnings', closely-related species or genera commonly spawn at the same time, or within 1 or 2 h of each other, increasing the potential for hybridization. Among mass-spawning corals, most of the species involved are hermaphrodites that package the gametes in buoyant bundles that float to the sea surface before breaking up. Local hydrodynamic features frequently act to aggregate gametes from many different species into slicks where both eggs and sperm can be viable for extended periods. Other mass-spawning invertebrate taxa, such as molluscs, polychaetes and various echinoderms, do not have buoyant gametes but also spawn with a high level of synchrony. Gametes of organisms participating in these spawning events must be able to successfully recognize conspecifics. If they cannot do this, either through sperm chemotaxis or by mechanisms at the level of sperm binding and penetration, there may be high levels of gamete wastage through hybridization. Alternatively, viable hybrids may be formed, a factor that could have contributed to the evolutionary history of mass-spawning taxa, as well as to the taxonomic difficulties that have plagued the taxonomy of groups such as reef-building corals. Within some mass-spawning taxa, pre-zygotic barriers to fertilization suggest relatively recent molecular evolution at gamete recognition loci.

  1. Ethical aspects of the use of stem cell derived gametes for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido

    2010-09-01

    A lot of interest has been generated by the possibility of deriving gametes from embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stem cells. These stem cell derived gametes may become useful for research and for the treatment of infertility. In this article we consider prospectively the ethical issues that will arise if stem cell derived gametes are used in the clinic, making a distinction between concerns that only apply to embryonic stem cell derived gametes and concerns that are also relevant for gametes derived from adult stem cells. At present, it appears preferable to use non-embryonic stem cells for the derivation of gametes. Adult stem cell derived gametes do not present any problems with regard to the moral status of the human embryo, bypass the safety risks linked to SCNT and do not present any ambiguity or novel problems with regard to informed consent, psychological consequences for the child or genetic parenthood. A remaining ethical concern, however, regards the safety of the procedure in terms of the welfare of the resulting children. This should spark a thorough reflection on how far one must go to accommodate a person's wish to have a genetically related child.

  2. In Vitro Gamete Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Promising Therapy for Infertility.

    PubMed

    Mouka, Aurélie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Dupont, Joëlle; Drévillon, Loïc; Tosca, Lucie

    2016-04-01

    Generation of gametes derived in vitro from pluripotent stem cells holds promising prospects for future reproductive applications. Indeed, it provides information on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying germ cell (GC) development and could offer a new potential treatment for infertility. Great progress has been made in derivation of gametes from embryonic stem cells, despite ethical issues. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology allows the reprogramming of a differentiated somatic cell, possibly emanating from the patient, into a pluripotent state. With the emergence of iPSCs, several studies created primordial GC stage to mature gamete-like cells in vitro in mice and humans. Recent findings in GC derivation suggest that in mice, functional gametes can be generated in vitro. This strengthens the idea that it might be possible in the future to generate functional human sperm and oocytes from pluripotent stem cells in culture.

  3. In Vitro Gamete Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Promising Therapy for Infertility.

    PubMed

    Mouka, Aurélie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Dupont, Joëlle; Drévillon, Loïc; Tosca, Lucie

    2016-04-01

    Generation of gametes derived in vitro from pluripotent stem cells holds promising prospects for future reproductive applications. Indeed, it provides information on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying germ cell (GC) development and could offer a new potential treatment for infertility. Great progress has been made in derivation of gametes from embryonic stem cells, despite ethical issues. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology allows the reprogramming of a differentiated somatic cell, possibly emanating from the patient, into a pluripotent state. With the emergence of iPSCs, several studies created primordial GC stage to mature gamete-like cells in vitro in mice and humans. Recent findings in GC derivation suggest that in mice, functional gametes can be generated in vitro. This strengthens the idea that it might be possible in the future to generate functional human sperm and oocytes from pluripotent stem cells in culture. PMID:26873432

  4. [Gamete donation contracts: gift of life or sale of genetic material?].

    PubMed

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    When science made possible to overcome the biological limitation to infertility, gamete had become a "valuable good". Therefore, lawyers are asked to define their juridical status, their modality of transference, their possible uses and the legal protection reserved to them.

  5. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  6. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  7. Oocyte transfer and gamete intrafallopian transfer in the mare.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, E M

    2004-07-01

    Methods for the collection and transfer of equine oocytes have been developed, and uses of these techniques have resulted in new clinical and research possibilities. Because oocyte transfer avoids reproductive problems associated with the oviduct, uterus, and cervix, pregnancies can be produced from many mares that cannot carry a pregnancy or produce embryos. Oocytes for clinical transfers are usually collected from preovulatory follicles and cultured for a short interval or transferred directly into a recipient's oviduct. For oocyte transfer, the recipient is inseminated within the uterus. A large number (1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9)) of motile sperms are preferred for inseminations. In contrast, sperm and oocyte are transferred into the oviduct during gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Therefore, a lower number (1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5)) of sperm can be used. Potentially, GIFT could be used in situations where sperm numbers are limited. Use of oocyte transfer and GIFT in clinical and research settings will aid us in understanding the interactions between oocyte, sperm, and oviduct in the equine. PMID:15271484

  8. Smoking and reproduction: gene damage to human gametes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Zenzes, M T

    2000-01-01

    Assisted conception is a useful methodology for detecting disturbances in clinical outcome, meiotic maturation, and genetic integrity of human gametes. Germinal cells are vulnerable to genetic damage from smoking, but can repair damage during meiosis. In ejaculated spermatozoa, repair capacity declines drastically. Smoking alters the meiotic spindle of oocytes and spermatozoa, leading to chromosome errors which affect reproductive outcomes. Smoking is associated with reduced numbers of retrieved oocytes, leading to early age of menopause. Oocyte elimination occurs preferentially during meiosis I, a period sensitive to genetic damage. Smoking inhibits embryo fragmentation; inhibition may confer survival advantage to embryos genetically altered. Smoking is associated with low sperm quality, but clinical effects are not recognized. Cadmium (a heavy metal), nicotine (a toxic alkaloid), and its metabolite cotinine, are detectable in gonadal tissues and fluids in association with smoking. Cotinine incorporates into ovarian granulosa-lutein cells, compromising the developmental potential of follicles. Benzo[a]pyrene is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon resulting from cigarette combustion. Its reactive metabolite binds covalently to DNA, forming adducts. Smoking-related adducts were detectable in ovarian granulosa-lutein cells, oocytes, spermatozoa and preimplantation embryos. Transmission of altered DNA from smoking by spermatozoa was demonstrated in preimplantation embryos and in association with increased risk of childhood cancer. PMID:10782570

  9. High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 μg L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 μg L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 μg Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity.

  10. New methods for gamete rescue from gonads of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Blottner, S; Lengwinat, T; Meyer, H H

    1997-01-01

    Methods for rescuing oocytes and spermatozoa post mortem are described, which were adapted from domestic cat as a model. Ovaries were mechanically processed for large-scale recovery of oocytes. Numbers of intact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) per animal and of preantral follicles per ovary were 18 +/- 2 and 2892 +/- 665 in domestic cats, respectively. Similar results were obtained from 13 individuals of 6 nondomestic felids: 16 +/- 2 COCs and 1867 +/- 1144 follicles. Preantral follicles were cultured for at least 7 days. Intact COCs were maturated for 24 h and fertilized in vitro with homologous or heterologous (from domestic cat) spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from caudae epididymides (n = 11; five nondomestic species) and cryopreserved (n = 8) using a programmed freezer. The reproductive competence of oocytes collected post mortem was demonstrated by development to embryos (> or = 8 cells) in vitro. Spermatogenic efficiency of males was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of mitotic and meiotic testicular cells as well as by estimation of testosterone concentration in testes. The results demonstrate the possibility of retrospective assessment of male and female reproductive capacity. In conclusion, the described methods could be a useful part of gamete rescue programmes for endangered felids. PMID:9404269

  11. [Issues surrounding the preservation and subsequent use of transsexual persons' gametes].

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Some transsexual persons wish to have their gametes frozen before gender transition, in order to preserve their fertility. This measure should be carried out, in strict compliance with the law, in case of orchidectomy, oophorectomy or hysterectomy However, as hormonal treatments do not irreversibly alter gonadal function, the reproductive capacity of trans-sexual persons can be maintained by avoiding surgical sterilization. There is therefore no obvious medical indication for cryopreserving gametes or germinal tissue in the absence of surgical sterilization. Moreover, the use of such cryopreserved gametes would, in principle, be considered mainly by a same-sex couple, something that French law currently prohibits. Regardless of these legal aspects, the issues surrounding the use of cryopreserved gametes, and its consequences, must not be ignored. If transsexual persons who are already parents may find ways of managing the change in both their personal and parental identity, the use of gametes stored prior to gender transition raises issues of identity whose consequences are difficult to assess, especially for the future child. Cryopreservation of gametes or germinal tissue cannot be undertaken without first considering whether their potential use is in keeping with what is, at present, medically and legally possible. In any case, it is up the physician to decide, on a case by case basis, whether or not to implement cryopreservation, taking into account the situation of the persons who request the procedure and their plans for parenthood.

  12. Estimating exotic gene flow into native pine stands: zygotic vs. gametic components.

    PubMed

    Unger, G M; Vendramin, G G; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring contemporary gene flow from widespread exotic plantations is becoming an important problem in forest conservation genetics. In plants, where both seed and pollen disperse, three components of exotic gene flow with potentially unequal consequences should be, but have not been, explicitly distinguished: zygotic, male gametic and female gametic. Building on a previous model for estimating contemporary rates of zygotic and male gametic gene flow among plant populations, we present here an approach that additionally estimates the third (female gametic) gene flow component, based on a combination of uni- and biparentally inherited markers. Using this method and a combined set of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites, we estimate gene flow rates from exotic plantations into two Iberian relict stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Results show neither zygotic nor female gametic gene flow but moderate (6-8%) male gametic introgression for both species, implying significant dispersal of pollen, but not of seeds, from exotic plantations into native stands shortly after introduced trees reached reproductive maturity. Numerical simulation results suggest that the model yields reasonably accurate estimates for our empirical data sets, especially for larger samples. We discuss conservation management implications of observed levels of exposure to nonlocal genes and identify research needs to determine potentially associated hazards. Our approach should be useful for plant ecologists and ecosystem managers interested in the vectors of contemporary genetic connectivity among discrete plant populations.

  13. The effect of filamentous turf algal removal on the development of gametes of the coral Orbicella annularis.

    PubMed

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7-10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost complete

  14. The Effect of Filamentous Turf Algal Removal on the Development of Gametes of the Coral Orbicella annularis

    PubMed Central

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio J.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Chee-Barragán, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae and filamentous turf algae (FTA) are abundant on degraded coral reefs, and the reproductive responses of corals may indicate sub-lethal stress under these conditions. The percentage of gametogenic stages (PGS) and the maximum diameter of eggs (MDE; or egg size) of Orbicella annularis were used to evaluate the effect of long- (7–10 months) and short-term (2.5 months) FTA removal (treatments T1 and T2, respectively) at both the beginning (May) and the end (August) of gametogenesis. Ramets (individual lobes of a colony) surrounded by FTA (T3) or crustose coralline algae (CCA; T4) were used as controls. The removal of FTA enhanced the development of gametes (i.e., a larger and higher percentage of mature gametes (PMG)) of O. annularis for T1 vs. T3 ramets in May and T1 and T2 vs. T3 ramets in August. Similar values of PGS and MDE between gametes from T3 and T4 in both May and August were unexpected because a previous study had shown that the same ramets of T4 (with higher tissue thickness, chlorophyll a cm-2 and zooxanthellae density and lower mitotic index values) were less stressed than ramets of T3. Evaluating coral stress through reproduction can reveal more sensitive responses than other biological parameters; within reproductive metrics, PGS can be a better stress indicator than egg size. The presence of turf algae strongly impacted the development of gametes and egg size (e.g., PMG in ramets with FTA removal increased almost twofold in comparison with ramets surrounded by FTA in August), most likely exerting negative chronic effects in the long run due to the ubiquity and permanence of turf algae in the Caribbean. These algae can be considered a stressor that affects coral sexual reproduction. Although the effects of turf algae on O. annularis are apparently less severe than those of other stressors, the future of this species is uncertain because of the combined impacts of these effects, the decline of O. annularis populations and the almost

  15. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

  16. Engaging Latina Cancer Survivors, their Caregivers, and Community Partners in a Randomized Controlled Trial: Nueva Vida Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Christina L.; Darling, Margaret; Elliott, Maria Gloria; Febus-Sampayo, Ivis; Kuo, Charlene; Muñoz, Juliana; Duron, Ysabel; Torres, Migdalia; Galván, Claudia Campos; Gonzalez, Florencia; Caicedo, Larisa; Nápoles, Anna; Jensen, Roxanne E.; Anderson, Emily; Graves, Kristi D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have evaluated interventions to improve quality of life (QOL) for Latina breast cancer survivors and caregivers. Following best practices in community-based participatory research (CBPR), we established a multi-level partnership among Latina survivors, caregivers, community-based organizations (CBOs), clinicians and researchers to evaluate a survivor-caregiver QOL intervention. Methods A CBO in the mid-Atlantic region, Nueva Vida, developed a patient-caregiver program called Cuidando a mis Cuidadores (Caring for My Caregivers), to improve outcomes important to Latina cancer survivors and their families. Together with an academic partner, Nueva Vida and 3 CBOs established a multi-level team of researchers, clinicians, Latina cancer survivors, and caregivers to conduct a national randomized trial to compare the patient-caregiver program to usual care. Results Incorporating team feedback and programmatic considerations, we adapted the prior patient-caregiver program into an 8-session patient- and caregiver-centered intervention that includes skill-building workshops such as managing stress, communication, self-care, social well-being, and impact of cancer on sexual intimacy. We will measure QOL domains with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), dyadic communication between the survivor and caregiver, and survivors’ adherence to recommended cancer care. To integrate the intervention within each CBO, we conducted interactive training on the protection of human subjects, qualitative interviewing, and intervention delivery. Conclusion The development and engagement process for our QOL intervention study is innovative because it is both informed by and directly impacts underserved Latina survivors and caregivers. The CBPR-based process demonstrates successful multi-level patient engagement through collaboration among researchers, clinicians, community partners, survivors and caregivers. PMID:25377349

  17. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  18. Use of Economic Compensation to Increase Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Kenya: Qualitative Interviews With Male Participants in a Randomized Controlled Trial and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Michele; Murray, Kate; Rao, Samwel; Agot, Kawango; Omanga, Eunice; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventions to increase demand for medical male circumcision are urgently needed in eastern and southern Africa. Following promising evidence that providing economic compensation can increase male circumcision uptake in Kenya, there is a need to understand the role of this intervention in individuals' decision-making regarding circumcision and explore perceptions of the intervention and concerns such as coercion. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial in Kenya that found compensation in the form of food vouchers worth US $8.75–US $15.00 to be effective in increasing male circumcision uptake, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 45 circumcised and uncircumcised male participants and 19 female partners to explore how compensation provision influenced the decision to get circumcised. Interview transcripts were coded and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify patterns in decision-making. Results: Interviews revealed that compensation promoted circumcision uptake by addressing a major barrier to male circumcision uptake: lost wages during and after the circumcision procedure. Participants who did not get circumcised perceived the compensation amounts to be insufficient for offsetting their costs associated with getting circumcised or reported having nonfinancial barriers that were not addressed by the intervention, such as fear of pain. Participants also reported that they did not feel compelled to get circumcised for financial gain. Female partners of circumcised participants felt that the intervention helped to motivate their partners to get circumcised. Conclusions: The results suggest that the provision of economic compensation is an acceptable intervention that can address an important barrier to male circumcision uptake. Providing compensation to circumcision clients in the form of food vouchers warrants further consideration in voluntary medical male circumcision demand creation efforts. PMID:27404013

  19. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  20. [Gamete donor karyotyping: between real usefulness and safety rules].

    PubMed

    Siffroi, J-P

    2004-09-01

    The Commission de génétique de la Fédération française des CECOS has recently sent a questionnaire to each CECOS asking for the year of activity starting, the number of karyotypes performed every year, the number and the type of chromosomal abnormalities and the consequences for the donation process. For sperm donors, 9410 karyotypes have been realized during a mean number of 21.3 years. Fifty-seven chromosomal abnormalities (0.6%) have led to the exclusion of the donors, twenty of which being directly dangerous for the offspring [eight t(13;14), three reciprocal translocations, two structural abnormalities of unknown origin and seven inversions]. Twenty-three anomalies (three supernumerary markers, five 47,XYY, five fragile sites and ten mosaicism) as well as nine other (three Y chromosome inversions and six pericentric inversions of chromosome 9), although considered either as innocuous or as chromosomal variants, have also been excluded. Lastly, five miscellaneous abnormalities have also been considered as exclusion factors. Familial data and sperm counts were known for 28 of these donors. For egg donors, only 681 karyotypes have been performed during a mean number of 7.8 years of activity. Five karyotype abnormalities have led to the exclusion of the donor: one 47,XXX, one mosaicism 45,X/47,XXX/46,XX, one case of non specific rearrangements in half of mitosis and two reciprocal translocations [t(8;20) (q13;p13) et t(3;17) (q26;p13)]. The consequences of this study on gamete donor genetic screening are discussed. PMID:15380766

  1. A Design to Investigate the Feasibility and Effects of Partnered Ballroom Dancing on People With Parkinson Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen Clare; Wiles, Rose; Kunkel, Dorit; Hulbert, Sophia; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-help and physical leisure activities has become increasingly important in the maintenance of safe and functional mobility among an increasingly elderly population. Preventing the cycle of deterioration, falling, inactivity, dependency, and secondary complications in people with Parkinson disease (PD) is a priority. Research has shown that people with PD are interested in dance and although the few existing trials are small, initial proof of principle trials from the United States have demonstrated beneficial effects on balance control, gait, and activity levels. To our knowledge, there has been no research into long-term effects, cost effectiveness, the influence on spinal posture and turning, or the personal insights of dance participants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the methodological feasibility of conducting a definitive phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of dance in people with PD. We will build on the proof of principle trials by addressing gaps in knowledge, focusing on areas of greatest methodological uncertainty; the choice of dances and intensity of the program; for the main trial, the availability of partners, the suitability of the currently envisaged primary outcomes, balance and spinal posture; and the key costs of delivering and participating in a dance program to inform economic evaluation. Methods Fifty participants (mild-to-moderate condition) will be randomized to the control (usual care) or experimental (dance plus usual care) groups at a ratio of 15:35. Dance will be taught by professional teachers in a dance center in the South of England. Each participant in the experimental group will dance with his or her spouse, a friend, or a partner from a bank of volunteers. A blinded assessor will complete clinical measures and self-reported ability at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. A qualitative study of a subgroup of participants and partners will examine user’s views about the

  2. Telomere-to-centromere ratio of bovine clones, embryos, gametes, fetal cells, and adult cells.

    PubMed

    Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118

  3. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  4. Sperm competition and the evolution of gametic compatibility in externally fertilizing taxa.

    PubMed

    Kosman, E T; Levitan, D R

    2014-12-01

    Proteins expressed on the surface of sperm and egg mediate gametic compatibility and these proteins can be subject to intense positive selection. In this review, we discuss what is known about the patterns of adaptive evolution of gamete recognition proteins (GRPs). We focus on species that broadcast eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization, as the ease of observing and manipulating gamete interactions has allowed for greater advances in the understanding of GRP evolution, uncomplicated by confounding behavioral and physiological components that offer alternative evolutionary targets in internal fertilizers. We discuss whether interspecific mechanisms, such as selection to avoid fertilization between species (reinforcement selection), or intraspecific mechanisms, such as selection to increase (or decrease) the affinity between eggs and sperm based on the intensity of sperm competition, may be responsible for the pattern of GRP evolution observed. Variation in these proteins appears to influence gametic compatibility; GRP divergence among species is a better predictor of hybrid fertilization than neutral genetic markers and GRP variation within species predicts reproductive success among individuals within a population. Evidence suggests that sperm competition may play a large role in the evolution of gametic compatibility. PMID:25323969

  5. Gamete retrieval in terminal conditions: is it practical? What are the consequences?

    PubMed

    Finnerty, James J; Karns, Logan B; Thomas, Theodore S; West, Rebecca W; Pinkerton, JoAnn V

    2002-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in, and request for, gamete retrieval from recently deceased or near-dead subjects for the purpose of posthumous procreation. This usually arises in an emergency situation with little time for physicians to consider ethical ramifications. Advance planning is needed to help these physicians make thoughtful decisions. After considering the complexity of the issues involved, the Ethics Consult Service and the Ethics Committee at the University of Virginia requested that we develop a policy on gamete retrieval for subjects in terminal conditions, which would govern and guide involved providers should this process be requested. Our team consisted of members of the Ethics Consult Service and Ethics Committee, as well as personnel who might be intimately involved in the gamete retrieval process, including the director of the Human Gamete and Embryo Laboratory, a urologist, and a reproductive endocrinologist. In addition to reviewing the current literature describing the actual processes involved, we explored the ethical implications of gamete retrieval in these situations. A policy was developed and approved by the Ethics Committee at our institution, and is included in this article. PMID:12099192

  6. The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these objections, insofar as they would ensure that children have parents whom they can know as their genetic parents, which outcome is not always possible when same-sex couples involve third parties as the source of gametes or embryos. Not all commentators in bioethics throw the use of synthetic gametes into doubt as far as same-sex couples are concerned, but even these commentators put parenting by gay men and lesbians at the conclusion of an argument rather than presupposing parental legitimacy from the outset. Synthetic gametes do raise questions of ethics in regard to parenthood for gay men and lesbians, but these are largely questions of access and equity, not questions of parental fitness and/or child welfare.

  7. Gamete donor anonymity and limits on numbers of offspring: the views of three stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Margaret K.; Hertz, Rosanna; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the attitudes of three groups of stakeholders in the world of assisted reproduction gamete donors, parents who use donated gamete, and offspring conceived with donated gametes with respect to the two issues of donor anonymity and limits on the number of offspring a single donor can produce. The data are drawn from on-line surveys which were made available between May 12, 2104 and August 15, 2014 to gamete donors, donor-conceived offspring, and parents who used donated gametes to conceive. A total of 325 donors (176 egg donors; 149 sperm donors) responded to the survey as did 2134 parents and 419 offspring. The data show that offspring are more opposed to donor anonymity than are parents and donors. Among offspring opposition to anonymity grows as they age. On the other hand, parents are most in favor of limits on numbers of offspring produced by a single donor. Parents worry about health and accidental contact between people conceived from the same donor. PMID:27774232

  8. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p < .0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (β = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p = 0.006), while attitudes

  9. Conservation of DNA Methylation Programming Between Mouse and Human Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos.

    PubMed

    White, Carlee R; MacDonald, William A; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-09-01

    In mice, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) applied during gametogenesis and preimplantation development can result in disruption of genomic imprinting. In humans, these technologies and/or subfertility have been linked to perturbations in genomic imprinting. To understand how ARTs and infertility affect DNA methylation, it is important to understand DNA methylation dynamics and the role of regulatory factors at these critical stages. Recent genome studies performed using mouse and human gametes and preimplantation embryos have shed light onto these processes. Here, we comprehensively review the current state of knowledge regarding global and imprinted DNA methylation programming in the mouse and human. Available data highlight striking similarities in mouse and human DNA methylation dynamics during gamete and preimplantation development. Just as fascinating, these studies have revealed sex-, gene-, and allele-specific differences in DNA methylation programming, warranting future investigation to untangle the complex regulation of DNA methylation dynamics during gamete and preimplantation development.

  10. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  11. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  12. 27 CFR 31.137 - Withdrawal of partner(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of partner(s). 31.137 Section 31.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... § 31.137 Withdrawal of partner(s). Withdrawal of partner(s) requires an amended registration. See §...

  13. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  14. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols.

  15. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  16. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  17. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  18. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  19. 9 CFR 93.905 - Declaration and other documents for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.905 Section 93.905 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.905 Declaration and other...

