Science.gov

Sample records for parts manufacturing complex

  1. Advanced manufacturing rules check (MRC) for fully automated assessment of complex reticle designs: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J. A.; Aguilar, D.; Buck, P. D.; Dawkins, D.; Gladhill, R.; Nolke, S.; Riddick, J.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electronic design automation (EDA) tools, with their simulation, modeling, design rule checking, and optical proximity correction capabilities, have facilitated the improvement of first pass wafer yields. While the data produced by these tools may have been processed for optimal wafer manufacturing, it is possible for the same data to be far from ideal for photomask manufacturing, particularly at lithography and inspection stages, resulting in production delays and increased costs. The same EDA tools used to produce the data can be used to detect potential problems for photomask manufacturing in the data. In the previous paper, it was shown how photomask MRC is used to uncover data related problems prior to automated defect inspection. It was demonstrated how jobs which are likely to have problems at inspection could be identified and separated from those which are not. The use of photomask MRC in production was shown to reduce time lost to aborted runs and troubleshooting due to data issues. In this paper, the effectiveness of this photomask MRC program in a high volume photomask factory over the course of a year as applied to more than ten thousand jobs will be shown. Statistics on the results of the MRC runs will be presented along with the associated impact to the automated defect inspection process. Common design problems will be shown as well as their impact to mask manufacturing throughput and productivity. Finally, solutions to the most common and most severe problems will be offered and discussed.

  2. Intelligent freeform manufacturing of complex organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong

    2012-11-01

    Different from the existing tissue engineering strategies, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques aim to automatically produce complex organs directly from computer-aided design freeform models with high resolution and sophistication. Analogous to building a nuclear power plant, cell biology (especially, renewable stem cells), implantable biomaterials, tissue engineering, and single/double/four nozzle RP techniques currently enable researchers in the field to realize a part of the task of complex organ manufacturing. To achieve this multifaceted undertaking, a multi-nozzle rapid prototyping system which can simultaneously integrate an anti-suture vascular system, multiple cell types, and a cocktail of growth factors in a construct should be developed. This article reviews the pros and cons of the existing cell-laden RP techniques for complex organ manufacturing. It is hoped that with the comprehensive multidisciplinary efforts, the implants can virtually replace the functions of a solid internal organ, such as the liver, heart, and kidney.

  3. Overview of 3D registration techniques including loop minimization for the complete acquisition of large manufactured parts and complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle, E.; Matabosch, C.; Salvi, J.

    2007-01-01

    3D modelling is becoming an important research topic for visual inspection in automatic quality control. Through visual inspection it is possible to determine whether a product fulfills the required specifications or whether it contains surface or volume imperfections. Although some process such as color analysis can be achieved by 2D techniques, more challenging tasks such as volume inspection of large and complex objects/scenes may require the use of accurate 3D registration techniques. 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping has become a very important research topic not only in the computer vision community for quality control applications but also in the robotics field for solving problems such as robot navigation and registration of large surfaces. Although their techniques differ slightly depending on the application, both communities tend to solve similar problems by means of different approaches. This paper presents a survey of the techniques used by the robotics and computer vision communities in which every approach has been compared pointing out their pros and cons and their potential applications.

  4. Software for integrated manufacturing systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, R. A.; Naylor, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 presented an overview of the unified approach to manufacturing software. The specific characteristics of the approach that allow it to realize the goals of reduced cost, increased reliability and increased flexibility are considered. Why the blending of a components view, distributed languages, generics and formal models is important, why each individual part of this approach is essential, and why each component will typically have each of these parts are examined. An example of a specification for a real material handling system is presented using the approach and compared with the standard interface specification given by the manufacturer. Use of the component in a distributed manufacturing system is then compared with use of the traditional specification with a more traditional approach to designing the system. An overview is also provided of the underlying mechanisms used for implementing distributed manufacturing systems using the unified software/hardware component approach.

  5. Manufacturing of GLARE Parts and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2003-07-01

    GLARE is a hybrid material consisting of alternating layers of metal sheets and composite layers, requiring special attention when manufacturing of parts and structures is concerned. On one hand the applicable manufacturing processes for GLARE are limited, on the other hand, due to the constituents and composition of the laminate, it offers new opportunities for production. One of the opportunities is the manufacture of very large skin panels by lay-up techniques. Lay-up techniques are common for full composites, but uncommon for metallic structures. Nevertheless, large GLARE skin panels are made by lay-up processes. In addition, the sequences of forming and laminating processes, that can be selected, offer manufacturing options that are not applicable to metals or full composites. With respect to conventional manufacturing processes, the possibilities for Fibre Metal Laminates in general, are limited. The limits are partly due to the different failure modes, partly due to the properties of the constituents in the laminate. For machining processes: the wear of the cutting tools during machining operations of GLARE stems from the abrasive nature of the glass fibres. For the forming processes: the limited formability, expressed by a small failure strain, is related to the glass fibres. However, although these manufacturing issues may restrict the use of manufacturing processes for FMLs, application of these laminates in aircraft is not hindered.

  6. Visual inspection reliability for precision manufactured parts

    SciTech Connect

    See, Judi E.

    2015-09-04

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted an experiment for the National Nuclear Security Administration to determine the reliability of visual inspection of precision manufactured parts used in nuclear weapons. In addition visual inspection has been extensively researched since the early 20th century; however, the reliability of visual inspection for nuclear weapons parts has not been addressed. In addition, the efficacy of using inspector confidence ratings to guide multiple inspections in an effort to improve overall performance accuracy is unknown. Further, the workload associated with inspection has not been documented, and newer measures of stress have not been applied.

  7. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  8. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  9. Reverse engineering of complex biological body parts by squared distance enabled non-uniform rational B-spline technique and layered manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pandithevan, Ponnusamy

    2015-02-01

    In tissue engineering, the successful modeling of scaffold for the replacement of damaged body parts depends mainly on external geometry and internal architecture in order to avoid the adverse effects such as pain and lack of ability to transfer the load to the surrounding bone. Due to flexibility in controlling the parameters, layered manufacturing processes are widely used for the fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffold with the given computer-aided design model. This article presents a squared distance minimization approach for weight optimization of non-uniform rational B-spline curve and surface to modify the geometry that exactly fits into the defect region automatically and thus to fabricate the scaffold specific to subject and site. The study showed that though the errors associated in the B-spline curve and surface were minimized by squared distance method than point distance method and tangent distance method, the errors could be minimized further in the rational B-spline curve and surface as the optimal weight could change the shape that desired for the defect site. In order to measure the efficacy of the present approach, the results were compared with point distance method and tangent distance method in optimizing the non-rational and rational B-spline curve and surface fitting for the defect site. The optimized geometry then allowed to construct the scaffold in fused deposition modeling system as an example. The result revealed that the squared distance-based weight optimization of the rational curve and surface in making the defect specific geometry best fits into the defect region than the other methods used.

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  14. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  15. Inspection of additive manufactured parts using laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Bescond, C.; Lord, M.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing is a novel technology of high importance for global sustainability of resources. As additive manufacturing involves typically layer-by-layer fusion of the feedstock (wire or powder), an important characteristic of the fabricated metallic structural parts, such as those used in aero-engines, is the performance, which is highly related to the presence of defects, such as cracks, lack of fusion or bonding between layers, and porosity. For this purpose, laser ultrasonics is very attractive due to its non-contact nature and is especially suited for the analysis of parts of complex geometries. In addition, the technique is well adapted to online implementation and real-time measurement during the manufacturing process. The inspection can be performed from either the top deposited layer or the underside of the substrate and the defects can be visualized using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). In this work, a variety of results obtained off-line on INCONEL® 718 and Ti-6Al-4V coupons that were manufactured using laser powder, laser wire, or electron beam wire deposition are reported and most defects detected were further confirmed by X-ray micro-computed tomography.

  16. Strategic drivers of contract manufacturing: Part I, The theory.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Geoff; Geimer, Harald

    2002-12-01

    Medical device manufacturers and diagnostics companies have significantly increased their use of contract manufacturers to outsource production of components. This, the first of a two-part article, reviews strategic benefits and best practices in outsourcing.

  17. Manufacturing and fabrication, part 3. [extraterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    The accessibility of material and energy off the Earth and the leverage that these nonterrestrial resources can exert on the space transportation system are important influences on the long-term goal of exploring the solar system. Research on separation of lunar materials and manufacturing of useful products from them is in its infancy. A few possible processes and products are described in this report. Specific attention is given to oxygen, metal, and silicate products.

  18. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  19. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece. PMID:27359150

  1. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts. PMID:27359151

  3. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  4. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  5. Fabrication of Flex Joint Utilizing Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) manufacturing technique has been utilized in the manufacture of a flex joint typical of those found in rocket engine and main propulsion system ducting. The SLM process allowed for the combination of parts that are typically machined separately and welded together. This resulted in roughly a 65% reduction of the total number of parts, roughly 70% reduction in the total number of welds, and an estimated 60% reduction in the number of machining operations. The majority of the new design was in three SLM pieces. These pieces, as well as a few traditionally fabricated parts, were assembled into a complete unit, which has been pressure tested. The design and planned cryogenic testing of the unit will be presented.

  6. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann; Day, Robert D; Espinoza, Brent F; Hatch, Doug; Patterson, Brian M; Feng, Shihai

    2008-01-01

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  7. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  8. Alternate manufacturing processes and materials for the SSC dipole magnet coil end parts

    SciTech Connect

    Lipski, A.; Bossert, R.; Brandt, J.; Hoffman, J.; Kobliska, G.; Zweibohmer, J.; Higinbotham, W.; Shields, R.; Sims, R.

    1992-04-01

    Modern magnet designs such as the SSC dipole utilize smaller bore diameter and wider superconducting cable. Challenging winding techniques place greater emphasis on the role of the coil end parts. Their complex configuration is derived from their function of confining the conductors to a consistent given shape and location. Present end parts, made of G-10 composite, are manufactured utilizing complex and expensive 5-axis machining techniques. Several alternate manufacturing processes and materials described in this paper will result in a substantial cost reduction for mass producing the end parts. The alternate processes are divided into two major groups. The composite group consists of Resin Transfer Molding (RAM), Compound Transfer Mold (CAM), Injection Molded Composite (IMP) and Compression Molded Composite (CC). The base metal coated group consists of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CAD) dip coating and hard coatings/anodizing. The paper will provide an overview of the various processes and compare test performance and cost to that of the process currently used.

  9. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  10. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  11. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surface of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The six commonly used methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed. Special emphasis shall focus on the use of multiple extraction, a technique that has been demonstrated for additively manufactured parts.

  12. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  13. Strengthening of 3D Printed Fused Deposition Manufactured Parts Using the Fill Compositing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Joseph T.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications. PMID:25880807

  14. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  15. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings A Appendix...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Pt. 191, App. A Appendix A to Part 191—General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings Table of Contents I. General Instructions II. General Manufacturing Drawback Ruling...

  16. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  17. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  18. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  19. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-02-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  20. Continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture according to one embodiment includes a plurality of plies in a stacked configuration, where each ply includes a plurality of tape winds having edges. A distance between the edges of adjacent tape winds in the same ply is about constant along a length of the wind. Each tape wind comprises elongated fibers and a matrix, axes of the fibers being oriented about parallel to a longitudinal axis of the tape wind. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  1. Differences in microstructure and properties between selective laser melting and traditional manufacturing for fabrication of metal parts: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Zhao, Xiao; Li, Shuai; Han, Changjun; Wei, Qingsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2015-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), as one of the additive manufacturing technologies, is widely investigated to fabricate metal parts. In SLM, parts are manufactured directly from powders in a layer-by-layer fashion; SLM also provides several advantages, such as production of complex parts with high three-dimensional accuracy, compared with other additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, SLM can be applied in aeronautics, astronautics, medicine, and die and mould industry. However, this technique differs from traditional methods, such as casting and forging; for instance, the former greatly differs in terms of microstructure and properties of products. This paper summarizes relevant studies on metal material fabrication through SLM. Based on a work completed in Huazhong Univ. Sci Tech., Rapid Manuf. Center (HUST-RMC) and compared with characteristics described in other reported studies, microstructure, properties, dimensional accuracy, and application of SLM are presented.

  2. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts? (a... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts? (a... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final...

  4. Physical Simulation of Investment Casting of Complex Shape Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Maestro, Laura; De Azua, Aitor Eguidazu Ruiz; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2015-05-01

    Development of investment casting process has been a challenge for manufacturers of complex shape parts. Numerous experimental casting trials are typically carried out to determine the optimum casting parameters for fabrication of high-quality products. In this work, it is demonstrated that physical simulation of investment casting can successfully predict microstructure and hardness in as-cast complex shape parts. The physical simulation tool consists of a thermal model and melting/solidification experiments in thermo-mechanical simulator. The thermal model is employed to predict local cooling rate during solidification at each point of a casting. Melting/solidification experiments are carried out under controlled cooling rates estimated by the thermal model. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of the solidified specimens is performed; the obtained results predict the local microstructure and mechanical properties of the casting. This concept is applied to investment casting of complex shape nozzle guide vanes from Mar-M247 Ni-based superalloy. Experimental casting trials are performed and the outcomes of physical simulation tool are validated against experimental results. It is shown that phase composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing, grain size, γ/ γ' eutectic size and volume fraction, size and shape of carbide particles, and local microhardness can be predicted at each point of the casting via physical simulation.

  5. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... Manufacturing NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart VVVV), you are subject to this subpart regardless of the final...

  8. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Raley, Randy

    2016-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surfaces of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed.

  9. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  10. Upgrading the steam and cooling systems at a machine tool manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, G.R.; Drye, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Cincinnati Milacron, Inc., one of the world`s largest machine tool manufacturers, decided to upgrade the steam and cooling systems that serve Milacron`s multibuilding 1.5 million square foot (139,350 m{sup 2}) headquarters complex in Cincinnati, Ohio. The upgrades were begun in 1993 and were operational by March 1995. Program objectives were to: (1) Provide mechanical cooling of manufacturing areas for better temperature control to gain closer tolerances on machined parts. This was to support a corporate objective to obtain ISO 9000 Certification which has been achieved. (2) Phase-out use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in existing electric chillers and packaged air-conditioning (DX) units. (3) Minimize waste oil and wood leaving the complex to reduce disposal costs and environmental liabilities. (4) Reduce operating and maintenance costs to enhance industrial competitiveness. With co-funding help from the local utility company, Cinergy Corporation, the authors assisted Milacron in analyzing the feasibility of various mechanical cooling concepts such as single vs. two-stage steam absorption vs. electric chillers. This analysis provided the data needed to select the concepts which best met the program objectives.

  11. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... instructions to insure proper compliance with title 19, United States Code, section 1313, part 191 of the CBP... drawback under title 19, United States Code, section 1313(b), and part 191 of the Customs Regulations. We... drawback ruling that our manufacturing operations qualify for drawback under title 19, United States...

  12. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instructions to insure proper compliance with title 19, United States Code, section 1313, part 191 of the CBP... drawback under title 19, United States Code, section 1313(b), and part 191 of the Customs Regulations. We... drawback ruling that our manufacturing operations qualify for drawback under title 19, United States...

  13. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Sample Formats for Applications for Specific Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... instructions to insure proper compliance with title 19, United States Code, section 1313, part 191 of the CBP... drawback under title 19, United States Code, section 1313(b), and part 191 of the Customs Regulations. We... drawback ruling that our manufacturing operations qualify for drawback under title 19, United States...

  14. Logic For Qualification And Industrialisation Of Additive Layer Manufacturing Parts For Spatial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindeau, Aymeric; Lopes, Jean-Louis; Brivot, Frederic; Bourneaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ASTRIUM Space Transportation has been manufacturing composite equipments for satellite for 25 years. For this business, the development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) processes has been identified as a real opportunity to improve design and performances. For satellite equipments, ASTRIUM ST has chosen to investigate in the Electron Beam Melting process (patented EBM® process from Arcam AB company) for the manufacturing of Titanium parts, in collaboration with MECACHROME who has developed strong skills in this ALM process. This first development step has been achieved by introducing a titanium part realised by EBM on an equipment of Atlantic Bird 7 satellite launched in September 2011. The new step consists in the formal industrialisation of the EBM process for the procurement of titanium parts for satellite equipments. The present paper describes the logic retained for this industrialisation. It includes the technical requirements but also the verifications and inspections which have to be performed to guarantee that technical requirements are met.

  15. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  16. In Situ Manufacturing is a Necessary Part of Any Planetary Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.; McLemore, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    The key to any sustainable presence in space is the ability to manufacture necessary tools, parts, structures, spares, etc. in situ and on demand. Cost, volume, and up-mass constraints prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. There are many benefits to building items as-needed in situ using computer aided drafting (CAD) models and additive manufacturing technology: (1) Cost, up-mass, and volume savings for launch due to the ability to manufacture specific parts when needed. (2) CAD models can be generated on Earth and transmitted to the station or spacecraft, or they can be designed in situ for any task. Thus, multiple people in many locations can work on a single problem. (3) Items can be produced that will enhance the safety of crew and vehicles (e.g., latches or guards). (4) Items can be produced on-demand in a small amount of time (i.e., hours or days) compared to traditional manufacturing methods and, therefore, would not require the lengthy amount of time needed to machine the part from a solid block of material nor the wait time required if the part had to be launched from Earth. (5) Used and obsolete parts can be recycled into powder or wire feedstock for use in later manufacturing. (6) Ultimately, the ability to produce items as-needed will reduce mission risk, as one will have everything they need to fix a broken system or fashion a new part making it available on a more timely basis.

  17. Mechanical Properties of INCONEL 718 Parts Manufactured by Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baufeld, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    INCONEL 718 parts have been manufactured by shaped metal deposition (SMD), an additive layer manufacturing technique applying wire-based tungsten inert gas welding. This technique is aimed toward mass customization of parts, omitting time- and scrap-intensive, subtractive fabrication routes. SMD results in dense, "near net-shaped" parts without pores, cracks, or fissures. The microstructure of the SMD parts exhibit large, columnar grains with a fine dendritic microstructure. The interdendritic boundaries are decorated by small Laves phase precipitates and by MC carbides. Tensile tests were performed with different strain rates (10-4, 10-3, and 2 × 10-3 1/s), but no dependency on strength or strain at failure was observed. The ultimate tensile strength was 828 ± 8 MPa, the true plastic strain at failure 28 ± 2%, the micro Vickers hardness 266 ± 21 HV200, and the dynamically measured Young's module was 154 ± 1 GPa.

