Science.gov

Sample records for parts manufacturing complex

  1. Advanced manufacturing rules check (MRC) for fully automated assessment of complex reticle designs: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J. A.; Aguilar, D.; Buck, P. D.; Dawkins, D.; Gladhill, R.; Nolke, S.; Riddick, J.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electronic design automation (EDA) tools, with their simulation, modeling, design rule checking, and optical proximity correction capabilities, have facilitated the improvement of first pass wafer yields. While the data produced by these tools may have been processed for optimal wafer manufacturing, it is possible for the same data to be far from ideal for photomask manufacturing, particularly at lithography and inspection stages, resulting in production delays and increased costs. The same EDA tools used to produce the data can be used to detect potential problems for photomask manufacturing in the data. In the previous paper, it was shown how photomask MRC is used to uncover data related problems prior to automated defect inspection. It was demonstrated how jobs which are likely to have problems at inspection could be identified and separated from those which are not. The use of photomask MRC in production was shown to reduce time lost to aborted runs and troubleshooting due to data issues. In this paper, the effectiveness of this photomask MRC program in a high volume photomask factory over the course of a year as applied to more than ten thousand jobs will be shown. Statistics on the results of the MRC runs will be presented along with the associated impact to the automated defect inspection process. Common design problems will be shown as well as their impact to mask manufacturing throughput and productivity. Finally, solutions to the most common and most severe problems will be offered and discussed.

  2. Manufacturing of a Complex Preform by RTM. Processes Parameters and Quality of the Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulat, D.; Hivet, G.; Agogue, R.; Cordier-Telmar, A.

    2011-05-01

    The shear deformation and the evolution of the fibre volume fraction of carbon braided reinforcement are studied during the performing step of the RTM process. The determination of these quantities is necessary for their influence on the permeability component for the simulation of the resin injection step. During the performing the complex preform is studied at several scale with an analytical model based on fishnet approach. Numerical results in terms of shear angle, position of the reinforcement, fibre volume fraction, are compared to quantities extract from tomographies realized on composite piece after the resin injection. The model can optimize specific parameters of the braid reinforcement used for this application.

  3. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  4. Intelligent freeform manufacturing of complex organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong

    2012-11-01

    Different from the existing tissue engineering strategies, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques aim to automatically produce complex organs directly from computer-aided design freeform models with high resolution and sophistication. Analogous to building a nuclear power plant, cell biology (especially, renewable stem cells), implantable biomaterials, tissue engineering, and single/double/four nozzle RP techniques currently enable researchers in the field to realize a part of the task of complex organ manufacturing. To achieve this multifaceted undertaking, a multi-nozzle rapid prototyping system which can simultaneously integrate an anti-suture vascular system, multiple cell types, and a cocktail of growth factors in a construct should be developed. This article reviews the pros and cons of the existing cell-laden RP techniques for complex organ manufacturing. It is hoped that with the comprehensive multidisciplinary efforts, the implants can virtually replace the functions of a solid internal organ, such as the liver, heart, and kidney.

  5. Manufacturing of Composite Parts Via VARTM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Control ØAdvanced VARTM Processing F RTM -like Parts G Surface Quality G Dimensional Tolerances F Co-Injection Resin Transfer Molding G In-Plane G...UD-CCM l 2 July 2003 D. Heider J. W. Gillespie, Jr. UD-CCM 00000 MANUFACTURING OF COMPOSITE PARTS VIA VARTM Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Manufacturing Of Composite Parts Via VARTM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. Manufacturing of GLARE Parts and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2003-07-01

    GLARE is a hybrid material consisting of alternating layers of metal sheets and composite layers, requiring special attention when manufacturing of parts and structures is concerned. On one hand the applicable manufacturing processes for GLARE are limited, on the other hand, due to the constituents and composition of the laminate, it offers new opportunities for production. One of the opportunities is the manufacture of very large skin panels by lay-up techniques. Lay-up techniques are common for full composites, but uncommon for metallic structures. Nevertheless, large GLARE skin panels are made by lay-up processes. In addition, the sequences of forming and laminating processes, that can be selected, offer manufacturing options that are not applicable to metals or full composites. With respect to conventional manufacturing processes, the possibilities for Fibre Metal Laminates in general, are limited. The limits are partly due to the different failure modes, partly due to the properties of the constituents in the laminate. For machining processes: the wear of the cutting tools during machining operations of GLARE stems from the abrasive nature of the glass fibres. For the forming processes: the limited formability, expressed by a small failure strain, is related to the glass fibres. However, although these manufacturing issues may restrict the use of manufacturing processes for FMLs, application of these laminates in aircraft is not hindered.

  7. Visual inspection reliability for precision manufactured parts

    DOE PAGES

    See, Judi E.

    2015-09-04

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted an experiment for the National Nuclear Security Administration to determine the reliability of visual inspection of precision manufactured parts used in nuclear weapons. In addition visual inspection has been extensively researched since the early 20th century; however, the reliability of visual inspection for nuclear weapons parts has not been addressed. In addition, the efficacy of using inspector confidence ratings to guide multiple inspections in an effort to improve overall performance accuracy is unknown. Further, the workload associated with inspection has not been documented, and newer measures of stress have not been applied.

  8. Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing of Aerospace Representative Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauberghs, Julien

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced composites for aerospace structures has seen a high increase in recent years, and is still growing. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of these materials makes them ideal for primary structures on airplanes, satellites, and spacecrafts. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of composites remains very costly since it requires equipment investment such as an autoclave, and very qualified workers. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing technology is very promising since it only requires a traditional oven, while still aiming at similar part quality. However, the absence of positive pressure compared with an autoclave makes it more difficult to achieve low porosity parts. This research investigates the manufacturing of complex features with out-of autoclave prepreg technology. The features studied are tight-radius corners with a curvature change, and ply drop-offs. Ply drop-offs tests were conducted to identify if porosity is higher at ply terminations. In corners, the bagging arrangement was modified to achieve the most uniform thickness in areas of curvature change, even with small radii. The conclusions from these studies provided us with guidelines to manufacture larger representative parts, which included these features. The representative parts were tested for porosity, thickness uniformity, mechanical performance, and glass transition temperature (Tg). A total of four representative parts were manufactured with out-of-autoclave technology, and one more was manufactured with an autoclave to allow for a proper comparison between the two processes. The materials used were MTM45-1 5 harness satin and CYCOM5320 plain weave for the out-of-autoclave parts, and CYCOM5276-1 plain weave for the autoclave part. The effect of ply drop-offs on porosity was found to be negligible. Thickness deviation in corners was attributed to a combination of consumable bridging, prepreg's bulk factor and inter-ply shear. Overall, out-of-autoclave prepregs showed

  9. Manufacturing technology methodology for propulsion system parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, M. M.