  20. Selection in the Rapid Evolution of Gamete Recognition Proteins in Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vacquier, Victor D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal fertilization is governed by the interaction (binding) of proteins on the surfaces of sperm and egg. In many examples presented herein, fertilization proteins evolve rapidly and show the signature of positive selection (adaptive evolution). This review describes the molecular evolution of fertilization proteins in sea urchins, abalone, and oysters, animals with external fertilization that broadcast their gametes into seawater. Theories regarding the selective forces responsible for the rapid evolution driven by positive selection seen in many fertilization proteins are discussed. This strong selection acting on divergence of interacting fertilization proteins might lead to prezygotic reproductive isolation and be a significant factor in the speciation process. Since only a fraction of all eggs are fertilized and only an infinitesimal fraction of male gametes succeed in fertilizing an egg, gametes are obviously a category of entities subjected to intense selection. It is curious that this is never mentioned in the literature dealing with selection, perhaps because we know so little about fitness differences among gametes.(ErnstMayr, 1997) PMID:21730046

  1. Experimental approach to prezygotic chromosome screening using only a single pair of gametes in mice

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Hiroyuki; KOHDA, Atsushi; TATENO, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    During in vitro embryo production, chromosome screening is essential to prevent pregnancy losses caused by embryonic chromosome aberrations. When the chromosome screening is completed before fertilization, gametes are effectively utilized as genetic resources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chromosome screening of gametes accompanied by fertilization would be feasible using a single mouse spermatozoon and oocyte. Metaphase II oocytes were divided into a cytoplast and a karyoplast. For genome cloning of the gametes, androgenic and gynogenic embryos were produced by microinjection of sperm into cytoplasts and parthenogenetic activation of karyoplasts, respectively. Pairs of blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were fused electrically to produce diploid embryos, which were transferred into pseudopregnant surrogate mothers to examine fetal development. Blastomeres from androgenic and gynogenic embryos were individually treated with calyculin A—a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases—for 2 h to induce premature chromosome condensation. Thereafter, chromosome analysis of blastomeres, reflecting the genetic constitution of individual spermatozoa and oocytes, was performed, and we confirmed that most of the androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos had a haploid set of chromosomes in their sister blastomeres. The reconstructed embryos from blastomeres of androgenic and gynogenic 2-cell embryos could be implanted and develop into live fetuses, albeit at low efficiency. This study indicates that prezygotic chromosome screening and embryo production using a single pair of gametes may be practicable. PMID:26234555

  2. The ethics of anonymous gamete donation: is there a right to know one's genetic origins?

    PubMed

    De Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions hold that gamete donors must be identifiable to the children born with their eggs or sperm, on grounds that being able to know about one's genetic origins is a fundamental moral right. But the argument for that belief has not yet been adequately made.

  3. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  4. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Therefore, early intervention is critical. This paper describes the rationale, design, methodology, and sample characteristics of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial being conducted in eight elementary schools in rural North Carolina, United States. Methods/Design The first aim of the trial is to examine the effects of a two-phased intervention on weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy in overweight or obese 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th grade children and their overweight or obese parents. The primary outcome in children is stabilization of BMI percentile trajectory from baseline to 18 months. The primary outcome in parents is a decrease in BMI from baseline to 18 months. Secondary outcomes for both children and parents include adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy from baseline to 18 months. A secondary aim of the trial is to examine in the experimental group, the relationships between parents and children's changes in weight status, adiposity, nutrition and exercise health behaviors, and self-efficacy. An exploratory aim is to determine whether African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children and parents in the experimental group benefit differently from the intervention in weight status, adiposity, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. A total of 358 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and 358 parents with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 have been inducted over 3 1/2 years and randomized by cohort to either an experimental or a wait-listed control group. The experimental group receives a 12-week intensive intervention of nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training and exercise (Phase I), 9 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II) and then 6 months

  5. The family partners for health study: a cluster randomized controlled trial for child and parent weight management

    PubMed Central

    Berry, D C; Schwartz, T A; McMurray, R G; Skelly, A H; Neal, M; Hall, E G; Aimyong, N; Amatuli, D J; Melkus, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a two-phased nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, and exercise intervention program for overweight or obese low-income ethnic minority 2nd to 4th grade children and their parents in rural North Carolina, USA. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out with 358 children (7–10 years) and a parent for each child (n=358). General linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy by examining changes in children and parents from baseline to completion of the study (18 months). Results: At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not have a significantly decreased body mass index (BMI) percentile (P=0.470); however, they showed a reduction in the growth rate of their triceps (P=0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and an improvement in dietary knowledge (P=0.018) and drank less than one glass of soda per day (P=0.052) compared with the control group. Parents in the experimental group had decreased BMI (P=0.001), triceps (P<0.001) and subscapular skinfolds (P<0.001) and increased nutrition (P=0.003) and exercise (P<0.001) knowledge and more often drank water or unsweetened drinks (P=0.029). At 18 months, children in the experimental group did not show significant improvement in eating (P=0.956) or exercise self-efficacy (P=0.976). Experimental parents demonstrated improved socially acceptable eating self-efficacy (P=0.013); however, they did not show significant improvement in self-efficacy pertaining to emotional eating (P=0.155) and exercise (P=0.680). Conclusion: The results suggest that inclusion of children and parents in the same intervention program is an effective way to decrease adiposity and improve nutrition behaviors in both children and parents and improve weight and eating self-efficacy in parents. PMID:24418827

  6. Mixing a grounded theory approach with a randomized controlled trial related to intimate partner violence: what challenges arise for mixed methods research?

    PubMed

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M; Ciliska, Donna; Macmillan, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.

  7. Phloem-based resistance to green peach aphid is controlled by Arabidopsis PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 without its signaling partner ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1.

    PubMed

    Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay; Reese, John C; Bautor, Jaqueline; Feys, Bart J; Cook, Graeme; Parker, Jane E; Shah, Jyoti

    2007-10-01

    Green peach aphid (GPA) Myzus persicae (Sülzer) is a phloem-feeding insect with an exceptionally wide host range. Previously, it has been shown that Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), which is expressed at elevated levels in response to GPA infestation, is required for resistance to GPA in the Arabidopsis accession Columbia. We demonstrate here that the role of PAD4 in the response to GPA is conserved in Arabidopsis accessions Wassilewskija and Landsberg erecta. Electrical monitoring of aphid feeding behavior revealed that PAD4 modulates a phloem-based defense mechanism against GPA. GPA spends more time actively feeding from the sieve elements of pad4 mutants than from wild-type plants, and less time feeding on transgenic plants in which PAD4 is ectopically expressed. The activity of PAD4 in limiting phloem sap uptake serves as a deterrent in host-plant choice, and restricts aphid population size. In Arabidopsis defense against pathogens, all known PAD4 functions require its signaling and stabilizing partner EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1). Bioassays with eds1 mutants alone or in combination with pad4 and with plants conditionally expressing PAD4 under the control of a dexamethasone-inducible promoter reveal that PAD4-modulated defense against GPA does not involve EDS1. Thus, a PAD4 mode of action that is uncoupled from EDS1 determines the extent of aphid feeding in the phloem.

  8. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: After completing this article, readers should: Know the prevalence of intimate partner violence and childhood exposure to intimate partner violenceIdentify risk factors associated with intimate partner violence.Understand that child maltreatment is significantly more likely in the setting of intimate partner violence.Recognize the impact of intimate partner violence exposure on children's social-emotional and physical health, and on their health care use.Understand strategies for screening and responding to intimate partner violence in the pediatric setting You are seeing a healthy, previously full-term 4 month old for well child care. As a part of your routine social history, you inquire about intimate partner violence (IPV). The infant's mother discloses that her partner frequently yells at her, pushes her and makes her feel afraid. Upon further questioning, you find that she describes the infant as “fussy.” His physical exam is unremarkable, but you note that he missed his two month visit and is behind on his immunizations. How do you proceed? PMID:20360408

  10. Reactions to a Partner-Assisted Emotional Disclosure Intervention: Direct Observation and Self-Report of Patient and Partner Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Laura S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Patterson, Emily S.

    2012-01-01

    Partner-assisted emotional disclosure is a couple-based intervention designed to help patients disclose cancer-related concerns to their spouses-partners. We previously found that, compared with an education/support control condition, partner-assisted emotional disclosure led to significant improvements in relationship quality and intimacy for…

  11. Gene expression profiles in rice gametes and zygotes: identification of gamete-enriched genes and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Mafumi; Maeda, Hiroki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or early zygotic development. Cell type-specific transcriptomes were obtained, and up- or down-regulated genes in zygotes after fertilization were identified, in addition to genes enriched in male and female gametes. A total of 325 putatively up-regulated and 94 putatively down-regulated genes in zygotes were obtained. Interestingly, several genes encoding homeobox proteins or transcription factors were identified as highly up-regulated genes after fertilization, and the gene ontology for up-regulated genes was highly enriched in functions related to chromatin/DNA organization and assembly. Because a gene encoding methyltransferase 1 was identified as a highly up-regulated gene in zygotes after fertilization, the effect of an inhibitor of this enzyme on zygote development was monitored. The inhibitor appeared partially to affect polarity or division asymmetry in rice zygotes, but it did not block normal embryo generation.

  12. Ethical aspects of creating human-nonhuman chimeras capable of human gamete production and human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Palacios-González, César

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I explore some of the moral issues that could emerge from the creation of human-nonhuman chimeras (HNH-chimeras) capable of human gamete production and human pregnancy. First I explore whether there is a cogent argument against the creation of HNH-chimeras that could produce human gametes. I conclude that so far there is none, and that in fact there is at least one good moral reason for producing such types of creatures. Afterwards I explore some of the moral problems that could emerge from the fact that a HNH-chimera could become pregnant with a human conceptus. I focus on two sets of problems: problems that would arise by virtue of the fact that a human is gestated by a nonhuman creature, and problems that would emerge from the fact that such pregnancies could affect the health of the HNH-chimera.

  13. Incest, gamete donation by siblings and the importance of the genetic link.

    PubMed

    Pennings, G

    2002-01-01

    Recently, several requests have emerged in which women wished to be impregnated with donor eggs fertilized with spermatozoa of their brother. An important argument advanced against such applications is that it is a kind of incest. Four definitions of incest are reviewed in this article to evaluate the acceptability of these demands. The first three (sexual intercourse, reproduction with gametes of first-degree relatives and symbolic incest) do not apply to the cases. However, when the sister and her brother intend to raise the child as social mother and father, these requests should be considered as "intentional incest". If the brother only functions as an uncle, the request of the woman resembles the currently accepted practice of oocyte donation from sister to sister. In that case, the wish to receive gametes from a first-degree relative is motivated by the wish to establish as far as possible a genetic link with the child.

  14. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in Crassostrea gigas male gametes

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Claire E.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns and functions are variable across invertebrate taxa. In order to provide a better understanding of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation profile in male gamete cells using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to examine the relationship between DNA methylation and transcript expression. Methylation status of over 7.6 million CpG dinucleotides was described with a majority of methylated regions occurring among intragenic regions. Overall, 15% of the CpG dinucleotides were determined to be methylated and the mitochondrial genome lacked DNA methylation. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data revealed a positive association between methylation status, both in gene bodies and putative promoter regions, and expression. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the distribution of DNA methylation in the oyster male gamete tissue and suggests that DNA methylation is involved in gene regulatory activity. PMID:24987376

  15. Preserved echinoderm gametes as a useful and ready-to-use bioassay material.

    PubMed

    Kiyomoto, M; Hamanaka, G; Hirose, M; Yamaguchi, M

    2014-02-01

    Marine animals, and sea urchin species in particular, have several advantages for use in environmental research. However, the spawned eggs of the sea urchin quickly lose fertility, although the fertile period can be lengthened by the addition of antibiotics to the sea water (Epel et al., 2004). We evaluated five species of Japanese sea urchin and the gametes of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus could be maintained for 2 weeks or more at low temperature with the addition of antibiotics to sea water. We also demonstrated the practicality of shipping these preserved gametes as experimental material for universities and schools to use immediately for bioassays of physical and chemical impacts on the marine environment. PMID:24129269

  16. MORPHOLOGY OF GAMETE MEMBRANE FUSION AND OF SPERM ENTRY INTO OOCYTES OF THE SEA URCHIN

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Luther E.

    1965-01-01

    Sea urchin gametes predominate in molecular studies of fertilization, yet relatively little is known of the subcellular aspects of sperm entry in this group. Accordingly, it seemed desirable to make a detailed examination of sperm entry phenomena in sea urchins with the electron microscope. Gametes of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus were used in this study. Samples of eggs containing 2 to 8 per cent oocytes were selected and fixed with osmium tetroxide in sea water at various intervals after insemination. Fixed specimens were embedded in Epon 812, sectioned, and examined with an electron microscope. An apical vesicle was observed at the anterior end of the acrosome. The presence of this structure, together with other observations, suggested that initiation of the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm involves dehiscence of the acrosomal region with the subsequent release of the acrosomal granule. Contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes was observed in mature eggs and oocytes and invariably involved the extended acrosomal tubule of the spermatozoon. Only one spermatozoon normally enters the mature egg. The probability of locating such a sperm in ultrathin sections is exceedingly low. Several sperm do normally enter oocytes. Consequently, observations of sperm entry were primarily restricted to the latter. The manner of sperm entry into oocytes did not resemble phagocytosis. Organelles of the spermatozoon were progressively divested of their plasma membrane as they entered the ground cytoplasm of the oocyte fertilization cone. Initiation of the acrosome reaction, contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes, and sperm entry into oocytes of sea urchins conform to the Hydroides-Saccoglossus pattern of early fertilization events as described by Colwin and Colwin (13). PMID:19866669

  17. Partnering for the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    With an ambitious new direction and a new way of doing business, NASA's Kennedy Space Center is embracing a new relationship with the commercial space industry and other partners to build a multi-u...

  18. Resources for Partners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes the resources and opportunities available to partners how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

  19. Reprotoxicity of gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Klein, Sabine; Kues, Wilfried A; Barcikowski, Stephan; Rath, Detlef

    2014-03-01

    Metal and alloy nanoparticles are increasingly developed for biomedical applications, while a firm understanding of their biocompatibility is still missing. Various properties have been reported to influence the toxic potential of nanoparticles. This study aimed to assess the impact of nanoparticle size, surface ligands and chemical composition of gold, silver or gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes. An in vitro assay for porcine gametes was developed, since these are delicate primary cells, for which well-established culture systems exist and functional parameters are defined. During coincubation with oocytes for 46 h neither any of the tested gold nanoparticles nor the gold-silver alloy particles with a silver molar fraction of up to 50% showed any impact on oocyte maturation. Alloy nanoparticles with 80% silver molar fraction and pure silver nanoparticles inhibited cumulus-oocyte maturation. Confocal microscopy revealed a selective uptake of gold nanoparticles by oocytes, while silver and alloy particles mainly accumulated in the cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte. Interestingly sperm vitality parameters (motility, membrane integrity and morphology) were not affected by any of the tested nanoparticles. Only sporadic association of nanoparticles with the sperm plasma membrane was found by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, mammalian oocytes were sensitive to silver containing nanoparticles. Likely, the delicate process of completing meiosis in maternal gametes features high vulnerability towards nanomaterial derived toxicity. The results imply that released Ag(+)-ions are responsible for the observed toxicity, but the compounding into an alloy seemed to alleviate the toxic effects to a certain extent.

  20. Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-12-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  1. Chemically moderated gamete preferences predict offspring fitness in a broadcast spawning invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Mathew; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm chemoattraction, where sperm locate unfertilized eggs by following a concentration gradient of egg-derived chemoattractants, has been widely documented across numerous taxa. While marine invertebrates are favoured models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction, the evolutionary forces underpinning the process remain enigmatic. Here, we show that in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), chemically moderated gamete preferences promote assortative fertilizations between genetically compatible gametes. When offered the choice of egg clutches from two females, sperm exhibited consistent but differential ‘preferences’ for chemical cues secreted from conspecific eggs. Critically, our data reveal that the preferences shown by sperm during the egg-choice trials are highly predictive of early embryonic viability when eggs and sperm from the same individuals are mixed during standard (no-choice) fertilization assays. Moreover, we demonstrate that by experimentally separating chemoattractants from eggs, sperm swimming behaviour is differentially regulated by egg-derived chemoattractants, and that these changes in sperm behaviour are highly consistent with observed patterns of gamete preferences, fertilization and larval survival. Together, this integrated series of experiments reveals that the behaviour of sperm is fine-tuned to respond differentially to the chemical signals emitted from different conspecific eggs, and that these choices have measurable fitness benefits. PMID:24741014

  2. Counselling on disclosure of gamete donation to donor offspring: a search for facts

    PubMed Central

    Visser, M.; Kop, P.A.L.; van Wely, M.; van der Veen, F.; Gerrits, G.J.E.; van Zwieten, M.C.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High quality counseling of potential parents is needed in the process of disclosure to donor offspring, which is important for the child and for family relationships. We performed a search for facts to identify the role of counseling in couples undergoing gamete donation. Methods: We systematically searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Psychinfo. Studies were included if they reported on counseling in gamete donation. Results: A total of 20 studies were included. Twelve studies stated that counselling was offered. The reported studies reflected no consensus about when and how counselling in gamete donation should be offered and no theoretical background of the disclosure/ secrecy issue. About 50% of the parents expressed the need for guidance and support of a counsellor. Special concerns were the disclosure issue and the future contact with the donor. Parents did not receive the guidance and support they needed in the disclosure process after treatment. Conclusion: Empirical knowledge on counselling is lacking. This review demonstrates the need to know more precisely at what moments couples should be counselled, and which specific information and guidelines couples need to receive to be more confident in the disclosure process to donor offspring. PMID:24753905

  3. Photoprotective effect of coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin in sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; de Castro, Tainá Myra Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) represents 5% of all solar UV radiation and chronic exposure can induce harmful biological responses, including skin cancer. Prospection of new drugs with photoprotective properties and less toxic effects is constant and natural products have been the main options in this field. Coumarins are a group of natural phenolic compounds that shows several pharmacological activities. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of coumarin and six derivatives in sea urchin gametes and zygotes exposed to UVB. Embryonic development assay was used to monitor UVB embryotoxicity. Firstly, we demonstrated that coumarin inhibited first embryonic cell division from 5 μM (EC50 = 52.9 μM) and its derivatives showed an embryotoxic effect ten times higher. Then, gametes or zygotes were treated with coumarin compounds before or after UVB exposure (UVB doses ranged from 0.056 to 0.9 kJm(-2)). Pretreatment of gametes or zygotes with coumarin or 3-hydroxycoumarin (1 μM, both) decreased UVB embryotoxic effect. Protective effect of the compounds was observed only when cells were treated previous to UVB exposure. Coumarin derivatives 4-hydroxycoumarin, 6-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin did not exhibit photoprotective activity. Our data provides evidences that coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin can be a promising class of photoprotective drugs.

  4. Pheromonal stimulation of spawning release of gametes by gonadotropin releasing hormone in the chiton, Mopalia sp.

    PubMed

    Gorbman, Aubrey; Whiteley, Arthur; Kavanaugh, Scott

    2003-03-01

    The chiton Mopalia sp., a mollusc, was exposed to various dilutions of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in sea water to determine whether this peptide is capable of acting as a pheromone that could stimulate release of ripe gametes (spawning). Two of the peptides, lamprey GnRH-1 and tunicate GnRH-2, had this action at a higher concentration (1.0 mg/L) but dilutions to 50 microg/L no longer were effective. Three other GnRHs: lamprey GnRH-3, tunicate GnRH-1, and a modified chicken GnRH-2, had no such action under the same test conditions. Since the spawning response could be produced by some GnRHs and not by others, it would appear that some kind of molecular recognition is involved, possibly by specific binding to a receptor. In earlier preliminary experiments tunicate GnRH-2 rapidly stimulated gamete release in a hemichordate, Saccoglossus. Thus it is suggested that GnRHs, in at least some invertebrates, may function as pheromones, serving to stimulate simultaneous spawning of individuals in a population of animals, and in this way assure more successful fertilization in species that must release their gametes into the water in which they live.

  5. Ploidy frequencies in plants with ploidy heterogeneity: fitting a general gametic model to empirical population data

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Herben, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (polyploidy) is a recurrent evolutionary process in plants, often conferring instant reproductive isolation and thus potentially leading to speciation. Outcome of the process is often seen in the field as different cytotypes co-occur in many plant populations. Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be the main mode of polyploid formation. To get insight into its role in the dynamics of polyploidy generation under natural conditions, and coexistence of several ploidy levels, we developed a general gametic model for diploid–polyploid systems. This model predicts equilibrium ploidy frequencies as functions of several parameters, namely the unreduced gamete proportions and fertilities of higher ploidy plants. We used data on field ploidy frequencies for 39 presumably autopolyploid plant species/populations to infer numerical values of the model parameters (either analytically or using an optimization procedure). With the exception of a few species, the model fit was very high. The estimated proportions of unreduced gametes (median of 0.0089) matched published estimates well. Our results imply that conditions for cytotype coexistence in natural populations are likely to be less restrictive than previously assumed. In addition, rather simple models show sufficiently rich behaviour to explain the prevalence of polyploids among flowering plants. PMID:23193129

  6. Making muslim babies: Ivf and gamete donation in sunni versus shi’a islam

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  7. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  8. Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Missirlis, Fanis; Ashworth, Rachel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lucas, Cathy H; Allen, John F

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals. Mitochondrial DNA mutation then accumulates with age, and may set a limit to the lifespan of individual, multicellular organisms. Why is this mutation not inherited? Here we demonstrate that female gametes-oocytes-have unusually small and simple mitochondria that are suppressed for DNA transcription, electron transport, and free radical production. By contrast, male gametes-sperm-and somatic cells of both sexes transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory electron carriers and produce oxygen free radicals. This germ-line division between mitochondria of sperm and egg is observed in both the vinegar fruitfly and the zebrafish-species spanning a major evolutionary divide within the animal kingdom. We interpret these findings as an evidence that oocyte mitochondria serve primarily as genetic templates, giving rise, irreversibly and in each new generation, to the familiar energy-transducing mitochondria of somatic cells and male gametes. Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  9. Effects of Cadmium and Zinc on the Gamete Viability, Fertilization, and Embryonic Development of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Tualla, Ivan Patrick B.; Bitacura, Jayzon G.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are frequently reported for their mutagenic and teratogenic effects on benthic organisms. Thus, this study aimed to determine the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in the gametes of T. gratilla and to compare its fertilization and embryonic development under the highest nongametotoxic concentrations of these heavy metals. Gamete viability of T. gratilla under CdCl2 and ZnSO4 treatments was assayed through resazurin reduction test (RRT) and was confirmed through gamete morphology assay. ZnSO4 was more toxic to T. gratilla gametes than CdCl2 and egg cells were more sensitive to both than the sperm cells. Higher concentrations of CdCl2 and ZnSO4 induced gamete apoptosis and necrosis while highest nongametotoxic concentrations were determined at 1 × 10−3 M and 1 × 10−4 M, respectively, and were used in an in vitro fertilization and embryonic development experiment. ZnSO4 treatment inhibited fertilization more than CdCl2 and yielded more deformed embryos, while both induced abnormalities and hindered further embryonic development. This study gives the first report on the specific concentrations of Cd and Zn that are toxic to T. gratilla gametes and has confirmed the teratogenic effects of these heavy metals. PMID:27200213

  10. Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients. PMID:21568249

  11. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple.

  12. Light 't Hooft top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Parolini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Vectorlike quarks, usually dubbed top partners, are a common presence in composite Higgs models. Being composite objects, their mass is expected to be of the order of their inverse size, that is the condensation scale of the new strong interactions. Light top partners, while not being a generic prediction, are, however, often considered in phenomenological models. We suggest that their lightness may be due to the matching of global 't Hooft anomalies of the underlying theory. We check this mechanism in explicit models, showing that, in one case, composite fermions with the quantum numbers of the top quark obtain a mass which is controlled by a soft breaking term and can be made parametrically small.

  13. Deciphering the pig genome to understand gamete production.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, G A; Wise, T H; Ford, J J

    2006-01-01

    The field of livestock genomics has made considerable advances in the past decade. In the area of pig reproduction, a number of genome scans have identified several genomic regions associated with variation in reproductive measures ranging from ovulation rate, litter size and testis size. Additionally, several candidate genes have been associated with variation in litter size. These studies primarily focused on developing genetic markers to facilitate selection decisions. To date, their results have made minor contributions to commercial pig performance and our knowledge on the inheritance of complex phenotypes. With the availability of additional resources for pig, as well as from human and mouse studies, future studies should be directed to identifying genetic variation that affects biological processes. To reach this goal, teams of diversely trained scientists need to be formed that include geneticists, physiologists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticists. A diversified team of scientists equipped with all of the available research tools (genomic sequence data, expression arrays, knowledge of gene product functions, etc.) and appropriate swine populations should be able to decode the genome's hidden secrets on how it controls reproductive processes.