  18. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  19. 75 FR 37990 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... AD in the Federal Register on March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12148). That action proposed to require removal... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part Numbers C210776, T210761, D210760, and...

  20. 75 FR 12148 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a significant economic impact, positive or... and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part Numbers C210776, T210761, D210760, and...

  1. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  2. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  3. Development and characterization of polymers-metallic hot embossing process for manufacturing metallic micro-parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, M.; Millot, C.; Gelin, J.-C.; Barrière, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years, hot embossing process becomes a promising process for the replication of polymer micro-structures associated to its manufacturing capability related to a relatively low component cost. This rising demand has prompted the development of various micro-manufacturing techniques in an attempt to get micro-parts in large batch. The paper investigates the way to get metallic micro-parts through the hot embossing process. The micro-manufacturing process consists in three stages. In the first one, the different metallic feedstocks with 50 to 60% powder loading in volume have been prepared with adapted polymers/powders formulations. In a second stage, an elastomeric master has been used to obtain micro-parts on a plastic loaded substrate with developed mixture based on polypropylene, paraffin wax and stearic acid. Finally, a thermal debinding stage in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a solid state pre-sintering stage has been applied, in order to eliminate the pores between powder particles in the debinded components. Then the porous components are agglomerated by solid state diffusion after heating to a temperature slightly lower than the melting temperature related to the material used in the process, to form an homogenous structure when full densification is achieved. The advantages of this approach include: rapid manufacturing of injection tools with high-quality, easy demoulding of metallic parts from the elastomeric moulds and great flexibility related to the choices of material. The paper describes all the processing stages and the way to characterize the geometrical, physical and mechanical properties of the resulting micro-parts.

  4. Human factoring the procedures element in a complex manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Caccamise, D.J.; Mecherikoff, M.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of Human Factors evaluations of procedures associated with incidents at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) it was determined that the existing procedure format created significant opportunities for confusion in their attempt to convey information about a work process. For instance, there was no mechanism to clearly identify the participants and their roles during the instructions portion of the procedure. In addition, procedure authors frequently used complex logic to convey a series of contingent actions within steps. It was also difficult to discern the actual procedure steps from other types of information in the procedure. These and other inadequacies prompted the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) department to propose solutions to these problems that followed well-researched principles of cognitive psychology, dealing with how humans process information. Format and style contribute to procedure usability, and therefore to safety and efficiency in operations governed by the procedures. Since it was difficult to tie specific performance failures to specific format and style characteristics and thereby dearly define costs and benefits, it was difficult on that basis to sell the idea that changes in procedure format and style were really necessary to improve safety and efficiency. In addition, we found that the socio-political systems governing this process, particularly at the subprocess interface level, were not functioning efficiently. Both the technological aspects of the process and the socio-political aspects were contributing to waste and considerable re-work. Fixing the customer feedback loop to the process owners not only minimized re-work and waste, but also provided the data to persuade subprocess owners to make the necessary changes that heretofore were being met with great resistance.

  5. Towards a unified approach to the design of knowledge based agile manufacturing systems: Part II - an application

    SciTech Connect

    Uzam, M.; Jones, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    To date there are no general techniques available to design Knowledge Based Discrete Event Control Systems. In the first part of this paper, a new technique is proposed which solves the problem. The generality of the technique means that the method can be applied to any complex (multi-component) Discrete Event Control problem and can easily accommodate diagnostics and reconfiguration. The technique involves firstly, defining the complex Discrete Event Control system as a colored Petri net controller and then converting the colored Petri net controller into a colored Token Passing Logic controller via Token Passing Logic (TPL) technique and finally, representing the colored Token Passing Logic controller as rules within a control knowledge base for use within a concurrent inference engine. In this paper the technique is described in detail by considering the application of the TPL to a multi-component assembly manufacturing system.

  6. New policy to manage tools in flexible manufacturing systems using network part programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Andrea; Tolio, Tullio; Grieco, Antonio; Nucci, Francesco

    2000-10-01

    The high investment related to the acquisition of Flexible Manufacturing Systems forces firms to a better utilization of the machines. Different actions can be taken in order to avoid idle times of the machines: reduction of the unproductive times (time dedicated to rapid movements, tool exchange, pallet exchange, etc.), improvement of machines and, not last, a better management of the resources. The paper proposes a new policy for the management of tool operations in parallel machine FMS to minimize the idle times due to the lack of tools. The proposed policy uses new opportunities in manufacturing technology related with the use of network part programs in NC machines. It is already known in literature the potentiality of network part programs, more flexible than traditional sequential part programs that execute simply the rigid list of operations. Network part programs allow the different alternative ways to process each part. The way in which network part programs are executed by machines depends on the state of the tools and availability of the tools. The proposed method has been compared with other existing ones based on a real test case, a parallel machine FMS with two machines and a tool carrier.

  7. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  8. Development of a method for determining the relative manufacturing complexity of advanced engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shardul Yogendra

    The immediate adaptation of newly developed materials--with unique and highly desirable properties--is hampered by several factors, including: (1) high material cost and limited availability, (2) lack of information on them, including prior experience in their design and manufacture, immature manufacturing processes and general uncertainty in their behavior patterns, (3) unique handling issues, such as excessive manual labor, high process temperatures, toxicity, disposal problems, limited working lives, and low damage tolerance Therefore, in spite of their significant benefits, potential users tend to shy away from the widespread use of new materials, instead preferring conventional and tested materials forms. This dissertation is on a methodology developed to compare manufacturing complexity of new materials with that of conventional ones. It entails development of a 5 level multi-attribute hierarchy of 18 factors and several processes that influence the manufacturing risk of new materials. A Manufacturing Complexity Factor (MCF) and a Delta Complexity Factor (DCF) are developed to compare new materials with older, traditional ones. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to judiciously assign weights to all factors and sub-factors. Materials are assigned "ranks" based on information available about their unique properties and requirements. From the rank and attribute priorities, values for MCF/DCF can be obtained. Since information available is often limited, the ranks assigned to materials are not highly accurate values. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to take away some of the uncertainty in the ranks of the newly developed materials and generate a more "robust" MCF/DCF value. Sensitivity of the method to varying inputs is examined. An attempt is made to compare this practical methodology with two popular approaches, one used for analyzing the complexity of composite materials and another that develops manufacturing complexity factors for given input

  9. Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

  10. Explicit correlation model of multi-source constraints for Re-design parts with complex curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Fuji; Wang, Yongqing; Guo, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In precision machining of complex curved surface parts with high performance, geometry accuracy is not the only constraint, but the performance should also be met. Performance of this kind of parts is closely related to the geometrical and physical parameters, so the final actual size and shape are affected by multiple source constraints, such as geometry, physics, and performance. These parts are rather difficult to be manufactured and new manufacturing method according to performance requirement is urgently needed. Based on performance and manufacturing requirements for complex curved surface parts, a new classification method is proposed, which divided the complex curved surface parts into two categories: surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints(PRCS) and surface unique complex curved surface parts with pure geometric constraints(PUCS). A correlation model is constructed between the performance and multi-source constraints for PRCS, which reveals the correlation between the performance and multi-source constraints. A re-design method is also developed. Through solving the correlation model of the typical part's performance-associated surface, the mapping relation between the performance-associated surface and the related removal amount is obtained. The explicit correlation model and the method for the corresponding related removal amount of the performance-associated surface are built based on the classification of surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints. Research results have been used in the actual processing of the typical parts such as radome, common bottom components, nozzle, et al., which shows improved efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining for the surface re-design parts with complex curved surface.

  11. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  12. Fuzzy Set Theory Applied to Measurement Data for Exposure Control in Beryllium Part Manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Abeln, S. P.; Creek, K. L.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory has been applied to some exposure control problems encountered in the machining and the manufacturing of beryllium parts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A portion of that work is presented here. The major driving force for using fuzzy techniques in this case rather than classical statistical process control is that beryllium exposure is very task dependent and this manufacturing plant is quite atypical. It is feared that standard techniques produce too many false alarms. Our beryllium plant produces parts on a daily basis, but every day is different. Some days many parts are produced and some days only a few. Some times the parts are large and sometimes the parts are small. Some machining cuts are rough and some are fine. These factors and others make it hard to define a typical day. The problem of concern, for this study, is the worker beryllium exposure. Even though the plant is new and very modern and the exposure levels are expected to be well below the required levels, the Department of Energy (DOE), who is our major customer, has demanded that the levels for this plant be well below required levels. The control charts used to monitor this process are expected to answer two questions: (1) Is the process out of Control? Do we need to instigate special controls such as requiring workers to use respirators? (2) Are new, previously untested, controls making a difference? The standard Schewart type control charts, based on consistent plant operating conditions do not adequately answer this question. The approach described here is based upon a fuzzy modification to the Schewart Xbar-R chart. This approach is expected to yield better results than work based upon the classical probabilistic control chart.

  13. Monitoring deep twist drilling for a rapid manufacturing of light high-strength parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Fernández, A.; Olvera, D.; Lamikiz, A.; Olvera, D.; Rodríguez, C.; Elias, A.

    2011-10-01

    In this work the manufacturing of high strength and/or high functional components is presented, using a new technique based on considerably long twist drills, called Deep Twist Drilling (DTD). This technology opens a rapid and economical method to manufacture parts for structural applications. Components made with this technique can reach high mass reduction and better stress distribution in comparison with welding or bolted parts with the same weight. However the application of DTD must be optimized to improve the reliability of the process and to make it economically feasible. In order to reach it, previous optimization by process monitoring was performed in AISI 1045, stainless steels, Ti6Al4V and nodular cat iron GGG70(AISI A536, SAE-ASTM 100-70-03). These materials are commonly used for structural applications in several sectors. Monitoring opened the way to improve cutting conditions and allow the application of the DTD technique focusing on a new design concept. In the same way monitoring makes drilling process reliable enough to be systematically used in industrial applications by a controlled increase of the performance demanded from the tool. In this manner, not only the objective to produce high-strength and light pieces is achieved, but also a high repetitive process is reached. In this research work a case of study is presented. A monolithic satellite-type component, its mass were reduced from 25 to 4.5 kg. The structural behavior of the component was studied under FEM analysis and the results showed high strength to compression and shear forces. During the machining of this element there was a serious risk of drill breakage due to the depth of the holes and crossing points between them; however, the previous process optimization eliminated this drawback. As a matter of fact, this paper brings out a good example where manufacturing technology allows a better performance of mechanical components within the philosophy of "new processes drive to new

  14. Scanning laser ultrasound and wavenumber spectroscopy for in-process inspection of additively manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskelo, EliseAnne C.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new in-process laser ultrasound inspection technique for additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic energy was introduced to the part by attaching an ultrasonic transducer to the printer build-plate and driving it with a single-tone, harmonic excitation. The full-field response of the part was measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer after each printer layer. For each scan, we analyzed both the local amplitudes and wavenumbers of the response in order to identify defects. For this study, we focused on the detection of delamination between layers in a fused deposition modeling process. Foreign object damage, localized heating damage, and the resulting delamination between layers were detected in using the technique as indicated by increased amplitude and wavenumber responses within the damaged area.

  15. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossel, W.-G.; Lies, C.; Albert, A.; Haase, R.; Müller, R.; Scholz, P.

    2016-03-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts.

  16. Net shape manufacturing of ceramic micro parts with tailored graded layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, H.; Jiang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a novel net shape manufacturing technology for making three-dimensional micro parts with functionally graded layers. Alumina/zirconia micro parts with either core-shell or top-bottom functionally graded material (FGM) profiles have been successfully fabricated by altering both the surface characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro moulds and ceramic suspensions composition. PDMS surface modifications were performed to achieve moulds with hydrophilic surfaces, which were used to form core/shell FGM green layers. On the other hand, moulds with hydrophobic surfaces were used to form top-bottom green layers. Cracks have been found between consecutive layers in both the green and sintered micro parts. It was found that, at dispersant concentration of about 9.0 mg g-1, the differences in the drying shrinkage between layers is less than 0.5%. In addition, layers of composition of 100% Al2O3-0% YSZ, 20% Al2O3-80% YSZ and 40% Al2O3-60% YSZ were found to produce less shrinkage difference during sintering. After optimization of both green and sintering layers, crack free core/shell and top-bottom alumina/zirconia FGM micro parts were successfully obtained. The proposed process enables the production of micro patterns tailored with functionally graded microstructures to locally enhance properties and performance.

  17. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  18. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control, Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert A.

    2012-09-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space-based satellite imaging, and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase-shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful toward the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive the system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper, in three parts, reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  19. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper, in three parts, reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  20. Optical detection of mechanically damaged areas on manufactured metal parts by spatial frequency filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Kihou, Takemune

    2014-05-01

    An inspection of mechanically damaged areas on manufactured metal parts is necessary to produce high-quality products. A scanning probe on a sample is necessary for a conventional surface inspection system, which is time-consuming. We propose a novel high-speed detection method for defects on metal surfaces with rolling indentations. To obtain a large field of view in a measurement, we used a laser sheet that was expanded with a laser line generator and also used an expanded collimated beam, rather than a small laser spot as used in conventional techniques. Furthermore, we used an obliquely incident laser beam to suppress the effect of the rolling indentations surrounding defects, and also applied spatial frequency filtering to extract only defects. The spatial frequency filtering under oblique incidence is theoretically explained and defect extraction was investigated in experiments.

  1. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sébastian, P.

    2010-06-01

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM® and Samcef® softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  2. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    SciTech Connect

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sebastian, P.

    2010-06-15

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM registered and Samcef registered softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  3. Surface Roughness Measurement of Parts Manufactured by FDM Process using Light Sectioning Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, A. S.; Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a process of developing prototypes by depositing layers of material according to predetermined cross sectional geometry. Quality of the produced part is highly dependent on surface finish. This work describes a methodology to calculate the surface roughness of part manufactured using FDM process. The surface roughness values are measured using conventional stylus instrument and light sectioning vision system. In conventional stylus instrument method, diamond tipped stylus destroys the surface topography. Light sectioning method is non-contact method hence it overcomes this problem. In light sectioning method microscope and light source are arranged in such a manner, as both are inclined at an angle of 45° to the normal plane. The light section is projected on surface of profile at an incident angle of 45°. The reflected light can be observed using microscope. The camera is connected with microscope to capture the micrograph. These images are analyzed and processed using various image processing techniques. Experimental results are validated by comparing final results with conventional system.

  4. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In the... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites...

  5. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In the... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites...

  6. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  7. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  8. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  9. Evolutionary-based Design and Control of Geometry Aims for AMD-manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Mauritz; Baramsky, Nicolaj; Ewald, Ake; Emmelmann, Claus; Schlattmann, Josef

    Additive Metal Deposition (AMD) is an additive manufacturing process building parts based on a nozzle-fed powder by laser assisted solidification. The AMD technology offers unique advantages for the production of near net-shape parts. In contrast to the powder bed-based technologies it provides a high productivity grade. Today AMD lacks reproducible process strategies manufacturing large parts in narrow tolerances. The building height of a single layer and the geometrical shape of a whole part alter progressively with increasing part dimensions - consecutively leading to a higher effort in the manufacturing-process development for such parts. To reduce this effort, in this paper first an iterative identification of optimal process parameters is performed by following an evolutionary algorithm under varied BC. Based on the geometry-related parameter sets, tolerances are defined. The process strategies and tolerances are validated for a prototype application considering the defined quality aims. Finally the results are discussed and summarized in an a-priori process design guideline for AMD Ti6Al4V-parts.

  10. Towards a unified approach to the design of knowledge based agile manufacturing systems: Part 1 - methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.H.; Uzam, M.

    1996-12-31

    To date there are no general techniques available to design Knowledge Based Discrete Event Control Systems. In this paper, a new technique is proposed which solves the problem. The generality of the technique means that the method can be applied to any complex (multi-component) Discrete Event Control problem and can easily accommodate diagnostics and reconfiguration. The technique involves firstly, defining the complex Discrete Event Control system as a colored Petri net controller and then converting colored Petri net controller into a colored Token Passing Logic Controller via Token Passing Logic (TPL) technique and finally, representing the colored Token Passing Logic Controller as rules within a control knowledge base for use within a concurrent inference engine. The technique is described by considering the fundamental structures inherent in colored Petri net control design and shows how to convert these structures into a knowledge base suitable for Discrete Event Control. Moreover, a context sensitive concurrent inference engine is also proposed to ensure the correct processing of the control knowledge base. An illustrative example of how this methodology can be applied to a complex discrete event control problem is described in Part II.

  11. Effect of IN718 Recycled Powder Reuse on Properties of Parts Manufactured by Means of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, L. C.; Garciandia, F.; González-Díaz, J. B.; Álvarez, P.; Echeverria, A.; Petite, M. M.; Deffley, R.; Ochoa, J.

    Powder quality control is essential to obtain parts with suitable mechanical properties in Selective Laser Melting manufacturing technique. One of the most important advantages of suchtechnique is that it allows an efficient use of the material, due to the possibility to recycle and reuse un-melted powder. Nevertheless, powder material properties may change due to repeated recycling, affecting this way the mechanicalbehavior of parts. In this paper the effect of powder reuse on its quality and on the mechanical properties of the resulting melted parts is studied via self-developed recycling methodology. The material considered for investigation was IN718, a nickel superalloy widely used in industry. After recycling powder up to 14 times, no significant changes were observed in powder and test parts properties. The results obtained in this work will help to validate powder recycling methodology for its use in current industrial Selective Laser Melting manufacturing.

  12. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 17. Refractories, glass, and other ceramic materials; manufactured carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The standards are assembled in each part in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designation numbers. Each part has two tables of contents: a list of the standards in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designations; and a list of the standards classified according to subject. A subject index of the standards and tentatives in each part appears at the back of each volume. This part contains standards concerning refractories; glass and glass products; ceramic whitewares; porcelain enamel and related ceramic-metal systems; ceramics for electronics; manufactured carbon and graphite products; and general methods of testing.

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  14. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  15. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  16. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  17. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  3. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... license to manufacture nuclear power reactors of the type described in § 50.22 of this chapter to...

  4. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... license to manufacture nuclear power reactors of the type described in § 50.22 of this chapter to...

  5. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... license to manufacture nuclear power reactors of the type described in § 50.22 of this chapter to...