    1992-07-01

    A development history and a current status evaluation are presented for lost-wax casting of such gas turbine engine components as turbine vanes and blades. The most advanced such systems employ computer-integrated manufacturing methods for high process repeatability, reprogramming versatility, and feedback monitoring. Stereolithography-based plastic model 3D prototyping has also been incorporated for the wax part of the investment casting; it may ultimately be possible to produce the 3D prototype in wax directly, or even to create a ceramic mold directly. Nonintrusive inspections are conducted by X-radiography and neutron radiography.

  10. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  11. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  12. Reverse engineering of complex biological body parts by squared distance enabled non-uniform rational B-spline technique and layered manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pandithevan, Ponnusamy

    2015-02-01

    In tissue engineering, the successful modeling of scaffold for the replacement of damaged body parts depends mainly on external geometry and internal architecture in order to avoid the adverse effects such as pain and lack of ability to transfer the load to the surrounding bone. Due to flexibility in controlling the parameters, layered manufacturing processes are widely used for the fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffold with the given computer-aided design model. This article presents a squared distance minimization approach for weight optimization of non-uniform rational B-spline curve and surface to modify the geometry that exactly fits into the defect region automatically and thus to fabricate the scaffold specific to subject and site. The study showed that though the errors associated in the B-spline curve and surface were minimized by squared distance method than point distance method and tangent distance method, the errors could be minimized further in the rational B-spline curve and surface as the optimal weight could change the shape that desired for the defect site. In order to measure the efficacy of the present approach, the results were compared with point distance method and tangent distance method in optimizing the non-rational and rational B-spline curve and surface fitting for the defect site. The optimized geometry then allowed to construct the scaffold in fused deposition modeling system as an example. The result revealed that the squared distance-based weight optimization of the rational curve and surface in making the defect specific geometry best fits into the defect region than the other methods used.

  13. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  17. Inspection of additive manufactured parts using laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Bescond, C.; Lord, M.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing is a novel technology of high importance for global sustainability of resources. As additive manufacturing involves typically layer-by-layer fusion of the feedstock (wire or powder), an important characteristic of the fabricated metallic structural parts, such as those used in aero-engines, is the performance, which is highly related to the presence of defects, such as cracks, lack of fusion or bonding between layers, and porosity. For this purpose, laser ultrasonics is very attractive due to its non-contact nature and is especially suited for the analysis of parts of complex geometries. In addition, the technique is well adapted to online implementation and real-time measurement during the manufacturing process. The inspection can be performed from either the top deposited layer or the underside of the substrate and the defects can be visualized using laser ultrasonics combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). In this work, a variety of results obtained off-line on INCONEL® 718 and Ti-6Al-4V coupons that were manufactured using laser powder, laser wire, or electron beam wire deposition are reported and most defects detected were further confirmed by X-ray micro-computed tomography.

  18. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal–matrix composites or of polymer–matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized. PMID:27877661

  19. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  20. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Dubois, Jean Marie; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  1. Manufacturing and fabrication, part 3. [extraterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    The accessibility of material and energy off the Earth and the leverage that these nonterrestrial resources can exert on the space transportation system are important influences on the long-term goal of exploring the solar system. Research on separation of lunar materials and manufacturing of useful products from them is in its infancy. A few possible processes and products are described in this report. Specific attention is given to oxygen, metal, and silicate products.

  2. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Adding Parts, Subtracting Steps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    DOD Department of Defense DON Department of Navy DREAMS Design, Research, and Education for Additive Manufacturing EBM electron beam melting...Current market leader in SLM technology is the German company EOS (Lou & Grosvenor, 2012, “Sold and Sold Again: 1997-Present”).  Electron Beam Melting...EBM): EBM was invented by the Swedish corporation Arcam. Unlike other Powder Bed Techniques, “EBM uses an electron beam rather than a laser and

  3. NAMT framework for discrete parts manufacturing: experience report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Neil B.

    1997-01-01

    Industry need for standards to support integration of distributed manufacturing information technology systems is driving a process for creating validated pre-standard specifications. These specifications are likely to be the basis for manufacturing information technology standards in the future. The framework for discrete parts manufacturing information technology standards in the future. The framework for discrete parts manufacturing project has implemented a distributed manufacturing software systems as a basis for validation testing and analysis of emerging manufacturing information technologies. This paper describes a testbed project for validation of pre-standard specifications for integration of distributed manufacturing information technology system. This project begins with a scenario for manufacturing operations and deploys several related specifications against this scenario. This deployment provides the opportunity for analysis and local validation of the specifications. It also provides the opportunity to explore the relationship among several specifications that could be the basis for standards in the future. This paper discusses the preliminary implementation of the specifications under analysis and projects future work involved in validation testing of industry consortia developed manufacturing information technology specifications.

  4. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  7. The role of variation, error, and complexity in manufacturing defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1994-03-01

    Variation in component properties and dimensions is a widely recognized factor in product defects which can be quantified and controlled by Statistical Process Control methodologies. Our studies have shown, however, that traditional statistical methods are ineffective in characterizing and controlling defects caused by error. The distinction between error and variation becomes increasingly important as the target defect rates approach extremely low values. Motorola data substantiates our thesis that defect rates in the range of several parts per million can only be achieved when traditional methods for controlling variation are combined with methods that specifically focus on eliminating defects due to error. Complexity in the product design, manufacturing processes, or assembly increases the likelihood of defects due to both variation and error. Thus complexity is also a root cause of defects. Until now, the absence of a sound correlation between defects and complexity has obscured the importance of this relationship. We have shown that assembly complexity can be quantified using Design for Assembly (DFA) analysis. High levels of correlation have been found between our complexity measures and defect data covering tens of millions of assembly operations in two widely different industries. The availability of an easily determined measure of complexity, combined with these correlations, permits rapid estimation of the relative defect rates for alternate design concepts. This should prove to be a powerful tool since it can guide design improvement at an early stage when concepts are most readily modified.

  8. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  9. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  10. Fabrication of Flex Joint Utilizing Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) manufacturing technique has been utilized in the manufacture of a flex joint typical of those found in rocket engine and main propulsion system ducting. The SLM process allowed for the combination of parts that are typically machined separately and welded together. This resulted in roughly a 65% reduction of the total number of parts, roughly 70% reduction in the total number of welds, and an estimated 60% reduction in the number of machining operations. The majority of the new design was in three SLM pieces. These pieces, as well as a few traditionally fabricated parts, were assembled into a complete unit, which has been pressure tested. The design and planned cryogenic testing of the unit will be presented.