  14. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  15. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of

  16. Partners of the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  17. [Treatment of long-term sterility by intra-tubal gamete transfer].

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Hoppe, I; Nickel, I; Mühlnickel, D; Kapitza, W; Karsten, U; Denck, D; Freese, C

    1988-01-01

    It is reported about a first successful program of gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT) as a supplement to intrauterine insemination and to in vitro fertilization (IVF). In 29 patients after HMG stimulation of the ovaries and laparoscopic aspiration of follicles recovered oocytes have been introduced together with prepared sperm via a special catheter directly into the ampulla of the oviduct. In 21 patients with different causes of infertility optimal stimulation conditions could be achieved. A pregnancy rate of 41.4% is the result of 29 GIFT events and 3 of them resulted in spontaneous term deliveries (10.3%).

  18. Oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE) is a preventive intervention, neither social nor nonmedical.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-05-01

    The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion.

  19. Oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE) is a preventive intervention, neither social nor nonmedical.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Deneyer, Michel; Nekkebroeck, Julie; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-05-01

    The scope of female fertility preservation through cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex has widened from mainly oncological indications to a variety of fertility-threatening conditions. So far, no specific universally accepted denomination name has been given to cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian cortex for the prevention of age-related fertility decline. We argue that the commonly used phrases 'social' and 'nonmedical freezing' to denote the indication for cryopreservation are not entirely correct. We suggest 'AGE banking', as this has not only the advantage of being catchy but also depicts the exact indication for the strategy, anticipated gamete exhaustion. PMID:24631381

  20. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-san; Celentano, David D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Controlled trials of educational interventions are susceptible to contamination. Objectives To test a contamination measure based on recall of terms. Main study A randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among 1,123 injection drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms by intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds (OR) of recall of test vs. negative control terms between study arms. Results The contamination measure showed good discriminant ability only among participants from Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was evidence of diffusion and contamination of 4 of 5 terms tested. Conclusions Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in trials of educational interventions. PMID:25935214

  1. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions.

  2. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  3. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases.

  4. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  5. Physical, Sexual, Emotional and Economic Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behaviors during Pregnancy and Postpartum among Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahenge, Bathsheba; Stöckl, Heidi; Abubakari, Abdulai; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and postpartum is a serious global health problem affecting millions of women worldwide. This study sought to determine the prevalence of different forms of IPV during pregnancy and postpartum and associated factors among women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 500 women at one to nine months postpartum in three health facilities in the three districts of Dar es Salaam: Temeke, Kinondoni and Illala. Two trained research assistants administered the questionnaire, which aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics and different forms of IPV. Results Of the 500 women who were interviewed, 18.8% experienced some physical and/or sexual violence during pregnancy. Forty-one women (9%) reported having experienced some physical and/or sexual violence at one to nine months postpartum. Physical and/or sexual IPV during pregnancy was associated with cohabiting (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.24–4.03) and having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.08–6.71). Postpartum, physical and/or sexual IPV was associated with having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.24–15.6). Conclusion We found that IPV is more prevalent during pregnancy than during the postpartum phase. There is also continuity and maintenance of IPV during and after pregnancy. These results call for policy and interventions to be tailored for pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:27755559

  6. Assisted conception and South Asian communities in the UK: public perceptions of the use of donor gametes in infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Rapport, Frances

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores 'public' attitudes to the use of donated gametes in infertility treatment amongst members of British South Asian communities in the UK. The study included 14 single-sex focus groups with a total of 100 participants of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origins in three English cities and 20 individual semi-structured interviews with key informants. It explores five themes from the data: childlessness and stigma; using sperm and using eggs; cultural connections; choosing gametes; religion and the use of donated gametes; and disclosure and the management of information. The paper demonstrates that the socio-cultural context of fertility treatment is highly relevant and those delivering services and those consulting the public need to be aware of cultural and gender differences. Third party assisted conception represents a challenge to received ideas of identity and has implications for social reproduction and kinship which go well beyond immediate conjugal relationships.

  7. Post-9/11 Veterans and Their Partners Improve Mental Health Outcomes with a Self-directed Mobile and Web-based Wellness Training Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soltysik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Veterans with history of deployment in the Global War on Terror face significant and ongoing challenges with high prevalences of adverse psychological, physical, spiritual, and family impacts. Together, these challenges contribute to an emerging public health crisis likely to extend well into the future. Innovative approaches are needed that reach veterans and their family members with strategies they can employ over time in their daily lives to promote improved adjustment and well-being. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of use of a Web-based, self-directed program of instruction in mind- and body-based wellness skills to be employed by Global War on Terror veterans and their significant relationship partners on mental health and wellness outcomes associated with postdeployment readjustment. Methods We recruited 160 veteran-partner dyads in 4 regions of the United States (San Diego, CA; Dallas, TX; Fayetteville, NC; and New York, NY) through publicity by the Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America to its membership. Dyads were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 study arms: Mission Reconnect (MR) program alone, MR plus the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) for Strong Bonds weekend program for military couples, PREP alone, and waitlist control. We administered a battery of standardized and investigator-generated instruments assessing mental health outcomes at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Dyads in the MR arms were provided Web-based and mobile app video and audio instruction in a set of mindfulness-related stress reduction and contemplative practices, as well as partner massage for reciprocal use. All participants provided weekly reports on frequency and duration of self-care practices for the first 8 weeks, and at 16 weeks. Results During the first 8-week reporting period, veterans and partners assigned to MR arms used some aspect of the program a mean of 20 times per week, totaling nearly 2.5 hours per week

  8. Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale

    PubMed Central

    Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2013-01-01

    Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

  9. Gametic synapses, nanotubes and sperm RNAs - Redefining the origin of maternal determinants.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2016-08-01

    The female germline cells, i.e., the oocytes/eggs, contain a subpopulation of unique organelles and molecules (RNA and proteins) collectively called "the maternal determinants" that are indispensable for the determination of cell fate in the developing embryo. Although it has been known for some time that somatic cells deliver low-molecular-weight molecules to the oocyte/egg, the paradigm has been that the larger molecules and organelles are synthesized by the female germline cells without input from the surrounding somatic cells. However, recent discoveries of novel types of intercellular connections such as gametic synapses and tunneling nanotubes, allowing the transfer of large, externally derived molecules to the oocyte/egg, may dismantle the paradigm of the transcriptional/translational self-containment of the female gamete and add novel and unexpected aspects to the origin and identity of maternal determinants. In addition, the discovery that sperm delivers various RNAs to the egg suggests that sperm may not only epigenetically modify the egg genome but also influence or modify information contained in the maternal determinants.

  10. Intraspecific genetic analysis, gamete release performance, and growth of Sargassum muticum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng

    2013-11-01

    Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24°C and an irradiance of 60-100 μmol photons/(m2·s). Under ambient conditions (12-25°C and 60-125 μmol photons/(m2·s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.

  11. Gametic synapses, nanotubes and sperm RNAs - Redefining the origin of maternal determinants.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2016-08-01

    The female germline cells, i.e., the oocytes/eggs, contain a subpopulation of unique organelles and molecules (RNA and proteins) collectively called "the maternal determinants" that are indispensable for the determination of cell fate in the developing embryo. Although it has been known for some time that somatic cells deliver low-molecular-weight molecules to the oocyte/egg, the paradigm has been that the larger molecules and organelles are synthesized by the female germline cells without input from the surrounding somatic cells. However, recent discoveries of novel types of intercellular connections such as gametic synapses and tunneling nanotubes, allowing the transfer of large, externally derived molecules to the oocyte/egg, may dismantle the paradigm of the transcriptional/translational self-containment of the female gamete and add novel and unexpected aspects to the origin and identity of maternal determinants. In addition, the discovery that sperm delivers various RNAs to the egg suggests that sperm may not only epigenetically modify the egg genome but also influence or modify information contained in the maternal determinants. PMID:27443627

  12. Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.

    PubMed

    Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2014-06-01

    Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

  13. Polyploidization mechanisms: temperature environment can induce diploid gamete formation in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Pécrix, Yann; Rallo, Géraldine; Folzer, Hélène; Cigna, Mireille; Gudin, Serge; Le Bris, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy is an important evolutionary phenomenon but the mechanisms by which polyploidy arises still remain underexplored. There may be an environmental component to polyploidization. This study aimed to clarify how temperature may promote diploid gamete formation considered an essential element for sexual polyploidization. First of all, a detailed cytological analysis of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis was performed to target precisely the key developmental stages which are the most sensitive to temperature. Then, heat-induced modifications in sporad and pollen characteristics were analysed through an exposition of high temperature gradient. Rosa plants are sensitive to high temperatures with a developmental sensitivity window limited to meiosis. Moreover, the range of efficient temperatures is actually narrow. 36 °C at early meiosis led to a decrease in pollen viability, pollen ectexine defects but especially the appearance of numerous diploid pollen grains. They resulted from dyads or triads mainly formed following heat-induced spindle misorientations in telophase II. A high temperature environment has the potential to increase gamete ploidy level. The high frequencies of diplogametes obtained at some extreme temperatures support the hypothesis that polyploidization events could have occurred in adverse conditions and suggest polyploidization facilitating in a global change context. PMID:21398431

  14. Role of melatonin on production and preservation of gametes and embryos: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; da Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this brief review is to clarify the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro. PMID:24559971

  15. Local gamete competition explains sex allocation and fertilization strategies in the sea.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Jonathan M; Marshall, Dustin J; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-08-01

    Within and across taxa, there is much variation in the mode of fertilization, that is, whether eggs and/or sperm are released or kept inside or on the surface of the parent's body. Although the evolutionary consequences of fertilization mode are far-reaching, transitions in the fertilization mode itself have largely escaped theoretical attention. Here we develop the first evolutionary model of egg retention and release, which also considers transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy as well as egg size evolution. We provide a unifying explanation for reported associations between small body size, hermaphroditism, and egg retention in marine invertebrates that have puzzled researchers for more than 3 decades. Our model, by including sperm limitation, shows that all these patterns can arise as an evolutionary response to local competition between eggs for fertilization. This can provide a general explanation for three empirical patterns: sperm casters tend to be smaller than related broadcast spawners, hermaphroditism is disproportionately common in sperm casters, and offspring of sperm casters are larger. Local gamete competition also explains a universal sexual asymmetry: females of some species retain their gametes while males release theirs, but the opposite ("egg casting") lacks evolutionary stability and is apparently not found in nature.

  16. Behavioural traits propagate across generations via segregated iterative-somatic and gametic epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emma; Klein, Shifra L; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Sharma, Ali; Chan, Robin B; Toth, Judit Gal; Barboza, Luendreo; Bavley, Charlotte; Bortolozzi, Analia; Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Bingfang; Ingenito, Joanne; Mark, Willie; Dudakov, Jarrod; Gross, Steven; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Artigas, Francesc; van den Brink, Marcel; Toth, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Parental behavioural traits can be transmitted by non-genetic mechanisms to the offspring. Although trait transmission via sperm has been extensively researched, epidemiological studies indicate the exclusive/prominent maternal transmission of many non-genetic traits. Since maternal conditions impact the offspring during gametogenesis and through fetal/early-postnatal life, the resultant phenotype is likely the aggregate of consecutive germline and somatic effects; a concept that has not been previously studied. Here, we dissected a complex maternally transmitted phenotype, reminiscent of comorbid generalized anxiety/depression, to elementary behaviours/domains and their transmission mechanisms in mice. We show that four anxiety/stress-reactive traits are transmitted via independent iterative-somatic and gametic epigenetic mechanisms across multiple generations. Somatic/gametic transmission alters DNA methylation at enhancers within synaptic genes whose functions can be linked to the behavioural traits. Traits have generation-dependent penetrance and sex specificity resulting in pleiotropy. A transmission-pathway-based concept can refine current inheritance models of psychiatric diseases and facilitate the development of better animal models and new therapeutic approaches.

  17. The CKI1 Histidine Kinase Specifies the Female Gametic Precursor of the Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Zhenning; Song, Xiaoya; Johnson, Cameron; Yu, Xiaolin; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of double fertilization, it has been recognized that flowering plants produce two highly dimorphic female gametes, the egg cell and central cell. These give rise, respectively, to the embryo and the endosperm, a nourishing tissue unique to flowering plants. Here we show that in Arabidopsis, endosperm formation requires the CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1) histidine kinase, an activator of the cytokinin signaling pathway, which specifies central cells and restricts egg cell fate. Dimorphism of the two adjacent gametes is mechanistically established in the syncytial embryo sac by spatially restricted CKI1 expression, followed by translocation of ER-localized CKI1 protein via nuclear migration. Cell specification by CKI1 likely involves activation of the cytokinin signaling pathway mediated by histidine phosphotransferases. Ectopic CKI1 expression generates non-propagating seeds with dual fertilized endosperms and no embryos. We conclude that CKI1-directed specification of the endosperm precursor central cell results in seeds containing an embryo and an endosperm. PMID:27046830

  18. Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Frasier, T R; Gillett, R M; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2013-09-01

    Although small populations are expected to lose genetic diversity through genetic drift and inbreeding, a number of mechanisms exist that could minimize this genetic decline. Examples include mate choice for unrelated mates and fertilization patterns biased toward genetically dissimilar gametes. Both processes have been widely documented, but the long-term implications have received little attention. Here, we combined over 25 years of field data with high-resolution genetic data to assess the long-term impacts of biased fertilization patterns in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Offspring have higher levels of microsatellite heterozygosity than expected from this gene pool (effect size = 0.326, P < 0.011). This pattern is not due to precopulatory mate choice for genetically dissimilar mates (P < 0.600), but instead results from postcopulatory selection for gametes that are genetically dissimilar (effect size = 0.37, P < 0.003). The long-term implication is that heterozygosity has slowly increased in calves born throughout the study period, as opposed to the slight decline that was expected. Therefore, this mechanism represents a natural means through which small populations can mitigate the loss of genetic diversity over time. PMID:24223284

  19. Equivalence by descent: pedigree analysis with inbreeding and gametic phase disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Denniston, C

    2000-01-01

    In the presence of gametic phase disequilibrium and inbreeding, multiple locus genotype frequencies cannot be written solely in terms of identity by descent (IBD) probabilities. Following Cockerham & Weir (1973) we introduce the concept of 'equivalence by descent' (EBD), an extension of the concept of IBD to include non-allelic genes. Two genes are said to be EBD if they derive ultimately from the same founding gamete of a pedigree. Allelic genes that are EBD are also IBD. For two loci 11 EBD probabilities, the 'J-coefficients,' are required and for three loci 117 J-coefficients are required to write genotype probabilities. It is shown how the 117 J-coefficients for three loci can be reduced to a basic set of 37. Computer programs, written in the algebraic programming language, MAPLE, are described which are capable of calculating the two- and three-locus J-coefficients for any pedigree, subject only to size limitations. The MAPLE packages are available from the author upon request.

  20. Behavioural traits propagate across generations via segregated iterative-somatic and gametic epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma; Klein, Shifra L.; Argyropoulos, Kimon V.; Sharma, Ali; Chan, Robin B.; Toth, Judit Gal; Barboza, Luendreo; Bavley, Charlotte; Bortolozzi, Analia; Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Bingfang; Ingenito, Joanne; Mark, Willie; Dudakov, Jarrod; Gross, Steven; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Artigas, Francesc; van den Brink, Marcel; Toth, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Parental behavioural traits can be transmitted by non-genetic mechanisms to the offspring. Although trait transmission via sperm has been extensively researched, epidemiological studies indicate the exclusive/prominent maternal transmission of many non-genetic traits. Since maternal conditions impact the offspring during gametogenesis and through fetal/early-postnatal life, the resultant phenotype is likely the aggregate of consecutive germline and somatic effects; a concept that has not been previously studied. Here, we dissected a complex maternally transmitted phenotype, reminiscent of comorbid generalized anxiety/depression, to elementary behaviours/domains and their transmission mechanisms in mice. We show that four anxiety/stress-reactive traits are transmitted via independent iterative-somatic and gametic epigenetic mechanisms across multiple generations. Somatic/gametic transmission alters DNA methylation at enhancers within synaptic genes whose functions can be linked to the behavioural traits. Traits have generation-dependent penetrance and sex specificity resulting in pleiotropy. A transmission-pathway-based concept can refine current inheritance models of psychiatric diseases and facilitate the development of better animal models and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27173585

  1. Developmental Coordination of Gamete Differentiation with Programmed Cell Death in Sporulating Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The gametogenesis program of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as sporulation, employs unusual internal meiotic divisions, after which all four meiotic products differentiate within the parental cell. We showed previously that sporulation is typically accompanied by the destruction of discarded immature meiotic products through their exposure to proteases released from the mother cell vacuole, which undergoes an apparent programmed rupture. Here we demonstrate that vacuolar rupture contributes to de facto programmed cell death (PCD) of the meiotic mother cell itself. Meiotic mother cell PCD is accompanied by an accumulation of depolarized mitochondria, organelle swelling, altered plasma membrane characteristics, and cytoplasmic clearance. To ensure that the gametes survive the destructive consequences of developing within a cell that is executing PCD, we hypothesized that PCD is restrained from occurring until spores have attained a threshold degree of differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, gene deletions that perturb all but the most terminal postmeiotic spore developmental stages are associated with altered PCD. In these mutants, meiotic mother cells exhibit a delay in vacuolar rupture and then appear to undergo an alternative form of PCD associated with catastrophic consequences for the underdeveloped spores. Our findings reveal yeast sporulation as a context of bona fide PCD that is developmentally coordinated with gamete differentiation. PMID:26092920

  2. Role of melatonin on production and preservation of gametes and embryos: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde; da Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this brief review is to clarify the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro.

  3. Gamete derivation from stem cells: revisiting the concept of genetic parenthood.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Genetic parenthood is usually portrayed as a value-neutral concept that can be confirmed or rejected based on objective, scientific tests. However, on inspection, it is exposed as a very complex idea that we might need to consider as something that comes in different shapes and forms and that is open to interpretation rather than being clearly defined and fixed. Different people may therefore also desire different aspects of the general concept of genetic parenthood, which implies that some may not even be satisfied with gametes that have all the properties that their own natural gametes would have, whereas others may be satisfied with a much simpler solution. Encouraging infertility patients to gain insight into what it is exactly that they hope to gain by pursuing genetic parenthood (rather than choosing for donor conception or adoption) may lead them to recognise that the added advantage may be limited and may be acquired in other ways as well. Nevertheless, many people will find it difficult to let go of the desire for genetic parenthood as it is deeply rooted in our genes. Infertility is experienced as a grave medical condition and entails an intense grieving process for many. For that reason alone it is important that the medical and research community develop and apply methods to help people in their quest for genetic parenthood. On the other hand, it is important not to reinforce the dogma that genetic parenthood is 'the best kind of parenthood'.

  4. Parents as Writing Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  5. Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

  6. Modeling forage legume polycross pollen-parent gamete contributions to progeny based on empirical measurements with implications for effective polycross size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...

  7. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  8. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  9. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study.

  10. Comparative Mapping of the Oregon Wolfe Barley Using Doubled Haploid Lines Derived from Female and Male Gametes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population is a resource for genetics research and instruction. Prior reports are based on a population of doubled haploid (DH) lines developed by the Hordeum bulbosum (H.b.) method, which samples female gametes. We developed new DH lines from the same cross using ant...

  11. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  13. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  14. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  15. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.902 Ports designated for...

  16. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, L; Gregoire, D

    2004-01-01

    In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  17. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  18. The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  19. Identification of higher plant GlsA, a putative morphogenesis factor of gametic cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-06-27

    GlsA has been identified in an asexual-reproductive-cell (gonidia)-deficient mutant of Volvox as a chaperone-like protein essential for gonidia production. In this study, we isolated an angiosperm glsA (LlglsA) gene expressed during Lilium longiflorum pollen development. Immunoblot analyses showed that the strong LlGlsA expression occurred in the generative cell and its pattern during pollen development corresponded to that of alpha-tubulin. Morphological analyses succeeded in visualizing the dispersion of the strong LlGlsA signal in developing generative cells. In addition, multiple-immunofluorescence staining of LlGlsA and alpha-tubulin revealed that some of the dot-like LlGlsA signals were co-localized with microtubule filaments. From those results, we suggest that angiosperm GlsA functions as a chaperone modifying various structures during male gametic cell formation. PMID:12804602

  20. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  1. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation

  2. Do Love Styles Predict Lifetime Number of Sex Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between love styles and lifetime number of sexual partners was explored using survey data from 507 college students. Love styles significantly (p less than 0.001) contributed to the prediction of number of lifetime sex partners after controlling for demographic characteristics and attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections.…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  4. Collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, and standardization of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

    2011-01-15

    This study established the first protocol for collection of gametes from live axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, by gentle abdominal massage and in vitro fertilization. To stimulate spermiation and ovulation, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and Ovopel pellets, which are commercially used to stimulate spawning in fish, were tested. The hCG was more effective than Ovopel pellets and yielded a higher semen volume in the injected males and a shorter response time in the females. Collected semen by this method was already motile and fertile. Fertile eggs could be collected in 3-4 successive collection times after the female has started the typical spawning behaviour. The fertilization condition that yielded the highest hatching rate was mixing semen with eggs before the addition of a fertilization saline solution (20 mmol/l NaCl, 1 mmol/l KCl, 1 mmol/l Mg(2)SO(4), 1 mmol Ca(2)Cl, 3 mmol NaHCO(3), 10 mmol/l Tris, pH 8.5 - Osmolality = 65 mosmol/kg). When the pH of the fertilization solution was increased to ≥ 10, the hatching rate was significantly increased. The use of fertilization solutions with osmolalities of ≥ 150 and ≥ 182 were accompanied with a significant decrease in hatching rates and the appearance of deformed larvae, respectively. In conclusion, a reliable protocol for gamete collection from live axolotl is established as a laboratory model of in vitro fertilization for urodele amphibians. This protocol may be transferable to endangered urodeles.

  5. Influence of sperm dilution and gamete contact time on the fertilization rate of scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Yoko; Isomura, Naoko; Fukami, Hironobu

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new information on the influence of sperm dilution on the fertilization rates of eight broadcast-spawning scleractinian coral species [three Acropora species and five merulinid species (three genera)]. The presented information nearly doubled the existing information, now totaling 17 species comprising eight acroporid species and nine merulinid species. No obvious differences in the fertilization rates were observed at the family and genus levels; furthermore, the fertilization curve estimated uniquely for Favites pentagona exhibited a strong sigmoid shape, indicating the existence of species-specific variation. In addition, a general fertilization response against sperm dilution was observed for the first time in broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals. The fertilization rate peaked (>75 %) at a sperm concentration of approximately 106 sperm mL-1 (optimal concentration) and rapidly declined to <50 % at a concentration of 104 sperm mL-1. The influence of gamete contact time (10, 30, and 60 min) on fertilization rates was also examined in two Acropora and four merulinid species, at the optimal sperm concentration. No influence of gamete contact time on fertilization rates was observed in two of the examined species ( Acropora papillare and Platygyra ryukyuensis), whereas reduced fertilization rates occurred mostly in the 10-min treatment for the other species. These results suggested that broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals can rapidly fertilize, indicating that these corals have a fair chance of achieving high fertilization success in the field under optimal conditions. The sperm concentration values (e.g., 104 sperm mL-1, indicating <50 % fertilization rates) may be useful in estimating the success of in situ fertilization of broadcast-spawning scleractinian corals, particularly in degraded, low-density populations where the degree of fertilization success is of management concern. Information on the fertilization ecology of scleractinian

  6. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

  7. 76 FR 2395 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Customer/Partner...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Customer/Partner Service Surveys AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on voluntary customer satisfaction service surveys to implement Executive Order 12862. DATES: Submit... of information technology. Customer/Partner Service Surveys (OMB Control Number...