  6. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  7. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  9. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems. PMID:23889602

  10. Retardation of iron-cyanide complexes in the soil of a former manufactured gas plant site.

    PubMed

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The soil in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is commonly contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes (ferric ferrocyanide). The phenomenon of cyanide mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (<1 mg L(-1)) under acidic conditions. In this paper, retention properties of the sandy loam soil and the potential vertical movement of the solid iron-cyanide complexes, co-existing with the dissolution, sorption and precipitation reactions were investigated. Preliminary research conducted on a former MGP site implied colloidal transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). A series of batch and column experiments were applied in order to investigate the retardation of iron-cyanide complexes by the sandy loam soil. Batch experiments revealed that in circumneutral pH conditions sandy loam material decreases the potassium ferro- and ferricyanide concentration. In column experiments a minor reduction in CN concentration was observed prior to addition of iron sulfide (FeS) layer, which induced the formation of the Prussian blue colloids in circumneutral pH conditions. Precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes were mechanically filtered by the coherent structure of the investigated soil. Additionally, the reduction of the CN concentration of the percolation solutions by the sandy loam soil was presumably induced due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  11. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    PubMed

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement. PMID:27131645

  12. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    PubMed

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  13. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  14. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  15. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  16. Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

  17. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  18. The Effectiveness of Hot Isostatic Pressing for Closing Porosity in Titanium Parts Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammas-Williams, Samuel; Withers, Philip J.; Todd, Iain; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-05-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts, produced by selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing, have been studied by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to track pore closure during a standard hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) cycle. Comparison of repeated XCT scans before and after HIPing, on worst-case samples with different geometries, confirmed that all internal porosity was shrunk to below the resolution limit of the equipment used (~5 µm) following the HIPing cycle, apart from defects with surface connected ligaments.

  19. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  20. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  1. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of parts for truck engines. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Binkley, K.; Thomas, T.; Wilson, S.; Daley, E.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures turbochargers, fan drives, and vibration dampers for truck engines. Metal castings are machined and cleaned; degreased, coated and/or painted, if required; and assembled, inspected, packaged, and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the plant could achieve significant cost savings by replacing its solvent-based painting system with an electrostatic powder coating system, thereby reducing paint overspray.

  2. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  3. Methods for tape fabrication of continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    A method for forming a composite structure according to one embodiment includes forming a first ply; and forming a second ply above the first ply. Forming each ply comprises: applying a bonding material to a tape, the tape comprising a fiber and a matrix, wherein the bonding material has a curing time of less than about 1 second; and adding the tape to a substrate for forming adjacent tape winds having about a constant distance therebetween. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  4. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  5. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  6. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  7. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  8. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  9. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... containing stationary SI internal combustion engines meeting the provisions of 40 CFR part 1054 must meet the... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source......

  10. Evaluation of a local exhaust system used in the manufacture of small parts made of reinforced plastic.

    PubMed

    Lazure, L P

    2000-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced plastics are used to manufacture a large variety of products, particularly for the transportation sector. Hand lay-up molding and projection molding are the main methods of manufacture. The users of these processes are exposed to appreciable emissions of styrene; in Quebec, more than 3000 workers work in this industry. A statistical analysis of styrene concentrations measured over a five-year period by the Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST, Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute) reveals that for all of the main manufacturing sectors involved, between 40 percent and 78 percent of the results exceed the exposure standard of 50 ppm. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ventilated table in controlling worker exposure to styrene and acetone in a shop that manufactures fiber-reinforced plastics parts. The evaluated local extraction system consists of a ventilated table with a surface area of 1.2 m x 1.2 m. During molding, the styrene emissions are exhausted through the ventilated table as well as through the slots in a lateral hood. Replacement air, introduced vertically through a supply air shower located above the worker, limits the diffusion of contaminants toward the worker's breathing zone. The reduction in worker exposure to styrene and acetone during hand lay-up molding was measured in the breathing zone for two sizes of molds. The results show that exhaust ventilation reduced the styrene concentrations by 91 percent and that the introduction of replacement air increased the efficiency of the ventilated table to 96 percent. The evaluation performed indicates that the ventilated table adequately controls worker exposure to styrene and acetone during the molding of small components.

  11. Layered YSZ/SCSZ/YSZ Electrolytes for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Part I: Design and Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Orlovskaya, Nina; Klimov, Mikhail; Huang, Xinyu; Cullen, David A; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    (Sc2O3)0.1(CeO2)0.01(ZrO2)0.89 (SCSZ) ceramic electrolyte has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (700 800 C), but it does not exhibit good phase and chemical stability in comparison with 8 mol% Y2O3 ZrO2 (YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability in the whole electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed. Because of a mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli of SCSZ and YSZ phases, upon cooling of the electrolytes after sintering, thermal residual stresses will arise, leading to a possible strengthening of the layered composite and, therefore, an increase in the reliability of the electrolyte. Laminated electrolytes with three, four, and six layers design were manufactured using tape-casting, lamination, and sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at 30 m, the thickness of the SCSZ inner layer varied from 30 m for a Y SC Y three-layered electrolyte, 60 m for a Y 2SC Y four-layered electrolyte, and 120 m for a Y 4SC Y six-layered electrolyte. The microstructure, crystal structure, impurities present, and the density of the sintered electrolytes were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and water immersion techniques.

  12. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  13. How to Build a Complex, Functional Propeller Protein, From Parts.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia L

    2016-04-01

    By combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and in vitro evolution, Smock et al. identified single motifs that assemble into a functional five-bladed β-propeller, and a likely route for conversion into the more complex, extant single chain fusion. Interestingly, although sequence diversification destabilized five-motif fusions, it also destabilized aggregation-prone intermediates, increasing the level of functional protein in vivo.

  14. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or measurement of the imported merchandise, caused by atmospheric conditions, chemical reactions, or... regulations and rulings (see 19 CFR 191.11). H. Stock In Process Stock in process does not result; or if it... applicable, as well as 19 CFR part 191 (see particularly, § 191.9). A. Name and Address of Principal...

  15. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or measurement of the imported merchandise, caused by atmospheric conditions, chemical reactions, or... regulations and rulings (see 19 CFR 191.11). H. Stock In Process Stock in process does not result; or if it... applicable, as well as 19 CFR part 191 (see particularly, § 191.9). A. Name and Address of Principal...

  16. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or measurement of the imported merchandise, caused by atmospheric conditions, chemical reactions, or... regulations and rulings (see 19 CFR 191.11). H. Stock In Process Stock in process does not result; or if it... applicable, as well as 19 CFR part 191 (see particularly, § 191.9). A. Name and Address of Principal...

  17. Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex.

    PubMed Central

    Vena, J E; Sultz, H A; Fiedler, R C; Barnes, R E

    1985-01-01

    A proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study was conducted using data on workers from three local unions representing an integrated automobile factory composed of forge, foundry, and engine (machine and assembly) plants. Ninety four percent of the death certificates were obtained for all active and non-active workers who died during the period 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1979 and were vested in union and company benefit programmes. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with expected numbers based on two standards, the proportionate mortality among men in the United States 1970-9 and among men in Erie County 1975. There was close agreement between the number of observed and expected deaths by either standard of comparison among white auto workers in the forge and foundry plants. Valid analyses of cause specific mortality among non-whites could be conducted for the foundry plant only. Although there was raised PMR for deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system using the Erie County standard, none of the other cause specific PMRs was significant. Although based on small numbers, the risk of cancer of the lung was significantly high in non-whites under age 50 in the foundry (PMR = 2.6; p less than 0.05). The cause specific PMRs for whites in the engine plant were statistically significant for malignant neoplasms (1.2) and all external causes (0.62) based on the US white male standard. Analysis of cancer specific mortality among white men in the machining/assembly plant showed significant excesses for cancer of the digestive system (PMR=1.5), particularly of the liver (PMR=2.6) and pancreas (PMR=1.9); cancers of the respiratory system (PMR=1.4 using the Erie County standard); and cancer of the urinary bladder (PMR=2.3). Workers employed for more than 20 years showed statistically increased mortality ratios for cancers of the digestive system (1.9), particularly cancer of the pancreas (2.3) and cancer of the rectum (2.8). Individuals whose employment began during or before 1950 exhibited increased PMRs for cancers of the digestive organs (1.8), particularly of the pancreas (2.5) and of the bladder (3.4). Workers whose employment began after 1950, on the other hand, exhibited raised PMRs for cancers of the respiratory system (1.5) and of the kidney (3.2). Since the foundry and forge plants did not start production until 1955, mortality associated with those work settings may be greater in the future. PMID:3970876

  18. Research in manufacturing of micro-structured injection molded polymer parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucyshyn, Thomas; Struklec, Tobias; Burgsteiner, Martin; Graninger, Georg; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    An overview of current research results is given for the topic of injection molding of micro-structured polymer parts regarding filling behavior and demolding process of micro-structures as well as the production of micro-structures on curved surfaces. In order to better understand how micro-structures are formed during the filling stage of injection molding, a study was performed on a test part with micro-channels placed parallely and perpendicularly to flow direction. Short shots with a highly fluent Polypropylene grade were injection molded with the melt front stopping in the structure fields. The melt and mold temperature, the injection rate as well as the use of a variotherm heating system were varied in a systematic Design of Experiments. The shape of the flow front was investigated with the optical measurement system Alicona InfiniteFocus. The data gained was analyzed with Matlab scripts and provided the needed distance to completely fill the structures as a reference value. The next topic covers the demolding step, which is a crucial process step in injection molding of micro-structured parts as the successfully replicated structures often get destroyed in the following demolding step. In order to evaluate the influence of the four aspects polymer, mold surface (coatings), structure (geometry and placement) and process settings on the demolding behavior, an injection mold with integrated measurement system was built, which makes it possible to measure the demolding force respectively a demolding energy under process conditions. These values can be used to quantitatively compare the impact of the above mentioned influencing factors on demolding. Finally, a concept to produce micro-structures on curved surfaces with injection molding is shown: A flat metal premaster structure is used to produce an elastomeric polymer (dimethylsiloxane) master in a casting process. This master is fixed in a conventional injection mold and a thermoplastic polymer is replicated

  19. Development of a Holonic Free-Roaming AGV System for Part Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Lind, Morten; Gellein, Lars Tore; Nyen, Per Åge; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    This paper presents an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system under development and its industrial background as a support system for an automated paint department. The focus is on demonstrating how the holonic architecture can be used to implement a flexible AGV system. The system is composed of autonomous AGV holons who cooperate, directly or as groups, with other holons such as robot holons, vision-system holons and order holons to produce the real parts. The holonic architecture is described in detail and example use-cases presented.

  20. Diffusion bonding and its application to manufacturing. [for joining of metal parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurgeon, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    In its simplest form diffusion bonding is accomplished by placing clean metal surfaces together under a sufficient load and heating. The natural interatomic attractive force between atoms transforms the interface into a natural grain boundary. Therefore, in principle, the properties of the bond area are identical to those of the parent metal. Other advantages of diffusion bonding over conventional methods of bonding include freedom from residual stresses, excessive deformation, foreign metals, or changed crystal structures. Stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, and aluminum alloys have all been successfully joined. Complex hardware, including integrated flueric devices, jet engine servovalves, and porous woven structures have been fabricated. The processing involved is discussed, along with such theoretical considerations as the role of metal surfaces, the formation of metal contact junctions, and the mechanisms of material transport in diffusion bonding.

  1. An Efficient Multi-Scale Simulation Architecture for the Prediction of Performance Metrics of Parts Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Zeng, Kai; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an overview of the computational tools developed in the area of metal-based additively manufactured (AM) to simulate the performance metrics along with their experimental validations will be presented. The performance metrics of the AM fabricated parts such as the inter- and intra-layer strengths could be characterized in terms of the melt pool dimensions, solidification times, cooling rates, granular microstructure, and phase morphologies along with defect distributions which are a function of the energy source, scan pattern(s), and the material(s). The four major areas of AM simulation included in this study are thermo-mechanical constitutive relationships during fabrication and in- service, the use of Euler angles for gaging static and dynamic strengths, the use of algorithms involving intelligent use of matrix algebra and homogenization extracting the spatiotemporal nature of these processes, a fast GPU architecture, and specific challenges targeted toward attaining a faster than real-time simulation efficiency and accuracy.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Experimental and computational investigation of an electromagnetic pump used for manufacturing aluminium parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinigo, D.; Rodrigues, M. A.; Rivas, A.; Duque, O.; Vazquez, V.; Maroto, J. A.; Cuesta, R.

    2007-03-01

    An experimental and computational investigation was carried out on an electromagnetic pump for molten aluminum. The electromagnetic pump is a MHD device to drive molten metals by means of electromagnetic fields and without mechanical parts in contact with the metal at high temperature. An exact computer simulation of the electromagnetic pump would require the simultaneous solution of electromagnetic and fluid dynamics problems. However, in this study we divide the simulation into two independent stages. First, the electromagnetic system is simulated by ANSYS considering the secondary of the pump as a solid. This simulation is experimentally validated in a test bed with a solid secondary replacing the molten metal. Secondly, a 3D field of electromagnetic forces provided by the ANSYS simulation is imported into the FLUENT CFD code to simulate the fluid dynamic problem, considering now the secondary of the pump as a liquid. This second simulation is also experimentally validated by measuring the static head provided by the pump. This simulation process is valid only if the electromagnetic system and the fluid dynamic problem are uncoupled, which has been verified by calculating the magnetic Reynolds number and the interaction parameter. Tables 4, Figs 14, Refs 15.

  4. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  5. A Case of Complicated Silicosis with a Complex Clinical Course in a Glass Manufacturing Worker

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We reported a case of complicated silicosis that occurred in a glass manufacturing plant worker who had presumably been exposed to low-concentration free silica for almost 20 years. To the best of our knowledge this report is the first in the Republic of Korea. The physician’s first impression was cancer since the enlargement of neck and supraclavicuar lymph nodes had clearly progressed and metastasis was suspected in ultrasonography. However, it turned out to be reactive hyperplasia and anthracosis. Although lung cancer was suspected and tests were performed in 2 hospitals due to repetitive cough and dyspnea, along with weight loss of approximately 10% over the course of 7 months, the patient was eventually diagnosed with complicated silicosis and pneumothorax occurred after 1 year. Herein, we report this case with a literature review. PMID:24914413

  6. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    PubMed

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  7. Toward Failure Modeling In Complex Dynamic Systems: Impact of Design and Manufacturing Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; McAdams, Daniel A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When designing vehicle vibration monitoring systems for aerospace devices, it is common to use well-established models of vibration features to determine whether failures or defects exist. Most of the algorithms used for failure detection rely on these models to detect significant changes during a flight environment. In actual practice, however, most vehicle vibration monitoring systems are corrupted by high rates of false alarms and missed detections. Research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center has determined that a major reason for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections is the numerous sources of statistical variations that are not taken into account in the. modeling assumptions. In this paper, we address one such source of variations, namely, those caused during the design and manufacturing of rotating machinery components that make up aerospace systems. We present a novel way of modeling the vibration response by including design variations via probabilistic methods. The results demonstrate initial feasibility of the method, showing great promise in developing a general methodology for designing more accurate aerospace vehicle vibration monitoring systems.

  8. Tectonostratigraphy of the Mesozoic complexes of the northwestern part of the Koryak Highland, Ust' Belaya Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palechek, T. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Gul'pa, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    New data on the structure, age, and composition of the tectonostratigraphic complexes of the western part of the Koryak Highland are presented. The conclusions on the sedimentation conditions are drawn and primary relations are interpreted for most complexes. New Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Berriasian assemblages of radiolarians are established. Campanian radiolarians are found for the first time in the region.

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  10. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Contractor's work for Lewis Research Center on "thermal barrier" coatings designed to improve aircraft engine efficiency resulted in two related but separate spinoffs. The Materials and Manufacturing Technology Center of TRW, Inc. invented a robotic system for applying the coating, and in the course of that research found it necessary to develop a new, extremely accurate type of optical gage that offers multiple improvements in controlling the quality of certain manufactured parts.

  11. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, D.; Katušin-Ražem, B.; Starčević, M.; Galeković, B.

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to...

  14. Instructional Materials in Manufacturing for Junior High School Industrial Arts. Final Report and Parts I-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

    This Title XI Institute was designed and conducted to introduce the participants to inquiry and invention taking place in industrial arts curriculum across the United States. The institute participated in the inquiry stage through advanced study of manufacturing technology and industrial arts curriculum, and in the invention stage through the…

  15. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  16. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  17. Additive Manufacturing by selective laser melting the realizer desktop machine and its application for the dental industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Schmidt, Frank-Michael; Hötter, Jan-Steffen; Sokalla, Wolfgang; Sokalla, Patrick

    Additive Manufacturing of metal parts by Selective Laser Melting has become a powerful tool for the direct manufacturing of complex parts mainly for the aerospace and medical industry. With the introduction of its desktop machine, Realizer targeted the dental market. The contribution describes the special features of the machine, discusses details of the process and shows manufacturing results focused on metal dental devices.

  18. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  19. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John W; Slaba, Tony C; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z≤2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency. PMID:27345203

  20. Technology improvement of chromium on steel parts electrodeposition using complex command and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to provide improved technological process of electrochemical deposition of chromium on steel for decorative parts for corrosion protection but also to improve mechanical properties. The proposed idea is perfectly suited to be grafted onto existing electrodeposition installations, but it can be applied successfully in the development of new such plants. Complex command and control systems are designed to operate in high aggressive environmental conditions specific to these types of installations. The theoretical part completes the experimental results obtained on a laboratory facility.

  1. Numerical Prediction of Elastic Springback in An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    SciTech Connect

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio

    2007-04-07

    The occurrence of elastic springback phenomena in sheet metal processing operations determines a relevant issue in the automotive industry. The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. In the present paper the full routing of a automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing an explicit implicit approach. In particular a sensitivity analysis on process parameter influencing springback occurrence is developed: blank holder force, draw bead penetration and blank shape.