  11. Fatigue Behavior of FDM Parts Manufactured with Ultem 9085

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthias; Schöppner, Volker

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical characterization of fused deposition modeling (FDM) parts is mostly done by static tests. In many applications, parts are also dynamically loaded. Here, fatigue tests can help to identify the expected lifetime of a part. This article discusses the fatigue behavior of FDM specimens manufactured with Ultem 9085. For this, tensile bars are manufactured according to ASTM D638 in different build orientations. Tests are performed in a range of pulsating tensile stresses, and S-N curves are documented for different build orientations. For higher loads, the FDM anisotropy characterizes the lifetime of used specimens, which is similar to static tensile bars. For lower loads, including a higher number of cycles to failure, S-N curves of different build orientations converge. In further tests, tensile bars were chemically smoothed with chloroform vapor. Chemical smoothing reduces surface roughness and increases tensile strength of specimens in the upright build direction. Fatigue tests of chemically treated specimens show no significant lifetime increase.

  12. Process monitoring during manufacturing of large-scale composite parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heider, Dirk; Eckel, Douglas A., II; Don, Roderic C.; Fink, Bruce K.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    One of the inherent problems with the processing of composites is the development of internal stresses and the resulting warpage, which results in out-of-tolerance components. This investigation examines possible fiber-optic sensor methods, which can be applied to measure internal strain and thus residual stress during production. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometers (EFPI) and Bragg gratings are utilizes to monitor the strain behavior during manufacturing of large-scale composite parts. Initially, a 24 in X 18 in X 1 in thick part was manufactured using the vacuum- assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) technique. In this part, one Bragg grating, multiple thermocouples and a resin flow sensor (SMARTweave) were integrate to measure the flow and cure behavior during production. An AGEMA thermal image camera verified the temperature history on the part surface. In addition, several EFPI's and Bragg gratings were implemented into three temperature history on the part surface. In addition, several EFPI's and Bragg gratings were implemented into three 13 ft X 32 ft X 20.3 in civilian bridge deck test specimens manufactured with the VARTM process. The Bragg gratings showed great promise to capture the changes in strain due to the residual stress during cure. The actual implementation of fiber optics into large composite parts is a challenge and the problems of sensor survivability in these parts are addressed in this study. The fiber optic measurements in combination with SMARTweave's ability to monitor flow could lead to a sensor system, which allows feedback for process control of the VARTM technique. In addition, the optical fibers will be used for health monitoring during the lifetime of the part.

  13. Computerized parts list system coordinates engineering releases, parts control, and manufacturing planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.; Kinsey, M.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized parts list system compiles and summarize all pertinent and available information on complex new systems. The parts list system consists of three computer subroutines - list of parts, parts numerical sequence list, and specifications list.

  14. Manufacturing complex silica aerogel target components

    SciTech Connect

    Defriend Obrey, Kimberly Ann; Day, Robert D; Espinoza, Brent F; Hatch, Doug; Patterson, Brian M; Feng, Shihai

    2008-01-01

    Aerogel is a material used in numerous components in High Energy Density Physics targets. In the past these components were molded into the proper shapes. Artifacts left in the parts from the molding process, such as contour irregularities from shrinkage and density gradients caused by the skin, have caused LANL to pursue machining as a way to make the components.

  15. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  16. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  17. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  18. Mask manufacturing of advanced technology designs using multi-beam lithography (part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael; Ham, Young; Dillon, Brian; Kasprowicz, Bryan; Hur, Ik Boum; Park, Joong Hee; Choi, Yohan; McMurran, Jeff; Kamberian, Henry; Chalom, Daniel; Klikovits, Jan; Jurkovic, Michal; Hudek, Peter

    2016-09-01

    As optical lithography is extended into 10nm and below nodes, advanced designs are becoming a key challenge for mask manufacturers. Techniques including advanced optical proximity correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) result in structures that pose a range of issues across the mask manufacturing process. Among the new challenges are continued shrinking sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), curvilinear SRAFs, and other complex mask geometries that are counter-intuitive relative to the desired wafer pattern. Considerable capability improvements over current mask making methods are necessary to meet the new requirements particularly regarding minimum feature resolution and pattern fidelity. Advanced processes using the IMS Multi-beam Mask Writer (MBMW) are feasible solutions to these coming challenges. In this paper, Part 2 of our study, we further characterize an MBMW process for 10nm and below logic node mask manufacturing including advanced pattern analysis and write time demonstration.

  19. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surface of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The six commonly used methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed. Special emphasis shall focus on the use of multiple extraction, a technique that has been demonstrated for additively manufactured parts.

  20. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  1. A new large-scale manufacturing platform for complex biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jens H; Nguyen, Huong; Giovannini, Roberto; Ignowski, Jolene; Garger, Steve; Salgotra, Anil; Tom, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Complex biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant blood coagulation factors, are addressing critical medical needs and represent a growing multibillion-dollar market. For commercial manufacturing of such, sometimes inherently unstable, molecules it is important to minimize product residence time in non-ideal milieu in order to obtain acceptable yields and consistently high product quality. Continuous perfusion cell culture allows minimization of residence time in the bioreactor, but also brings unique challenges in product recovery, which requires innovative solutions. In order to maximize yield, process efficiency, facility and equipment utilization, we have developed, scaled-up and successfully implemented a new integrated manufacturing platform in commercial scale. This platform consists of a (semi-)continuous cell separation process based on a disposable flow path and integrated with the upstream perfusion operation, followed by membrane chromatography on large-scale adsorber capsules in rapid cycling mode. Implementation of the platform at commercial scale for a new product candidate led to a yield improvement of 40% compared to the conventional process technology, while product quality has been shown to be more consistently high. Over 1,000,000 L of cell culture harvest have been processed with 100% success rate to date, demonstrating the robustness of the new platform process in GMP manufacturing. While membrane chromatography is well established for polishing in flow-through mode, this is its first commercial-scale application for bind/elute chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry and demonstrates its potential in particular for manufacturing of potent, low-dose biopharmaceuticals.

  2. Strengthening of 3D Printed Fused Deposition Manufactured Parts Using the Fill Compositing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Joseph T.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications. PMID:25880807

  3. Strengthening of 3D printed fused deposition manufactured parts using the fill compositing technique.

    PubMed

    Belter, Joseph T; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications.