  8. Activity of a Bacterial Cell Envelope Stress Response Is Controlled by the Interaction of a Protein Binding Domain with Different Partners*

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) system is a highly conserved cell envelope stress response required for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica. In non-inducing conditions the transcription factor PspF is inhibited by an interaction with PspA. In contrast, PspA associates with the cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspBC during inducing conditions. This has led to the proposal that PspBC exists in an OFF state, which cannot recruit PspA, or an ON state, which can. However, nothing was known about the difference between these two states. Here, we provide evidence that it is the C-terminal domain of Y. enterocolitica PspC (PspCCT) that interacts directly with PspA, both in vivo and in vitro. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed that this interaction occurred only during Psp-inducing conditions in vivo. Importantly, we have also discovered that PspCCT can interact with the C-terminal domain of PspB (PspCCT·PspBCT). However, the PspCCT·PspBCT and PspCCT·PspA interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo, PspCCT contacted PspBCT in the OFF state, whereas it contacted PspA in the ON state. These findings provide the first description of the previously proposed PspBC OFF and ON states and reveal that the regulatory switch is centered on a PspCCT partner-switching mechanism. PMID:25802329

  9. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  10. Passive Smoking Exposure from Partners as a Risk Factor for ER+/PR+ Double Positive Breast Cancer in Never-Smoking Chinese Urban Women: A Hospital-Based Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Li, He-ming; Wang, Yan; Fu, Ling-yu; Liu, Yun-peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE) and breast cancer risk is of major interest. Objective To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR) status in Chinese urban women population. Design Hospital-based matched case control study. Setting Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009. Patients Each breast cancer patient was matched 1∶1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years) from the same hospital. Measurements The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk. Results 312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.03; P = 0.027), comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28–3.10; P = 0.002), as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16–25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22–2.86; P = 0.004), and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17–2.50; P = 0.004). Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively), but not for ER+/PR−, ER−/PR+, or ER−/PR− subgroups. Limitations limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women. PMID:24866166

  11. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  12. WASPs (Wives As Senior Partners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Maxine P.; Boles, Jacqueline

    For the past decade dual-earner marriages in which wives are junior partners have been a major topic in marriage and family literature. In marriages which consider wives as senior partners (WASPs), however, the wife's career is emphasized. In an effort to study the rewards and costs of WASP marriages and to discover the structural conditions under…

  13. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  14. Effect of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in the North American bison (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Whiteside, D P; Elkin, B; Thundathil, J C

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July-September), had significantly higher post-thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non-breeding season (January-March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non-breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non-breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non-breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non-breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non-breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison.

  15. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17β (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17∝-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in

  16. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role. PMID:26664330

  17. Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

  18. Influences of DMP on the Fertilization Process and Subsequent Embryogenesis of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) by Gametes Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Di-methyl phthalate (DMP), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod) were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb) for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos) were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate). Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb). However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12) in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis. PMID:22028799

  19. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  20. [Information, transmission, secrecy: What kind of discourse for children born by gamete donation?].

    PubMed

    Canneaux, M; Kobilinsky, N; Wolf, J P; Golse, B; Beauquier-Maccotta, B

    2016-01-01

    The number of children born through gamete donation grows by the conceptions made abroad. All the couples engaging in this process do not benefit from of the same support around the issues raised by the information to the child and its terms. Through a literature review, the authors explore the data on information intentions from parents to child and to entourage, the influence of the issue of anonymity, the effective rate information, the influences of the age of the child, the terms information and links with family dynamics. The quantitative findings underscore the complexity of this task, since 10-90 % of couples report an intention to inform their child from conception through donation, while 5-30 % actually inform them after birth. Fifty-nine to 93 % of the relatives are nevertheless informed. The authors will highlight the psychopathological tracks that support the possibility of narration for parents: the internalization of their infertility, the representation of the gift, the development of rivalry towards donors, the secrecy and privacy. The objective of this article is to enable carers to accompany this reflection among future parents, a better listening of the issues raise by the couples allowing shoring their process. PMID:27318771

  1. Effects of protracted cadmium exposure on gametes of the purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.J. III; Engel, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Gametes and larvae of sea urchins and more specifically Arbacia punctulata have been used extensively in embryological studies and toxicity bioassay testing. Most of the experiments and bioassays have used the fertilized eggs of different sea urchin species and measured abnormal growth, malformations, or changes in the rates of growth as a function of contaminant exposure. Guida demonstrated that cupric ion activities of <10{sup -10.5} M caused reductions in the rates of growth of Arbacia Punctulata larvae and caused incomplete or malformed pluteal skeletons. These effects occurred at cupric ion concentrations that were in the same ranges as some measured in the more contaminated estuaries in the northeastern U.S. Sunda and coworkers also used sea urchin embryonic development to test potential trace metal toxicity in water samples collected from those same estuaries, and demonstrated toxicity potentially attributable to dissolved trace metals in the water column. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if protracted sublethal exposure of sexually mature sea urchins to dissolved cadmium in sea water would affect the viability of eggs and sperm, and whether it would affect fertilization and embryonic development and ultimately the larvae. The results of the experiments support the hypothesis that spermatogenesis and oogenesis were affected by cadmium exposure.

  2. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  3. The effect of 2n gametes on sex ratios in Actinidia.

    PubMed

    Seal, Alan G; Ferguson, A Ross; de Silva, H Nihal; Zhang, Jing-Li

    2012-09-01

    Sex can sometimes lead to complications. In some crops, 2n gametes have been exploited by plant breeders to transfer genetic variation between taxa of different ploidy levels. However, their role and use in dioecious genera have received relatively little attention. In the dioecious genus Actinidia (kiwifruit), seedling populations usually segregate equally for females and males as sex is determined by an XX female/XY male system. While fertilization involving 2n egg cells is not expected to affect the sex ratios of progenies, fertilization involving 2n pollen is likely to produce progenies with excess males. The extent of sex ratio distortion will depend on the relative contributions of first and second division restitution, and the frequency and location of cross-overs in meiosis. In this study, seedlings recovered from crosses between females of hexaploid Actinidia deliciosa and males of two diploid species, Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia eriantha, included a proportion of pentaploid hybrids presumably derived from fertilization involving 2n pollen. Most of these pentaploids were male, and a proportion of them were likely to be carrying two Y chromosomes. If used as parents in further crosses, males with multiple Y chromosomes are likely to cause distorted sex ratios in their immediate progenies. In dioecious genera such as Actinidia, the effects on sex ratios of different mechanisms of ploidy change need to be taken into account when considering the evolution of polyploidy and the design of breeding strategies involving ploidy manipulation.

  4. Effects of prolactin on gametes and zygotes during in vitro fertilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, A; Noda, Y; Mori, T; Mori, C; Hashimoto, H; Hoshino, K

    1988-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is one of the major causative factors of infertility. However, the effect of prolactin on gametes during in vitro fertilization has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of mouse prolactin on the motility of spermatozoa, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro development of the zygote were investigated in mice using media containing three different concentrations (10, 50, and 100 ng/ml) of mouse prolactin. The development of unfertilized and fertilized oocytes (zygotes) was not affected in vitro by prolactin regardless of the amount of prolactin added to culture media. However, the fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa was suppressed when they were preincubated for 90 min in culture media containing prolactin at concentrations of 50 and 100 ng/ml. The motility of spermatozoa was not affected by prolactin regardless of the concentration of prolactin used for preincubation. The present study indicates that prolactin may have some effects on the capacitation process of spermatozoa in vitro. This result should be taken into consideration in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures in humans.

  5. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right. PMID:26388996

  6. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    Rombauts, L; Dear, M; Breheny, S; Healy, D L

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) the Kaplan-Meier life table method was used to analyse a patient cohort treated with GIFT between 1991 and 1994. In a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine, 1628 women with a median age of 33 years and various causes of infertility were included to calculate cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates. Age and cause of infertility were main factor variables and the study was based on a total of 2941 consecutive GIFT cycles, leading to a first clinical pregnancy, and 3052 cycles, leading to a first live birth. The cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates were 49.6 and 38.8% respectively, after three initiated cycles and 64.1 and 52.0% respectively, after five initiated cycles. The multiple pregnancy rate was 22.6%. The implantation rate of 13.1% after GIFT demonstrates that the developing embryo benefits from a period of exposure within the environment of the Fallopian tube. The present results indicate that approximately 50% of couples will have at least one live baby after five initiated GIFT cycles. Advancing age was a major negative prognostic factor for the cumulative live birth rate because of higher cancellation rates, lower implantation rates and higher pregnancy failure rates. PMID:9222027

  7. [Information, transmission, secrecy: What kind of discourse for children born by gamete donation?].

    PubMed

    Canneaux, M; Kobilinsky, N; Wolf, J P; Golse, B; Beauquier-Maccotta, B

    2016-01-01

    The number of children born through gamete donation grows by the conceptions made abroad. All the couples engaging in this process do not benefit from of the same support around the issues raised by the information to the child and its terms. Through a literature review, the authors explore the data on information intentions from parents to child and to entourage, the influence of the issue of anonymity, the effective rate information, the influences of the age of the child, the terms information and links with family dynamics. The quantitative findings underscore the complexity of this task, since 10-90 % of couples report an intention to inform their child from conception through donation, while 5-30 % actually inform them after birth. Fifty-nine to 93 % of the relatives are nevertheless informed. The authors will highlight the psychopathological tracks that support the possibility of narration for parents: the internalization of their infertility, the representation of the gift, the development of rivalry towards donors, the secrecy and privacy. The objective of this article is to enable carers to accompany this reflection among future parents, a better listening of the issues raise by the couples allowing shoring their process.

  8. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently

  9. An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sara R; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Blagborough, Andrew M; Delves, Michael J; Talman, Arthur M; Sinden, Robert E

    2015-02-01

    Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flagellar/ciliary abnormalities in a diverse array of eukaryotes. Since basal body and flagellum assembly are intimately coupled to male gamete development in Plasmodium, we hypothesized that SAS-6 disruption may cause gametogenesis defects and perturb transmission. We show that Plasmodium berghei sas6 knockouts display severely abnormal male gametogenesis presenting reduced basal body numbers, axonemal assembly defects and abnormal nuclear allocation. The defects in gametogenesis reduce fertilization and render Pbsas6 knockouts less infectious to mosquitoes. Additionally, we show that lack of Pbsas6 blocks transmission from mosquito to vertebrate host, revealing an additional yet undefined role in ookinete to sporulating oocysts transition. These findings underscore the vulnerability of the basal body/SAS-6 to malaria transmission blocking interventions.

  10. Sex ratio and gamete size across eastern North America in Dictyostelium discoideum, a social amoeba with three sexes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, T E; Strassmann, J E; Queller, D C

    2016-07-01

    Theory indicates that numbers of mating types should tend towards infinity or remain at two. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, however, has three mating types. It is therefore a mystery how this species has broken the threshold of two mating types, but has not increased towards a much higher number. Frequency-dependent selection on rare types in combination with isogamy, a form of reproduction involving gametes similar in size, could explain the evolution of multiple mating types in this system. Other factors, such as drift, may be preventing the evolution of more than three. We first looked for evidence of isogamy by measuring gamete size associated with each type. We found no evidence of size dissimilarities between gametes. We then looked for evidence of balancing selection, by examining mating type distributions in natural populations and comparing genetic differentiation at the mating type locus to that at more neutral loci. We found that mating type frequency varied among the three populations we examined, with only one of the three showing an even sex ratio, which does not support balancing selection. However, we found more population structure at neutral loci than the mating type locus, suggesting that the three mating types are indeed maintained at intermediate frequencies by balancing selection. Overall, the data are consistent with balancing selection acting on D. discoideum mating types, but with a sufficiently weak rare sex advantage to allow for drift, a potential explanation for why these amoebae have only three mating types.

  11. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    PubMed

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  12. Sex ratio and gamete size across eastern North America in Dictyostelium discoideum, a social amoeba with three sexes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, T E; Strassmann, J E; Queller, D C

    2016-07-01

    Theory indicates that numbers of mating types should tend towards infinity or remain at two. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, however, has three mating types. It is therefore a mystery how this species has broken the threshold of two mating types, but has not increased towards a much higher number. Frequency-dependent selection on rare types in combination with isogamy, a form of reproduction involving gametes similar in size, could explain the evolution of multiple mating types in this system. Other factors, such as drift, may be preventing the evolution of more than three. We first looked for evidence of isogamy by measuring gamete size associated with each type. We found no evidence of size dissimilarities between gametes. We then looked for evidence of balancing selection, by examining mating type distributions in natural populations and comparing genetic differentiation at the mating type locus to that at more neutral loci. We found that mating type frequency varied among the three populations we examined, with only one of the three showing an even sex ratio, which does not support balancing selection. However, we found more population structure at neutral loci than the mating type locus, suggesting that the three mating types are indeed maintained at intermediate frequencies by balancing selection. Overall, the data are consistent with balancing selection acting on D. discoideum mating types, but with a sufficiently weak rare sex advantage to allow for drift, a potential explanation for why these amoebae have only three mating types. PMID:27018644

  13. Production of diploid male gametes in Arabidopsis by cold-induced destabilization of postmeiotic radial microtubule arrays.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Geelen, Danny

    2012-12-01

    Whole-genome duplication through the formation of diploid gametes is a major route for polyploidization, speciation, and diversification in plants. The prevalence of polyploids in adverse climates led us to hypothesize that abiotic stress conditions can induce or stimulate diploid gamete production. In this study, we show that short periods of cold stress induce the production of diploid and polyploid pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of cytological and genetic analyses, we demonstrate that cold stress alters the formation of radial microtubule arrays at telophase II and consequently leads to defects in postmeiotic cytokinesis and cell wall formation. As a result, cold-stressed male meiosis generates triads, dyads, and monads that contain binuclear and polynuclear microspores. Fusion of nuclei in binuclear and polynuclear microspores occurs spontaneously before pollen mitosis I and eventually leads to the formation of diploid and polyploid pollen grains. Using segregation analyses, we also found that the majority of cold-induced dyads and triads are genetically equivalent to a second division restitution and produce diploid gametes that are highly homozygous. In a broader perspective, these findings offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate male gametogenesis in plants and demonstrate that their sensitivity to environmental stress has evolutionary significance and agronomic relevance in terms of polyploidization.

  14. A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Matteo A.; Baibakov, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP1–4), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP251–149. Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in human–mouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP251–149 sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

  15. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study. PMID:1294238

  16. The association between partner and non-partner aggression and suicidal ideation in patients seeking substance use disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Chermack, Steve T.; Murray, Regan; Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristen L.; Wojnar, Marcin; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The present study was designed to examine the relationship between prior partner and non-partner aggression and suicidal ideation in patients seeking drug and alcohol treatment. Method Patients entering drug and alcohol treatment (n = 488) were screened for prior partner and non-partner aggression as well as recent suicidal thoughts. We examined the association between aggression and suicidal ideation in bivariate and multivariate models. Results Within the past two weeks, 33% (159/488) of the sample reported suicidal ideation. In bivariate analyses, neither psychological nor physical aggression towards a non-partner was related to suicidal ideation. Partner psychological aggression was related to suicidal ideation in bivariate but not multivariate analyses. Physical aggression towards a partner was consistently related to higher rates of suicidal ideation even after controlling for other known risk factors (OR = 1.8; CI = 1.1 - 2.7). Mediational analyses indicate that this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for current negative affect. Conclusion Suicidal ideation is common in patients seeking drug and alcohol treatment and particularly likely in those who report prior aggression towards a partner. PMID:18977093

  17. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro

  18. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro

  19. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  20. Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56%) or by phone (44%). Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction. PMID:20211029

  1. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  2. Specific transgenerational imprinting effects of the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor on male gametes.

    PubMed

    Stouder, Christelle; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2011-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), among which methoxychlor (MXC), have been reported to affect the male reproductive system. This study evaluates the possible deleterious effects of MXC on imprinted genes. After administration of the chemical in adult male mice or in pregnant mice we analyzed by pyrosequencing possible methylation defects in two paternally imprinted (H19 and Meg3 (Gtl2)) and three maternally imprinted (Mest (Peg1), Snrpn, and Peg3) genes in the sperm and in the tail, liver, and skeletal muscle DNAs of the adult male mice and of the male offspring. MXC treatment of adult mice decreased the percentages of methylated CpGs of Meg3 and increased those of Mest, Snrpn, and Peg3 in the sperm DNA. MXC treatment of pregnant mice decreased the mean sperm concentrations by 30% and altered the methylation pattern of all the imprinted genes tested in the F1 offspring. In the latter case, MXC effects were transgenerational but disappeared gradually from F1 to F3. MXC did not affect imprinting in the somatic cells, suggesting that it exerts its damaging effects via the process of reprogramming that is unique to gamete development. A systematic analysis at the CpG level showed a heterogeneity in the CpG sensitivity to MXC. This observation suggests that not only DNA methylation but also other epigenetic modifications can explain the transgenerational effects of MXC. The reported effects of EDCs on human male spermatogenesis might be mediated by complex imprinting alterations analogous to those described in this study.

  3. Divergent evolution of vitamin B9 binding underlies Juno-mediated adhesion of mammalian gametes.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Nishimura, Kaoru; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J; Jovine, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between egg and sperm is the first necessary step of fertilization in all sexually reproducing organisms. A decade-long search for a protein pair mediating this event in mammals culminated in the identification of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein Juno as the egg plasma membrane receptor of sperm Izumo1 [1,2]. The Juno-Izumo1 interaction was shown to be essential for fertilization since mice lacking either gene exhibit sex-specific sterility, making these proteins promising non-hormonal contraceptive targets [1,3]. No structural information is available on how gamete membranes interact at fertilization, and it is unclear how Juno - which was previously named folate receptor (FR) 4, based on sequence similarity considerations - triggers membrane adhesion by binding Izumo1. Here, we report the crystal structure of Juno and find that the overall fold is similar to that of FRα and FRβ but with significant flexibility within the area that corresponds to the rigid ligand-binding site of these bona fide folate receptors. This explains both the inability of Juno to bind vitamin B9/folic acid [1], and why mutations within the flexible region can either abolish or change the species specificity of this interaction. Furthermore, structural similarity between Juno and the cholesterol-binding Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) suggests how the modified binding surface of Juno may recognize the helical structure of the amino-terminal domain of Izumo1. As Juno appears to be a mammalian innovation, our study indicates that a key evolutionary event in mammalian reproduction originated from the neofunctionalization of the vitamin B9-binding pocket of an ancestral folate receptor molecule.

  4. Divergent evolution of vitamin B9 binding underlies Juno-mediated adhesion of mammalian gametes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Nishimura, Kaoru; Sadat Al Hosseini, Hamed; Bianchi, Enrica; Wright, Gavin J.; Jovine, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Summary The interaction between egg and sperm is the first necessary step of fertilization in all sexually reproducing organisms. A decade-long search for a protein pair mediating this event in mammals culminated in the identification of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein Juno as the egg plasma membrane receptor of sperm Izumo1 1, 2. The Juno–Izumo1 interaction was shown to be essential for fertilization since mice lacking either gene exhibit sex-specific sterility, making these proteins promising non-hormonal contraceptive targets 1, 3. No structural information is available on how gamete membranes interact at fertilization, and it is unclear how Juno — which was previously named folate receptor (FR) 4, based on sequence similarity considerations — triggers membrane adhesion by binding Izumo1. Here, we report the crystal structure of Juno and find that the overall fold is similar to that of FRα and FRβ but with significant flexibility within the area that corresponds to the rigid ligand-binding site of these bona fide folate receptors. This explains both the inability of Juno to bind vitamin B9/folic acid [1], and why mutations within the flexible region can either abolish or change the species specificity of this interaction. Furthermore, structural similarity between Juno and the cholesterol-binding Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) suggests how the modified binding surface of Juno may recognize the helical structure of the amino-terminal domain of Izumo1. As Juno appears to be a mammalian innovation, our study indicates that a key evolutionary event in mammalian reproduction originated from the neofunctionalization of the vitamin B9-binding pocket of an ancestral folate receptor molecule. PMID:26859261

  5. Systematic Early Intervention for Bereaved: Study Protocol of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial With Families Who Suddenly Lose a Partner and a Parent

    PubMed Central

    Dyregrov, Kari; Hauken, May Aa; Senneseth, Mette; Dyregrov, Atle

    2016-01-01

    Background Grief has been associated with several long-term negative outcomes for both surviving parents and bereaved children, especially when it is preceded by unnatural and violent deaths. Nevertheless, it has been an underestimated public health problem with few, if any, empirically documented early preventive intervention programs. The best time to start them is also a major question that requires further evidence. Objective The overall aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a future larger trial, informing sample size calculation, recruitment/randomization procedures, retention rates, data collection forms, and outcomes. This study will also explore: (1) the early effects of Systematic Early Intervention for Bereaved (SEIB) compared with the early effects of care as usual, and (2) the effects of the immediate SEIB version compared with the effects of the delayed SEIB version. Methods In a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a delayed intervention design, suddenly bereaved families will be assigned to: the immediate-SEIB intervention group, or the delayed-SEIB intervention group. Participants will fill in a set of self-report measures at baseline, and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Quantitative data on traumatic stress symptoms, complicated grief, psychological wellbeing, daily functioning, social support, parental capacity, parenting practices, and family functioning will be collected to inform power calculations and explore SEIB’s preliminary effects. Data on the flow of participants throughout the trial will be analyzed in order to estimate recruitment and retention rates. Two brief questionnaires were developed to assess recruitment procedures, randomization, and data collection materials. Results Recruitment for this project started in August 2015, and follow-up data collection will be completed in June 2017. Conclusions This study prepares the ground work for the design and implementation of a main trial and may add preliminary

  6. Germline Defects Caused by Smed-boule RNA-Interference Reveal That Egg Capsule Deposition Occurs Independently of Fertilization, Ovulation, Mating, or the Presence of Gametes in Planarian Flatworms.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jessica Kathryne; Tasaki, Junichi; Rouhana, Labib

    2016-05-01

    Few animals are known to lay eggs in the absence of ovulation or copulation, as it is presumably energetically wasteful and subjected to negative selection. Characterization of Smed-boule, a member of the DAZ family of germline RNA-binding proteins, revealed that egg capsule (or capsule) production and deposition occurs independently of the presence of gametes in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. Reduction of Smed-boule expression by RNA-interference (RNAi) causes ablation of spermatogonial stem cells and the inability of ovarian germline stem cells to undergo oogenesis. Although animals subjected to Smed-boule RNAi lose their gametes and become sterile, they continue to lay egg capsules. Production of sterile capsules is even observed in virgin Smed-boule(RNAi) and control planarians maintained in complete isolation, demonstrating that egg production in S. mediterranea occurs independently of ovulation, fertilization, or mating. Evidence suggests that this is a conserved feature amongst Platyhelminthes, and therefore relevant to the pathology and dissemination of parasitic flatworms. These findings demonstrate that Smed-boule functions at different stages during male and female germline stem cell development, and also demonstrate that egg capsule production by planarian flatworms occurs independently of signals produced by mating or ova. PMID:27149082

  7. Germline Defects Caused by Smed-boule RNA-Interference Reveal That Egg Capsule Deposition Occurs Independently of Fertilization, Ovulation, Mating, or the Presence of Gametes in Planarian Flatworms

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jessica Kathryne; Tasaki, Junichi; Rouhana, Labib

    2016-01-01

    Few animals are known to lay eggs in the absence of ovulation or copulation, as it is presumably energetically wasteful and subjected to negative selection. Characterization of Smed-boule, a member of the DAZ family of germline RNA-binding proteins, revealed that egg capsule (or capsule) production and deposition occurs independently of the presence of gametes in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. Reduction of Smed-boule expression by RNA-interference (RNAi) causes ablation of spermatogonial stem cells and the inability of ovarian germline stem cells to undergo oogenesis. Although animals subjected to Smed-boule RNAi lose their gametes and become sterile, they continue to lay egg capsules. Production of sterile capsules is even observed in virgin Smed-boule(RNAi) and control planarians maintained in complete isolation, demonstrating that egg production in S. mediterranea occurs independently of ovulation, fertilization, or mating. Evidence suggests that this is a conserved feature amongst Platyhelminthes, and therefore relevant to the pathology and dissemination of parasitic flatworms. These findings demonstrate that Smed-boule functions at different stages during male and female germline stem cell development, and also demonstrate that egg capsule production by planarian flatworms occurs independently of signals produced by mating or ova. PMID:27149082

  8. Automated monitoring to detect H1N1 symptoms among urban, Medicaid-eligible, pregnant women: a community-partnered randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Amy Filmore; Alemi, Farrokh; Hetmyer, Alisha; Alemi, Yara; Randolph, Linda A; Ramey, Sharon Landesman

    2014-02-01

    In response to the H1N1 epidemic, we used community health workers to design and implement a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a new automated call-monitoring system for second and third trimester predominantly Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in an urban free standing birth center to promptly detect symptoms of influenza and assure rapid treatment to prevent adverse outcomes from influenza. Daily automated telephone call to second and third trimester pregnant women asking if the woman experienced flu-like symptoms. Calls continued daily until 38 weeks gestation. A community health worker's voice was used for the automated call recording. Positive responses triggered an immediate referral to a nurse-midwife for prompt treatment with anti-viral medication. Fifty pregnant participants were randomized into daily-automated call group (n = 26) or health information group (n = 24). The automated call group participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 (mean = 23.5, SD = 6.3), 84.7 % identified their race/ethnicity as African-American Non-Hispanic, and 80.7 % were Medicaid-Eligible. In the automated call group, 11.5 % chose to be immunized against H1N1. The mean percent of patients reached daily was 45.1 % (SD = 3.2 %) and at least once every 3 days was 65.1 % (SD = 3.1 %). One pregnant woman in the automated call group contracted H1N1 influenza and received prompt anti-viral treatment without any serious outcomes. Participation in daily-automated telephone calls did not differ significantly between patients younger than 18 years old versus patients 18 years or older. There was also no difference in participation between patients with parity of 0 versus patients with parity ≥1. Participation in daily telephone calls significantly (alpha ≤0.05) increased when a community health worker provided personal follow-up of non-responsive participants. 93.3 % of surveyed pregnant women, who received automated daily calls, recommended to use

  9. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice.