  2. Estrogen action and cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Part I: membrane-associated signaling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Segars, James H.; Driggers, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable progress in recent years has suggested that estrogen action in vivo is complex and often involves activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades in addition to genomic actions mediated directly through estrogen receptors α and β. Rather than a linear response mediated solely through estrogen-responsive DNA elements, in vivo estrogen might simultaneously activate distinct signaling cascades that function as networks to coordinate tissue responses to estrogen. This complex signaling system provides for exquisite control and plasticity of response to estrogen at the tissue level, and undoubtedly contributes to the remarkable tissue-specific responses to estrogens. In part I of this series, we summarize cytoplasmic signaling modules involving estrogen or estrogen receptors, with particular focus on recently described membrane-associated signaling complexes. PMID:12217492

  3. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  4. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  5. Method of producing complex aluminum alloy parts of high temper, and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Fully annealed aluminum sheet is first stretch formed to the complex, doubly compound shape of a previously prepared forming die, e.g., an ejection seat blowout panel of a shuttlecraft. The part is then marked with a series of grid lines for monitoring later elongation. Thereafter it is solution heat treated and refrigerated to retard hardening. While still soft, it is stretched a second time on the same die to induce a modicum of work hardening, after which it is aged to the desired stress corrosion resistant temper, preferably the T8 level, to provide the desired hardness and stress corrosion resistance.

  6. Processing of complex sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride parts by microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kimrey, H.D. ); Holcombe, C.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted over the last several years assessing the use of microwave heating for processing reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Although SRBSN test specimens up to 500g have been processed by using microwave heating, samples have been limited to simple shapes such as tiles. In this study, microwave packaging techniques were developed to process complex SRBSN parts and multiple samples within a single cycle. Physical and mechanical properties of test samples were measured. Comparison studies were performed using conventional furnace processing to establish baseline values and expected statistical variation.

  7. Processing of complex sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride parts by microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kimrey, H.D.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    Several studies have been conducted over the last several years assessing the use of microwave heating for processing reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Although SRBSN test specimens up to 500g have been processed by using microwave heating, samples have been limited to simple shapes such as tiles. In this study, microwave packaging techniques were developed to process complex SRBSN parts and multiple samples within a single cycle. Physical and mechanical properties of test samples were measured. Comparison studies were performed using conventional furnace processing to establish baseline values and expected statistical variation.

  8. Selective laser melting additive manufactured Inconel 718 superalloy parts: High-temperature oxidation property and its mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qingbo; Gu, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    This work presented a comprehensive study of high-temperature oxidation behaviors and mechanisms of Selective laser melting (SLM) processed Inconel 718 superalloy parts using different methods including isothermal oxidation testing, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the oxidation process of the tested parts processed at a lower volumetric laser energy density experienced the severe spallation. On reasonably increasing the applied volumetric laser energy density, the oxidation kinetics of the as-produced parts obeyed a parabolic law, exhibiting the significantly improved oxidation resistance performance. The constitutional phases within the oxidation film were identified and the corresponding formation mechanisms were elucidated in detail according to the thermodynamic principles. The cross-sectional morphologies of oxidized Inconel 718 parts indicated that the oxidation microstructure mainly consisted of an external oxidation layer and an internal oxidation zone. The oxidation process was controlled by the outward diffusion of oxide forming elements and inward penetration of oxygen, by which the interaction mechanisms between the microstructures and internal oxidation zones were clarified. On the basis of the experimental results and theoretical analyses, the physical oxidation mechanisms were accordingly established to illustrate the oxidation behaviors of SLM-processed Inconel 718 parts at elevated operative temperatures.

  9. Mental rotation of letters, body parts and complex scenes: separate or common mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Dalecki, Marc; Hoffmann, Uwe; Bock, Otmar

    2012-10-01

    This study compares mental rotation with three stimuli: letters, body parts and complex scenes. Twenty-four subjects saw letters and judged whether they were mirror-reversed or not (task LETTER), saw pictures of a hand and indicated whether it was a right or a left one (task HAND), and saw drawings of a person at a table on which a weapon and a rose laid and decided whether the weapon was to the person's right or left (task SCENE). Stimuli were presented in canonical orientation or rotated by up to 180°. Our analyses focused on intra-subject correlations between reaction times of the different tasks. We found that reaction times for stimuli in canonical orientation co-varied in HAND and LETTER, the increase of reaction times with increasing object rotation co-varied in HAND and SCENE, and reaction times for 180° rotations co-varied between all tasks. We suggest that basic processes like visual perception and decision-making are distinct for scenes versus letters and body parts, that the mechanism for mental rotation of letters is distinct from that for mental self- and body part rotation, and suggest an extra mechanism for 180° rotations that shared among all tasks. These findings confirm and expand hypotheses about mental rotation that were based on comparisons of between-subject means.

  10. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  11. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B. PMID:27536537

  12. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  13. Challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Part II. Feedback and occlusion effect reduction strategies, laser shell manufacturing processes, and other signal processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  14. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  15. Hybrid manufacturing : integrating direct write and sterolithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Donald W.; Inamdar, Asim; Lopes, Amit; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco; Hennessey, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    A commercial stereolithography (SL) machine was modified to integrate fluid dispensing or direct-write (DW) technology with SL in an integrated manufacturing environment for automated and efficient hybrid manufacturing of complex electrical devices, combining three-dimensional (3D) electrical circuitry with SL-manufactured parts. The modified SL system operates similarly to a commercially available machine, although build interrupts were used to stop and start the SL build while depositing fluid using the DW system. An additional linear encoder was attached to the SL platform z-stage and used to maintain accurate part registration during the SL and DW build processes. Individual STL files were required as part of the manufacturing process plan. The DW system employed a three-axis translation mechanism that was integrated with the commercial SL machine. Registration between the SL part, SL laser and the DW nozzle was maintained through the use of 0.025-inch diameter cylindrical reference holes manufactured in the part during SL. After depositing conductive ink using DW, the SL laser was commanded to trace the profile until the ink was cured. The current system allows for easy exchange between SL and DW in order to manufacture fully functional 3D electrical circuits and structures in a semi-automated environment. To demonstrate the manufacturing capabilities, the hybrid SL/DW setup was used to make a simple multi-layer SL part with embedded circuitry. This hybrid system is not intended to function as a commercial system, it is intended for experimental demonstration only. This hybrid SL/DW system has the potential for manufacturing fully functional electromechanical devices that are more compact, less expensive, and more reliable than their conventional predecessors, and work is ongoing in order to fully automate the current system.

  16. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  17. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part I: analytical methods and models

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B

    1985-01-01

    The redox state of glass from electric melters with complex feed compositions is determined by balance between gases above the melt, and transition metals and organic compounds in the feed. Part I discusses experimental and computational methods of relating flowrates and other melter operating conditions to the redox state of glass, and composition of the melter offgas. Computerized thermodynamic computational methods are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing individual process variations. Melter redox state can be predicted by combining monitoring of melter operating conditions, redox measurement of fused melter feed samples, and periodic redox measurement of product. Mossbauer spectroscopy, and other methods which measure Fe(II)/Fe(III) in glass, can be used to measure melter redox state. Part II develops preliminary operating limits for the vitrification of High-Level Radioactive Waste. Limits on reducing potential to preclude the accumulation of combustible gases, accumulation of sulfides and selenides, and degradation of melter components are the most critical. Problems associated with excessively oxidizing conditions, such as glass foaming and potential ruthenium volatility, are controlled when sufficient formic acid is added to adjust melter feed rheology.

  18. Numerical Prediction Of Elastic Springback In An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio; Lo Franco, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. FE analyses have to assure effectiveness and consistency in order to be utilized as design tool to be coupled to proper compensating techniques allowing to obtain the desired geometry at the and of the production sequence. In the present paper the full routing of a DP 600 steel automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing two different commercial codes. Althought finite element analysis is successful in simulating industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable applications of this phenomenon and its numerical prediction has not been widely demonstrated. In this paper the influence of the main numerical parameters has been considered i.e. type of the utilized shell element and number of integration points along the thickness, with the aim to improve the effectiveness and reliability of the numerical results. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental evidences derived from CMM acquisitions.

  19. Advancements in asphere manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

  20. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  1. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  2. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  3. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  4. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  5. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  6. Investigations on Manufacturability and Process Reliability of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Selective laser melting is a layer-wise manufacturing process that enables the use of complex geometric shapes in part design and production. An infrared laser beam is focused on a thin layer of metallic powder and selectively deflected in order to scan the cross-section of the parts being built. The process quality is dominated by the consolidation of powder particles through laser beam interaction, the part geometry itself and the arrangement of multiple parts. In this paper, the manufacturability is investigated by characterizing single melt tracks and the buildup of thin wall structures consisting of a few aligned scan tracks.

  7. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  8. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  9. Geology of the Northern Part of the Harcuvar Complex, West-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Bruce; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    In west-central Arizona near the northeast margin of the Basin and Range Province, the Rawhide detachment fault separates Tertiary and older rocks lacking significant effects of Tertiary metamorphism from Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks in the Harcuvar metamorphic core complex below. Much of the northern part of the Harcuvar complex in the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains is layered granitic gneiss, biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and minor pelitic schist that was probably deformed and metamorphosed in Early Proterozoic time. In the eastern Buckskin Mountains, Early and Middle Proterozoic plutons having U-Pb zircon ages of 1,683?6.4 mega-annum (Ma) and 1,388?2.3 Ma, respectively, intruded the layered gneiss. Small plutons of alkaline gabbro and diorite intruded in Late Jurassic time. A sample of mylonitized diorite from this unit has a U-Pb zircon age of 149?2.8 Ma. In the Early Cretaceous, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism was accompanied by partial melting and formation of migmatite. Zircon from a granitic layer in migmatitic gneiss in the eastern Harcuvar Mountains has a U-Pb age of 110?3.7 Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, sills and plutons of the granite of Tank Pass were emplaced in both the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains. In the Buckskin Mountains those intrusions are locally numerous enough to form an injection migmatite. A pluton of this granite crops out over almost half the area of the eastern Harcuvar Mountains. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were caught as slices along south-vergent Cretaceous thrusts related to the Maria fold and thrust belt and were metamorphosed beneath a thick sheet of Proterozoic crustal rocks. Inception of volcanism and basin formation in upper-plate rocks indicates that regional extension started at about 26 Ma, in late Oligocene. The Swansea Plutonic Suite, composed of rocks ranging from gabbro to granite, intruded the lower-plate rocks in the Miocene and Oligocene(?). Granite and a gabbro

  10. Elimination capacity of a TSE-model agent in the manufacturing process of Alphanate/Fanhdi, a human factor VIII/VWF complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Diez, J M; Caballero, S; Belda, F J; Otegui, M; Gajardo, R; Jorquera, J I

    2009-11-01

    The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), mainly present in the UK and is associated with the ingestion of bovine products affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Manufacturers of biological products must investigate the ability of their production processes to remove TSE agents. We studied the purification steps in the manufacturing process of two FVIII/VWF concentrates (Alphanate) and Fanhdi in their ability to eliminate an experimental TSE-model agent. Hamster scrapie strain 263K brain-derived materials were spiked into samples of the solutions taken before various stages during its production: 3.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, heparin affinity chromatography and saline precipitation/final filtrations. PEG precipitation and affinity chromatography were studied both as isolated and combined steps. TSE agent removal was determined using a laboratory scale model representative of the industrial manufacturing process. The prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was measured with Western blot and TSE infectivity was measured with bioassay. Western blot results were in agreement with those obtained by bioassay, showing a significant removal capacity in the production process: 3.21-3.43 log(10) for the PEG precipitation; about 3.45 log(10) for the affinity chromatography; and around 2.0 log(10) for the saline precipitation plus final filtrations. PEG precipitation and heparin affinity chromatography were demonstrated to be two complementary TSE-model agent removal mechanisms with total removal being the sum of the two. An overall reduction factor of around 8 log(10) can be deduced. The tests from the production process of FVIII/VWF complex concentrates have demonstrated their potential for eliminating TSE agents.

  11. Elimination capacity of a TSE-model agent in the manufacturing process of Alphanate/Fanhdi, a human factor VIII/VWF complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Diez, J M; Caballero, S; Belda, F J; Otegui, M; Gajardo, R; Jorquera, J I

    2009-11-01

    The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), mainly present in the UK and is associated with the ingestion of bovine products affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Manufacturers of biological products must investigate the ability of their production processes to remove TSE agents. We studied the purification steps in the manufacturing process of two FVIII/VWF concentrates (Alphanate) and Fanhdi in their ability to eliminate an experimental TSE-model agent. Hamster scrapie strain 263K brain-derived materials were spiked into samples of the solutions taken before various stages during its production: 3.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, heparin affinity chromatography and saline precipitation/final filtrations. PEG precipitation and affinity chromatography were studied both as isolated and combined steps. TSE agent removal was determined using a laboratory scale model representative of the industrial manufacturing process. The prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was measured with Western blot and TSE infectivity was measured with bioassay. Western blot results were in agreement with those obtained by bioassay, showing a significant removal capacity in the production process: 3.21-3.43 log(10) for the PEG precipitation; about 3.45 log(10) for the affinity chromatography; and around 2.0 log(10) for the saline precipitation plus final filtrations. PEG precipitation and heparin affinity chromatography were demonstrated to be two complementary TSE-model agent removal mechanisms with total removal being the sum of the two. An overall reduction factor of around 8 log(10) can be deduced. The tests from the production process of FVIII/VWF complex concentrates have demonstrated their potential for eliminating TSE agents. PMID:19563480

  12. Granitoid generation and laxfordian tectonic evolution in the northern part of the lewisian complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A.; Lopez, S.; Fernandez, C.

    2003-04-01

    Several terranes have been distinguished in the Lewisian complex of Scotland. The contact between the Rhiconich and Assynt terranes, in the northern part of the mainland Lewisian complex, is outlined by a major shear zone, the Laxford front. The tectonic activity in this shear zone took place mainly during the Early Proterozoic (1900 to 1600 Ma), defining a Laxfordian period of deformation and metamorphism. Generalized migmatization of the tonalite-trondhjemite (TT) gneisses developed coeval with the intrusion of abundant Fe-diorite tabular bodies in the Rhiconich terrane. Field structures indicate that both TT gneisses and Fe-diorites coexisted as melts or partially molten systems. The composition of the TT gneisses changes to granodioritic in the vicinity of the diorite intrusions. It is suggested that percolation of alkali-rich fluids released from the crystallising diorite magma through the TT migmatites could explain this compositional change. The presence of granite and pegmatite dikes is characteristic of the Rhiconich terrane. The observed structural relationships indicate that the migmatization of the TT gneisses and the intrusion of basic and granitic rocks are simultaneous processes, and that they developed in association with the Laxfordian deformation. In contrast, the Assynt terrane is almost devoid of basic and granitic intrusions during the Laxfordian period. The main structures developed within the Laxford front are a WNW-ESE oriented foliation, dipping to the north, and a lineation slightly plunging to the ESE. Kinematic criteria include composite planar fabrics, asymmetric porphyroclast systems and sheath folds, and allow us to deducing a dextral-reverse sense of movement. Similarly, the Laxfordian deformation in the Rhiconich terrane gave place to a pervasive foliation and lineation, north-verging folds and dextral-reverse minor shear zones. Accordingly, the Laxfordian period in the northern Lewisian can be wholly described as a dextral

  13. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  14. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  15. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  16. The classification of complex 4-part humeral fractures revisited: the missing fifth fragment and indications for surgery.

    PubMed

    Russo, Raffaele; Cautiero, Fabio; Della Rotonda, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    We describe a new classification of complex 4-part proximal humeral fractures (PHF). Its novelty lies in the involvement of fractures of the calcar area (i.e., the missing fifth fragment) in relation to fragments of the head, tuberosities and shaft. The classification consists of 6 groups (divided into 15 subgroups) of calcar fracture patterns. We hypothesized that this classification could aid surgical decision making in terms of osteosynthesis versus prothesis. To test this hypothesis, two shoulder surgeons, trained in the classification, re-examined the X-rays and CT scans of 100 cases of 4-part PHF to codify each calcar fracture pattern. CT scans proved to be essential for this process. We then theoretically assigned the most appropriate treatment to each subgroup. Subsequent verification of clinical records confirmed our hypothesis that this classification could help the surgeon to decide the best approach to complex 4-part PHF.

  17. Copper(i) complexes with phosphine derived from sparfloxacin. Part I - structures, spectroscopic properties and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Komarnicka, Urszula K; Starosta, Radosław; Kyzioł, Agnieszka; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-07-28

    In this paper we present new copper(i) iodide or copper(i) thiocyanate complexes with hydroxymethyldiphenylphosphine (PPh2(CH2OH)) or phosphine derivatives of sparfloxacin, a 3(rd) generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent (PPh2(CH2-Sf)) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) auxiliary ligands. The synthesised complexes were fully characterised by NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry. Selected structures were additionally analysed using X-ray and DFT methods. All complexes proved to be stable in solution in the presence of water and atmospheric oxygen for several days. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes was tested against two cancer cell lines (CT26 - mouse colon carcinoma and A549 - human lung adenocarcinoma). Applying two different incubation times, the studies enabled a preliminary estimation of the dependence of the selectivity and the mechanism of action on the type of diimine and phosphine ligands. The results obtained showed that complexes with PPh2(CH2-Sf) are significantly more active than those with PPh2(CH2OH). On the other hand, the relative impact of diimine on cytotoxicity is less pronounced. However, the dmp complexes are characterised by strong inhibitory properties, while the bq ones are rather not. This confirms the interesting and promising biological properties of the investigated group of copper(i) complexes, which undoubtedly are worthy of further biological studies.

  18. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  19. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  20. On the Reconstruction of a Damped Vibrating System from Two Complex Spectra, Part 2: Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FOLTÊTE, E.; GLADWELL, G. M. L.; LALLEMENT, G.

    2001-02-01

    This experimental-theoretical paper discusses whether, and how accurately, the mass, damping and stiffness matrices for a purportedly two-degree-of-freedom (2-d.o.f.) system may be reconstructed from the measured complex eigenvalues and/or eigenvectors. The system consists of two parallel cantilevered beams with end masses connected by a third, curved beam. Three procedures are used to reconstruct the matrices: the modal (M) method using real natural frequencies, real modes and modal damping factors; Danek's (D) reconstruction from complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors; a reconstruction (E) from complex eigenvalues of the original and constrained system. It is shown that the damping matrix constructed via D is extremely sensitive to errors in the phases of the complex eigenvectors. The reconstruction via E uses only eigenvalues which can be measured much more reliably than eigenvectors.

  1. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  2. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  3. Additive manufacturing: Overview and NDE challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are capable of producing highly complex and customized parts, without the need for dedicated tooling, and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet there are several challenges that are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Traditional Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods could be utilized in both in-process and post-process applications to help overcome these challenges, although currently there are very few examples of in-situ sensors for monitoring AM processes. This paper gives an overview of AM technology, and discusses the potential benefits and challenges of using NDE in AM applications.