  4. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  5. Manufacturing of a 3D complex hyperstable Cesic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroedel, Matthias; Courteau, Pascal; Poupinet, Anne; Sarri, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    Global astrometry requires extremely stable materials for instrument structures, such as optical benches. Cesic®, developed by ECM and Thales Alenia Space for mirrors and high stability structures, offers an excellent compromise in terms of structural strength, stability and very high lightweight capability, with a coefficient of thermal expansion that is virtually zero at cryogenic T°. The High-Stability Optical Bench (HSOB) GAIA study, realized by Thales Alenia Space under ESA contract, aimed to design, develop and test a full-scale representative of the HSOB bench, made entirely of Cesic®. The bench has been equipped with SAGEIS-CSO laser metrology system MOUSE1, a Michelson interferometer composed of integrated optics with nm-resolution. The HSOB bench has been submitted to a homogeneous T° step under vacuum to characterize 3-D expansion behavior of its two arms. The quite negligible interarm differential, measured with a nm-range reproducibility, demonstrates that a complete 3-D structure made of Cesic® has the same CTE homogeneity as do characterization samples, fully in line with the stringent GAIA requirements (1ppm at 120K). This demonstrates that Cesic® properties at cryogenic temperatures are fully appropriate to the manufacturing of complex highly stable optical structures. This successful study confirms ECM's and Thales Alenia Space's ability to design and manufacture monolithic lightweight highly stable optical structures, based on inner-cell triangular design made possible by the unique Cesic® manufacturing process.

  6. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  7. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  8. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  9. A Management Case Study: The Implementation of the Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    manufacturing needs based on the dollars available to support this new technology. In December 1987, the staif at NAVSUP awarded the current RAMP contract to...describes the implementation of the Navy’s Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program. The RAMP program was implemented in 1989 by the Naval...time and cost for manufactured spare parts. This management case study concentrates on the examination of how new technology is implemented into current

  10. Differences in microstructure and properties between selective laser melting and traditional manufacturing for fabrication of metal parts: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Zhao, Xiao; Li, Shuai; Han, Changjun; Wei, Qingsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2015-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), as one of the additive manufacturing technologies, is widely investigated to fabricate metal parts. In SLM, parts are manufactured directly from powders in a layer-by-layer fashion; SLM also provides several advantages, such as production of complex parts with high three-dimensional accuracy, compared with other additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, SLM can be applied in aeronautics, astronautics, medicine, and die and mould industry. However, this technique differs from traditional methods, such as casting and forging; for instance, the former greatly differs in terms of microstructure and properties of products. This paper summarizes relevant studies on metal material fabrication through SLM. Based on a work completed in Huazhong Univ. Sci Tech., Rapid Manuf. Center (HUST-RMC) and compared with characteristics described in other reported studies, microstructure, properties, dimensional accuracy, and application of SLM are presented.

  11. 75 FR 12148 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering... Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. propeller governors, part numbers (P/Ns) C210776, T210761... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., 20400...

  12. Continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture according to one embodiment includes a plurality of plies in a stacked configuration, where each ply includes a plurality of tape winds having edges. A distance between the edges of adjacent tape winds in the same ply is about constant along a length of the wind. Each tape wind comprises elongated fibers and a matrix, axes of the fibers being oriented about parallel to a longitudinal axis of the tape wind. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE-RELATED ACTIVITIES NOT INVOLVING NUCLEAR MATERIALS Pt. 783, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to... manufacture of flasks for irradiated fuel. A flask for irradiated fuel means a vessel for the transportation and/or storage of irradiated fuel that provides chemical, thermal and radiological protection,...

  14. Accurate manufacturing and production of optoelectronic parts and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, Tapio; Karioja, Pentti; Keraenen, Kimmo; Kopola, Harri K.; Malinen, Jouko; Ollila, Jyrki

    1998-12-01

    The trends in optoelectronic products are towards higher integration level of optics, electronics and mechanics. It means smaller dimensions and tighter packaging density. The precisions in component manufacturing and accuracies in module assemblings typically are in 10 to 50 micrometer range. Due to demands of the production in series of tens of thousands it means new type of know-how in production and assembling technologies.

  15. Thermal Spray Based Rapid Manufacturing, Part Refurbishing and Reengineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-30

    comparison algorithm is developed . Fig. 6. Part databse Fig. 7. Part matching Broken Part Data Acquisition (GeoMagic) ----Yes _------ Is It...ground with a diamond wheel. The microstructure and chemical composition is shown in Fig. 14. The average hardness of the deposit was 1100 vickers. Fig

  16. Laser cladding: repairing and manufacturing metal parts and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Laser cladding is presently used to repair high volume aerospace, automotive, marine, rail or general engineering components where excessive wear has occurred. It can also be used if a one-off high value component is either required or has been accidentally over-machined. The ultimate application of laser cladding is to build components up from nothing, using a laser cladding system and a 3D CAD drawing of the component. It is thus emerging that laser cladding can be classified as a special case of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Up to this point in time RP was seen, and is still seen, as in intermediately step between the design stage of a component and a finished working product. This can now be extended so that laser cladding makes RP a one-stop shop and the finished component is made from tool-steel or some alloy-base material. The marriage of laser cladding with RP is an interesting one and offers an alternative to traditional tool builders, re-manufacturers and injection mould design/repair industries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence of this new technology, along with the transference of the process out of the laboratory and into the industrial workplace and show it is finding its rightful place in the manufacturing/repair sector. It will be shown that it can be used as a cost cutting, strategic material saver and consequently a green technology.

  17. Physical Simulation of Investment Casting of Complex Shape Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Maestro, Laura; De Azua, Aitor Eguidazu Ruiz; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2015-05-01

    Development of investment casting process has been a challenge for manufacturers of complex shape parts. Numerous experimental casting trials are typically carried out to determine the optimum casting parameters for fabrication of high-quality products. In this work, it is demonstrated that physical simulation of investment casting can successfully predict microstructure and hardness in as-cast complex shape parts. The physical simulation tool consists of a thermal model and melting/solidification experiments in thermo-mechanical simulator. The thermal model is employed to predict local cooling rate during solidification at each point of a casting. Melting/solidification experiments are carried out under controlled cooling rates estimated by the thermal model. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of the solidified specimens is performed; the obtained results predict the local microstructure and mechanical properties of the casting. This concept is applied to investment casting of complex shape nozzle guide vanes from Mar-M247 Ni-based superalloy. Experimental casting trials are performed and the outcomes of physical simulation tool are validated against experimental results. It is shown that phase composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing, grain size, γ/ γ' eutectic size and volume fraction, size and shape of carbide particles, and local microhardness can be predicted at each point of the casting via physical simulation.