  10. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice. PMID:16844154

  11. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV. PMID:27142057

  12. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist.

  13. Gamete donation, information sharing and the best interests of the child: an overview of the psychosocial evidence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tabitha

    2015-03-01

    This paper overviews key empirical findings from social science research regarding the impact of gamete donation on child wellbeing. In particular, the paper addresses current regulatory debates concerning information sharing and the best interests of the child by considering psychosocial aspects of telling--or not telling--children about their donor conception and the identity of their donor. The paper identifies three core sets of empirical, ethical and policy concerns underpinning these debates relating to (i) the psychosocial impact of gamete donation per se on child wellbeing, (ii) the psychosocial impact of parental disclosure decisions on child wellbeing, and (iii) the psychosocial implications of donor identification for donor-conceived offspring. The paper illustrates how these concerns are framed by ideas about the significance-or not-of 'genetic relatedness'; ideas which have come to the fore in contemporary discussions about the potential consequences of donor-conceived individuals gaining access to their donor's identity. By drawing together research findings that may be pertinent to the regulation of gamete donation and information sharing, a further aim of this paper is to explore the potential use and misuse of empirical 'evidence' in ethical and policy debates. Whilst this paper starts from the premise that psychosocial data has a vital role in grounding normative discussions, it seeks to contribute to this dialogue by highlighting both the value and limitations of social science research. In particular, the paper argues for a cautious approach to applying psychosocial evidence to ethical issues that is sensitive to the caveats and nuances of research findings and the changing cultural and regulatory context.

  14. Gamete donation, information sharing and the best interests of the child: an overview of the psychosocial evidence

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    This paper overviews key empirical findings from social science research regarding the impact of gamete donation on child wellbeing. In particular, the paper addresses current regulatory debates concerning information sharing and the best interests of the child by considering psychosocial aspects of telling - or not telling - children about their donor conception and the identity of their donor. The paper identifies three core sets of empirical, ethical and policy concerns underpinning these debates relating to (i) the psychosocial impact of gamete donation per se on child wellbeing, (ii) the psychosocial impact of parental disclosure decisions on child wellbeing, and (iii) the psychosocial implications of donor identification for donor-conceived offspring. The paper illustrates how these concerns are framed by ideas about the significance – or not – of ‘genetic relatedness’; ideas which have come to the fore in contemporary discussions about the potential consequences of donor-conceived individuals gaining access to their donor’s identity. By drawing together research findings that may be pertinent to the regulation of gamete donation and information sharing, a further aim of this paper is to explore the potential use and misuse of empirical ‘evidence’ in ethical and policy debates. Whilst this paper starts from the premise that psychosocial data has a vital role in grounding normative discussions, it seeks to contribute to this dialogue by highlighting both the value and limitations of social science research. In particular, the paper argues for a cautious approach to applying psychosocial evidence to ethical issues that is sensitive to the caveats and nuances of research findings and the changing cultural and regulatory context. PMID:25743051

  15. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  16. The relationship between hours worked and partner's disability in opposite- and same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Leppel, Karen

    2008-11-01

    When a partner is disabled and not in the labour force, the need for earnings provided by the non-disabled partner increases. However, the disabled partner's need for care raises the value of time spent at home by the non-disabled partner. The direction of the relation between partner disability and hours worked varies with couple type because connecting links are affected by couple type. Relevant issues include foregone earnings, amount of income lost by the disabled partner, accumulated savings and healthcare coverage. In order to determine whether there is a significant relation between hours worked and having a disabled partner, controlling for other characteristics, Tobit regression equations were estimated using the US 2000 Decennial Census 5% sample. Among same-sex partners, unmarried opposite-sex partners and married men, individuals with disabled partners worked fewer hours in the labour force than did those without disabled partners. Only among married women did those with a disabled partner work more hours. PMID:18975226

  17. Hormonal induction of gamete release, and in-vitro fertilisation, in the critically endangered Southern Corroboree Frog, Pseudophryne corroboree

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Conservation Breeding Programs (CBP's) are playing an important role in the protection of critically endangered anuran amphibians, but for many species recruitment is not successful enough to maintain captive populations, or provide individuals for release. In response, there has been an increasing focus on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), including the administration of reproductive hormones to induce gamete release followed by in vitro fertilisation. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of two exogenous hormones to induce gamete release, for the purpose of conducting in vitro fertilisation (IVF), in one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree. Methods Male frogs were administered a single dose of either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa), while female frogs received both a priming and ovulatory dose of LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Ovulation responses were evaluated by stripping females every 12 h PA for 5 days. Once gametes were obtained, IVF was attempted by combining spermic urine with oocytes in a dilute solution of simplified amphibian ringer (SAR). Results Administration of both hCG and LHRHa induced approximately 80% of males to release sperm over 72 h. Peak sperm release occurred at 12 h PA for hCG treated males and 36 h PA for LHRHa treated males. On average, LHRHa treated males released a significantly higher total number of live sperm, and a higher concentration of sperm, over a longer period. In female frogs, administration of LHRHa induced approximately 30% of individuals to release eggs. On average, eggs were released between 24 and 48 h PA, with a peak in egg release at 36 h PA. IVF resulted in a moderate percentage (54.72%) of eggs being fertilised

  18. Making gametes from pluripotent stem cells--a promising role for very small embryonic-like stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Hinduja, Indira; Patel, Hiren; Bhilawadikar, Rashmi

    2014-11-24

    The urge to have one's own biological child supersedes any desire in life. Several options have been used to obtain gametes including pluripotent stem cells (embryonic ES and induced pluripotent iPS stem cells); gonadal stem cells (spermatogonial SSCs, ovarian OSCs stem cells), bone marrow, mesenchymal cells and fetal skin. However, the field poses a huge challenge including inefficient existing protocols for differentiation, epigenetic and genetic changes associated with extensive in vitro manipulation and also ethical/regulatory constraints. A tremendous leap in the field occurred using mouse ES and iPS cells wherein they were first differentiated into epiblast-like cells and then primordial germ cell-like cells. These on further development produced sperm, oocytes and live offspring (had associated genetic problems). Evidently differentiating pluripotent stem cells into primordial germ cells (PGCs) remains a major bottleneck. Against this backdrop, we propose that a novel population of pluripotent stem cells termed very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may serve as an alternative, potential source of autologus gametes, keeping in mind that they are indeed PGCs surviving in adult mammalian ovaries and testes. Both VSELs and PGCs are pluripotent, relatively quiescent because of epigenetic modifications of parentally imprinted genes loci like Igf2-H19 and KCNQ1p57, share several markers like Stella, Fragilis, Mvh, Dppa2, Dppa4, Sall4, Blimp1 and functional receptors. VSELs are localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testis and in the ovary surface epithelium. Ovarian stem cells from mouse, rabbit, sheep, marmoset and humans (menopausal women and those with premature ovarian failure) spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro with no additional requirement of growth factors. Thus a more pragmatic option to obtain autologus gametes may be the pluripotent VSELs and if we could manipulate them in vivo - existing

  19. Selling blood and gametes during tough economic times: insights from Google search

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jonathan A.; Ngo, Tin C.; Rothman, Cathy; Breyer, Benjamin; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To use Google Insights search volume and publicly available economic indicators to test the hypothesis that sperm, egg, and blood donations increase during economic downturns and to demonstrate the feasibility of using Google search volume data to predict national trends in actual sperm, egg, and blood donations rates. Materials and methods Cross-correlation statistical analysis comparing Google search data for terms relating to blood, egg, and sperm donations with various economic indicators including the S&P 500 closing values, gross domestic product (GDP), the U.S. Index of Leading Indicators (U.S. Leading Index), gross savings rate, mortgage interest rates, unemployment rate, and consumer price index (CPI) from 2004–2011. A secondary analysis determined the Pearson correlation coefficient between Google search data with actual sperm, egg, and blood donation volume in the U.S. as measured by California Cryobank, the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, and the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey, respectively. Significance of cross-correlation and Pearson correlation analysis as indicated by p value. Results There were several highly significant cross-correlation relationships between search volume and various economic indicators. Correlation between Google search volume for the term “sperm donation,” “egg donation,” and “blood donation” with actual number of sperm, egg and blood donations in the United States demonstrated Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.2 (p > 0.10), −0.1 (p > 0.10), and 0.07 (p > 0.10), respectively. Temporal analysis showed an improved correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p < 0.05) for blood donation when shifted 12 months later relative to Google search volume. Conclusion Google search volume data for search terms relating to sperm, egg, and blood donation increase during economic downturns. This finding suggests gamete and bodily fluid donations are influenced by market

  20. Partnering. New Opportunities for Partnering, CAUSE94. Track I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers are presented from the 1994 CAUSE conference track on partnering within and among higher education institutions in regard to information resources and technology. The papers include: (1) "Having Your Cake and Eating It Too: A Recipe for a Collaborative CWIS in a Decentralized Environment," which discusses the development of Johns…

  1. Treaty verification with an uncertain partner

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  2. The Computer as Lab Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputers can record laboratory measurements which human laboratory partners can never collect. Simple, harder, and general-purpose interfaces are discussed, with suggestions for several experiments involving an exercise bike, acceleration, and pendulums. Additional applications with pH meters, spectrophotometers, and chromatographs are also…

  3. Pennsylvania`s partnering process

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania`s process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state`s siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process.

  4. What do you do, partner?

    PubMed

    Evans, I

    1996-07-27

    With support from the UN Population Fund, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the World Bank, Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe launched the Partners in Population and Development Program at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The goal was to create a more effective mechanism through which developing countries can share their experiences in family planning and reproductive health. An interim secretariat was established at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City, paving the way for a small secretariat in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Partners' governing board, comprised of the highest-ranking officials responsible for reproductive health in each of the 10 countries, held a meeting in Mexico City attended by representatives of donor organizations and nongovernmental organizations, and by international experts in reproductive health research and policy. During associated field visits, there was an opportunity to see how Mexico caters to the reproductive health needs of its urban and rural populations. Mexico has many programs which other Partners could adapt for their own needs. Other Partner countries are equally willing to share their successes.

  5. Partnering for Student Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington's community and technical colleges, private non-profit baccalaureate, and public baccalaureate colleges and universities have a proud history of partnering to serve students. Nowhere is this cooperation more evident than in the smooth transfer process from community and technical colleges into four-year colleges and universities. This…

  6. Partner Teaching: A Promising Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Carroll E.; Dentith, Audrey M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographic case study of a partner or co-teaching classroom in an urban preschool classroom. As part of a larger project that evaluated classroom size and team teaching structures in Kindergarten classrooms in several high poverty urban schools, one successful co-teaching classroom was studied further. Systematic…

  7. Macomb Reading Partners Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoddy, James E.

    A study evaluated Macomb Reading Partners (MRP), the tutoring program of the Macomb Literacy Project. It researched the effectiveness of literacy training and its impact on the lives of a target group of 30 automotive workers. Data sources were a structured interview, the Word Opposites Test of the Botel Reading Inventory (1962), and participant…

  8. Creating partners in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Adams, J

    1996-08-01

    Home care teams caring for people with AIDS often must depend on informal caregivers to help their patients. If the informal caregivers have better tools to help, patients are more likely to get the best care possible. This training program for care partners is a perfect way to provide those tools.

  9. The Symmetry of Partner Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Lemaignan, Séverin; Sangin, Mirweis; Nova, Nicolas; Molinari, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning has often been associated with the construction of a shared understanding of the situation at hand. The psycholinguistics mechanisms at work while establishing common grounds are the object of scientific controversy. We postulate that collaborative tasks require some level of mutual modelling, i.e. that each partner needs…

  10. From Recipients to Partners: Children in Malaria Education in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiwala, Aisha Sembatya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health education that integrates community participation is essential for malaria control. However, children's participation is not generally as active as that of adults, thus turning children into recipients, as opposed to partners in malaria control. The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of how children can…

  11. Susceptibility of gametes and embryos of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to Karenia brevis and its toxins.

    PubMed

    Rolton, Anne; Soudant, Philippe; Vignier, Julien; Pierce, Richard; Henry, Michael; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-06-01

    The bivalve mollusc, Crassostrea virginica, is frequently exposed to blooms of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida during periods of spawning and early larval development. A continuous 4-day exposure of gametes and 2-4 cell stage embryos of C. virginica to whole-cell and culture filtrate of K. brevis at 500 and 5000 cells mL(-1), was followed by a 4-day 'recovery' period. Larval growth, percent of normal, abnormal and dead larvae, and the presence of food in the larval gut were measured throughout the exposure period. Results suggest that negative effects mainly occur during embryogenesis and early development. Damage to feeding apparatus/gut may occur during embryonic development or exposure to toxins may act as a feeding deterrent on non-toxic algae. Following 2-h in vitro exposure of gametes, differences in oocyte and sperm cell parameters were investigated using flow cytometry. The reduced sperm viability in the whole-cell 5000 cells mL(-1) treatment suggests the involvement of extracellular brevetoxins (PbTx) and perhaps other harmful, uncharacterized compounds associated with the K. brevis cell membrane. The cumulative effects of reduced sperm viability, fertilization success, embryonic and larval survival, and the near-annual exposure to blooms of K. brevis could cause significant bottlenecks on oyster recruitment.

  12. Further Evidence for a Polymorphism in Gametic Segregation in the Tetraploid Treefrog HYLA VERSICOLOR Using a Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.

    1983-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific cross combinations between the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor, and between H. versicolor and the diploid treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis were performed. Progeny phenotypes resulting from these crosses were examined electrophoretically using a polymorphic glutamate oxaloacetic transminase (GOT-1) locus, to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation in H. versicolor, and to test theoretical expectations for isozyme expression in interspecific (2n x 4n or 4n x 2n) hybrids. In some intraspecific tetraploid crosses progeny phenotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation, whereas in other crosses a tetrasomic mode of segregation was the most probable. Additional crosses produced phenotypic ratios that conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. These results suggest that a polymorphism, with respect to segregation of gametes, exists in H. versicolor, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. This polymorphism in gametic segregation occurred in both sexes. Certain crosses, however, produced phenotypic ratios that did not conform to any chromosome segregation model. Progeny phenotypes observed from most interspecific crosses conformed to expected interspecific isozyme staining intensity models. Symmetrical heterozygotes, representing either a single dose for both alternate alleles or double doses for both alternate alleles, were also observed. Such phenotypes are unexpected in triploid progeny. A null allele was postulated to account for the aberrant segregation ratios and phenotypes observed in certain intra- and interspecific crosses. PMID:6852524

  13. Epithelial and neural cadherin expression in the mammalian reproductive tract and gametes and their participation in fertilization-related events.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Levin, Mónica Hebe; Marín-Briggiler, Clara Isabel; Caballero, Julieta Natalia; Veiga, María Florencia

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian fertilization involves a series of well-orchestrated cell-cell interaction steps between gametes, as well as among spermatozoa and somatic cells of both the male and female reproductive tracts. Cadherins are Ca(2+)-dependent glycoproteins that have been involved in cellular adhesion and signaling in somatic cells. Taking into account that Ca(2+) ions are required during fertilization, the involvement of these proteins in adhesion events during this process can be anticipated. This report presents an overview on two members of classical cadherins, Epithelial (E-) and Neural (N-) cadherin in reproductive biology. Its provides evidence of studies done by several research groups about the expression of E- and N-cadherin during spermatogenesis, oogenesis and folliculogenesis, and their involvement in gamete transport in the reproductive tracts. Moreover, it describes current knowledge of E- and N-cadherin presence in cells of the cumulus-oocyte complex and spermatozoa from several mammalian species, and shows gathered evidence on their participation in different steps of the fertilization process. A brief summary on general information of both proteins is also presented.

  14. Susceptibility of gametes and embryos of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to Karenia brevis and its toxins.

    PubMed

    Rolton, Anne; Soudant, Philippe; Vignier, Julien; Pierce, Richard; Henry, Michael; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-06-01

    The bivalve mollusc, Crassostrea virginica, is frequently exposed to blooms of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida during periods of spawning and early larval development. A continuous 4-day exposure of gametes and 2-4 cell stage embryos of C. virginica to whole-cell and culture filtrate of K. brevis at 500 and 5000 cells mL(-1), was followed by a 4-day 'recovery' period. Larval growth, percent of normal, abnormal and dead larvae, and the presence of food in the larval gut were measured throughout the exposure period. Results suggest that negative effects mainly occur during embryogenesis and early development. Damage to feeding apparatus/gut may occur during embryonic development or exposure to toxins may act as a feeding deterrent on non-toxic algae. Following 2-h in vitro exposure of gametes, differences in oocyte and sperm cell parameters were investigated using flow cytometry. The reduced sperm viability in the whole-cell 5000 cells mL(-1) treatment suggests the involvement of extracellular brevetoxins (PbTx) and perhaps other harmful, uncharacterized compounds associated with the K. brevis cell membrane. The cumulative effects of reduced sperm viability, fertilization success, embryonic and larval survival, and the near-annual exposure to blooms of K. brevis could cause significant bottlenecks on oyster recruitment. PMID:25771241

  15. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  16. Coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching in repeated interactions.

    PubMed

    Wubs, Matthias; Bshary, Redouan; Lehmann, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Cooperation based on mutual investments can occur between unrelated individuals when they are engaged in repeated interactions. Individuals then need to use a conditional strategy to deter their interaction partners from defecting. Responding to defection such that the future payoff of a defector is reduced relative to cooperating with it is called a partner control mechanism. Three main partner control mechanisms are (i) to switch from cooperation to defection when being defected ('positive reciprocity'), (ii) to actively reduce the payoff of a defecting partner ('punishment'), or (iii) to stop interacting and switch partner ('partner switching'). However, such mechanisms to stabilize cooperation are often studied in isolation from each other. In order to better understand the conditions under which each partner control mechanism tends to be favoured by selection, we here analyse by way of individual-based simulations the coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching. We show that random interactions in an unstructured population and a high number of rounds increase the likelihood that selection favours partner switching. In contrast, interactions localized in small groups (without genetic structure) increase the likelihood that selection favours punishment and/or positive reciprocity. This study thus highlights the importance of comparing different control mechanisms for cooperation under different conditions. PMID:27306050

  17. Partnering: The foundation for performance

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, L.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past several decades, the US has experienced an unprecedented increase in the number of disputes in litigation. The environmental area, particularly contracts involving remediation projects, have not been immune from this situation. The adverse impact of this litigation mindset on the financial and personnel resources of the contracting parties has escalated and the detrimental effect on contractual relationships has become more apparent. Both owners and contractors are confronted with unrealized contract expectations, hostility on the jobsite and disappointment in the traditional dispute resolution processes. Relying exclusively on litigation when negotiations fail to settle contract disputes is time consuming, costly and frustrating. Now in the 1990s, the Corps along with the construction industry are moving to establish a new relationship beneficial to all contracting parties that focus on disputes avoidance. This new relationship is fostered by a process called Partnering. In undertaking environmental remediation work, Partnering can lay the foundation for a successful relationship among all involved parties.

  18. Parents, Reading Partners, Library Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Liz

    2011-01-01

    According to the author, one of her most important goals as a school librarian is to inspire her students to become lifelong lovers of reading. She recognizes that she cannot do this alone, and one of her most powerful partners is a parent. She can encourage a child to check out a book that may open their eyes to the wonders of literature, but if…

  19. Desistance From Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483

  20. Organizational actions of sex hormones on sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Thompson, R; Yang, S

    1997-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in copulatory behavior results from organizational actions of sex steroids (permanent effects of sex steroids occurring during early development). Reproductive success depends not only on copulatory behavior, but also on mate choice, which is often sexually dimorphic as well. The clearest example is sexual partner preference: the preference of males for female sexual partners and females for males. Are organizational hormone actions responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preference? The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a potentially valuable species for addressing this question, because the birds form life-long socially monogamous pair bonds. In one experiment, both early estrogen treatment (injection with estradiol benzoate-EB-for the first 2 weeks posthatch) and unisex housing during juvenile development independently resulted in a preference for females over males in two-choice tests, and only females that experienced both EB treatment and unisex living were more likely than controls to pair with other females in colony tests. In a second experiment, females injected with an estrogen synthesis inhibitor for the first week posthatch preferred to spend time near females instead of males in two-choice tests, unlike control females. These experiments suggest that sexual partner preference may result from organizational hormone actions in this pair-bonding species. Possible neural mechanisms or sites that could underly hormonal organization of sexual partner preference in birds and mammals include the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area, the corticomedial amygdala, and its avian homologue nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, the septum, and peripheral sensory processes.

  1. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  2. Performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea: analysis of paternity and fertilization success in a natural population of a red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Engel, C. R.; Wattier, R.; Destombe, C.; Valero, M.

    1999-01-01

    In haploid–diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its thousands of diploid daughter spores. To study the performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea, we evaluated both female and male fertilization success in a natural population of the red marine alga Gracilaria gracilis. Female fertilization success, estimated by cystocarp yield per unit female thallus, was evaluated with respect to the availability of male gametes. Male fertilization success, estimated by the individual contribution of different males to zygotes, was assessed by paternity analyses on 350 cystocarps produced in one reproductive season using two microsatellite loci. The results show that cystocarp yield is not sperm limited and that the large variation in male fertilization success cannot be solely explained by the distance travelled by the male gamete to find a mate. Taken together, the results suggest that, not only is fertilization efficient, but that male–male competition and/or female choice may play a role in shaping population mating patterns.

  3. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  4. Partner Knowledge Awareness in Knowledge Communication: Learning by Adapting to the Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehler Zufferey, Jessica; Bodemer, Daniel; Buder, Jurgen; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the knowledge of learning partners is not always sufficiently available in collaborative learning scenarios. To compensate, the authors propose to provide collaborators with partner knowledge awareness by means of a visualization tool. Partner knowledge awareness can be used to adapt messages toward the partner. This study…

  5. Childhood Bullying Involvement and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13

  6. Evidence for a Polymorphism in Gametic Segregation Using a Malate Dehydrogenase Locus in the Tetraploid Treefrog HYLA VERSICOLOR

    PubMed Central

    Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.

    1982-01-01

    Artificial cross combinations of tetraploid Hyla versicolor were analyzed electrophoretically using a polymorphic malate dehydrogenase locus (MDH-1) to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation. Models for differentiating between disomic and tetrasomic inheritance are presented and tested. In some crosses progeny genotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation. In other crosses there is only evidence for a tetrasomic mode of segregation. Additional crosses produced genotypic ratios which conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. The same type of inheritance was demonstrated for any individual when used in multiple cross combinations. These results suggest that there exists in H. versicolor a polymorphism with respect to segregation of gametes, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. PMID:7106558

  7. Reproductive semi-cloning respecting biparental embryo origin: embryos from syngamy between a gamete and a haploidized somatic cell.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    2002-08-01

    Embryos formed by somatic cell nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes (cloning) have given rise to viable offspring in several mammalian species. The possibility of future application of this technique to human assisted reproduction (reproductive cloning) has been widely debated. On this background there is current discussion of the potential for a cloning-derived technique, which aims at syngamy between a gamete nucleus from one parent and a somatic cell nucleus from the other. Critical analysis of the clinical indications, the current state of the art, biological concerns and ethical considerations relative to this technique, called here reproductive semi-cloning, are presented. Such a technique requires validation by further research before it can be considered as a treatment option. This debate explores issues raised by the technique.