  4. Complex home care: Part 2- family annual income, insurance premium, and out-of-pocket expenses.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Ross, Vicki M; Smith, Carol E; Clements, Faye; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    Annual costs paid by families for intravenous infusion of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-payments for health services, and the wide range of out-of-pocket home health care expenses are significant. The costs of managing complex chronic care at home cannot be completely understood until all out-of-pocket costs have been defined, described, and tabulated. Non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs paid by families over years for complex chronic care negatively impact the financial stability of families. National health care reform must take into account the long-term financial burdens of families caring for those with complex home care. Any changes that may increase the out-of-pocket costs or health insurance costs to these families can also have a negative long-term impact on society when greater numbers of patients declare bankruptcy or qualify for medical disability.

  5. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 541: Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides: A New Class of Antiglaucoma Agents

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Jitianu, Andrei

    1997-01-01

    Metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties were recently shown to be useful as intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering agents in experimental animals, and might be developed as a novel class of antiglaucoma drugs. Here we report the synthesis of a heterocyclic sulfonamide CA inhibitor and of the metal complexes containing main group metal ions, such as Be(II), Mg(II), Al(III), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) and the new sulfonamide as well as 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide as ligands. The new complexes were characterized by standard physico-chemical procedures, and assayed as inhibitors of three CA isozymes, CA I, II and IV. Some of them (but not the parent sulfonamides) strongly lowered IOP in rabbits when administered as a 2% solution into the eye. PMID:18475811

  6. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  7. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  8. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  9. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  10. Greater Than the Sum of Parts: Complexity of the Dynamic Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Soshnev, Alexey A; Josefowicz, Steven Z; Allis, C David

    2016-06-01

    Information encoded in DNA is interpreted, modified, and propagated as chromatin. The diversity of inputs encountered by eukaryotic genomes demands a matching capacity for transcriptional outcomes provided by the combinatorial and dynamic nature of epigenetic processes. Advances in genome editing, visualization technology, and genome-wide analyses have revealed unprecedented complexity of chromatin pathways, offering explanations to long-standing questions and presenting new challenges. Here, we review recent findings, exemplified by the emerging understanding of crossregulatory interactions within chromatin, and emphasize the pathologic outcomes of epigenetic misregulation in cancer. PMID:27259201

  11. Fabrication of ceramic components using mold shape deposition manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Alexander G.

    Mold Shape Deposition Manufacturing (Mold SDM) is a new process for the fabrication of geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. This thesis describes the development of the Mold SDM process, including process steps, materials selection, planning strategies and automation. Initial characterization results are presented and these are used to compare the process to competing manufacturing processes. A range of current and potential applications for ceramic, as well as metal and polymer parts are discussed. The benefits and limitations of ceramic materials for structural applications are discussed to motivate the need for a manufacturing process capable of rapidly producing high quality, geometrically complex, structural ceramic components. The Mold SDM process was developed to address this need. Mold SDM is based on Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) and uses SDM techniques to build fugitive wax molds which can then be used to build ceramic parts by gelcasting. SDM is an additive-subtractive layered manufacturing process which allows it to build geometrically complex parts. The subtraction step differentiates Mold SDM from other layered manufacturing processes and allows accurate, high quality surfaces to be produced. The performance of the process was increased by identifying the key material properties and then selecting improved materials combinations. Candidate materials were evaluated in terms of machinability, shrinkage, heat resistance and chemical compatibility. A number of preferred materials combinations were developed and used to produce ceramic, metal and polymer parts. A number of new process planning strategies and build techniques were developed. The manufacturability analysis determines whether a part is manufacturable and the orientation selection guidelines help in the selection of optimum build directions. New decomposition techniques take advantage of process capabilities to improve part quality and build rate. Initial process

  12. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  13. Rbfox Proteins Regulate Splicing as Part of a Large Multiprotein Complex LASR.

    PubMed

    Damianov, Andrey; Ying, Yi; Lin, Chia-Ho; Lee, Ji-Ann; Tran, Diana; Vashisht, Ajay A; Bahrami-Samani, Emad; Xing, Yi; Martin, Kelsey C; Wohlschlegel, James A; Black, Douglas L

    2016-04-21

    Rbfox proteins control alternative splicing and posttranscriptional regulation in mammalian brain and are implicated in neurological disease. These proteins recognize the RNA sequence (U)GCAUG, but their structures and diverse roles imply a variety of protein-protein interactions. We find that nuclear Rbfox proteins are bound within a large assembly of splicing regulators (LASR), a multimeric complex containing the proteins hnRNP M, hnRNP H, hnRNP C, Matrin3, NF110/NFAR-2, NF45, and DDX5, all approximately equimolar to Rbfox. We show that splicing repression mediated by hnRNP M is stimulated by Rbfox. Virtually all the intron-bound Rbfox is associated with LASR, and hnRNP M motifs are enriched adjacent to Rbfox crosslinking sites in vivo. These findings demonstrate that Rbfox proteins bind RNA with a defined set of cofactors and affect a broader set of exons than previously recognized. The function of this multimeric LASR complex has implications for deciphering the regulatory codes controlling splicing networks.

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  15. The use of Tecnomatix software to simulate the manufacturing flows in an industrial enterprise producing hydrostatic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, S.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis performed on manufacturing flows within industrial enterprises producing hydrostatic components twos made on a number of factors that influence smooth running of production such: distance between pieces, waiting time from one surgery to another; time achievement of setups on CNC machines; tool changing in case of a large number of operators and manufacturing complexity of large files [2]. To optimize the manufacturing flow it was used the software Tecnomatix. This software represents a complete portfolio of manufacturing solutions digital manufactured by Siemens. It provides innovation by linking all production methods of a product from process design, process simulation, validation and ending the manufacturing process. Among its many capabilities to create a wide range of simulations, the program offers various demonstrations regarding the behavior manufacturing cycles. This program allows the simulation and optimization of production systems and processes in several areas such as: car suppliers, production of industrial equipment; electronics manufacturing, design and production of aerospace and defense parts.

  16. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  17. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  18. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  19. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-07-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  20. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924

  1. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-07-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924

  2. The highly conserved orthopoxvirus 68k ankyrin-like protein is part of a cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Karin M; Schwantes, Astrid; Schnierle, Barbara S; Sutter, Gerd

    2008-05-10

    The 68k ankyrin-like protein (68k-ank) of unknown function is highly conserved among orthopoxviruses and contains ankyrin repeats and an F-box-like domain. We performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with 68k-ank to find interacting proteins. From a human and a murine cDNA library, 99% of the interaction partners were S-phase kinase-associated protein 1a (Skp1a), a part of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. 68k-ank co-immunoprecipitated with components of the endogenous, mammalian SCF ubiquitin ligase. This interaction was F-box domain dependent and could also be observed in infected cells, indicating that SCF complex formation might be important for the viral life cycle.

  3. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  4. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  5. A reduced-complexity model for river delta formation - Part 1: Modeling deltas with channel dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.

    2014-07-01

    We develop a reduced-complexity model (RCM) delta formation model, in contrast to reductionist models based on high-resolution computational fluid dynamics. The basic framework of this model (referred in this paper as "DeltaRCM") consists of stochastic parcel-based cellular routing schemes for water and sediment and a set of phenomenological rules for sediment deposition and erosion. The outputs of the model include flow field, water surface topography and bed topography that evolves in time. Results show that DeltaRCM is able to: (1) resolve a wide range of channel dynamics, including elongation, bifurcation, avulsion and migration; (2) in response to the changes in input parameters, produce different types of deltas such as alluvial fan deltas at experimental scale. We also identify three key areas of particular model sensitivity, even at the RCM level: (1) avulsion dynamics is sensitive to dynamic free-surface topography; (2) channel network structure is sensitive to instability at channel mouths which creates bars; and (3) out-of-channel sedimentation is sensitive to water surface slope along channel margins. We also demonstrate a simple stratigraphy tracking component which can display the structure of the deposit in terms of distribution of coarse and fine materials along with the age of the deposit. DeltaRCM is a useful tool for understanding the dynamics of river deltas within a relatively simple cellular representation of water and sediment transport.

  6. Localised slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinised dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration of serpentinised ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure; however the extents of strain localisation and unstable frictional sliding are still under debate. Microstructural and mineralogical evidence from dunites of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides demonstrates that prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of large-grained olivine rich in magnetite inclusions. The epitaxial growth of comparatively Fe-poor prograde olivine on Fe-richer relics of primary olivine caused a high variability in Fe-content, even within single crystals. On a larger scale, the average Fe-content of olivine rises towards the vein edges, which reflects a decrease in the degree of initial serpentinisation towards the host rock. The former distribution of serpentine strongly influenced the mechanical response of the rock to the fluid production during deserpentinisation: The faulting caused by the associated dehydration embrittlement occurred along highly localized slip planes in the centres of the meta-serpentinite veins. Around these slip planes, the prograde olivine experienced significant grain size reduction, but very limited shear strain. The strain concentration on narrow faults, also documented by a sharp offset of chromite layers, and the brittle deformation of the surrounding olivine suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. This natural example of deserpentinisation-induced embrittlement illustrates that structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins have first-order controls on strain localisation and frictional sliding. While strain may be distributed during dehydration of a homogeneous serpentinite, as has been observed in recent experimental studies, it may become strongly localised in a heterogeneous rock volume where fluid pressure is locally increased along pre-existing veins. As most of the oceanic lithosphere

  7. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  8. Mechanical analysis of lightweight constructions manufactured with fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagsik, A.; Josupeit, S.; Schoeppner, V.; Klemp, E.

    2014-05-01

    Additive production techniques have the advantage of manufacturing parts without needing a forming tool. One of the most used additive manufacturing processes is "Fused Deposition Modeling" (FDM) which allows the production of prototypes and end-use parts. Due to the manufacture layer by layer, also complex part geometries can be created in one working step. Furthermore, lightweight parts with specific inner core structures can be manufactured in order to achieve good weightrelated strength properties. In this paper the mechanical behavior of lightweight parts manufactured with the 3D production system Fortus 400mc from Stratasys and the material Polyetherimide (PEI) with the trade name Ultem*9085 is analyzed. The test specimens were built up with different inner structures and building directions. Therefore, test specimens with known lightweight core geometries (e.g. corrugated and honeycomb cores) were designed. A four-point bending test was conducted to analyze the strength properties as well as the weight-related strength properties. Additionally the influence of the structure width, the structure wall thickness and the top layer thickness was analyzed using a honeycomb structure.

  9. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part V: Electrostatically correlated spin-orbit and electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The continuation of the previous series of papers related to the construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms is presented. The contributions from the second-order perturbation theory concerning electrostatically correlated spin-orbit interactions (CSO), as well as electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions (CHFS) to the atomic structure of nlN, nlNn1l1^{N_1} and nlNn1l1^{N_1}n2l2^{N_2} configurations, are considered. This theory assumes that the electron excitation n0l0→ nl affects spin-orbit splitting and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure in the same way which will be discussed below. Part I of the series presented, in general terms, a method allowing the analysis of complex electronic systems. Parts II, III and IV provided a description of an electrostatic interaction up to second-order perturbation theory; they constitute the basis for the design of an efficient computer program package for large-scale calculations of accurate wave functions. Analyses presented in the entire series of our papers clearly demonstrate that obtaining the precise wave functions is impossible without considering the contribution from the second-order effects into fine and hyperfine atomic structure.

  10. Exploring Manufacturing Occupations. Instructor's Guide. The Manufacturing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Rutherford, NJ.

    The major focus of this guide and its accompanying student manual (CE 010 397) is to help the student understand the manufacturing enterprise. (The guide and student manual are part of a manufacturing cluster series which addresses itself to career awareness, orientation, exploration, and preparation.) Seven sections are included. An overview of…

  11. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  12. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  13. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  14. Composite intermediate case manufacturing scale-up for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, Rowena H.

    1992-01-01

    This Manufacturing Technology for Propulsion Program developed a process to produce a composite intermediate case for advanced gas turbine engines. The method selected to manufacture this large, complex part uses hard tooling for surfaces in the airflow path and trapped rubber to force the composite against the mold. Subelements were manufactured and tested to verify the selected design, tools, and processes. The most significant subelement produced was a half-scale version of a composite intermediate case. The half-scale subelement maintained the geometry and key dimensions of the full-scale case, allowing relevant process development and structural verification testing to be performed on the subelement before manufacturing the first full-scale case.

  15. A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.

  16. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  17. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  18. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  19. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  20. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Optimizing Clinical Operations as part of a Global Emergency Medicine Initiative in Kumasi, Ghana: Application of Lean Manufacturing Principals to Low Resource Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Desmond, Jeffery S.; Akanbobnaab, Christopher; Oteng, Rockefeller A.; Rominski, Sarah; Barsan, William G.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many global health programs focus on providing clinical care or medical education, improving clinical operations can have a significant effect on patient care delivery, especially in developing health systems without high-level operations management. Lean manufacturing techniques have been effective in decreasing emergency department (ED) length of stay, patient waiting times, numbers of patients leaving without being seen, and door-to-balloon times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in developed health systems; but use of Lean in low to middle income countries with developing emergency medicine systems has not been well characterized. Objectives To describe the application of Lean manufacturing techniques to improve clinical operations at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana and to identify key lessons learned to aid future global EM initiatives. Methods A three-week Lean improvement program focused on the hospital admissions process at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital was completed by a 14-person team in six stages: problem definition, scope of project planning, value stream mapping, root cause analysis, future state planning, and implementation planning. Results The authors identified eight lessons learned during our use of Lean to optimize the operations of an ED in a global health setting: 1) the Lean process aided in building a partnership with Ghanaian colleagues; 2) obtaining and maintaining senior institutional support is necessary and challenging; 3) addressing power differences among the team to obtain feedback from all team members is critical to successful Lean analysis; 4) choosing a manageable initial project is critical to influence long-term Lean use in a new environment; 5) data intensive Lean tools can be adapted and are effective in a less resourced health system; 6) several Lean tools focused on team problem solving techniques worked well in a low resource system without modification; 7) using Lean highlighted that

  2. Effect of changes in complex part of the refractive index on polarization of light scattered from haze and clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1969-12-01

    The polarization and radiance of the reflected and transmitted radiation is calculated for a continental haze model and for a nimbostratus cloud model. The complex part of the index of refraction n(2) is varied from 0 to 1 in the calculation. Various surface albedos and optical thicknesses for the haze and cloud are considered. The polarization is an especially sensitive function of these parameters. For a thin cloud the reflected polarization depends strongly on the surface albedo. Large polarizations often occur, even at large optical thicknesses, when the single scattering albedo is small, because of the small number of multiple scattered photons. The mean optical path, diffuse flux, and cloud albedo are also discussed.

  3. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer.

  4. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  5. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  6. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-03-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  7. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  8. Mineralized and unmineralized calderas in Spain; Part II, evolution of the Rodalquilar caldera complex and associated gold-alunite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.; Arribas, A.; Cunningham, C.G.; McKee, E.H.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Smith, James G.; Kelly, W.C.; Arribas, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Rodalquilar caldera complex is located in the western part of the Cabo de Gata volcanic field in southeastern Spain and is the first documented example of epithermal gold-alunite mineralization within a caldera in Europe. The Rodalquilar caldera is an oval collapse structure having a maximum diameter of 8 km and formed at 11 Ma from eruption of the Cinto ash-flow tuff. The oval Lomilla caldera, with a diameter of 2 km, is nested within the central resurgent dome of the older Rodalquilar caldera. The Lomilla caldera resulted from the eruption of the Lazaras ash-flow tuff which was ponded within the moat of the Rodalquilar caldera. The last phase of volcanic activity in the caldera complex was the emplacement of hornblende andesite flows and intrusions. This magmatic event resulted in structural doming of the caldera, opening of fractures and faults, and provided the heat source for the large hydrothermal systems which deposited quartz-alunite type gold deposits and base metal vein systems. The gold-alunite deposits are enclosed in areas of intense acid sulfate alteration and localized in ring and radial faults and fractures present in the east wall of the Lomilla caldera. Like other acid-sulfate type deposits, the Rodalquilar gold-alunite deposits are closely related in time and space to porphyritic, intermediate composition magma emplaced along caldera structures but unrelated to the caldera forming magmatic system. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  10. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  11. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants. First draft of final report of part one and quarterly report of part two, January 3, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1994-11-01

    Included in this report is a compiled partial list of presently used processing materials in the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry and the manufacturers, intended uses, and applications of each. Also listed are the processing materials that have received final acceptance for this contracted study. An analytical methodology discussion is presented, including the final decision and the limitations of said methodology, as well as how to establish a level of confidence in observed immiscible material components in two 32 ISO VG polyolesters: (1) Mobil EAL Arctic 32; and (2) ICI Emkarate RL32H; both with HFC 134a refrigerant solutions.

  12. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  13. Solid-State Additive Manufacturing for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfolk, Mark; Johnson, Hilary

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities in devices are increasing across many industries including power generation, high power electronics, manufacturing, and automotive. Increasingly, there is a need for very high efficiency thermal management devices that can pull heat out of a small area at higher and higher rates. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have the promise of creating parts with complex internal geometries required for integral thermal management. However, this goal has not been met due to constraints in fusion-based metal 3D printers. This work presents a new strategy for metal AM of heat exchangers using an ultrasonic sheet lamination approach.

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  15. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  16. Mortality and incidence of cancer among oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Part 2. Mortality and cancer incidence 1953-84.

    PubMed Central

    Rønneberg, A; Andersen, A; Skyberg, K

    1988-01-01

    Mortality and incidence of cancer 1953-84 was studied in a cohort of 529 men exposed to mineral oils in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Expected numbers of deaths were calculated from national death rates and cases of cancer from regional incidence rates. Among the 195 men who had worked for less than one year, there were statistically significant excesses of deaths from all causes (O/E = 75/39.3) and from malignant neoplasms, ischaemic heart disease, non-malignant respiratory disease, and violence. In a subcohort of all 248 men with known work category and at least one year's employment in oil exposed work statistically significant excesses of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (O/E = 26/16.1) and cases of lung cancer (O/E = 10/3.9) were observed. Nine of the cases of lung cancer had occurred 20 years or more after first employment (2.7 expected; p less than 0.01). In smokers of this subcohort there were 7.06 cases of lung cancer per 1000 person-years compared with 1.30 in smokers of a general population sample. It is concluded that exposure to mineral oils has probably been an important contributing factor in the development of lung cancer among these workers. PMID:3179234

  17. Mortality and incidence of cancer among oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Part 2. Mortality and cancer incidence 1953-84.