  18. Cleaning and Cleanliness Measurement of Additive Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Raley, Randy

    2016-01-01

    The successful acquisition and utilization of piece parts and assemblies for contamination sensitive applications requires application of cleanliness acceptance criteria. Contamination can be classified using many different schemes. One common scheme is classification as organic, ionic and particulate contaminants. These may be present in and on the surface of solid components and assemblies or may be dispersed in various gaseous or liquid media. This discussion will focus on insoluble particle contamination on the surfaces of piece parts and assemblies. Cleanliness of parts can be controlled using two strategies, referred to as gross cleanliness and precision cleanliness. Under a gross cleanliness strategy acceptance is based on visual cleanliness. This approach introduces a number of concerns that render it unsuitable for controlling cleanliness of high technology products. Under the precision cleanliness strategy, subjective, visual assessment of cleanliness is replaced by objective measurement of cleanliness. When a precision cleanliness strategy is adopted there naturally arises the question: How clean is clean enough? The methods for establishing objective cleanliness acceptance limits will be discussed.

  19. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  20. Upgrading the steam and cooling systems at a machine tool manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, G.R.; Drye, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Cincinnati Milacron, Inc., one of the world`s largest machine tool manufacturers, decided to upgrade the steam and cooling systems that serve Milacron`s multibuilding 1.5 million square foot (139,350 m{sup 2}) headquarters complex in Cincinnati, Ohio. The upgrades were begun in 1993 and were operational by March 1995. Program objectives were to: (1) Provide mechanical cooling of manufacturing areas for better temperature control to gain closer tolerances on machined parts. This was to support a corporate objective to obtain ISO 9000 Certification which has been achieved. (2) Phase-out use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in existing electric chillers and packaged air-conditioning (DX) units. (3) Minimize waste oil and wood leaving the complex to reduce disposal costs and environmental liabilities. (4) Reduce operating and maintenance costs to enhance industrial competitiveness. With co-funding help from the local utility company, Cinergy Corporation, the authors assisted Milacron in analyzing the feasibility of various mechanical cooling concepts such as single vs. two-stage steam absorption vs. electric chillers. This analysis provided the data needed to select the concepts which best met the program objectives.

  1. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  2. Logic For Qualification And Industrialisation Of Additive Layer Manufacturing Parts For Spatial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindeau, Aymeric; Lopes, Jean-Louis; Brivot, Frederic; Bourneaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ASTRIUM Space Transportation has been manufacturing composite equipments for satellite for 25 years. For this business, the development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) processes has been identified as a real opportunity to improve design and performances. For satellite equipments, ASTRIUM ST has chosen to investigate in the Electron Beam Melting process (patented EBM® process from Arcam AB company) for the manufacturing of Titanium parts, in collaboration with MECACHROME who has developed strong skills in this ALM process. This first development step has been achieved by introducing a titanium part realised by EBM on an equipment of Atlantic Bird 7 satellite launched in September 2011. The new step consists in the formal industrialisation of the EBM process for the procurement of titanium parts for satellite equipments. The present paper describes the logic retained for this industrialisation. It includes the technical requirements but also the verifications and inspections which have to be performed to guarantee that technical requirements are met.

  3. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  4. In Situ Manufacturing is a Necessary Part of Any Planetary Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.; McLemore, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    The key to any sustainable presence in space is the ability to manufacture necessary tools, parts, structures, spares, etc. in situ and on demand. Cost, volume, and up-mass constraints prohibit launching everything needed for long-duration or long-distance missions from Earth, including spare parts and replacement systems. There are many benefits to building items as-needed in situ using computer aided drafting (CAD) models and additive manufacturing technology: (1) Cost, up-mass, and volume savings for launch due to the ability to manufacture specific parts when needed. (2) CAD models can be generated on Earth and transmitted to the station or spacecraft, or they can be designed in situ for any task. Thus, multiple people in many locations can work on a single problem. (3) Items can be produced that will enhance the safety of crew and vehicles (e.g., latches or guards). (4) Items can be produced on-demand in a small amount of time (i.e., hours or days) compared to traditional manufacturing methods and, therefore, would not require the lengthy amount of time needed to machine the part from a solid block of material nor the wait time required if the part had to be launched from Earth. (5) Used and obsolete parts can be recycled into powder or wire feedstock for use in later manufacturing. (6) Ultimately, the ability to produce items as-needed will reduce mission risk, as one will have everything they need to fix a broken system or fashion a new part making it available on a more timely basis.

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  6. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  7. Parts on Demand: Evaluation of Approaches to Achieve Flexible Manufacturing Systems for Navy Parts on Demand. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    manufacturing technology in order to improve life cycle cost, readiness and mobilization effectiveness. Discussion: Based on recent experience at the...systems, to make the most use of front end logistics investment and procuring parts production data along with their logistics data. Enhancing mobile ...POD Program as a whole - certain por- tions, however, such as enhancements to the Mobile Logistic Force (MLF) and other GOGO facilities have a more

  8. Mask manufacturing of advanced technology designs using multi-beam lithography (Part 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael; Ham, Young; Dillon, Brian; Kasprowicz, Bryan; Hur, Ik Boum; Park, Joong Hee; Choi, Yohan; McMurran, Jeff; Kamberian, Henry; Chalom, Daniel; Klikovits, Jan; Jurkovic, Michal; Hudek, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As optical lithography is extended into 10nm and below nodes, advanced designs are becoming a key challenge for mask manufacturers. Techniques including advanced Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) result in structures that pose a range of issues across the mask manufacturing process. Among the new challenges are continued shrinking Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs), curvilinear SRAFs, and other complex mask geometries that are counter-intuitive relative to the desired wafer pattern. Considerable capability improvements over current mask making methods are necessary to meet the new requirements particularly regarding minimum feature resolution and pattern fidelity. Advanced processes using the IMS Multi-beam Mask Writer (MBMW) are feasible solutions to these coming challenges. In this paper, we study one such process, characterizing mask manufacturing capability of 10nm and below structures with particular focus on minimum resolution and pattern fidelity.