  8. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies.

    PubMed

    Bernier, L; Grégoire, D

    2004-12-01

    In Canada, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act received royal assent on 29 March 2004. The approach proposed by the federal government responds to Canadians' strong desire for an enforceable legislative framework in the field of reproduction technologies through criminal law. As a result of the widening gap between the rapid pace of technological change and governing legislation, a distinct need was perceived to create a regulatory framework to guide decisions regarding reproductive technologies. In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed.

  9. Dynamics of an enzyme polymorphism in the isopod, Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach). II. Sexual, gametic and fecundity selection.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Heath, D J

    1983-10-01

    The estuarine isopod Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach) exhibits a diallelic polymorphism at the locus coding for the enzyme Pgi. An investigation carried out during the animal's breeding season (June-July) in 1979 and 1980 indicated that the animals were mating at random. It also showed the s/s-homozygote females to be the earliest to release offspring and to be the most fecund of the three genotypes (f/f, f/s and s/s). Further, data from the wild population in 1980 and laboratory experiments indicated that male s-gametes were selected against in s/s females, resulting in offspring ratio distortions in f/s (male) X s/s (female) crosses, in favour of heterozygotes. The net effect of these selective pressures did not, however, significantly alter the genotype frequencies (found in the offspring) from expected values.

  10. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed. PMID:18405868

  11. Gamete-associated flavobacteria of the oviparous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in lakes Michigan and Huron, North America.

    PubMed

    Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Flavobacterial diseases, caused by multiple members of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, elicit serious losses in wild and farmed fish around the world. Flavobacteria are known to be transmitted horizontally; however, vertical transmission has been suspected but proven only for one fish-pathogenic flavobacterial species (e.g., Flavobacterium psychrophilum). Herein, we report on the isolation and molecular identification of multiple Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium taxa from the ovarian fluid and eggs of feral Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Identified egg- and ovarian fluid-associated flavobacteria were either well-known flavobacterial fish pathogens (e.g., F. psychrophilum and F. columnare), most similar to emerging fish-associated flavobacteria (e.g., F. spartansii, F. tructae, F. piscis, C. piscium, C. scophthalmum), or were distinct from all other described Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium spp., as determined by phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, Bayesian, and Maximum Likelihood methodologies. The gamete-associated flavobacteria fell into three groups (e.g., those that were recovered from the ovarian fluid but not eggs; those that were recovered from the ovarian fluid and eggs; and those that were recovered from eggs but not ovarian fluid), a portion of which were recovered from eggs that were surface disinfected with iodophor at the commonly used dose and duration for egg disinfection. Some gamete-associated flavobacteria were also found in renal, splenic, and neurological tissues. Systemic polymicrobial infections comprised of F. psychrophilum and F. columnare were also detected at nearly an 11% prevalence. This study highlights the potential role that sexual products of female Great Lakes Chinook salmon may play in the transmission of fish-associated flavobacteria. PMID:27350613

  12. Differential Replication of Two Chloroplast Genome Forms in Heteroplasmic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Gametes Contributes to Alternative Inheritance Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yoshiki; Stern, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Two mechanisms for chloroplast DNA replication have been revealed through the study of an unusual heteroplasmic strain of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Heteroplasmy is a state in which more than one genome type occurs in a mitochondrion or chloroplast. The Chlamydomonas strain spa19 bears two distinct chloroplast genomes, termed PS+ and PS−. PS+ genomes predominate and are stably maintained in vegetative cells, despite their lack of known replication origins. In sexual crosses with spa19 as the mating type plus parent, however, PS+ genomes are transmitted in only ∼25% of tetrads, whereas the PS− genomes are faithfully inherited in all progeny. In this research, we have explored the mechanism underlying this biased uniparental inheritance. We show that the relative reduction and dilution of PS+ vs. PS− genomes takes place during gametogenesis. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling, followed by immunoprecipitation and PCR, was used to compare replication activities of PS+ and PS− genomes. We found that the replication of PS+ genomes is specifically suppressed during gametogenesis and germination of zygospores, a phenomenon that also was observed when spa19 cells were treated with rifampicin, an inhibitor of the chloroplast RNA polymerase. Furthermore, when bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was compared at 11 sites within the chloroplast genome between vegetative cells, gametes, and rifampicin-treated cells by quantitative PCR, we found that incorporation was often reduced at the same sites in gametes that were also sensitive to rifampicin treatment. We conclude that a transcription-mediated form of DNA replication priming, which may be downregulated during gametogenesis, is indispensable for robust maintenance of PS+ genomes. These results highlight the potential for chloroplast genome copy number regulation through alternative replication strategies. PMID:20519744

  13. Exposure of Paracentrotus lividus male gametes to engineered nanoparticles affects skeletal bio-mineralization processes and larval plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Morgana, Silvia; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Ravera, Silvia; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Faimali, Marco; Falugi, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle (NP)-induced embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms. We previously demonstrated that exposure of male gametes to NPs causes non-dose-dependent skeletal damage in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these anomalies in sea urchin development from male gametes exposed to cobalt (Co), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs were investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. P. lividus sperm were exposed to different NP concentrations (from 0.0001 to 1 mg/L). The distribution of molecules related to skeletogenic cell identification, including ID5 immunoreactivity (IR), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity and fibronectin (FN) IR, were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy at the gastrula (24 h) and pluteus (72 h) stages. Our results identified a spatial correspondence among PMCs, ID5 IR and WGA affinity sites. The altered FN pattern suggests that it is responsible for the altered skeletogenic cell migration, while the Golgi apparatus of the skeletogenic cells, denoted by their WGA affinity, shows different aspects according to the degree of anomalies caused by NP concentrations. The ID5 IR, a specific marker of skeletogenic cells in sea urchin embryos (in particular of the msp130 protein responsible for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) mineralization), localized in the cellular strands prefiguring the skeletal rods in the gastrula stage and, in the pluteus stage, was visible according to the degree of mineralization of the skeleton. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the investigated NPs suspended in seawater interfere with the bio-mineralization processes in marine organisms, and the results of this study offer a new series of specific endpoints for the mechanistic understanding of NP toxicity. PMID:25481784

  14. Modeling the interaction of gametes and embryos with the maternal genital tract: from in vivo to in silico.

    PubMed

    Van Soom, A; Vandaele, L; Peelman, L J; Goossens, K; Fazeli, A

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the complex interaction between gametes or embryos and the maternal genital tract requires the use of experimental models. The selection of the right model is an important task to undertake, and despite many new developments in this area, an ideal model system has not yet been developed. In this review article, we focus on how the most appropriate model species and model system can be selected, each with its particular advantages and disadvantages. Selection criteria need to be based on the evaluation of the aim of the experiment, the tools that are available to the scientist, and the ethics that are involved in working with particular animal species and model systems. Society and politics direct scientists to "Refine, Reduce, and Replace" the use of experimental animals, which means that the use of in vivo models is increasingly being discouraged. An in vivo model allows experimentation in the full biological environment of a living organism. In contrast with in vivo models, in vitro models are less complex and are abstracts of in vivo systems, leading often to results that are different from the in vivo situation. If an investigator could understand all the components of a complex biological system and re-create them as individual smaller models in a computer, he or she could create in silico models that would completely represent the complexity of in vivo models. We predict that in the future, in silico modeling will be the natural departure from in vivo, in situ, and in vitro modeling approaches. In addition to numerous advantages that this modeling approach can bring to studying maternal interaction with gametes and embryo, it is perhaps the only true alternative method to animal experimentation.

  15. Associating pregnancy with partner violence against Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2011-05-01

    The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence of men's violence against their female partners was computed and compared in terms of demographic, behavioral, and relationship characteristics. The preceding-year prevalence of physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" among the group whose partners were pregnant was 11.9%, 9.1%, and 18.8%, respectively. This is significantly higher than the nonpregnant group. Pregnancy was significantly associated with increased odds of violence, including physical assault, sexual violence, and "any violence or injury" (ORs = 2.42, 2.42, and 2.60, respectively). Having controlled for relationship characteristics including social desirability, social support, in-law conflict, dominance, and jealousy of male perpetrators, pregnancy was significantly associated with "any violence or injury." Demographic and behavioral variables accounted for pregnant women's significantly higher odds of having been abused in the year preceding the data collection. This study provides preliminary findings on the association between pregnancy and partner violence. Our findings underscore the need to screen for violence among pregnant women in clinical health care settings as well as in communities. Perpetrator-related risk factors should be included in the assessment of risk for partner violence against pregnant women. For the prevention of intimate partner violence, family-based intervention is needed to work with victims as well as perpetrators.

  16. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

  17. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships.

  18. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882

  19. DOES NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT DIFFERENTIATE INTIMATE PARTNER FEMICIDES FROM OTHER FEMICIDES?

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Layde, Peter M.; Hamberger, L. Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared to other femicides, while neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. PMID:25540251

  20. The importance of discreet use of the diaphragm to Zimbabwean women and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi-Suk; Buck, Jessica; Padian, Nancy; Posner, Sam F; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; van der Straten, Ariane

    2007-05-01

    We conducted a 6-month acceptability study of diaphragms as a potential HIV/STI prevention method among Zimbabwean women. We examined partner involvement in diaphragm use, and importance of discreet use (use without partner awareness). Of the 181 women who completed the study, 45% said discreet use was "very or extremely important" and in multivariate logistic regression, women were more likely to value discretion if their partners: had other partners; drank alcohol; or were believed to prefer condoms to diaphragms. Qualitative data confirmed these findings. Both women and their partners reported that diaphragms can be used discreetly and saw this as advantageous, for both sexual pleasure and female control. However, many were concerned that use without partner approval could lead to marital problems. Discreet use should be considered in development of barrier methods and in diaphragm promotion, if proven effective against HIV/STI. PMID:17160486

  1. Healthy girl born after cryopreservation of gametes and ICSI in a patient with seminoma.

    PubMed

    Notrica, Judith; Divita, Andrea; Neuspiller, Fernando; Arenas, Gabriela; de Fried, Ester Polak

    2004-12-01

    This study reports birth in a case of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved oocytes and spermatozoa banked after radiotherapy and prior to chemotherapy due the occurrence of two non-synchronous seminomas. A 30-year-old male with a diagnosis of seminoma cryopreserved six vials of spermatozoa. After oncological treatment was completed, his partner, a 24-year-old woman, underwent ovarian stimulation. Seventeen oocytes were retrieved; one was at the germinal vesicle stage and two were injected, resulting in two embryos. Fourteen metaphase II oocytes were frozen. The woman presented moderated ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and embryo cryopreservation was indicated. After endometrial preparation, two embryos were transferred and a pregnancy was achieved. The woman suffered eclampsia during week 28 of gestation. Caesarean section was performed and a preterm girl weighing 1000 g was born, but died 2 weeks after delivery. A year later, a second procedure was begun. Frozen oocytes and one vial of semen were thawed. Eight of the 14 oocytes survived and were microinjected; two became fertilized and one good quality cleaved embryo was transferred. Pregnancy was achieved and a healthy girl was born with a birth weight of 2800 g. Oocyte cryopreservation associated with sperm banking in cancer patients is a useful tool for couples seeking deferred parenthood.

  2. Interaction Training for Conversational Partners of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Lindsay; Goldbart, Juliet; Marshall, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that children with cerebral palsy have difficulties acquiring communication skills and that conversation with familiar partners follows restricted patterns, which are characterized by high levels of partner control and children's responsivity. Speech and language therapy often includes training for conversational…

  3. Anger Problem Profiles among Partner Violent Men: Differences in Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher M.; Taft, Casey T.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    Cluster analysis of 139 partner violent men's self-reports on the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory identified profiles reflecting pathological anger (PA), low anger control (LAC), and normal anger (NA). The PA group self-reported higher pretreatment partner abuse, interpersonal dysfunction, distress, and substance abuse and had lower…

  4. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility. PMID:18388488

  5. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136

  7. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone. PMID:16020047

  8. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  9. Partner aggression and children's externalizing problems: maternal and partner warmth as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Nancy A; McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David

    2007-09-01

    This research examined maternal and partner warmth as moderators of the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Participants were 157 mothers and their children (ages 7-9 years). Results indicate that maternal and partner warmth each moderated the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with child reports of externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. Similarly, partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with mother reports of girls', but not boys', externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. On the other hand, the moderating effect of partner warmth was in the opposite direction and was found only with child-reported externalizing problems. Increased levels of partner-to-mother aggression related positively to child-reported externalizing problems when partners were higher, but not lower, in warmth.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  11. Putting intimate partner violence on your radar.

    PubMed

    Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870

  12. Reluctant partners: Implementing federal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.

  13. ECHO Status for International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO) is a clearinghouse of spatial and temporal metadata, inclusive of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data holdings, that enables the science community to more easily exchange NASA data and information. Currently, ECHO has metadata descriptors for over 55 million individual data granules and 13 million browse images. The majority of ECHO's holdings come directly from data held in the NASA DAACs. The science disciplines and domains represented in ECHO are diverse and include metadata for all of NASA's Science Focus Area data. As middleware for a service-oriented enterprise, ECHO offers access to its capabilities through a set of publicly available Application Program Interfaces (APIs). More information about ECHO is available at http://eos.nasa.gov.echo. The presentation will discuss the status of the ECHO Partners, holdings, and activities, including the transition from the EOS Data Gateway to the Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST)

  14. Partner preference in male hamsters: steroids, sexual experience and chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Cortney L; Wood, Ruth I

    2007-05-16

    This study investigated the effects of gonadal steroids on sexual motivation in male Syrian hamsters, using partner preference as a model. Male hamsters were assigned to 5 groups: control (n=4), Intact-->Orchx (n=8), Orchx-->Orchx+T (n=7), olfactory bulbectomy (BulbX, n=5), and vomeronasal organ lesion (VnoX, n=8). Each male was tested for partner preference before and after sexual experience. Unlike rats, sexually-inexperienced gonad-intact male hamsters preferred the receptive female to a stimulus male. However, sexual experience did not enhance preference for the stimulus female. Castration (Orchx) reduced sexual motivation: Orchx males showed no significant preference for the stimulus female. Subsequently, intact males were castrated (Intact-->Orchx) and Orchx males received a testosterone implant (Orchx-->Orchx+T) to determine the time course of gonadal hormones on partner preference and mating behavior. Partner preference changed significantly in both groups within 6 weeks. In Intact-->Orchx males, preference for the stimulus female decreased while Orchx-->Orchx+T males increased their preference for the stimulus female. However, significant changes in mating behavior preceded the alterations in partner preference. Chemosensory cues are also important for partner preference. After BulbX, preference for the stimulus female significantly decreased. However, VnoX failed to block partner preference. These results show that partner preference may be even more dependent on testosterone than is sexual behavior. Furthermore, while chemosensory cues are essential for sexual motivation, the vomeronasal organ is not required for partner preference.

  15. Beyond the minimal top partner decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Javi

    2015-09-01

    Light top partners are the prime sign of naturalness in composite Higgs models. We explore here the possibility of non-standard top partner phenomenology. We show that even in the simplest extension of the minimal composite Higgs model, featuring an extra singlet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, the branching ratios of the top partners into standard channels can be significantly altered, with no substantial change in the generated Higgs potential. Together with the variety of possible final states from the decay of the pseudo-scalar singlet, this motivates more extensive analyses in the search for the top partners.

  16. Leading through partnering: from bedside to community.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Anita B

    2004-01-01

    Partnering as a means of leading requires a particular focus and has particular characteristics. It is unrealistic to think that every person that participates in a partnership would have honed the skills to provide guidance, strength, and support for the process. It is not likely that every partner understands the collaborative process well enough to engage all partners with tact, openness, fairness, and critical, but respectful, reflection. The characteristics depicted in the Leading Through Partnering dome reflect those leaders who have integrated partnering into a coherent framework of action. Stern (2003), in describing her grounded theory research on "attentive partnering" among colleagues, determined that conditions for partnering seem to require the presence of "determined, persuasive leaders who foster growth-enhancing collegial relationships" (pg. 271). The concept of partnering continues to take hold in many forms. Leading Through Partnering as a variant form, whether occurring on a small scale at the bedside or a large scale in the community, is likely to be more than just a passing trend.

  17. Endocannabinoid influence on partner preference in female rats.

    PubMed

    Memos, Nicoletta K; Vela, Rebekah; Tabone, Courtney; Guarraci, Fay A

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system on sexual motivation in the female rat. In Experiment 1, gonadally intact female rats were first tested for partner preference after a vehicle injection. Approximately 2 weeks later, all rats were tested again after an injection of the endocannabinoid antagonist, SR141716 (SR; also known as Rimonabant; 1.0mg/kg). During the first 10 min of each partner preference test, subjects could spend time near either a male or female stimulus animal that was placed behind a wire mesh (No-Contact). During the second 10 min of each partner preference test, subjects had unrestricted access to both stimulus animals (Contact). When the female subjects were treated with SR, they made fewer visits to either stimulus animal during the no-contact phase of the partner preference test compared to when they were treated with vehicle. In Experiment 2, ovariectomized (OVX) subjects primed with estrogen were administered SR or vehicle and tested for partner preference (Experiment 2A). Approximately 2 weeks later, the subjects from the control group were tested again after an injection of SR (Experiment 2B). In contrast to Experiment 1, treatment with SR reduced the number of visits specifically to the male stimulus during the contact phase of the test in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 tested the effects of SR on general locomotion and found no effect of SR on line crossings in an open field. Finally, in Experiment 4, OVX estrogen- and progesterone-primed subjects were administered the endocannabinoid agonist anandamide (AEA: 1.0mg/kg) or vehicle and tested for partner preference. AEA-treated subjects made more visits to the male stimulus than vehicle-treated subjects during the contact phase of the test. The results of the present study suggest that the endocannabinoid system may contribute to sexual motivation in female rats by specifically altering approach behavior.

  18. Successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer in a patient with Müllerian dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Colin S S; Lie, Aldrin T M

    2012-05-01

    A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis was keen to have a baby. Clinically, she was medium built with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. She had undergone surgery for an imperforated hymen. Her FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT). Oocyte retrieval was carried out laparoscopically and a total of nine oocytes were retrieved. Four of the oocytes were transferred together with motile spermatozoa into the right Fallopian tube and the remaining five oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa for IVF. Three embryos resulted and were frozen. She subsequently developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration 14 days after GIFT was 1612 IU/l. Her antenatal care was relatively uneventful until 31 weeks of gestation when she was diagnosed to have intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She then underwent an emergency Caesarean section at 32 weeks of pregnancy delivering a normal baby. This case study describes a successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) in a woman with malformation of the vagina (Müllerian dysgenesis). A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis diagnosed at 16 years of age was keen to become pregnant. Upon examination, a decision was made for a William's vulvovaginoplasty but as the patient was indecisive the surgery was deferred. Clinically, she is a medium-built lady with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. Her serum FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent GIFT. Nine oocytes were retrieved through laparoscopy. Four

  19. Communication Partners' Journey through Their Partner's Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.; Stephens, Dafydd; Lunner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further develop the Ida Institute model on communication partners' (CPs) journey through experiences of person with hearing impairment (PHI), based on the perspectives of CPs. Nine CPs of hearing aid users participated in this study, recruited through the Swansea hearing impaired support group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and presented with the use of process mapping approach. Seven main phases were identified in the CP journey which includes: (1) contemplation, (2) awareness, (3) persuasion, (4) validation, (5) rehabilitation, (6) adaptation, and (7) resolution. The Ida Institute model (based on professionals' perspective) was compared with the new template developed (based on CPs' perspectives). The results suggest some commonalities and differences between the views of professionals and CPs. A new phase, adaptation, was identified from CPs reported experiences, which was not identified by professionals in the Ida Institute model. The CP's journey model could be a useful tool during audiological enablement/rehabilitation sessions to promote discussion between the PHI and the CP. In addition, it can be used in the training of hearing healthcare professionals. PMID:23533422

  20. Silenced suffering: the need for a better understanding of partner sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners.

  1. The influence of partner drug use and relationship power on treatment engagement.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Iguchi, Martin Y; Zeller, Michelle; Morral, Andrew R

    2003-05-01

    Substance-using intimate partners negatively influence individuals' substance abuse treatment engagement and drug use, but little else is known about effects of intimate relationships on treatment. We examine how relationship dynamics (power, control, dependence, insecurity and decision-making power) influence treatment engagement, and whether this differs by gender and partner drug use. Sixty-four heroin users (42 men, 22 women) receiving methadone detoxification treatment in Los Angeles were interviewed at treatment entry and submitted daily diaries of drug use throughout the 21-day treatment. Total number of reported heroin-free days in the first eight treatment days was the dependent variable. Bivariate analyses revealed, that compared to men, women were more likely to have substance-using partners, reported greater power over a partner and greater household decision-making power in their relationships. Multivariate analysis indicated that individuals whose partners had more control over them reported fewer days abstinent. Among individuals with heroin-using partners, greater household decision-making power was associated with more days abstinent, but there was no association for individuals with non-using partners. Relationship power dynamics may be important influences on the treatment process, and some dimensions of power may interact with partner drug use status.

  2. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

    2015-03-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction.

  3. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

  4. Linking Gene Expression in the Intestine to Production of Gametes Through the Phosphate Transporter PITR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Balklava, Zita; Rathnakumar, Navin D.; Vashist, Shilpa; Schweinsberg, Peter J.; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential mineral for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell metabolism and structure. Its uptake into the cell is mediated by membrane-bound transporters and coupled to Na+ transport. Mammalian sodium-dependent Pi cotransporters have been grouped into three families NaPi-I, NaPi-II, and NaPi-III. Despite being discovered more than two decades ago, very little is known about requirements for NaPi-III transporters in vivo, in the context of intact animal models. Here we find that impaired function of the Caenorhabditis elegans NaPi-III transporter, pitr-1, results in decreased brood size and dramatically increased expression of vitellogenin by the worm intestine. Unexpectedly, we found that the effects of pitr-1 mutation on vitellogenin expression in the intestine could only be rescued by expression of pitr-1 in the germline, and not by expression of pitr-1 in the intestine itself. Our results indicate the existence of a signal from the germline that regulates gene expression in the intestine, perhaps linking nutrient export from the intestine to production of gametes by the germline. PMID:27449055

  5. Linking Gene Expression in the Intestine to Production of Gametes Through the Phosphate Transporter PITR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Balklava, Zita; Rathnakumar, Navin D; Vashist, Shilpa; Schweinsberg, Peter J; Grant, Barth D

    2016-09-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential mineral for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell metabolism and structure. Its uptake into the cell is mediated by membrane-bound transporters and coupled to Na(+) transport. Mammalian sodium-dependent Pi cotransporters have been grouped into three families NaPi-I, NaPi-II, and NaPi-III. Despite being discovered more than two decades ago, very little is known about requirements for NaPi-III transporters in vivo, in the context of intact animal models. Here we find that impaired function of the Caenorhabditis elegans NaPi-III transporter, pitr-1, results in decreased brood size and dramatically increased expression of vitellogenin by the worm intestine. Unexpectedly, we found that the effects of pitr-1 mutation on vitellogenin expression in the intestine could only be rescued by expression of pitr-1 in the germline, and not by expression of pitr-1 in the intestine itself. Our results indicate the existence of a signal from the germline that regulates gene expression in the intestine, perhaps linking nutrient export from the intestine to production of gametes by the germline. PMID:27449055

  6. The limits of evidence: evidence based policy and the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-03-01

    This paper will critically examine the use of evidence in creating policy in the area of reproductive technologies. The use of evidence in health care and policy is not a new phenomenon. However, codified strategies for evidence appraisal in health care technology assessments and attempts to create evidence based policy initiatives suggest that the way evidence is used in practice and policy has changed. This paper will examine this trend by considering what is counted as 'good' evidence, difficulties in translating evidence into policy and practice and how evidence interacts with principles. To illustrate these points the removal of gamete donor anonymity in the UK in 2005 and the debates that preceded this change in the law will be examined. It will be argued that evidence will only ever take us so far and attention should also be paid to the underlying principles that guide policy. The paper will conclude with suggestions for how underlying principles can be more rigorously used in policy formation. PMID:25743050

  7. Effects of temperature on gamete longevity and fertilization success in two sea urchin species, Echinometra mathaei and Tripneustes gratilla.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saifur; Tsuchiya, Makoto; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated gamete longevity in two sea urchin species, Echinometra mathaei (Em) and Tripneustes gratilla (Tg), via laboratory experiments. The longevity of dry sperm at different ages (6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h after collection) was tested at 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C. Sperm viability was determined by the percent cleavage of eggs after in-vitro fertilization. Dry sperm of Em remained viable longer than dry sperm of Tg at all temperatures. The viability of dilute sperm and eggs was also determined at 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C over varying durations (for sperm, 5, 45, and 85 min; for eggs, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h). The viability of dilute Em sperm remained relatively constant over time (nearly 100%) at 20 degrees and 25 degrees C, but decreased rapidly at 30 degrees C. The viability of Tg sperm declined gradually over time at 20 degrees C and decreased sharply at 25 degrees and 30 degrees C. Eggs of Em and Tg remained fertilizable for 12 and 6 h, respectively. Most eggs of Em and Tg underwent normal development when exposed for less than 6 h and 3 h, respectively. These results may illuminate the different fertilization strategies of these two sea urchin species.