    PubMed

    Rønneberg, A; Andersen, A; Skyberg, K

    1988-09-01

    Mortality and incidence of cancer 1953-84 was studied in a cohort of 529 men exposed to mineral oils in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Expected numbers of deaths were calculated from national death rates and cases of cancer from regional incidence rates. Among the 195 men who had worked for less than one year, there were statistically significant excesses of deaths from all causes (O/E = 75/39.3) and from malignant neoplasms, ischaemic heart disease, non-malignant respiratory disease, and violence. In a subcohort of all 248 men with known work category and at least one year's employment in oil exposed work statistically significant excesses of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (O/E = 26/16.1) and cases of lung cancer (O/E = 10/3.9) were observed. Nine of the cases of lung cancer had occurred 20 years or more after first employment (2.7 expected; p less than 0.01). In smokers of this subcohort there were 7.06 cases of lung cancer per 1000 person-years compared with 1.30 in smokers of a general population sample. It is concluded that exposure to mineral oils has probably been an important contributing factor in the development of lung cancer among these workers.

  18. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  19. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

  20. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    ScienceCinema

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-07-12

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  2. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  3. 3D Geometrical Inspection of Complex Geometry Parts Using a Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor and a Robot

    PubMed Central

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly “coupled” as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a “zero” or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  4. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy.

  5. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  6. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Jukka; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial-scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state-of-art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular-based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot-melt processing and printing-based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed.

  7. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  8. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  9. Minimum chemical requirements for adhesin activity of the acid-stable part of Candida albicans cell wall phosphomannoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, T; Cutler, J E

    1998-12-01

    This study was conducted to define adhesive characteristics of the acid-stable moiety of the Candida albicans phosphomannoprotein complex (PMPC) on adherence of this fungus to marginal zone macrophages of the mouse spleen. Complete digestion of the acid-stable moiety (Fr.IIS) of the C. albicans PMPC with an alpha-mannosidase or hydrolysis with 0.6 N sulfuric acid destroyed adhesin activity, as determined by the inability of the soluble digests to inhibit yeast cell adherence to the splenic marginal zone. Fr.IIS adhesin activity was decreased following digestion with an alpha-1,2-specific mannosidase. Oligomannosyls consisting of one to six mannose units, which were isolated from the acid-stable part of the PMPC, did not inhibit yeast cell binding and thus do not function alone as adhesin sites in the PMPC. To gain more insight into the minimum requirements for adhesin activity, PMPCs were isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type strain and from mutant strains mnn1, mnn2, and mnn4; the PMPCs were designated scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, scmn2/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II, respectively. S. cerevisiae scmn2/Fr.II lacks oligomannosyl side chain branches from the outer core mannan, and scmn2/Fr.II was the only PMPC without adhesin activity. S. cerevisiae scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II showed adhesin activities less than that of C. albicans Fr.II. These three S. cerevisiae PMPCs are generally similar to Fr. IIS, except that the S. cerevisiae structure has fewer and shorter side chains. Immunofluorescence microscopy show that the acid-stable part of the PMPC is displayed homogeneously on the C. albicans yeast cell surface, which would be expected for a surface adhesin. Our results indicate that both the mannan core and the oligomannosyl side chains are responsible for the adhesin activity of the acid-stable part of the PMPC. PMID:9826359

  10. Epigenetic modification of DRG neuronal gene expression subsequent to nerve injury: Etiological contribution to complex regional pain syndromes (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuzhou; Stefano, George B.; Kream, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    DRG is of importance in relaying painful stimulation to the higher pain centers and therefore could be a crucial target for early intervention aimed at suppressing primary afferent stimulation. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition with an unknown etiology. Recently added new information enriches our understanding of CRPS pathophysiology. Researches on genetics, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and mechanisms of pain modulation, central sensitization, and autonomic functions in CRPS revealed various abnormalities indicating that multiple factors and mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Epigenetics refers to mitotically and meiotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not affect the DNA sequence. As epigenetic modifications potentially play an important role in inflammatory cytokine metabolism, neurotransmitter responsiveness, and analgesic sensitivity, they are likely key factors in the development of chronic pain. In this dyad review series, we systematically examine the nerve injury-related changes in the neurological system and their contribution to CRPS. In this part, we first reviewed and summarized the role of neural sensitization in DRG neurons in performing function in the context of pain processing. Particular emphasis is placed on the cellular and molecular changes after nerve injury as well as different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These were considered as the potential molecular bases that underlie nerve injury-associated pathogenesis of CRPS. PMID:24961509

  11. MEGARA optical manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  12. Gas migration pathways in a complex faulted hangingwall in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, Emil K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2013-04-01

    The studied fault is positioned in the westernmost Danish part of the Norwegian Danish Basin at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin. The dominating fault is the so called D-1 fault, which is part of a fault trend which follows the southern pinch-out line of the Zechstein salt and detach along the top Zechstein evaporites. Just north of the D-1 fault is the only Danish commercial HC producing area outside the Mesozoic Central Graben -the Siri Canyon- located The presence of gas within the Neogene sediments at the hanging-wall of the D-1 fault was reported in the D-1 well and the D-1 fault was analyzed in detail using 2-D seismic data in the early 90-ies. Due to the open seismic grid used then it was not possible to link the presence of possible gas occurrences and the faults as well as linking the small faults associated to the hanging-wall deformation. The area was subject to renewed interest due to the HC discoveries in the Siri Valley and industrial 3-D seismic data was acquired covering the D-1 fault.The 3D seismic data has enabled a very detailed mapping of the entire D-1 fault complex as well as seismic attribute analysis (courtesy OpendTect). The D-1 fault is in map-view characterized by segments approximately 10 km long striking E-W and NE-SW respectively. In the Cretaceous and Cenozoic part is the main fault coherent whereas the antithetic and secondary synthetic faults in the hanging-wall are smaller (both with respect to offset and length). The character of the internal hanging-wall faults varies along strike of the main fault. In areas adjacent to NE-SW striking segments is the number of faults much higher and they strike both parallel to the main fault and at an angle to it; whereas the faults are longer, less numerous and dominantly parallel to the main fault in the E-W striking central parts. Gas occurrences are observed as bright-spots associated to small faults in the hanging-wall next to the NE-SW striking segments, whereas

  13. Forest Fires, Oil Spills, and Fractal Geometry: An Investigation in Two Parts. Part 2: Using Fractal Complexity to Analyze Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, L. Charles

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)

  14. Remobilization and degradation of Muostakh Island (Laptev Sea) as part of the collapsing Arctic coastal ice complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Vonk, J.; Charkin, A.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2010-05-01

    East Siberiańs permafrost is thought to contain about 400 GtC (Giga = 109) [1] in form of the so-called Yedoma or Ice Complex, a huge stock of carbon mainly as frozen loess deposits formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (~40,000 years ago). The Pleistocene Ice Complex has not undergone much alteration by soil microorganisms since deposited, which makes it particularly sensitive to global warming effects on large-scale C dynamics. Accelerated coastal erosion of the Ice Complexes is brought on by a combination of thermal collapse, sea-level rise and enhanced wave fetch from loss of coastal sea-ice cover [2, 3]. Despite coastal erosion is estimated to deliver as much OC to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as all the great Russian-Arctic rivers combined [3], the process is poorly understood, in particular with regard to the fate of the OM derived from coastal erosion. This study aims to alleviate the lack of information on the remobilization of OM from massive coastal erosion in the ESAS. The erosion evolution of a significant example of this destructive geological process (Muostakh Island, SE Laptev Sea), has been observed over the past decade and it has been estimated a retreat rate up to 20 m during the summer months (from 2001 to 2009). In summer 2006, soil samples were collected from Muostakh at 11 different locations along four 'erosion transects', spanning reliefs with ranges of approximately 25 m from the top plateau to the water boundary. On-site CO2measurements were carried out on the surface along five different transects across the island. Quantification of the organic carbon (OC), bulk 14C content and biomarker analysis (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, sterols) were performed to elucidate whether the old carbon forms eroded from Muostakh Island are subject to degradation. Elemental and isotopic analyses showed a vertical trend of younger (~modern) and C-enriched (OC~38%) material toward the plateau of the island, in contrast to the older

  15. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  16. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  17. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  18. Ultrasonic online monitoring of additive manufacturing processes based on selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Hans; Dillhöfer, Alexander; Spies, Martin; Bamberg, Joachim; Hess, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes have become commercially available and are particularly interesting for the production of free-formed parts. Selective laser melting allows to manufacture components by localized melting of successive layers of metal powder. In order to be able to describe and to understand the complex dynamics of selective laser melting processes more accurately, online measurements using ultrasound have been performed for the first time. In this contribution, we report on the integration of the measurement technique into the manufacturing facility and on a variety of promising monitoring results.

  19. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  20. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB.

  1. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  2. Biological evaluation of mechlorethamine-Pt(II) complex, part II: antimicrobial screening and lox study of the complex and its ligand.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Ivana D; Petrović, Zorica D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Simijonović, Dušica; Petrović, Vladimir P; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with anticancer-alkylating agent mechlorethamine hydrochloride (CH(3)NH(C(2)H(4)Cl)(2) x HCl = HN2×HCl), in the molar ratio 1 : 2, affords the complex [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)]. In vitro antimicrobial and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the complex and its precursor were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity of the HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex was investigated against 29 species of microorganisms. Testing is performed by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. The difference between antimicrobial activity of precursor and corresponding platinum(II) complex is noticed and the activity of the precursor was higher. Tested compounds demonstrated the high and significant antifungal activity and low to moderate antibacterial activity. It was shown that the gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than the gram-negative. UV absorbance-based enzyme assays were performed with HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex, in order to evaluate their in vitro inhibitory activity of soybean lipoxygenase (LOX), also. Assay with LOX showed significantly greater inhibitory activity of the complex, than the precursor.

  3. From ligand to complexes. Part 2. Remarks on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibition by beta-diketo acid metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Alessia; Biemmi, Mariano; Carcelli, Mauro; Carta, Fabrizio; Compari, Carlotta; Fisicaro, Emilia; Rogolino, Dominga; Sechi, Mario; Sippel, Martin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Sanchez, Tino W; Neamati, Nouri

    2008-11-27

    Previously, we synthesized a series of beta-diketo acid metal complexes as novel HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (J. Med. Chem. 2006, 46, 4248-4260). Herein, a further extension of this study is reported. First, detailed docking studies were performed in order to investigate the mode of binding in the active site of the free ligands and of their metal complexes. Second, a series of potentiometric measurements were conducted for two diketo acids chosen as model ligands, with Mn(2+) and Ca(2+), in order to outline a speciation model. Third, we designed and synthesized a new set of complexes with different stoichiometries and tested them in an in vitro assay specific for IN. Finally, we obtained the first X-ray structure of a metal complex with HIV-1 IN inhibition activity. Analysis of these results supports the hypothesis that the diketo acids could act as complexes and form complexes with the metal ions on the active site of the enzyme.

  4. Computers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    CAD/CAM advances and applications for enhancing productivity in industry are explored. Wide-spread use of CAD/CAM devices are projected to occur by the time period 1992-1997, resulting in a higher percentage of technicians in the manufacturing process, while the cost of computers and software will continue to fall and become more widely available. Computer aided design is becoming a commercially viable system for design and geometric modeling, engineering analysis, kinematics, and drafting, and efforts to bridge the gap between CAD and CAM are indicated, with particular attention given to layering, wherein individual monitoring of different parts of the manufacturing process can be effected without crossover of unnecessary information. The potentials and barriers to the use of robotics are described, with the added optimism that displaced workers to date have moved up to jobs of higher skill and interest.

  5. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  6. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  7. Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 71 Synthesis and Fungitoxic Activity of Metal Complexes Containing 1,3,5-tris-(8-Hydroxyquinolino)- Trichlorocyclo-Triphosphazatriene

    PubMed Central

    Barboiu, Mihai; Guran, Cornelia; Jitaru, Ioana; Cimpoesu, Marilena

    1996-01-01

    Complexes containing 1,3,5-tris-(8-hydroxyquinolino)-trichlorocyclotriphosphazatriene, a new cyclophosphazene ligand, and Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were prepared. The new complexes, having the general formula [MLCl2], [ML2]Cl2, (M=Cu, Co, Ni); [NiLAc], [NiL2Ac]Ac and [ML3]X3 (M=Ni, Co, X=Cl, Ac) were characterised by elemental analysis, electronic-, IR spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. Some of them inhibited the growth of several fungi species (Aspergillus and Candida spp.) PMID:18472899

  8. Spectroscopic study of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part I.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ximao; Pan, Xiaowei; Li, Mei; Pieper, Jörg; Chang, Wenrui; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Recent structural data revealed that the CP29 protein of higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 13 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309), i.e., five Chl's more than in the predicted CP29 homology-based structure model (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056). This lack of consensus presents a constraint on the interpretation of CP29 optical spectra and their underlying electronic structure. To address this problem, we present new low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, and hole-burned (HB) spectra for CP29 proteins from spinach, which are compared with the previously reported data. We focus on excitation energy transfer (EET) and the nature of the lowest-energy state(s). We argue that CP29 proteins previously studied by HB spectroscopy lacked at least one Chl a molecule (i.e., a615 or a611), which along with Chl a612 contribute to the lowest energy state in more intact CP29, and one Chl b (most likely b607). This is why the low-energy state and fluorescence maxima reported by Pieper et al. (Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574) were blue-shifted by ~1 nm, the low-energy state appeared to be highly localized on a single Chl a molecule, and the position of the low-energy state was independent of burning fluence. In contrast, the position of the nonresonant HB spectrum shifts blue with increasing fluence in intact CP29, as this state is strongly contributed to by several pigments (i.e., a611, a612, a615, and a610). Zero-phonon hole widths obtained for the Chl b band at 638.5 nm (5 K) revealed two independent Chl b → Chl a EET times, i.e., 4 ± 0.5 and 0.4 ± 0.1 ps. The latter value is a factor of 2 faster than previously observed by HB spectroscopy and very similar to the one observed by Gradinaru et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 9330) in pump-probe experiments. EET time from 650 nm Chl b → Chl a and downward EET from Chl(s) a state(s) at 665 nm occurs in 4.9 ± 0.7 ps. These findings

  9. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  10. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  12. Microlabels For Auto Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed method of unique labeling and identification of automotive parts greatly simplifies recall campaigns and reduces effort and expense associated. Compressed symbols fully characterize each part by type and manufacturing history. Manufacturers notify only those owners whose cars need repairs or modifications. Similar compressed symbology developed for possible use on spacecraft.

  13. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  14. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  15. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  16. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  17. 27 CFR 53.181 - Further manufacture included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Further manufacture... Further manufacture included. (a) In general. The payment of tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the... of any use in further manufacture, or sale as part of a second manufactured article, described...

  18. Highly reduced organometallics of the Group IV elements: Part One. The study of (trmpe) metal tetracarbonyl complexes of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium. Part Two. The study of bis-arene titanium complexes prepared from arene radical anions

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Potassium naphthalenide reduction of solutions of the Group IV transition metal salts MCl[sub 4][center dot]THF, M = Ti, Zr, and Hf, in the presence of the tridentate phosphine ligand 1,1,1-tris(dimethylphosphinomethyl)ethane (trmpe), at -70[degrees] under Ar, followed by carbonylation at atmospheric pressure, provides the zerovalent carbonylphosphine complexes M(CO)[sub 4](trmpe). Yields range from 5% for Hf to 50% for Ti. The complexes were characterized by [sup 31]P and [sup 13]C NMR studies, and the Zr complex additionally by X-ray crystallography. The titanium complex reacts with triphenylstannide to displace one carbon monoxide ligand, forming the [(trmpe)Ti(CO)[sub 3](Sn(C[sub 6]H[sub 5])[sub 3])] anion. The reduction of TiCl[sub 4][center dot]2THF with arene radical anions provides bis-arene sandwich complexes in high yield (80-95%). For arene = naphthalene, the 18-electron [Ti(C[sub 10]H[sub 8])[sub 2

  19. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  20. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods. PMID:26373427

  1. Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 1. Synthesis of Coordination Compounds of Diazoxide With Transition- and Main-Group Cations

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    1996-01-01

    Complexes of diazoxide (3-methyl-7-chloro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide) - an antihypertensive and hyperglycemic pharmacological agent - with a series of transition- and main-group di-, triand tetravalent metal ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric, magnetic and conductimetric measurements. The complexes were tested as inhibitors of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), proving modest activity towards CA II and better inhibition of CA I. PMID:18472790

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  3. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  5. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  6. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  7. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  8. Motorcycle Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  9. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  10. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  11. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  12. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  13. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  14. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE AUTOMOBILES § 529... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grant Origination § 3560.70 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. (a) Design requirements. Manufactured housing must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A applicable to manufactured..., as applicable, must provide a warranty in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1924,...

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Functional Elements on Sheet Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Adam; Ahuja, Bhrigu; Butzhammer, Lorenz; Osterziel, Johannes; Schmidt, Michael; Merklein, Marion

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM) process with its advantages of high design flexibility and free form manufacturing methodology is often applied limitedly due to its low productivity and unsuitability for mass production compared to conventional manufacturing processes. In order to overcome these limitations, a hybrid manufacturing methodology is developed combining the additive manufacturing process of laser beam melting with sheet forming processes. With an interest towards aerospace and medical industry, the material in focus is Ti-6Al-4V. Although Ti-6Al-4V is a commercially established material and its application for LBM process has been extensively investigated, the combination of LBM of Ti-6Al-4V with sheet metal still needs to be researched. Process dynamics such as high temperature gradients and thermally induced stresses lead to complex stress states at the interaction zone between the sheet and LBM structure. Within the presented paper mechanical characterization of hybrid parts will be performed by shear testing. The association of shear strength with process parameters is further investigated by analyzing the internal structure of the hybrid geometry at varying energy inputs during the LBM process. In order to compare the hybrid manufacturing methodology with conventional fabrication, the conventional methodologies subtractive machining and state of the art Laser Beam Melting is evaluated within this work. These processes will be analyzed for their mechanical characteristics and productivity by determining the build time and raw material consumption for each case. The paper is concluded by presenting the characteristics of the hybrid manufacturing methodology compared to alternative manufacturing technologies.