  9. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  10. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  11. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape 7 - 6 RTO-MP-AVT-139 high temperature materials find applications in...offers significant cost savings, increased design and materials flexibility, increased possibility of miniaturization, high mechanical properties, good...surface finish and high speed production. The activities and expertise in powder metallurgy as well as in process numerical modeling related to

  12. New policy to manage tools in flexible manufacturing systems using network part programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Andrea; Tolio, Tullio; Grieco, Antonio; Nucci, Francesco

    2000-10-01

    The high investment related to the acquisition of Flexible Manufacturing Systems forces firms to a better utilization of the machines. Different actions can be taken in order to avoid idle times of the machines: reduction of the unproductive times (time dedicated to rapid movements, tool exchange, pallet exchange, etc.), improvement of machines and, not last, a better management of the resources. The paper proposes a new policy for the management of tool operations in parallel machine FMS to minimize the idle times due to the lack of tools. The proposed policy uses new opportunities in manufacturing technology related with the use of network part programs in NC machines. It is already known in literature the potentiality of network part programs, more flexible than traditional sequential part programs that execute simply the rigid list of operations. Network part programs allow the different alternative ways to process each part. The way in which network part programs are executed by machines depends on the state of the tools and availability of the tools. The proposed method has been compared with other existing ones based on a real test case, a parallel machine FMS with two machines and a tool carrier.

  13. Human factoring the procedures element in a complex manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Caccamise, D.J.; Mecherikoff, M.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of Human Factors evaluations of procedures associated with incidents at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) it was determined that the existing procedure format created significant opportunities for confusion in their attempt to convey information about a work process. For instance, there was no mechanism to clearly identify the participants and their roles during the instructions portion of the procedure. In addition, procedure authors frequently used complex logic to convey a series of contingent actions within steps. It was also difficult to discern the actual procedure steps from other types of information in the procedure. These and other inadequacies prompted the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) department to propose solutions to these problems that followed well-researched principles of cognitive psychology, dealing with how humans process information. Format and style contribute to procedure usability, and therefore to safety and efficiency in operations governed by the procedures. Since it was difficult to tie specific performance failures to specific format and style characteristics and thereby dearly define costs and benefits, it was difficult on that basis to sell the idea that changes in procedure format and style were really necessary to improve safety and efficiency. In addition, we found that the socio-political systems governing this process, particularly at the subprocess interface level, were not functioning efficiently. Both the technological aspects of the process and the socio-political aspects were contributing to waste and considerable re-work. Fixing the customer feedback loop to the process owners not only minimized re-work and waste, but also provided the data to persuade subprocess owners to make the necessary changes that heretofore were being met with great resistance.

  14. Computational complexity of the landscape: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Denef, Frederik . E-mail: frederik.denef@fys.kuleuven.be; Douglas, Michael R. . E-mail: mrd@physics.rutgers.edu

    2007-05-15

    We study the computational complexity of the physical problem of finding vacua of string theory which agree with data, such as the cosmological constant, and show that such problems are typically NP hard. In particular, we prove that in the Bousso-Polchinski model, the problem is NP complete. We discuss the issues this raises and the possibility that, even if we were to find compelling evidence that some vacuum of string theory describes our universe, we might never be able to find that vacuum explicitly. In a companion paper, we apply this point of view to the question of how early cosmology might select a vacuum.

  15. Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

  16. Analysis of thermal stresses in shape deposition manufacturing of metal parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Alexander H.

    1999-11-01

    Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) is a Layered Manufacturing process where objects are constructed by sequential deposition and machining of material layers. When the deposition process involves temperature gradients, thermal stresses develop. These stresses cause distortions and can lead to part failure due to cracking. This research investigated thermal stresses in SDM using a combination of analytical modeling, finite element modeling, and experiments. Initially an analytical model was developed to predict the overall part warpage. Then both finite element modeling and experiments were used to investigate how the deposition pattern influences the substrate warpage and to investigate the inter-layer surface defect known as the Christmas Tree Step. This research began by first developing an analytical model to predict substrate warpage. Both elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic models were investigated. This model was used to examine how the deposit thickness and the number of layers used to produce the deposit affects the warpage of the part. In SDM the pattern used to deposit a layer has a significant effect on the substrate warpage. This effect was investigated using both finite element modeling and experiments. From the finite element observations the optimal deposition pattern for both the beam and plate substrates was determined. To check the validity of the finite element results, the calculated values for deflection were compared to experimentally determined values. The local defect known as the Christmas Tree Step was also investigated. This step is found at the layer interface and results in poor surface quality and part inaccuracy. The step was investigated using both a finite element model and experiments. The investigation showed that the surface defect develops when material is deposited on top of previously machined layers. The step is a local edge effect and does not significantly depend on the deposition pattern. This research deepened the

  17. Data-driven inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purr, S.; Wendt, A.; Meinhardt, J.; Moelzl, K.; Werner, A.; Hagenah, H.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    The manufacturing process of car body parts needs to be adaptable during production because of fluctuating variables; finding the most suitable settings is often expensive. The cause-effect relation between variables and process results is currently unknown; thus, any measure taken to adjust the process is necessarily subjective and dependent on operator experience. To investigate the correlations involved, a data mining system that can detect influences and determine the quality of resulting parts is integrated into the series process. The collected data is used to analyze causes, predict defects, and optimize the overall process. In this paper, a data-driven method is proposed for the inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts. The calculation of suitable settings to produce good parts is based on measurements of influencing variables, such as the characteristics of blanks. First, the available data are presented, and in the event of quality issues, current procedures are investigated. Thereafter, data mining techniques are applied to identify models that link occurring fluctuations and appropriate measures to adapt the process so that it addresses such fluctuations. Consequently, a method is derived for providing objective information on appropriate process parameters.

  18. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  19. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossel, W.-G.; Lies, C.; Albert, A.; Haase, R.; Müller, R.; Scholz, P.

    2016-03-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts.

  20. America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Project 1: Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    titanium and nickel-base alloys after AM fabrication. 4.1 Additive Manufacturing Methods and Applications Three-dimensional printing ( 3D ...AM is defining the process of 3D printing , while additive manufacturing considers the broad application of 3D printing , and necessary manufacturing... printing could generate an economic impact of $230 billion to $550 billion per year by 2025.[4] According to the 2014 Wohlers Report, the 3D printing

  1. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  2. Replicative manufacturing of complex lighting optics by non-isothermal glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreilkamp, Holger; Vu, Anh Tuan; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-09-01

    The advantages of LED lighting, especially its energy efficiency and the long service life have led to a wide distribution of LED technology in the world. However, in order to make fully use of the great potential that LED lighting offers, complex optics are required to distribute the emitted light from the LED efficiently. Nowadays, many applications use polymer optics which can be manufactured at low costs. However, due to ever increasing luminous power, polymer optics reach their technological limits. Due to its outstanding properties, especially its temperature resistance, resistance against UV radiation and its long term stability, glass is the alternative material of choice for the use in LED optics. This research is introducing a new replicative glass manufacturing approach, namely non-isothermal glass molding (NGM) which is able to manufacture complex lighting optics in high volumes at competitive prices. The integration of FEM simulation at the early stage of the process development is presented and helps to guarantee a fast development cycle. A coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to define the geometry of the glass preform as well as to define the mold surface geometry. Furthermore, simulation is used to predict main process outcomes, especially in terms of resulting form accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments conducted on a commercially available molding machine are presented to validate the developed simulation model. Finally, the influence of distinct parameters on important process outcomes like form accuracy, surface roughness, birefringence, etc. is discussed.