  8. Partner Choice in Marriages and Cohabitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Weinick, Robin M.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Survey of Families and Households to examine partner choice in cohabitations and marriages. Results support view of cohabitation as distinct type of relationship from marriage. Compared to recently married persons, cohabitors showed greater propensity to choose partner with same education and lesser propensity to choose…

  9. Partner Behaviors That Support Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon; Lichtenstein, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Individuals (N=221) who had stopped smoking completed shortened Partner Interaction Questionnaire, reporting frequency of 10 positive and 10 negative behaviors of spouse/romantic partner in response to smoking cessation. Ratio of received positive/negative behaviors was consistently better predictor of abstinence than were frequencies of either…

  10. Partners in Science. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled…

  11. Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  13. PARTNeR: Radio astromony for students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

    2008-06-01

    PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.

  14. The Relationship Talk: Assessing Partner Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Bobbie Jo; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    "The talk" is culturally understood to mean a discussion whereby both partners in a relationship reveal their feelings about each other and their commitment to a future together. Typically, one partner feels a greater need to clarity the future and instigates "the talk." This study reports the analysis of a 15 item questionnaire completed by 211…

  15. Gamete derivation from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Generating gametes from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has many scientific justifications and several biomedical rationales. Here, we consider several strategies for deriving gametes from PSCs from mice and primates (human and non-human) and their anticipated strengths, challenges and limitations. Although the ‘Weismann barrier’, which separates the mortal somatic cell lineages from the potentially immortal germline, has long existed, breakthroughs first in mice and now in humans are artificially creating germ cells from somatic cells. Spermatozoa with full reproductive viability establishing multiple generations of seemingly normal offspring have been reported in mice and, in humans, haploid spermatids with correct parent-of-origin imprints have been obtained. Similar progress with making oocytes has been published using mouse PSCs differentiated in vitro into primordial germ cells, which are then cultured after xenografting reconstructed artificial ovaries. Progress in making human oocytes artificially is proving challenging. The usefulness of these artificial gametes, from assessing environmental exposure toxicity to optimising medical treatments to prevent negative off-target effects on fertility, may prove invaluable, as may basic discoveries on the fundamental mechanisms of gametogenesis. PMID:25472048

  16. 76 FR 30974 - Jason Incorporated, Janesville Accoustics Division, Subsidiary of Jason Partners Holdings LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Acoustics Division, Subsidiary of Jason Partners Holdings LLC, including on-site leased workers from... sufficiently under the control of Jason Incorporated, Janesville Acoustics Division, Subsidiary of Jason... the Grand Rapids, Michigan location of Jason Incorporated, Janesville Acoustics Division,...

  17. Catastrophizing and perceived partner responses to pain.

    PubMed

    Boothby, Jennifer L; Thorn, Beverly E; Overduin, Lorraine Y; Ward, L Charles

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between catastrophizing and patient-perceived partner responses to pain behaviors. The Catastrophizing subscale of the Cognitive Coping Strategy Inventory and the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory were completed by 62 adult chronic pain patients. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing and patient-perceived solicitous partner behaviors were positively correlated with negative pain outcomes. The communal coping theory of catastrophizing suggests that catastrophizing might be undertaken to solicit support and empathy from others. However, catastrophizing was not related to perceived solicitous partner behavior in this study. Rather, catastrophizing was associated with perceived punishing partner responses. Implications are that catastrophizing and perceived solicitous partner behaviors are independently associated with pain and that catastrophizing may not be reinforced by empathy from significant others.

  18. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  19. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  20. Young victims and their later partners.

    PubMed

    Wageningen, A

    1989-01-01

    Sexual abuse can seriously traumatize the victim, especially if she is a young girl Ambivalent feelings regarding herself and others make it difficult and often impossible for her to find a partner later. Most relationships are brief. If the victim is able to form a lasting relationship both she and her partner will be confronted with the effects of her trauma. They face relational and sexual problems. It is difficult for the partner to accept her trauma emotionally. Therapy, usually carried out individually or in groups and without the partner, often fails to prevent the breakdown of their relationship or marriage. The partner's presence in or involvement with the treatment has proved very helpful provided the relationship has possibilities for change. PMID:2516591

  1. Facing the partner influences exchanges in force

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Atsushi; Bagnato, Carlo; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Many studies in psychology have documented how the behaviour of verbally communicating pairs is affected by social factors such as the partner’s gaze. However, few studies have examined whether physically interacting pairs are influenced by social factors. Here, we asked two partners to exchange forces with one another, where the goal was to accurately replicate the force back onto the other. We first measured an individual’s accuracy in reproducing a force from a robot. We then tested pairs who knowingly exchanged forces whilst separated by a curtain. These separated pairs exchanged forces as two independent individuals would, hence the force reproduction accuracy of partners is not affected by knowingly reproducing a force onto a nonvisible partner. On the other hand, pairs who exchanged forces whilst facing one another consistently under-reproduced the partner’s force in comparison to separated partners. Thus, the force reproduction accuracy of subjects is strongly biased by facing a partner. PMID:27739492

  2. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners. PMID:26933760

  3. Age, puberty, and exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-12-01

    This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing age in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological age and maturational age in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of age effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence.

  4. Partner choice, relationship satisfaction, and oral contraception: the congruency hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Cobey, Kelly D; Klapilová, Kateřina; Havlíček, Jan; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa; Petrie, Marion

    2014-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle explains temporal variation in women's judgment of the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Use of hormonal contraceptives could therefore influence both initial partner choice and, if contraceptive use subsequently changes, intrapair dynamics. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and relationship satisfaction may thus be best understood by considering whether current use is congruent with use when relationships formed, rather than by considering current use alone. In the study reported here, we tested this congruency hypothesis in a survey of 365 couples. Controlling for potential confounds (including relationship duration, age, parenthood, and income), we found that congruency in current and previous hormonal contraceptive use, but not current use alone, predicted women's sexual satisfaction with their partners. Congruency was not associated with women's nonsexual satisfaction or with the satisfaction of their male partners. Our results provide empirical support for the congruency hypothesis and suggest that women's sexual satisfaction is influenced by changes in partner preference associated with change in hormonal contraceptive use.

  5. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  6. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393

  7. Alcohol Use Predicts Number of Sexual Partners for Female but not Male STI Clinic Patients.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol-sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46 % female, 67 % African American) from a public sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction.

  8. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often.

  9. Production of Functional Gametes from Cryopreserved Primordial Germ Cells of the Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail. PMID:24077020

  10. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Dirk; Wille, Andrea; Kendrick, Keith M; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Becker, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2013-12-10

    The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women. PMID:24277856

  11. Conducting a paediatric multi-centre RCT with an industry partner: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Jessica; Newcombe, Peter; Martin, Graham; Kimble, Roy

    2012-11-01

    There are many benefits of multi-centred research including large sample sizes, statistical power, timely recruitment and generalisability of results. However, there are numerous considerations when planning and implementing a multi-centred study. This article reviews the challenges and successes of planning and implementing a multi-centred prospective randomised control trial involving an industry partner. The research investigated the impact on psychosocial functioning of a cosmetic camouflage product for children and adolescents with burn scarring. Multi-centred studies commonly have many stakeholders. Within this study, six Australian and New Zealand paediatric burn units as well as an industry partner were involved. The inclusion of an industry partner added complexities as they brought different priorities and expectations to the research. Further, multifaceted ethical and institutional approval processes needed to be negotiated. The challenges, successes, lessons learned and recommendations from this study regarding Australian and New Zealand ethics and research governance approval processes, collaboration with industry partners and the management of differing expectations will be outlined. Recommendations for future multi-centred research with industry partners include provision of regular written reports for the industry partner; continual monitoring and prompt resolution of concerns; basic research practices education for industry partners; minimisation of industry partner contact with participants; clear roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders and utilisation of single ethical review if available.

  12. The role of overprotection by the partner in coping with diabetes: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Schokker, Marike C; Links, Thera P; Bouma, Jelte; Keers, Joost C; Sanderman, Robbert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediates the association between overprotection and distress and whether this mediation depends on glycemic control and gender. The research sample of 215 individuals with diabetes and their partners completed a measure of partners' overprotective behaviours towards the patient. Patients also completed measures of diabetes-specific self-efficacy and diabetes-related distress. Further, HbA1c values were obtained as an indication of glycemic control. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection by the partner and diabetes-related distress especially when glycemic control was relatively poor. Furthermore, diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection and diabetes-related distress more strongly in female than in male patients. The findings underscore the importance of studying both moderators and mediators in the association between partner behaviour and distress in patients. PMID:20204978

  13. Infectious disease and quality assurance considerations for the transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Although cryopreservation of sperm has become an accepted technique for selective breeding and genetic improvement in livestock industries, no systematic approach is available for banking germplasm of aquatic species (i.e. embryos, semen and ova). The intent of this chapter is not to provide recommendations for specific measures to eliminate particular pathogens and subsequent diseases, but rather to develop a general framework and strategies for facing the new and unexpected. This chapter presents microbiological and quality assurance concerns for a cryopreservation program. In particular, the chapter identifies organisms transmittable in semen of animals, microorganisms and diseases of importance to aquatic species, pathogen detection issues, methods for prevention and control and how sperm quality can be assessed. 

  14. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  15. Intimate partner violence in rural environments.

    PubMed

    Annan, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments.

  16. The stress response in gametes and embryos after paternal chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Barbara F. . E-mail: barbara.hales@mcgill.ca; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Robaire, Bernard

    2005-09-01

    There is increasing concern that paternal exposure to toxic chemicals impacts negatively on progeny outcome. Exposure of male rats to a model male-mediated developmental toxicant and anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss, as well as in malformations. We hypothesize that the stage specificity of the effects of paternal cyclophosphamide exposure on progeny depends on the ability of germ cells to respond to stress, repair DNA or undergo apoptosis. Acute high dose exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide increased the expression of heat shock proteins and DNA repair genes, predominantly in round spermatids. In contrast, chronic low dose treatment dramatically decreased the expression of stress response genes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in elongated spermatids; this reduced ability to respond to stress may allow damage to accumulate, resulting in altered sperm function. Increased DNA damage was maximal 3 weeks after drug exposure, during spermiogenesis, a key point in sperm chromatin remodelling. Drug exposure for 9 weeks increased the frequency of spermatozoa with chromosome 4 disomy and nullisomy. DNA damage found in cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa was imparted to the newly fertilized zygote. Drug-exposed spermatozoa decondensed more rapidly than control spermatozoa and male pronuclear formation was earlier. RNA synthesis was higher in 1-cell embryos sired by drug-treated fathers than in controls. Significantly, the profile of gene expression was altered in embryos sired by drug-treated males as early as the 1-cell stage. Thus, exposure of male rats to cyclophosphamide altered male germ cell quality with a consequent temporal and spatial disruption of the zygotic genome activation.

  17. Conference lecture: influence of stress on estrus, gametes and early embryo development in the sow.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, S; Brandt, Y; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Madej, A

    2008-11-01

    Systems with loose-housed sows have become common. Regrouping, which is commonly done after weaning and may coincide with many important reproductive events, causes stressful situations with elevated blood cortisol concentrations. Depending on group size, approximately 2-7 d are required for a new group of sows to become relatively stable. In a series of studies, the social stress after regrouping was simulated with repeated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) treatments for approximately 48h. Sows were allocated into control and experimental groups, fitted with jugular catheters, and blood samples were collected every 2 or 4h. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography every 4h. Simulated stress during pro-estrus prolonged estrus and disturbed the follicular growth and ovulation. Giving ACTH during estrus elevated concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, and changed the intraluminal environment, including exaggerated amounts of mucus in the UTJ and isthmus. Although ACTH had no effect on the time of ovulation (relative to onset of standing estrus), or on embryo development, fewer oocytes/embryos were retrieved from the ACTH group than from the control group (51% vs. 81%, P<0.05), and there was a tendency towards faster embryo transportation to the uterus. Short-term fasting after ovulation had an unfavourable effect on sperm numbers in UTJ/isthmus, cleavage rate of fertilized ova, as well as ova transport through the isthmic part of the oviduct. Treatment with ACTH after ovulation reduced numbers of spermatozoa at the zona pellucida and retarded cleavage rate of fertilized ova. Therefore, the timing of stress seemed to be an important factor regarding effects on reproductive events. PMID:18786720

  18. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  19. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

  20. The specification and global reprogramming of histone epigenetic marks during gamete formation and early embryo development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Samson, Mark; Jow, Margaret M; Wong, Catherine C L; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Aslanian, Aaron; Saucedo, Israel; Estrada, Rodrigo; Ito, Takashi; Park, Sung-kyu Robin; Yates, John R; Chu, Diana S

    2014-10-01

    In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ∼2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information. PMID:25299455

  1. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  2. Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution.

  3. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranjeet; Prabha, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function) seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent. PMID:25110702

  4. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  5. National Laboratories and Internatioanl Partnering

    SciTech Connect

    Eagan, R.J.; Gauster, W.B.; Hartley, D.L.; Jones, G.J.

    1998-12-07

    For nearly fifty years the US held a dominant position in research and development in the free world. The situation has changed dramatically in the last decade. Countries around the world realize that to foster sustainable economic growth, they must build and maintain a foundation in science and technology. The time in which a country could base its gross national product solely on extraction of raw materials or on people-intensive manufacturing is drawing to a close. The funding for research and development has been growing in the rest of the world, while US expenditures have not kept pace. In 1961, the United States funded 71 `?40 of the world's R&D. It is estimated that the US contribution to research and development fimding today has reached the 3 3o/0 level, and will drop to 26o/0 of the world's total by 2003.1 In 1981 US government spending per capita on non-defense research and development was nearly fifty percent above our major competitors; by 2002 it is projected to be f@ percent below them.2 This trend has a profound impact on how research and development institutions in the United States plan for their future technical growth. Sandia National Laboratories, as one of the largest US-government tided research establishments, has been watching this trend for some time. %ndi~ focusing on the Laboratories' missions in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, environmental integrity, and emerging national challenges, is committed to bringing the best in world-class technology to bear on the nation's problems. We realize maintaining our state-of-the-art technolo=~ base requires we look not only to domestic sources in universities, industries and other laboratories, but also to sources overseas. The realization that we must be "worldwide gatherers of technology" has led Sandia National Laboratories to consider the question of international partnering in some detaiI. As a national laboratory with a national security mission we are well aware

  6. Emotional bookkeeping and high partner selectivity are necessary for the emergence of partner-specific reciprocal affiliation in an agent-based model of primate groups.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed) rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation.

  7. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they and a loved ... the researchers explained. During two years of follow-up, 66 of the patients did go on to ...

  8. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  9. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  10. Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

  11. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  12. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...)(iii)(e) The de minimis partner rule in Sec. 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(e) (TD 9398, 73 FR 28699-01) was... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue... through Friday between the hours of 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG- 109564-10), Courier's...

  13. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads’ performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens’ preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice. PMID:27286247

  14. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  15. Situational ambiguity and gendered patterns of arrest for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299

  16. Cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV partner notification in urban Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C

    2014-01-01

    Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes’ locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider

  17. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. PMID:21995611

  18. Partner choice creates fairness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  19. Spouses' involvement in their partners' diabetes management: associations with spouse stress and perceived marital quality.

    PubMed

    August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084

  1. Imaging-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay To Identify New Molecules with Transmission-Blocking Potential against Plasmodium falciparum Female Gamete Formation

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Blanco, Celia; Lelièvre, Joël; Delves, Michael J.; Bardera, Ana I.; Presa, Jesús L.; López-Barragán, María José; Ruecker, Andrea; Marques, Sara; Sinden, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission-blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z′ factor, 0.7 ± 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 μM concentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential. PMID:25801574

  2. Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

  3. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  4. Partner Support and Maternal Depression in the Context of the Iowa Floods

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Rebecca L.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Hart, Kimberly J.; McCabe, Jennifer E.; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P.; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from N=145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

  5. What difference does a day make? Examining temporal variations in partner maltreatment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Randy J; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Collins, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    Routine activities (RA) theory posits that changes in people's typical daily activities covary with increases or decreases in criminal behaviors, including, but not limited to, partner maltreatment. Using a large clinical database, we examined temporal variations among 24,460 incidents of confirmed partner maltreatment across an 11-year period within the U.S. Air Force (USAF). Specifically, we created regression models that predicted the number of partner maltreatment incidents per day. In addition to several control variables, we coded temporal variables for days of the week, month, year, and several significant days (e.g., holidays, Super Bowl Sunday), which allowed us to examine the independent influence of these variables on partner maltreatment prevalence. While accounting for the influence of all other study variables, we observed significant increases in partner maltreatment for weekend days, New Year's Day, Independence Day, and Super Bowl Sunday. Similar results were found for partner maltreatment incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use. Furthermore, the proportion of incidents involving offender alcohol/drug use increased on New Year's Day and Independence Day. Consistent with RA theory and data from civilian samples, the current results indicate that certain days are associated with increased incidents of partner maltreatment within the USAF. These findings should be used to inform future preventive efforts.

  6. [Surgery and management: natural partners].

    PubMed

    Bork, U; Koch, M; Büchler, M W; Weitz, J

    2012-04-01

    The term management is a description of the functions: planning, organization, leadership and control in institutions and the corresponding persons holding these powers. In order to efficiently lead a department of surgery, surgeons need to possess management qualities and have to be able to act as team leaders. Good management of a surgical department leads to avoidance of complications and increased profits as well as more efficient use of operating room capacities and a better organization within the department.

  7. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences.

  8. Stability of partner choice among female baboons.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Cheney, Dorothy L; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    In a wide range of taxa, including baboons, close social bonds seem to help animals cope with stress and enhance long-term reproductive success and longevity. Current evidence suggests that female baboons may benefit from establishing and maintaining highly individuated relationships with a relatively small number of partners. Here, we extend previous work on the stability of female baboons' social relationships in three different ways. First, we assess the stability of females' social relationships in two distinct and geographically distant sites using the same method. Second, we conduct simulations to determine whether females' social relationships were more stable than expected by chance. Third, we examine demographic sources of variance in the stability of close social bonds. At both sites, females' relationships with their most preferred partners were significantly more stable than expected by chance. In contrast, their relationships with less preferred partners were more ephemeral, often changing from year to year. While nearly all females experienced some change in their top partners across time, many maintained relationships with top partners for several years. Females that lived in smaller groups and had more close kin available had more stable social relationships than those that lived in larger groups and had fewer close kin available.

  9. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  10. A Community-Academic Partnered Grant Writing Series to Build Infrastructure for Partnered Research.

    PubMed

    King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding.

  11. PARTNER PREFERENCE IN MALE HAMSTERS: STEROIDS, SEXUAL EXPERIENCE AND CHEMOSENSORY CUES

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Cortney L.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gonadal steroids on sexual motivation in male Syrian hamsters, using partner preference as a model. Male hamsters were assigned to 5 groups: control (n=4), Intact→Orchx (n=8), Orchx→Orchx+T (n=7), olfactory bulbectomy (BulbX, n=5), and vomeronasal organ lesion (VnoX, n=8). Each male was tested for partner preference before and after sexual experience. Unlike rats, sexually-inexperienced gonad-intact male hamsters preferred the receptive female to a stimulus male. However, sexual experience did not enhance preference for the stimulus female. Castration (orchx) reduced sexual motivation: OrchX males showed no significant preference for the stimulus female. Subsequently, intact males were castrated (Intact→Orchx) and OrchX males received a testosterone implant (Orchx→Orchx+T) to determine the time course of gonadal hormones on partner preference and mating behavior. Partner preference changed significantly in both groups within 6 weeks. In Intact→Orchx males, preference for the stimulus female decreased while Orchx→Orchx+T males increased their preference for the stimulus female. However, significant changes in mating behavior preceded the alterations in partner preference. Chemosensory cues are also important for partner preference. After BulbX, preference for the stimulus female significantly decreased. However, VnoX failed to block partner preference. These results show that partner preference may be even more dependent on testosterone than is sexual behavior. Furthermore, while chemosensory cues are essential for sexual motivation, the vomeronasal organ is not required for partner preference. PMID:17316716

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages.

  13. Parkinson patients as partners in care.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Mark A; Sanjak, Mohammed; Englert, Danielle; Iyer, Sanjay; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity, as part of an active lifestyle, is an important health goal for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise can positively impact health related quality of life. Given this, how can we promote physically active lifestyles among PD patients (most of whom are sedentary)? Here we suggest that health care professionals could significantly expand their impact by collaborating with PD patients and their spouses (or caregivers) as partners-in-care. We outline reasons why partners-in-care approaches are important in PD, including the need to increase social capital, which deals with issues of trust and the value of social networks in linking members of a community. We then present results of a qualitative study involving partners-in-care exercise beliefs among 19 PD patients and spouses, and conclude with our perspective on future benefits of this approach. PMID:24262175

  14. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    PubMed

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.

  15. AIDS, partner notification and gender issues.

    PubMed

    Hildesheimer, Galya M

    2002-01-01

    The interplay between public health, human rights, legal obligations and physicians' ethical concerns was revealed dramatically in Israel in recent cases involving reporting of the HIV positive status of patients. This paper reviews and critically analyses the decision-making process of Israeli Ethics Committees regarding HIV partner notification. One aim of this analysis is to suggest principles that may guide the decision in such cases. It is argued that the resolution concerning disclosure to partners be based on the Principle of Proportionality, taking into account the type of relationship between partner and patient, their cultural background and gender issues. The paper demonstrates the advantages of addressing such issues by professional multidisciplinary Ethics Committees, whose decisions can bring to bear the scope of relevant considerations. PMID:12017441

  16. Mini review: psychosocial stress such as violence against their partners could benefit general immunity in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Vitoria-Estruch; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators use physical and/or psychological abuse to control their partners and achieve a dominant status. As dominance is associated with low disease risk and fast quick illness recovery from an illness, such behaviors may contribute to improving their health at the expense of that of the battered women. Studies with immunological and hormonal parameters have recently revealed that IPV perpetrators present higher general immunocompetence (salivary IgA levels) in response to acute stress, especially during the preparation/anticipation period and when externalizing their anger. Salivary IgA levels have been proved to be increased by hormones, specifically by high testosterone and low cortisol characteristic in IPV perpetrators. Moreover, a high proneness to express anger (defined by high T/C ratio) supposes an increase in self-esteem and mental health. Thus, the use of violence against partners could reinforce their dominant status and, consequently, may serve to indirectly promote IPV perpetrators' immunity. PMID:25585489

  17. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. PMID:25805845

  18. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions.