  19. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  20. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  1. Technology: Manufacturing, Transportation, Construction, Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The technology-based student activities in this curriculum resource book are intended to be incorporated into any industrial arts/technology education program. The activities are classified according to one of four technological systems--construction, communications, manufacturing, and transportation. Within the four parts of the guide, individual…

  2. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  3. 5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, part of tail race also visible. - Falls of the Neuse Manufacturing Plant, West bank of Neuse River at State Route 2000, Falls, Wake County, NC

  4. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  5. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  6. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  7. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  8. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  9. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  10. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  11. Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Shirvanyants, David; Ermoshkin, Nikita; Janusziewicz, Rima; Johnson, Ashley R; Kelly, David; Chen, Kai; Pinschmidt, Robert; Rolland, Jason P; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Samulski, Edward T; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-03-20

    Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

  12. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part II: Transport and Diffusion of Tracer under Stable Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, Lisa S.; Allwine, K Jerry; Banta, Robert M.

    2006-05-01

    Differences in nighttime transport and diffusion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer in an urban complex-terrain setting (Salt Lake City, Utah) are investigated using surface and Dopplerlidar wind data, and large-scale surface pressure differences. Interacting scales of motion, as studied through the URBAN 2000 field program combined with the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX), explained the differences in the tracer behavior during three separate Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). With an emphasis on nighttime stable boundary layer conditions, these field programs were designed to study flow features responsible for the nighttime transport of airborne substances. This transport has implications for air quality, homeland security, and emergency response issues if the airborne substances are hazardous. The important flow features investigated included thermally forced canyon and slope flows and a low-level jet (LLJ) that dominated the basin-scale winds when the surface pressure gradient was weak. The presence of thermally forced flows contributed to the complexity and hindered the predictability of the tracer motion within and beyond the city. When organized thermally forced flows were present, the tracer tended to stay closer to the city for longer periods of time, even though a strong basin-scale LLJ did develop. When thermally forced flows were short-lived or absent, the basin-scale low-level jet dominated the wind field and enhanced the transport of tracer material out of the city.

  13. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part I: Evolution and Effects on Local Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pinto, James O.; Whiteman, C. David; Shaw, William J.; Orr, Brad W.

    2004-10-01

    A Doppler lidar deployed to the center of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) basin during the Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) field campaign in October 2000 found a diurnal cycle of the along-basin winds with northerly up-basin flow during the day and a southerly down-basin low-level jet at night. The emphasis of VTMX was on stable atmospheric processes in the cold-air pool that formed in the basin at night. During the night the jet was fully formed as it entered the GSL basin from the south. Thus, it was a feature of the complex string of basins draining toward the Great Salt Lake, which included at least the Utah Lake basin to the south. The timing of the evening reversal to down-basin flow was sensitive to the larger-scale north south pressure gradient imposed on the basin complex. On nights when the pressure gradient was not too strong, local drainage flow (slope flows and canyon outflow) was well developed along the Wasatch Range to the east and coexisted with the basin jet. The coexistence of these two types of flow generated localized regions of convergence and divergence, in which regions of vertical motion and transport were focused. Mesoscale numerical simulations captured these features and indicated that updrafts on the order of 5 cm s-1 could persist in these localized convergence zones, contributing to vertical displacement of air masses within the basin cold pool.


  14. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry.

    PubMed

    Slaba, Tony C; Wilson, John W; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency. PMID:27345204

  15. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  16. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  17. The grand tour of the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada: Part 1 - Introduction & road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; McGrew, A.J.; Burton, B.R.; Barnes, C.G.; Peters, M.T.; Wright, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this geological excursion is to provide an overview of the multiphase developmental history of the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, northeastern Nevada. Although these mountain ranges are commonly cited as a classic example of a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex developed through large-magnitude, mid-Tertiary crustal extension, a preceding polyphase Mesozoic contractional history is also well preserved in the ranges. An early phase of this history involved Late Jurassic two-mica granitic magmatism, high-temperature but relatively low-pressure metamorphism, and polyphase deformation in the central Ruby Mountains. In the northern Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, a Late Cretaceous history of crustal shortening, metamorphism, and magmatism is manifested by fold-nappes (involving Archean basement rocks in the northern East Humboldt Range), widespread migmatization, injection of monzogranitic and leucogranitic magmas, all coupled with sillimanite-grade metamorphism. Following Late Cretaceous contraction, a protracted extensional deformation partially overprinted these areas during the Cenozoic. This extensional history may have begun as early as the Late Cretaceous or as late as the mid-Eocene. Late Eocene and Oligocene magmatism occurred at various levels in the crust yielding mafic to felsic orthogneisses in the deep crust, a composite granitic pluton in the upper crust, and volcanic rocks at the surface. Movement along a west-rooted, extensional shear zone in the Oligocene and early Miocene led to core-complex exhumation. The shear zone produced mylonitic rocks about 1 km thick at deep crustal levels, and an overprint of brittle detachment faulting at shallower levels as unroofing proceeded. Megabreccias and other synextensional sedimentary deposits are locally preserved in a tilted, upper Eocene through Miocene stratigraphic sequence. Neogene magmatism included the emplacement of basalt dikes and eruption of rhyolitic rocks. Subsequent

  18. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-06-18

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction all waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis [9, 16] have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub int} = 75) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents {gamma}, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions from shock polar analysis. In all cases considered, excellent agreement between the simulation results and the analytical predictions was found. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method is a very useful numerical method for the simulation and modeling of complex hydrodynamic flows.

  19. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  20. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.; Owen, Steven J.; Siefert, Christopher M.; Staten, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012), 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs). We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertaintymore » quantification results for a 3D PDE application.« less

  1. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  3. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-01-31

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method

  4. Synthesis, complex formation, spectral and crystallographic investigations of new crown ethers containing recognition site for sodium. Part V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayvalı, Z.; Hayvalı, M.; Kılıç, Z.; Hökelek, T.

    2001-10-01

    The monotopic crown ether ligands (5 and 6) and their sodium perchlorate complexes (5a and 6a) have been synthesized. The crystal structure of (5) has been determined, which contains 1 mol of water molecule. Compound (5) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with a=39.324(8), b=8.011(1), c=16.877(4) Å, β=107.61(2)°, V=5067.5(2) Å 3, Z=8 and Dcalc=1.289 g m -3. The relative macrocyclic inner hole size, estimated as twice the mean distance of the donor atoms from their centroid is approximately 1.68 Å. The phenazone and benzo crown ether precursors about CN imine bond are in anti ( E) configuration. The CN imine bond length and CN-C bond angle are 1.270(3) Å and 120.4(2)°, respectively. Compounds (6) and (6a) are in phenol-imine forms as supported by 1H-NMR and UV-visible data.

  5. Epidemiological risk for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by species of Phyllosoma complex in the occidental part of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magallón-Gastélum, Ezequiel; Lozano-Kasten, Felipe; Gutierréz, Margarita Soto; Flores-Pérez, Angelica; Sánchez, Beatriz; Espinoza, Bertha; Bosseno, Marie-France; Brenière, Simone F

    2006-03-01

    Domestic and peridomestic triatomine populations were collected in three rural Mexican communities of Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas states. Triatoma longipennis and T. picturata (Phyllosoma complex) were the principal species unequally distributed in the villages: T. longipennis was the main species in two communities and T. picturata in the third one. Peridomestic infestation and colonization indexes were remarkably high ranging from 26.1% to 50% and from 58.3% to 85.7%, respectively. Moreover, domestic (indoor) infestation was observed in only one of the communities infested by T. longipennis. The preliminary study of temporal variation indicates increasing trend of the triatomine population and infestation rates during the dry season. Triatomine infection rates ranged from 41.2% to 60.2% and all the flagellate isolates were assigned to T. cruzi I. The majority of the dwellings were built with modern building materials and the sanitary conditions were generally good. High peridomestic infestations must be considered as a risk factor of Chagas disease transmission and further studies are needed to better understand the peridomestic conditions favoring the establishment of the triatomines. The contribution of such study to enlarger knowledge of epidemiological features of Chagas disease in Mexico is considered.

  6. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  7. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part B--structuromics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidisová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking developments in Omics and bioinformatics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of (radio)biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and dozens of proteins interact in the frame of complex signaling and repair pathways (or, rather, networks) to preserve the integrity of the genome has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone; it requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. In the first part of this review, the article "Giving Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part A--Radiomics," we showed the development of different Omics solutions and how they are contributing to a better understanding of cellular radiation response. In this Part B we show how high-resolution confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place Omics data in the context of space and time. The dynamics of double-strand breaks during repair processes and chromosomal rearrangements at the microscale correlated to aberration induction are explained. For the first time we visualize pan-nuclear nucleosomal rearrangements and clustering at the nanoscale during repair processes. Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting based on a computer database search of uniquely binding oligonucleotide combinations (COMBO-FISH). With these challenging techniques on hand, we speculate future perspectives that may combine specific COMBO-FISH nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to

  8. VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE FACILITY WAS DESCRIBED AS THE MOST MODERN NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING BUILDING IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX, WITH MANY PRECISION INSTRUMENTS. (9/21/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  10. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  11. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  12. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  13. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  14. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4218-4 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purposes of section 4218 and § 48.4218-1, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is a part or accessory... article use as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4218-4 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purposes of section 4218 and § 48.4218-1, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is a part or accessory... article use as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4218-4 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purposes of section 4218 and § 48.4218-1, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is a part or accessory... article use as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another...

  18. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile nor... with 40 CFR part 600. (4) The intermediate manufacturer shall attach to the incomplete automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is required under this...

  19. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components' heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  20. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David.

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components` heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  1. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  2. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  3. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for intermediate manufacturers. 529.5... § 529.4(b) shall, within 10 days after completing its manufacturing operations, send a copy of the... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile...

  4. 49 CFR 529.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for intermediate manufacturers. 529.5... § 529.4(b) shall, within 10 days after completing its manufacturing operations, send a copy of the... accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If neither the intermediate manufacturer of an incomplete automobile...

  5. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  6. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  7. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  8. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  9. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  10. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  11. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  12. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  13. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  14. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  15. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  16. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  17. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4218-4 - Use in further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not a physical part of the manufactured article, is not used as material in the manufacture or... purposes of section 4218 and § 48.4218-1, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production... of, the other article. Lubricating oil in the crankcase of a new truck is an example of a...

  19. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. Delta III reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: 6 to 42 months of follow up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing tendency for complex proximal humerus fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic patients to be treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). It has been proposed that RSA has more benefits than other treatment options. The aim of our study was to investigate preoperative characteristics as well as clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with complex 3- or 4-part PHF who had undergone primary RSA. Methods Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months who had undergone a primary RSA after 3- or 4-part PHF in the period between 2008 and 2011 were eligible for the study. Clinical records, X-rays and CT-scans were investigated and a clinical examination was performed. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Constant-Murley score (CMS) were calculated. Sixteen patients were examined as part of the study. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 6-42 months). According to Codman-Hertel classification we encountered 15 Hertel “12” and 1 Hertel “8” type fractures. Results Thirty-two patients (27 female – 84.4%) with a mean age of 72 years underwent operations to treat complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Sixteen patients were reexamined. In 14 cases the dominant upper extremity was on the right, in 2 cases it was on the left, in 6 cases the right side was affected and in 10 cases the left side was affected. The mean CMS was 54.8 (range 18-95) and the mean DASH was 37.5 (range 2.9-81). A trend was established between the CMS and dominance of the affected shoulder. The CMS was better if the affected shoulder was on the non-dominant side (p-value 0.051). No statistical difference was noted between age and clinical outcome. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up shows satisfying results in terms of the treatment of severe displaced fractures in elderly patients with RSA. RSA can provide immediate relief and good shoulder function in elderly patients. Nevertheless, the question of longevity of these

  1. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  2. 49 CFR 567.5 - Requirements for manufacturers of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 567.4(c) are not practicable, the label may be provided as part of the IVD package so... a final-stage manufacturer under 49 CFR 567.5(d)(2)(v), each manufacturer of an incomplete vehicle... unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo load, and 150 pounds times the number of the vehicle's...

  3. 49 CFR 567.5 - Requirements for manufacturers of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specified in 49 CFR 567.4(c) are not practicable, the label may be provided as part of the IVD package so... a final-stage manufacturer under 49 CFR 567.5(d)(2)(v), each manufacturer of an incomplete vehicle... unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo load, and 150 pounds times the number of the vehicle's...

  4. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  5. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  6. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  7. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  8. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  9. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism.

  10. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  11. Invited Paper Laser Systems To Solve Manufacturing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belforte, David A.

    1987-09-01

    Twenty years ago the first laser system was installed to solve a manufacturing problem, the drilling of precise holes in diamonds to produce a wire drawing die. The early system installations either for laser technology or end use reasons, were categorized as specials, that is units which differed in specification and performance from previous units. During the first ten years it was quite common for industrial applications to be processed by a customized unit. As the number of common applications grew, and as the specific application needs began to dictate a uniform approach to successful resolution, the number of customized systems began to decline. Coupled with this was the system suppliers' efforts to standardize product design to reduce manufacturing complexity and cost. Today the users of industrial laser systems have a choice when considering the laser in a manufacturing operation. within certain categories such as sheet metal cutting, turbine blade drilling, and ceramic scribing users can choose from a representative number of stan-dard systems. For other applications such as marking, hermetic sealing, and transmission component welding suppliers can provide variations of designs which are known as semi-standards. The third and last category, specials, makes up a reasonable share of the units currently being installed in production applications. These specials are the subject of this paper. Identification of a specific manufacturing problem and exploration of the reasons why a laser could be cost effective are presented. Illustrations of a number of these manufac-turing problems will show how a custom laser design provided a practical, satisfactory, solution. The novel system concepts employed to effect the solution will be discussed. Applications selected include: oven liner cutting, transmission gear welding, exhaust pipe cutting, and aircraft engine part processing.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  13. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital.

  14. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  15. K/Ar mineral geochronology of the northern part of the Sithonia Plutonic Complex (Chalkidiki, Greece): implications for its thermal history and geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipera, Kyriaki; Koroneos, Antonis; Soldatos, Triantafyllos; Pécskay, Zoltán; Christofides, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    New K/Ar mineral ages of thirty nine samples (biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar) from the two-mica granodiorite to granite and leucogranite of the northern part of the Sithonia Plutonic Complex (Chalkidiki, Greece) are given in the present study. These data along with existing Rb/Sr mica and U/Pb zircon ages are used to investigate the thermal history of the plutonic complex and shed light on the process that affected it, and caused discordant Rb/Sr and K/Ar mineral ages. The K/Ar mineral dating yielded ages ranging from 38 to 49 Ma for muscovites, 32 to 47 Ma for biotites and 37 to 43 Ma for K-feldspars, respectively. The comparison of the K/Ar, Rb/Sr and U/Pb mineral ages and the closure temperatures of the different isotopic systems for the different minerals indicate a rapid cooling rate for the Sithonia pluton. The latter supports the hypothesis that the pluton was formed in a post orogenic extensional regime. Moreover, the K/Ar mineral isochrones indicate that a reheating of the pluton took place before 37 Ma and partially rejuvenated the K/Ar and Rb/Sr isotopic system of the minerals

  16. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  17. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part A--radiomics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground-breaking developments in Omics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and proteins interact in the frame of complex networks to preserve genome integrity has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Nuclear architecture and nuclear processes, including DNA damage responses, are precisely organized in space and time. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone, but requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. Based on the results obtained from studying the relationship between higher-order chromatin structure, DNA double-strand break induction and repair, and the formation of chromosomal translocations, we show the development of Omics solutions especially for radiation research (radiomics) (discussed in this article) and how confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place the Omics data in the context of space and time (discussed in our other article in this issue, "Determining Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part B--Structuromics"). Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting and speculate future perspectives, which may combine nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to observe structure-function correlations in living cells in real time. Thus, the Omics networks obtained from function analyses may be enriched by real-time visualization of Structuromics.

  18. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  19. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  20. Molecular components of the B cell antigen receptor complex of class IgD differ partly from those of IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Wienands, J; Hombach, J; Radbruch, A; Riesterer, C; Reth, M

    1990-01-01

    Two classes of immunoglobulin, IgM and IgD, are present as antigen receptors on the surface of mature B lymphocytes. We show here that IgD molecules are noncovalently associated in the B cell membrane with a heterodimer consisting of two proteins of 35 kd (IgD-alpha) and 39 kd (Ig-beta), respectively. The two novel proteins are not found in the IgD-expressing myeloma J558L delta m, which fails to bring IgD antigen receptor onto the cell surface. In a surface IgD positive variant line of this myeloma, however, membrane-bound IgD molecules are associated with the heterodimer, suggesting that the formation of an antigen receptor complex is required for surface IgD expression. We further demonstrate that the IgD-associated heterodimer differs partly from that of the IgM antigen receptor and that its binding to the heavy chain only requires the presence of the last constant domain and the transmembrane part of the delta m chain. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2303036

  1. Lessons Learned During the Manufacture of the NCSX Modular Coils

    SciTech Connect

    James H. Chrzanowski,Thomas G. Meighan, Steven Raftopoulos and Lawrence Dudek and Paul J. Fogarty

    2009-09-15

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and high current density requirements due to space constraints. Being the first of their kind, these coils required the implementation of many new manufacturing and measuring techniques and procedures. This was the first time that these manufacturing techniques and methods were applied in the production of coils at the laboratory. This resulted in a steep learning curve for the first several coils. Through the effective use of procedures, tooling modifications, involvement and ownership by the manufacturing workforce, and an emphasis on safety, the assembly team was able to reduce the manufacturing times and improve upon the manufacturing methods. This paper will discuss the learning curve and steps that were taken to improve the manufacturing efficiency and reduce the manufacturing times for the modular coils without forfeiting quality.