  3. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper, in three parts, reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  4. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 7. MFG01 Glossary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    lat oe C % 000 Sj C4 le ’ 4, 4,4 2:4 tj t*K l- X: 44 0’~ k IW- C4 % 40 Go r 00 c ~ IL P v C c -. . v IL zl - 4 1 S . v I .I a w I 1 v c u > c- -FT U 4...CC c .C C aI o , 0 A Z . 6--c 0 cCrV 46 a .0 b. 1 c 1 . Ga, v 0 M 0 44 c c c f-V - 4 0 aLS C C - . l-l - 2 - 0 S- C (~ b , J O’~ 0 .4. hSV b... ~ b...RD-R144 426 INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (ICAM)_ 1 /3 ARCHITECTURE PART 3 VOLUME.. (U) SOFTECH INC WALTHAM MRR HEINE ET RL. SEP 83 RFWRL-TR

  5. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    SciTech Connect

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sebastian, P.

    2010-06-15

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM registered and Samcef registered softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  6. DLP-based light engines for additive manufacturing of ceramic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenbichler, M.; Geppert, M.; Gruber, S.; Ipp, E.; Almedal, R.; Stampfl, J.

    2012-03-01

    In the framework of the European research project PHOCAM (http://www.phocam.eu) the involved partners are developing systems and materials for lithography-based additive manufacturing technologies (AMT) which are used for shaping advanced ceramic materials. In this approach a ceramic-filled photosensitive resin is selectively exposed layer by layer. By stacking up the individual layers with a typical layer thickness between 25 and 50μm, a three-dimensional part is built up. After structuring, a solid part consisting of a ceramic filled polymer is obtained. The polymer is afterwards burnt off and in a last step the part is sintered to obtain a fully dense ceramic part. The developed systems are based on selective exposure with DLP projection (Digital Light Processing). A key element of the developed systems is a light engine which uses digital mirror devices (DMD) in combination light emitting diodes (460nm) as light source. In the current setup DMDs with 1920x1080 pixels are used. The use of LEDs in combination with a customized optical projection system ensures a spatial and temporal homogeneity of the intensity at the build platform which is significantly better than with traditionally used light engines. The system has a resolution of 40μm and a build size of 79x43x100mm. It could be shown that this system can fabricate dense ceramic parts with excellent strength. In the case of alumina densities up to 99.6% of the theoretical density were achieved, yielding a biaxial strength of 510MPa. Besides technical ceramics like alumina it is also possible to structure bioceramics, e.g. tricalcium phosphate.

  7. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... the reinforced plastic composites you manufacture are used in manufacturing your boats, you are not... applicability criteria in § 63.5785, and produce reinforced plastic composites that are not used in...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... the reinforced plastic composites you manufacture are used in manufacturing your boats, you are not... applicability criteria in § 63.5785, and produce reinforced plastic composites that are not used in...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5787 What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat... the reinforced plastic composites you manufacture are used in manufacturing your boats, you are not... applicability criteria in § 63.5785, and produce reinforced plastic composites that are not used in...

  10. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites Not... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In...

  11. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be Operated at Sites Not... application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. (a) In...

  12. Surface Roughness Measurement of Parts Manufactured by FDM Process using Light Sectioning Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, A. S.; Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a process of developing prototypes by depositing layers of material according to predetermined cross sectional geometry. Quality of the produced part is highly dependent on surface finish. This work describes a methodology to calculate the surface roughness of part manufactured using FDM process. The surface roughness values are measured using conventional stylus instrument and light sectioning vision system. In conventional stylus instrument method, diamond tipped stylus destroys the surface topography. Light sectioning method is non-contact method hence it overcomes this problem. In light sectioning method microscope and light source are arranged in such a manner, as both are inclined at an angle of 45° to the normal plane. The light section is projected on surface of profile at an incident angle of 45°. The reflected light can be observed using microscope. The camera is connected with microscope to capture the micrograph. These images are analyzed and processed using various image processing techniques. Experimental results are validated by comparing final results with conventional system.

  13. Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hao; Sun, Tianyang; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called "outsourcing", "fragmentation production", and "trade in tasks" has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade. This paper applies various network analysis tools to the new GVC accounting system proposed by Koopman et al. (2014) and Wang et al. (2013) in which gross exports can be decomposed into value-added terms through various routes along GVCs. This helps to divide the equipment manufacturing-related GVCs into some sub-networks with clear visualization. The empirical results of this paper significantly improve our understanding of the topology of equipment manufacturing-related GVCs as well as the interdependency of countries in these GVCs that is generally invisible from the traditional trade statistics.

  14. Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called “outsourcing”, “fragmentation production”, and “trade in tasks” has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade. This paper applies various network analysis tools to the new GVC accounting system proposed by Koopman et al. (2014) and Wang et al. (2013) in which gross exports can be decomposed into value-added terms through various routes along GVCs. This helps to divide the equipment manufacturing-related GVCs into some sub-networks with clear visualization. The empirical results of this paper significantly improve our understanding of the topology of equipment manufacturing-related GVCs as well as the interdependency of countries in these GVCs that is generally invisible from the traditional trade statistics. PMID:28081201

  15. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  16. Next-generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Gaytan, S M; Medina, F; Lopez, H; Martinez, E; Machado, B I; Hernandez, D H; Martinez, L; Lopez, M I; Wicker, R B; Bracke, J

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, we examine prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM). Of particular interest is the fabrication of complex functional (biocompatible) mesh arrays. Mesh elements or unit cells can be divided into different regions in order to use different cell designs in different areas of the component to produce various or continually varying (functionally graded) mesh densities. Numerous design elements have been used to fabricate prototypes by AM using EBM of Ti-6Al-4V powders, where the densities have been compared with the elastic (Young) moduli determined by resonant frequency and damping analysis. Density optimization at the bone-implant interface can allow for bone ingrowth and cementless implant components. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of metal (aluminium alloy) foam have also allowed for the building of Ti-6Al-4V foams by embedding the digital-layered scans in computer-aided design or software models for EBM. Variations in mesh complexity and especially strut (or truss) dimensions alter the cooling and solidification rate, which alters the alpha-phase (hexagonal close-packed) microstructure by creating mixtures of alpha/alpha' (martensite) observed by optical and electron metallography. Microindentation hardness measurements are characteristic of these microstructures and microstructure mixtures (alpha/alpha') and sizes.