  19. A Putative Small Solute Transporter Is Responsible for the Secretion of G377 and TRAP-Containing Secretory Vesicles during Plasmodium Gamete Egress and Sporozoite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, Jessica; Singer, Mirko; Lemgruber, Leandro; Silva, Patricia A. G. C.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated protein secretion is required for malaria parasite life cycle progression and transmission between the mammalian host and mosquito vector. During transmission from the host to the vector, exocytosis of highly specialised secretory vesicles, such as osmiophilic bodies, is key to the dissolution of the red blood cell and parasitophorous vacuole membranes enabling gamete egress. The positioning of adhesins from the TRAP family, from micronemes to the sporozoite surface, is essential for gliding motility of the parasite and transmission from mosquito to mammalian host. Here we identify a conserved role for the putative pantothenate transporter PAT in Plasmodium berghei in vesicle fusion of two distinct classes of vesicles in gametocytes and sporozoites. PAT is a membrane component of osmiophilic bodies in gametocytes and micronemes in sporozoites. Despite normal formation and trafficking of osmiophilic bodies to the cell surface upon activation, PAT-deficient gametes fail to discharge their contents, remain intraerythrocytic and unavailable for fertilisation and further development in the mosquito. Sporozoites lacking PAT fail to secrete TRAP, are immotile and thus unable to infect the subsequent rodent host. Thus, P. berghei PAT appears to regulate exocytosis in two distinct populations of vesicles in two different life cycle forms rather than acting as pantothenic transporter during parasite transmission. PMID:27427910

  20. Microtus oeconomus (Rodentia), a useful mammal for studying the induction of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid gametes in male germ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tates, A D

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary data indicate that chemicals can also increase the frequency of sex-chromosome nondisjunction. Positive results--which certainly need further confirmation--have been obtained for MMS, p-fluorophenylalanine, vincristine, procarbazine, carbendazim, and bleomycin. Nocodazole, benomyl, colcemic, 6-mercaptopurine, and halothane were all negative at the concentrations tested. For the induction of diploid spermatids positive results were only obtained for MMS and parafluorophenylalanine. In view of the results obtained, the Microtus system is considered a very useful tool for analyzing factors contributing to the high frequency of aneuploidy and triploidy among abortuses and of aneuploidy in liveborn infants of men. A method is described for the detection of sex-chromosome nondisjunction and diploid spermatids in male germ cells of the field vole Microtus oeconomus. The method is based on the unique distribution pattern of heterochromatin in Microtus cells, which makes it possible to identify X and Y chromosomes in early spermatids with a simple C-banding procedure. Slide preparation is easy. Scoring of early spermatids for extra sex-chromosomes is simple and 2000-4000 cells per hour can be examined. With the Microtus system it has now been demonstrated that radiation of spermatocyte stages with doses of 50, 100 and 200 R results in a higher frequency of sex chromosome nondisjunction and of diploid gametes. Both types of aberrant gametes can be produced during the first and second meiotic division. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:387396

  1. Influence of the duration of in vitro maturation and gamete co-incubation on the efficiency of in vitro embryo development in Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gasparrini, Bianca; De Rosa, Anna; Attanasio, Laura; Boccia, Lucia; Di Palo, Rossella; Campanile, Giuseppe; Zicarelli, Luigi

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the duration of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and gamete co-incubation on the in vitro embryo (IVEP) production efficiency in River buffalo. In Experiment 1, abattoir-derived cumulus oocyte complexes were fixed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h after the start of in vitro maturation to study the kinetics of nuclear maturation. In Experiment 2, cumulus oocyte complexes were fertilized in vitro following in vitro maturation for 18, 21, 24, 27 or 30 h. After 20 h of gamete co-incubation, presumptive zygotes were denuded and cultured in vitro in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) medium. In Experiment 3, following in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive zygotes were removed from fertilization drops at 8, 12, 16 and 20 h post-insemination (pi) and placed in culture as described above. Representative samples of oocytes were fixed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h to evaluate the sperm penetration rate and the incidence of polyspermy at different co-incubation times. The main conclusions of the study are that: (1) the majority of buffalo oocytes accomplish nuclear maturation between 21 and 24 h after the start of in vitro maturation; (2) both cleavage and blastocyst rates linearly decrease with increasing duration of in vitro maturation (from 18 to 30 h); (3) sperm-oocyte incubation for at least 16 h is required for maximum blastocyst yields. PMID:17481834

  2. Extreme geographical fixation of variation in the Plasmodium falciparum gamete surface protein gene Pfs48/45 compared with microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Conway, D J; Machado, R L; Singh, B; Dessert, P; Mikes, Z S; Povoa, M M; Oduola, A M; Roper, C

    2001-07-01

    Comparing patterns of genetic variation at multiple loci in the genome of a species can potentially identify loci which are under selection. The large number of polymorphic microsatellites in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are available markers to screen for selectively important loci. The Pfs48/45 gene on Chromosome 13 encodes an antigenic protein located on the surface of parasite gametes, which is a candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine. Here, genotypic data from 255 P. falciparum isolates are presented, which show that alleles and haplotypes of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfs48/45 gene are exceptionally skewed in frequency among different P. falciparum populations, compared with alleles at 11 microsatellite loci sampled widely from the parasite genome. Fixation indices measuring inter-population variance in allele frequencies (F(ST)) were in the order of four to seven times higher for Pfs48/45 than for the microsatellites, whether considered (i) among populations within Africa, or (ii) among different continents. Differing mutational processes at microsatellite and SNP loci could generally affect the population structure at these different types of loci, to an unknown extent which deserves further investigation. The highly contrasting population structure may also suggest divergent selection on the amino acid sequence of Pfs48/45 in different populations, which plausibly indicates a role for the protein in determining gamete recognition and compatibility. PMID:11420101

  3. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  4. When a partner dies: lesbian widows.

    PubMed

    Bent, Katherine N; Magilvy, J Kathy

    2006-06-01

    Death of a life partner and the subsequent bereavement are profound experiences for an individual. By far, the majority of bereavement research reported is focused on heterosexual couples, primarily married and often in the later years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of lesbians whose life partners have died. The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows. PMID:16613798

  5. Intimate partner violence within law enforcement families.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Anita S; Lo, Celia C

    2011-04-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The authors consulted general strain theory and angry aggression theory to explain domestic violence in police families. Significant positive effects on physical aggression toward an intimate partner were found for variables measuring authoritarian spillover and negative emotions. However, these effects were different for different gender and racial groups. PMID:20587471

  6. Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-02-01

    Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research.

  7. Patient and partner perspectives on patient-delivered partner screening: acceptability, benefits, and barriers.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kimberly R; Goldsworthy, Richard C; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    The study examined willingness to engage in patient-delivered partner screening (PDPS) and preferences for expedited partner services (EPS). Forty urban U.S. sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients participated in individual mixed-methods interviews exploring EPS preferences and PDPS willingness. Most participants selected PDPS and PDPT together and uptake varied by patient–partner relationship closeness. For PDPS, several potentially important barriers and benefits were identified. Perceived benefits included improved sexual health for patients and their sexual partner(s) as well as convenience, privacy, and the potential to enhance trust between sexual partners. Perceived barriers included concerns about PDPS processes (e.g., time it would take to receive the result, risk of sample contamination), the accuracy of results, STI stigma and associated blame, lack of trust for a sexual partner, and the packaging/appearance of the screening kit. PDPS affords benefits and may overcome treatment barriers in some situations; however, it shares common PDPT barriers and has its own unique challenges. There are also concerns regarding how the offer of PDPS may interact with PDPT utilization. PMID:20863245

  8. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  9. Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Marc; Bress, Kent

    Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners When NASA was created in 1958, it was given a goal of "cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results." As science has become increasingly globalized during the past 50 years, NASA and its many partners in space and Earth science research have benefited enormously from pooling ideas, skills, and resources for joint undertakings. The discoveries made have powerfully advanced public awareness of science and its importance all over the world. Today, the U.S. Administra-tion is encouraging NASA to expand its cooperation with new and emerging partners. NASA space and Earth science cooperation is founded on scientist-to-scientist research collaboration. Space missions are very costly and technically challenging, but there are many other important areas for international cooperation. Areas ripe for expansion with new partners include space data sharing, scientist-to-scientist collaborative research, international research program plan-ning and coordination, Earth applications for societal benefit, ground-based measurements for Earth system science, and education and public outreach. This presentation lays out NASA's general principles for international science cooperation, briefly describes each of these opportu-nity areas, and suggests avenues for initiating new cooperative relationships.

  10. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  11. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  12. Pennsylvania`s community partnering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1996-09-01

    Pennsylvania has had a positive response to a switch to a volunteer approach for finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. This article describes the plan and how it has been received: plan elements; reaction to the community partnering plan; the prospects; the facility. 5 figs.

  13. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  14. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... limited to situations in which the partnership does not know or have reason to know of the tax attributes...) regulations to provide that in a limited number of situations, the partnership would be deemed to satisfy the... contributions; all partnership liabilities are shared pro rata based on the partners' relative...

  15. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  16. Partners in Program Excellence. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This handbook is designed to help instructors and advisory committees interact effectively in the Partners in Program Excellence (PIPE) system. It describes a way to keep a local advisory committee involved throughout the life of the training program. The handbook takes the instructor and the advisory committee through the 10 activities into which…

  17. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  18. Assessing Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…

  19. Librarians as Community Partners: An Outreach Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Including 66 focused snapshots of outreach in action, this resource reflects the creative solutions of librarians searching for new and innovative ways to build programs that meet customer needs while expanding the library's scope into the community. This contributed volume includes: (1) A huge array of program options for partnering with other…

  20. Sound Partners. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Sound Partners" (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides supplemental reading instruction to elementary school students grades K-3 with below average reading skills. The program is designed specifically for use by tutors with minimal training and experience. Instruction emphasizes letter-sound correspondences,…

  1. Parents as Governors and Partners in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' obligation to participate in their children's education as partners and governors, focusing on black schools, as well as other schools, in South Africa. Data from surveys and interviews with educators indicated that parent involvement was limited. Negative attitudes toward schools and inferior feelings prevented parents from…

  2. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  3. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Be a Partner in Clinical Research Better Check Your Bowels Health Capsules Are You at Risk for Alcohol-Medication Interactions? Measles: Preventable with Vaccines Featured Website: National Center ...

  4. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse.

  5. Safe Sext: Adolescents’ Use of Technology to Communicate about Sexual Health with Dating Partners

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined adolescents’ technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use. Methods Participants were 176 high school students who indicated their use of technology to communicate with partners about condoms, birth control, STIs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Sexually active youth also reported their frequency of condom use. Results Many adolescents (49%) used technology to discuss sexual health with partners, with rates varying by topic. Girls were more likely than boys to discuss HIV, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Ethnic minorities were more likely than Whites to discuss condoms, STIs, HIV, pregnancy, and birth control. Importantly, rates of consistent condom use were three-times higher among youth using technology to discuss condoms and birth control. Conclusions Results provide novel preliminary evidence about adolescents’ use of technology to discuss sexual health, and demonstrate links between technology-based communication and condom use among sexually active youth. PMID:24512716

  6. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  7. Effects of an HIV peer prevention intervention on sexual and injecting risk behaviors among injecting drug users and their risk partners in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Frangakis, Constantine; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl A; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Chen, Yong; Celentano, David D; Quan, Vu Minh

    2013-11-01

    Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44).

  8. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  9. Perceived Neighborhood Partner Availability, Partner Selection And Risk For Sexually Transmitted Infections Within A Cohort Of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Pamela A.; Chung, Shang-en; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. Methods A clinic recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 16 -19, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Results Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceed ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.78,1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Conclusions Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for STI as they may be more likely to have non-monogamous partners. PMID:24393545

  10. Post-traumatic disorder symptoms and blunted diurnal cortisol production in partners of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamala S; Bower, Julienne E; Williamson, Timothy J; Hoyt, Michael A; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L; Irwin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F(1,444.08) = 20.72, p<.001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (χ(2) = 11.30, p = .01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F(1,419.64) = 5.10, p<.01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC.

  11. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide.

  12. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.

  13. Workplace surface acting and marital partner discontent: Anxiety and exhaustion spillover mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krannitz, Morgan A; Grandey, Alicia A; Liu, Songqi; Almeida, David A

    2015-07-01

    Surface acting (i.e., faking and suppressing emotions at work) is repeatedly linked to employee negative moods and emotional exhaustion, but the consequences may also go beyond work boundaries. We provide a unique theoretical integration of these 2 emotional labor consequences with 2 work-to-family conflict mechanisms, mood spillover and resource drain, to explain why surface acting is likely to create marital partner discontent (i.e., partner's perceived work-to-family conflict and desire for the employee to quit). A survey of 197 hotel managers and their marital partners supported that managers' surface acting was directly related to their partner wanting them to quit, and indirectly to partner's perception of work-to-family conflict via exhaustion consistent with the resource drain mechanism. Anxiety from surface acting had an indirect mediating effect on marital partner discontent through exhaustion. Importantly, controlling for dispositional negativity and job demands did not weaken these effects. Implications for theory and future research integrating work-family and emotional labor are discussed.

  14. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors. PMID:26795454

  15. Assessment of sexual functions in partners of women with complaints of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Keles, Muzaffer Oguz; Caliskan, Selahattin; Gokce, Ali Murat; Gunes, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Investigation of the erectile functions in partners of women with urinary incontinence problems. Materials and Methods: Sexually active female patients over the age of 18 years with complaints of urinary incontinence (n=30) (Group-1), and without urinary incontinence (n=30) (Group-2, controls) were included this study. Evaluation of the patients were done at Erzincan Mengücek Gazi Training and Research Hospital's urology outpatient clinic between June 2012 and January 2013. Partners of group-1 and group-2 were asked to fill in the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire, and then the scores of the two groups were compared for statistically significant differences. Results: Among the partners of the group-1 patients, 15 (50%) had mild erectile dysfunction (ED), 11 (36.6%) had moderate ED, 1 (3.4%) had severe ED, and erectile function was normal in the remaining 3 (10%). Among the partners of group-2 patients, 15 (50%) had mild ED, 7 had moderate ED, 1 (3.4%) had severe ED, and 7 (23.3%) had normal erectile function. Compared to the spouses of group-2 patients, ED was more prevalent among the spouses of group-1 patients. Conclusion: Erectile function in the partners of women with urinary incontinence may be adversely affected by the UI of their partners. PMID:27532113

  16. Absent but Not Gone: Interdependence in Couples' Quality of Life Persists After a Partner's Death.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Knowles, Lindsey M; Sbarra, David A; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2016-02-01

    Spouses influence each other's psychological functioning and quality of life. To explore whether this interdependence continues after a person becomes widowed, we tested whether deceased spouses' characteristics were associated with their widowed partners' later quality of life using couples drawn from a multinational sample of aging adults. Independent subsamples (ns = 221 and 325) were assessed before and after a spouse's death. Regressions revealed that deceased partners' quality of life prior to their death positively predicted their spouses' quality of life after the partners' death, even when we controlled for spouses' prior quality of life to account for environmental factors shared within couples. Further, widowed participants' quality of life was lower than nonwidowed couples' 2 years before and after their partners' death, but was equivalent 4 years prior. Finally, the strength of the association between partners' earlier quality of life and participants' later quality of life did not differ between widowed and nonwidowed participants. These findings suggest that interdependence in quality of life continues after one's partner has passed away. PMID:26710822

  17. Workplace surface acting and marital partner discontent: Anxiety and exhaustion spillover mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krannitz, Morgan A; Grandey, Alicia A; Liu, Songqi; Almeida, David A

    2015-07-01

    Surface acting (i.e., faking and suppressing emotions at work) is repeatedly linked to employee negative moods and emotional exhaustion, but the consequences may also go beyond work boundaries. We provide a unique theoretical integration of these 2 emotional labor consequences with 2 work-to-family conflict mechanisms, mood spillover and resource drain, to explain why surface acting is likely to create marital partner discontent (i.e., partner's perceived work-to-family conflict and desire for the employee to quit). A survey of 197 hotel managers and their marital partners supported that managers' surface acting was directly related to their partner wanting them to quit, and indirectly to partner's perception of work-to-family conflict via exhaustion consistent with the resource drain mechanism. Anxiety from surface acting had an indirect mediating effect on marital partner discontent through exhaustion. Importantly, controlling for dispositional negativity and job demands did not weaken these effects. Implications for theory and future research integrating work-family and emotional labor are discussed. PMID:25705910

  18. Absent but Not Gone: Interdependence in Couples' Quality of Life Persists After a Partner's Death.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Knowles, Lindsey M; Sbarra, David A; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2016-02-01

    Spouses influence each other's psychological functioning and quality of life. To explore whether this interdependence continues after a person becomes widowed, we tested whether deceased spouses' characteristics were associated with their widowed partners' later quality of life using couples drawn from a multinational sample of aging adults. Independent subsamples (ns = 221 and 325) were assessed before and after a spouse's death. Regressions revealed that deceased partners' quality of life prior to their death positively predicted their spouses' quality of life after the partners' death, even when we controlled for spouses' prior quality of life to account for environmental factors shared within couples. Further, widowed participants' quality of life was lower than nonwidowed couples' 2 years before and after their partners' death, but was equivalent 4 years prior. Finally, the strength of the association between partners' earlier quality of life and participants' later quality of life did not differ between widowed and nonwidowed participants. These findings suggest that interdependence in quality of life continues after one's partner has passed away.

  19. Sexual communication between early adolescents and their dating partners, parents, and best friends.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends--and the interaction between parent and friend communication--was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions.

  20. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

  1. Does Syntactic Alignment Effectively Influence How Speakers Are Perceived by Their Conversation Partner?

    PubMed

    Schoot, Lotte; Heyselaar, Evelien; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The way we talk can influence how we are perceived by others. Whereas previous studies have started to explore the influence of social goals on syntactic alignment, in the current study, we additionally investigated whether syntactic alignment effectively influences conversation partners' perception of the speaker. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which we can measure the effect of social goals on the strength of syntactic alignment for one participant (primed participant), while simultaneously obtaining usable social opinions about them from their conversation partner (the evaluator). In Study 1, participants' desire to be rated favorably by their partner was manipulated by assigning pairs to a Control (i.e., primed participants did not know they were being evaluated) or Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated). Surprisingly, results showed no significant difference in the strength with which primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partners' choices. In a follow-up study, we used a Directed Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated and were explicitly instructed to make a positive impression). However, again, there was no evidence supporting the hypothesis that participants' desire to impress their partner influences syntactic alignment. With respect to the influence of syntactic alignment on perceived likeability by the evaluator, a negative relationship was reported in Study 1: the more primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partner, the more that partner decreased their likeability rating after the experiment. However, this effect was not replicated in the Directed Evaluation context of Study 2. In other words, our results do not support the conclusion that speakers' desire to be liked affects how much they align their syntactic choices with their partner, nor is there convincing evidence that there is a reliable relationship

  2. Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.

  3. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  4. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  5. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes. PMID:27189178

  6. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-07-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  7. Efficient DSMC collision-partner selection schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-05-01

    The effect of collision-partner selection schemes on the accuracy and the efficiency of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird is investigated. Several schemes to reduce the total discretization error as a function of the mean collision separation and the mean collision time are examined. These include the historically first sub-cell scheme, the more recent nearest-neighbor scheme, and various near-neighbor schemes, which are evaluated for their effect on the thermal conductivity for Fourier flow. Their convergence characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal discretization and the number of simulators per cell are compared to the convergence characteristics of the sophisticated and standard DSMC algorithms. Improved performance is obtained if the population from which possible collision partners are selected is an appropriate fraction of the population of the cell.

  8. Impaired gamete production and viability in Atlantic croaker collected throughout the 20,000 km(2) hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur; Picha, Matthew E; Tan, Wenxian

    2015-12-15

    The long-term impacts of recent marked increases in the incidence and extent of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen <2 mg/L) in coastal regions worldwide on fisheries and ecosystems are unknown. Reproductive impairment was investigated in Atlantic croaker collected in 2010 from the extensive coastal hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Potential fecundity was significantly lower in croaker collected throughout the ~20,000 km(2) hypoxic region than in croaker from normoxic sites. In vitro bioassays of gamete viability showed reductions in oocyte maturation and sperm motility in croaker collected from the hypoxic sites in response to reproductive hormones which were accompanied by decreases in gonadal levels of membrane progestin receptor alpha, the receptor regulating these processes. The finding that environmental hypoxia exposure reduces oocyte viability in addition to decreasing oocyte production in croaker suggests that fecundity estimates need to be adjusted to account for the decrease in oocyte maturation.

  9. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    MedlinePlus

    National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...

  10. From partner choice to equity - and beyond?

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix

    2013-02-01

    Baumard et al. provide an intriguing model where morality emerges from the dynamics of partner choice in mutualistic interactions. I discuss evidence from human and nonhuman primates that supports the overall approach, but highlights a gap in explaining the human specificity of moral cognition. I suggest that an essential characteristic of human fairness is to override concerns about merit in favor of promoting the welfare in others who are needy.

  11. Nurses Christian Fellowship International: Partners in Care.

    PubMed

    White, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The Nurses Christian Fellowship International Quadrennial Conference was held November 5-10, 2012, in Santiago, Chile. The theme, "Partners in Care: Unity in diversity through Christ" brought together nurses from all over the world for Bible teaching, education, networking, and fellowship. Plenary and session abstracts are available as supplemental digital content through the HTML and PDF versions of this article at journalofchristiannursing.com.

  12. Performance improvement with patient service partners.

    PubMed

    Burns, J P

    1998-01-01

    Once the decision is made to use a patient-focused care delivery system, a variety of methods can be used to successfully design the model. The author describes the process used by a multilevel, multidisciplinary team at a community hospital to design and implement a Service Partner role that would meet and exceed customer expectations. Demonstrated performance improvements included increased patient satisfaction, productive labor dollar savings, and improvements in the work environment for staff members. PMID:9451381

  13. Why I Hit Him: Women’s Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Allen, Christopher T.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines motives for intimate partner violence (IPV) among a community sample of 412 women who used IPV against male partners. A “Motives and Reasons for IPV scale” is proposed, and exploratory factor analyses identified five factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousy, and tough guise. To our knowledge, the study is the first to investigate the relationship between women’s motives for IPV and their perpetration of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression, as well as coercive control, toward partners. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed participants’ aggression was driven by complex, multiple motives. All five motives were related to a greater frequency of perpetrating IPV. Treatment programs focusing on women’s IPV perpetration should address both defensive and proactive motives. PMID:21072136

  14. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  15. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  16. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gregory A K; Kiers, E Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  17. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  18. Do aphids actively search for ant partners?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J

    2015-04-01

    The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies.

  19. Neutrino masses from neutral top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batell, Brian; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    We present theories of "natural neutrinos" in which neutral fermionic top partner fields are simultaneously the right-handed neutrinos (RHN), linking seemingly disparate aspects of the Standard Model structure: (a) The RHN top partners are responsible for the observed small neutrino masses, (b) they help ameliorate the tuning in the weak scale and address the little hierarchy problem, and (c) the factor of 3 arising from Nc in the top-loop Higgs mass corrections is countered by a factor of 3 from the number of vectorlike generations of RHN. The RHN top partners may arise in pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson Higgs models such as the twin Higgs, as well as more general composite, little, and orbifold Higgs scenarios, and three simple example models are presented. This framework firmly predicts a TeV-scale seesaw, as the RHN masses are bounded to be below the TeV scale by naturalness. The generation of light neutrino masses relies on a collective breaking of the lepton number, allowing for comparatively large neutrino Yukawa couplings and a rich associated phenomenology. The structure of the neutrino mass mechanism realizes in certain limits the inverse or linear classes of seesaw. Natural neutrino models are testable at a variety of current and future experiments, particularly in tests of lepton universality, searches for lepton flavor violation, and precision electroweak and Higgs coupling measurements possible at high energy e+e- and hadron colliders.

  20. Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat; Willer, Robb

    2007-03-01

    Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem. In addition to signalling resources or abilities, public generosity could function as a costly signal of cooperative intent, benefiting altruists in terms of (i) better access to cooperative relationships and (ii) greater cooperation within those relationships. When future interaction partners can choose with whom they wish to interact, this could lead to competition to be more generous than others. Little empirical work has tested for the possible existence of this 'competitive altruism'. Using a cooperative monetary game with and without opportunities for partner choice and signalling cooperative intent, we show here that people actively compete to be more generous than others when they can benefit from being chosen for cooperative partnerships, and the most generous people are correspondingly chosen more often as cooperative partners. We also found evidence for increased scepticism of altruistic signals when the potential reputational benefits for dishonest signalling were high. Thus, this work supports the hypothesis that public generosity can be a signal of cooperative intent, which people sometimes 'fake' when conditions permit it.