  2. Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of the Velay complex (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Marignac, Christian; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Velay complex is a large migmatite dome extending over the central-eastern part of the French Massif Central. Two stages of migmatization were recognized in the southern edge of the complex : (1) "Pre-Velay" anatexis under biotite stable and water saturated conditions. (2) "Velay" water-absent melting synchronous with emplacement of the peraluminous S-type Velay granite cutting across the Early Carboniferous nappe stack. Field study of the southern part of the dome shows that Mg-K-rich micaceous diorites of mantle origin, locally called vaugnerites, outcrop as intrusive bodies in three main settings : (1) Meter-sized stocks are intimately associated with several granite plutons, the comagmatic ascent and crystallization of mafic and felsic melts being evidenced by lobate contacts and intricate shapes. (2) Decameter-sized medium to coarse-grained massifs and sills emplaced in unmolten to metatexitic paragneisses. (3) Fine-grained decimeter-sized concordant lenses are found as clusters in metatexitic to diatexitic orthogneisses. Seven vaugnerites were dated either directly or indirectly through their co-magmatic host granite. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) zircon and monazite U-Pb ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties, spanning from 303.7 ± 3.1 to 307.4 ± 1.8 Ma except for one slightly younger (294.4 ± 3.9 Ma) sample . Granites and vaugnerites of the study area emplaced mainly during a short period of time at ca. 305 Ma. Assuming vaugnerite intrusions are coeval implies that their varied shapes are a consequence of contrasting behavior of the mafic magma depending on the host. Granites from the southern Velay are exactly of the same age, ca. 305 Ma, although several generations can be clearly identified based on field relationships. They display complex zircon inheritance patterns involving Proterozoic to Cambro-Ordovician components; in details, the inheritance pattern varies between (or even within) plutons, pointing to the

  3. Manufacturers' support policies.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    Choosing an effective plan for supporting a medical device is critical to its safe use, cost-effectiveness, and longevity. Hospitals can choose from a variety of support providers, including manufacturers, third-party service vendors, or hospital clinical engineering (CE) departments. However, if the hospital plans to use a third-party service vendor or its own CE department to provide support, the manufacturer's cooperation or assistance will still be needed to implement the support plan effectively. Over the years, ECRI has received many comments from hospitals about the way in which manufacturers respond to their equipment support needs. We have learned that some manufacturers are not willing to assist third-party service vendors or in-house service programs or do not always deliver the support they promise. Also, hospitals do not always consider their support needs before purchase, when they have the most leverage to negotiate flexible support arrangements. To help foster better equipment support and customer satisfaction, we polled manufacturers that have participated in recent Health Devices Evaluations to obtain detailed information about their policies toward manufacturers' contract, third-party, and in-house support. Ready access to this information will help hospitals evaluate whether manufacturers' support policies will meet their needs, and it will allow them to minimize problems by working with the manufacturer to negotiate optimal support arrangements during the purchase process. In this article, we briefly discuss the factors to consider when evaluating support alternatives and manufacturers' support policies. We also present the questions posed to each manufacturer on our Manufacturers' Support Policies Questionnaire, along with a summary of the responses that we received for each question.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1428903

  4. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  5. The estimation technique of the airframe design for manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorkov, A.; Zhilyaev, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the method of quantitative estimation of a design for manufacturability of the parts of the airframe. The method is based on the interaction of individual indicators considering the weighting factor. The authors of the paper introduce the algorithm of the design for manufacturability of parts based on its 3D model

  6. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  7. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  8. Metamorphic evolution of garnet amphibolite in the northern part of the Chuacús Complex, Guatemala: Insights from petrography, mineral chemistry and phase equilibria modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Uribe, D.; Maldonado, R.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chuacús Complex, in central Guatemala, is part of the Guatemala Suture Complex, which represents the tectonic limit of the North America and Caribbean plate. The Chuacús Complex is constitute by a polymetamorphic high-pressure sequence of quartzofeldespathic orto and para-gneiss, calcsilicate, marble, pelitic schist, and amphibolite with eclogite relicts. Two representative garnet amphibolite samples were selected for detailed study. This rocks present a mineral assemblage composed of garnet, calcic amphibole, sodic-calcic amphibole, sodic plagioclase, quartz, minor zoisite and white mica. Both samples contain considerable amounts of titanite and ilmenite. Garnet varies in grain shape, size and show different textural features. The coarse-grained porphydoblasts are mostly subhedral to euhedral and exhibit prograde compositional zoning, with increasing spessartine content to the core (Alm44-49Grs32-34Sps18-20Pyr1.1-1.5), and increasing almandine and pyrope component to the rim (Alm64-66 Grs29-31Pyr3.3-4.6Sps0.37-0.96). Amphibole exhibit a constant grain size and shape. Its chemical composition varies along the samples from calcic amphibole (Si=6.57-6.93; Xmg=0.41-0.66) to sodic-calcic amphibole (Si=6.61-6.69; Xmg=0.49-0.54). In order to constrain the P-T evolution, multiequilibria thermobarometry was combined with thermodynamic modeling. Multiequilibria thermobarometry calculated in the system NCKMnFMASHTO shows a P-T evolution from 15 kbar and 400 °C to 19 kbar and 540 °C. In the other hand, preliminary equilibrium assemblage diagrams calculated in the system NCKFMASHTO shows a P-T evolution from 11 kbar to 13.5 kbar and from 550 °C to 650°C, for the observed mineral assemblage. This work describes the textural, paragenetic and thermobarometric features from this lithotype and their petrogenetic implications are discussed. This study provides new petrological data that contributes with the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Guatemala Suture

  9. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  11. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  12. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  13. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  14. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  15. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  16. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  17. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  19. Quality cell therapy manufacturing by design.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Timmins, Nicholas E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Transplantation of live cells as therapeutic agents is poised to offer new treatment options for a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, the biological complexity of cells has hampered the translation of laboratory-scale experiments into industrial processes for reliable, cost-effective manufacturing of cell-based therapies. We argue here that a solution to this challenge is to design cell manufacturing processes according to quality-by-design (QbD) principles. QbD integrates scientific knowledge and risk analysis into manufacturing process development and is already being adopted by the biopharmaceutical industry. Many opportunities to incorporate QbD into cell therapy manufacturing exist, although further technology development is required for full implementation. Linking measurable molecular and cellular characteristics of a cell population to final product quality through QbD is a crucial step in realizing the potential for cell therapies to transform healthcare.

  20. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  1. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  2. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  3. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  4. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

    1980-06-24

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  5. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  6. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  7. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  8. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  9. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  10. The Sun, Its Extended Corona, the Interplanetary Space, the Earth's Magnetosphere, Ionosphere, Middle and Low Atmosphere, are All Parts of a Complex System - the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Various manifestations of solar activity cause disturbances known as space weather effects in the interplanetary space, near-Earth environment, and all the Earth's "spheres. Longterm variations in the frequency, intensity and relative importance of the manifestations of solar activity are due to the slow changes in the output of the solar dynamo, and they define space climate. Space climate governs long-term variations in geomagnetic activity and is the primary natural driver of terrestrial climate. To understand how the variable solar activity affects the Earth's environment, geomagnetic activity and climate on both short and long time scales, we need to understand the origins of solar activity itself and its different manifestations, as well as the sequence of coupling processes linking various parts of the system. This session provides a forum to discuss the chain of processes and relations from the Sun to the Earth's surface: the origin and long-term and short-term evolution of solar activity, initiation and temporal variations in solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, the solar wind and its interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere, the ionosphere and its connection to the neutral dominated regions below and the plasma dominated regions above, the stratosphere, its variations due to the changing solar activity and its interactions with the underlying troposphere, and the mechanisms of solar influences on the lower atmosphere on different time-scales. Particularly welcome are papers highlighting the coupling processes between the different domains in this complex system.

  11. ARF-B2: A Protein Complex that Specifically Binds to Part of the Anaerobic Response Element of Maize Adh 11

    PubMed Central

    Ferl, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Crude whole cell extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) suspension cells were examined for DNA binding proteins that specifically interact with a portion of the maize Adh 1 promoter that was previously shown to be in contact with a trans-acting factor in vivo. A 17 base pair, double-stranded oligonucleotide probe was constructed that centered around a strong in vivo dimethylsulfate footprint (B2) that coincides with part of the anaerobic response element (ARE). Gel retardation assays were used to characterize a major, specific DNA binding protein activity found in the crude extracts. The activity is present in both aerobic and hypoxically treated cultures and has been designated ARF-B2 (ARE binding factor). ARF-B2 appears to be a multicomponent complex, with a 54 kilodalton subunit termed ARF-B2α in primary contact with the target DNA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667563

  12. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1).

  13. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1). PMID:23446123

  14. An experimental and theoretical framework for manufacturing prosthetic sockets for transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Mario C; Neptune, Richard R; Crawford, Richard H; Rogers, William E; Bosker, Gordon

    2006-09-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a powerful manufacturing technology that does not require part-specific tooling or significant human intervention and provides the ability to easily generate parts with complex geometric designs. The present work focuses on developing a manufacturing framework using this technology to produce subject-specific transtibial amputee prosthetic sockets made of Duraform PA, which is a nylon-based material. The framework includes establishing an overall socket design (using the patellar-tendon bearing approach), performing a structural analysis using the finite element method (FEM) to ensure structural reliability during patient use, and validating the results by comparing the model output with experimental data. The validation included quantifying the failure conditions for the socket through a series of bending moment and compression tests. In the case study performed, the FEM results were within 3% of the experimental failure loads for the socket and were considered satisfactory.

  15. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  16. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  17. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  18. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  19. Coronal partings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Igor F.; Dumin, Yurii V.

    2016-02-01

    The basic observational properties of "coronal partings"-the special type of quasi-one-dimensional magnetic structures, identified by a comparison of the coronal X-ray and EUV images with solar magnetograms-are investigated. They represent the channels of opposite polarity inside the unipolar large-scale magnetic fields, formed by the rows of magnetic arcs directed to the neighboring sources of the background polarity. The most important characteristics of the partings are discussed. It can be naturally assumed that-from the evolutionary and spatial points of view-the partings can transform into the coronal holes and visa versa. The classes of global, intersecting, and complex partings are identified.

  20. Agent-based models in robotized manufacturing cells designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Banas, W.; Hryniewicz, P.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of the components, presented in robotized manufacturing workcells, causes that already at the design phase is necessary to develop models presenting various aspects of their structure and functioning. These models are simplified representation of real systems and allow to, among others, systematize knowledge about the designed manufacturing workcell. They also facilitate defining and analyzing the interrelationships between its particular components. This paper proposes the agent-based approach applied for designing robotized manufacturing cells.

  1. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  2. GEM detector conductor manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Pace, J.R.; Reardon, P.J.; Richied, D.E.; Camille, R.J.; Marston, P.G.; Smith, B.A.; Deis, G.A.; Bohanan, J.S.; Gertsen, J.H.

    1994-10-07

    Feasibility studies and manufacturing experience on the GEM Magnet superconductor are presented, including all components - NbTi strand, cable, conduit manufacture, cable pulling, and aluminum sheath application.

  3. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  4. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  5. Manufacture of sintered silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sintered silicon nitrides are manufactured by sintering Si3N powder containing 2 to 15% in wt of a powder mixture composed of nitride powder of lanthanide or Y 100 parts and AIN powder less than 100 parts at 1500 to 1900 deg. temperature under a pressure of less than 200 Kg/sq. cm. The sintered Si3N has high mechanical strength in high temperature. Thus, Si3N4 93.0, Y 5.0 and AlN 2.0% in weight were wet mixed in acetone in N atom, molded and sintered at 1750 deg. and 1000 Kg/sq. cm. to give a sintered body having high hardness.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  9. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  10. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  11. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  12. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  13. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance... Sections of 40 CFR Part 53 or 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix L Verification Comments (Includes documentation...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  15. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE AUTOMOBILES § 529... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the...

  16. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  17. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  18. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  19. Facility location selection for global manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Amir Hossein

    The selection of a facility location for operations is an important decision in strategic planning of manufacturing corporations. As globalization is transcending national borders, the whole world is becoming the domain of site selection problem. This, in turn, significantly changes the nature of facility location problem. The change is, particularly, paramount in the consideration of attributes impacting the selection decision. Many recent studies have considered the global dimensions of manufacturing site selections and have cited economic, social, and political factors impacting manufacturing operations. The complexity of facility location problem combined with the emerging global factors impacting site selection for manufacturing operations poses challenging research topics including the selection of critical attributes and the development of a methodology for data analysis for manufacturing facility selection. In this thesis I have reviewed the academic as well as industrial literature on recent developments on global facility location problem and have identified the most frequently cited/used attributes for the selection suitable manufacturing sites. Furthermore, I have developed a new similarity coefficient for cluster analysis for the formation of groups of prospective sites. Finally, I have employed an average clustering algorithm to identify these groups. In addition, I have demonstrated my methodology by a numerical example.

  20. 75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update ACTION: Notice and request for input on proposed new areas of work for the Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative... (ITA) Manufacturing & Services Unit held a Sustainability and U.S. Competitiveness Summit on October...

  1. In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the global complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Irigül-Sönmez, Öykü; Köroğlu, Türkan E; Öztürk, Büşra; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten

    2014-02-01

    The lutR gene, encoding a product resembling a GntR-family transcriptional regulator, has previously been identified as a gene required for the production of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis. To understand the broader regulatory roles of LutR in B. subtilis, we studied the genome-wide effects of a lutR null mutation by combining transcriptional profiling studies using DNA microarrays, reverse transcription quantitative PCR, lacZ fusion analyses and gel mobility shift assays. We report that 65 transcriptional units corresponding to 23 mono-cistronic units and 42 operons show altered expression levels in lutR mutant cells, as compared with lutR(+) wild-type cells in early stationary phase. Among these, 11 single genes and 25 operons are likely to be under direct control of LutR. The products of these genes are involved in a variety of physiological processes associated with the onset of stationary phase in B. subtilis, including degradative enzyme production, antibiotic production and resistance, carbohydrate utilization and transport, nitrogen metabolism, phosphate uptake, fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, protein synthesis and translocation, cell-wall metabolism, energy production, transfer of mobile genetic elements, induction of phage-related genes, sporulation, delay of sporulation and cannibalism, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed in the presence of both SinR and LutR revealed a close overlap between the LutR and SinR targets. Our data also revealed a significant overlap with the AbrB regulon. Together, these findings reveal that LutR is part of the global complex, interconnected regulatory systems governing adaptation of bacteria to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase. PMID:24196425

  2. Complex therapeutic-diagnostic endoscopy with laser irradiation and in-Situ spectrophotometry of erosive-ulcerative impairments of upper part of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tereschenko, Sergey G.; Lapaeva, Ludmila G.; Gorenkov, Roman V.

    2002-05-01

    Today in the world there are a lot of effective methods to treat different disease with the use of low-level laser (LLL) radiation. And there are a number of well-known effective noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques, such as a laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS), elastic-scattering spectroscopy (ESS), absorption spectroscopy (ABSS), etc. In this paper the first experience of the complex laser-optical therapeutic-diagnostic treatment for the erosive-ulcerative impairments (EUI) of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (UPGT) are discussed. The EUI of the UPGT very often have a resistance to a medicamentous therapy and the treatment of that is very difficult in this case. The method of LLL irradiation through an endoscope has been used to increase the efficiency of LLL-therapy and to monitor a general process of recovery respectively. The standard biopsy was investigated to estimate the effect of care as well. As it is shown in this paper the in-situ ABSS allows to optimize the LLL treatment parameters for each patient and for each procedure if the laser has effect on a blood circulation in the irradiated zone. In this case the doctors can see the considerable effect and the reduction period of the cure for EUI. Otherwise, the ABSS indicates that there will be no any effect of LLL therapy for such patient and another methods of treatment are needed. The LFS in this case shows the absence of effect during the care course too. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results this paper presents our current understanding of mechanisms of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics and LLL therapy effect for EUI of the UPGT. Today this technique has the official approval of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation.

  3. National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinton, Clare

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

  4. How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline.

  5. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section 1037.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... that choose to provide test data or emission warranties for purposes of this part. (a) Testing. You...

  6. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  7. Manipulation of microstructure in laser additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Yang, Lihmei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, additive manufacturing (AM) of tungsten parts is investigated by using femtosecond fiber lasers. For the first time, manipulating microstructures of AM parts is systematically investigated and reported. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, and microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained for femtosecond laser, compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. Micro-hardness is investigated for the fabricated samples. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  8. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  9. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council.... manufacturing industry to fill five vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of...

  10. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R.

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  11. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  12. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Whitehouse, D.; Wiedeman, S.; Catalano, A.W.; Oswald, R. )

    1991-12-01

    This report identifies steps leading to manufacturing large volumes of low-cost, large-area photovoltaic (PV) modules. Both crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon technologies were studied. Cost reductions for each step were estimated and compared to Solarex Corporation's manufacturing costs. A cost model, a simple version of the SAMICS methodology developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), projected PV selling prices. Actual costs of materials, labor, product yield, etc., were used in the cost model. The JPL cost model compared potential ways of lowering costs. Solarex identified the most difficult technical challenges that, if overcome, would reduce costs. Preliminary research plans were developed to solve the technical problems. 13 refs.

  13. 27 CFR 19.471 - Manufacture of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... articles as provided in 27 CFR part 20. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1372, as amended (26 U.S.C... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of articles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of...

  14. 21 CFR 1140.12 - Additional responsibilities of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution... addition to the other responsibilities under this part, each manufacturer shall remove from each point of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional responsibilities of manufacturers....

  15. 21 CFR 1140.12 - Additional responsibilities of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution... addition to the other responsibilities under this part, each manufacturer shall remove from each point of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional responsibilities of manufacturers....

  16. 21 CFR 1140.12 - Additional responsibilities of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution... addition to the other responsibilities under this part, each manufacturer shall remove from each point of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional responsibilities of manufacturers....

  17. 21 CFR 99.201 - Manufacturer's submission to the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements required under § 99.103; (2) Any other clinical trial information which the manufacturer has relating to the effectiveness of the new use, any other clinical trial information that the manufacturer... of the new use, and a summary of such information. For purposes of this part, clinical...

  18. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the Administrator does not issue a type certificate if the...

  19. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  20. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  1. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  2. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  3. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  4. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  5. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  6. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  7. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  8. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the Administrator does not issue a type certificate if the...

  9. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  10. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  11. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise the... Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night...

  12. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise the... Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night...

  13. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise the... Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night...

  14. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise the... Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night...

  15. 46 CFR 161.013-13 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Only.” (c) If an electric light is designed for use with dry cell batteries the label must advise the... Distress Signal required by 33 CFR part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the...) Manufacturer's name; (2) Replacement battery type; (3) Lamp size; and (4) The following words— “Night...

  16. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying.... Complies with U.S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only”....

  17. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying.... Complies with U.S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only”....

  18. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying.... Complies with U.S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only”....

  19. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying.... Complies with U.S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only”....

  20. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as complying.... Complies with U.S. Coast Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only”....