  17. Evolutionary-based Design and Control of Geometry Aims for AMD-manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Mauritz; Baramsky, Nicolaj; Ewald, Ake; Emmelmann, Claus; Schlattmann, Josef

    Additive Metal Deposition (AMD) is an additive manufacturing process building parts based on a nozzle-fed powder by laser assisted solidification. The AMD technology offers unique advantages for the production of near net-shape parts. In contrast to the powder bed-based technologies it provides a high productivity grade. Today AMD lacks reproducible process strategies manufacturing large parts in narrow tolerances. The building height of a single layer and the geometrical shape of a whole part alter progressively with increasing part dimensions - consecutively leading to a higher effort in the manufacturing-process development for such parts. To reduce this effort, in this paper first an iterative identification of optimal process parameters is performed by following an evolutionary algorithm under varied BC. Based on the geometry-related parameter sets, tolerances are defined. The process strategies and tolerances are validated for a prototype application considering the defined quality aims. Finally the results are discussed and summarized in an a-priori process design guideline for AMD Ti6Al4V-parts.

  18. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites... the reinforced plastic composites you manufacture are used in manufacturing your boats, you are not... applicability criteria in § 63.5785, and produce reinforced plastic composites that are not used in...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5787 - What if I also manufacture fiberglass boats or boat parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites... the reinforced plastic composites you manufacture are used in manufacturing your boats, you are not... applicability criteria in § 63.5785, and produce reinforced plastic composites that are not used in...

  20. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  1. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Will Be Used in the Production of the Exported Products Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing (of...) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing as described in the left-hand parallel column. 1 Drawback products.... Orange juice from concentrate (reconstituted juice). 2. Frozen concentrated orange juice. 3....

  2. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Will Be Used in the Production of the Exported Products Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing (of...) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing as described in the left-hand parallel column. 1 Drawback products.... Orange juice from concentrate (reconstituted juice). 2. Frozen concentrated orange juice. 3....

  3. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 191 - General Manufacturing Drawback Rulings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Will Be Used in the Production of the Exported Products Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing (of...) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing as described in the left-hand parallel column. 1 Drawback products.... Orange juice from concentrate (reconstituted juice). 2. Frozen concentrated orange juice. 3....

  4. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  5. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  6. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... license to manufacture nuclear power reactors of the type described in § 50.22 of this chapter to...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  11. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  12. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  13. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  14. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  15. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  16. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    PubMed

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  17. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  18. Geometric Limitation and Tensile Properties of Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Haibin; Li, Jinglong; Xiong, Jiangtao; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Fusheng

    2017-02-01

    Wire and arc additive manufacture (WAAM), as an emerging and promising technology of metal additive manufacturing, it lacks of experimental works to clarify the feature of geometrical configuration, microstructure and tensile properties, which can be used for further evaluating whether the as-deposited part can be used directly, and providing design reference for structure optimization. Taking 5A06 aluminum alloy additive manufacturing for example, in this paper, the geometric limitation and tensile property criteria are characterized using experimental method. The minimum angle and curvature radius that can be made by WAAM are 20° and 10 mm when the layer width is 7.2 mm. It shows isotropy when loading in build direction and perpendicular one. When loading in the direction of parallel and perpendicular to texture orientation, the tensile properties are anisotropic. The difference between them is 22 MPa.

  19. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-02-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  20. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... power reactors. (a) In the case of an application under subpart F of part 52 of this chapter for...

  1. 10 CFR 2.501 - Notice of hearing on application under subpart F of 10 CFR part 52 for a license to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part 52 for a license to manufacture nuclear power reactors. 2.501 Section 2.501 Energy NUCLEAR... Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses To Manufacture Nuclear Power Reactors To Be... power reactors. (a) In the case of an application under subpart F of part 52 of this chapter for...

  2. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  3. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  4. Manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic module reliability and durability, Part I: Feedstock, crystallization and wafering

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, Hubert; Mohajeri, Nahid; Brooker, R. Paul; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schneller, Eric J.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Rodgers, Marianne P.; Wohlgemuth, John; Shiradkar, Narendra S.; Scardera, Giuseppe; Rudack, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-06-01

    This article is the first in a three-part series of manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability. Here in Part 1 we focus on the three primary process steps for making silicon substrates for PV cells: (1) feedstock production; (2) ingot and brick production; and (3) wafer production. Each of these steps can affect the final reliability/durability of PV modules in the field with manufacturing metrology potentially playing a significant role. This article provides a comprehensive overview of historical and current processes in each of these three steps, followed by a discussion of associated reliability challenges and metrology strategies that can be employed for increased reliability and durability in resultant modules. Gaps in the current state of understanding in connective metrology data during processing to reliability/durability in the field are then identified along with suggested improvements that should be considered by the PV community.

  5. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  6. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 246 - Panel 17. Reducing Life- Cycle Costs: Adopting Emerging Manufacturing Technologies...chain. Introduction Modern manufacturing processes tend to reflect globalization, a concentration on core activities, shorter product life- cycles ... cycle perspective, a number of organizations recognize that environmental benefits and performance improvements can be achieved (Horn & Harrysson, 2012

  7. Parts on Demand: Evaluation of Approaches to Achieve Flexible Manufacturing Systems for Navy Partson Demand. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    as a deliberate action, or, when the end of production is announced by the vendor, with a buyout for insurance purposes. * Unfortunately, since the...high. In a recent survey of 15,000 frequently purchased spare parts, the Pentagon’s its Inspector General found that prices on 65 percent of the items...redirected and not tied to hard automation, dedicated machines, or high volume production. The evolution of flexible manufacturing systems has progressed in

  8. The Effectiveness of Hot Isostatic Pressing for Closing Porosity in Titanium Parts Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammas-Williams, Samuel; Withers, Philip J.; Todd, Iain; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-05-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts, produced by selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing, have been studied by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to track pore closure during a standard hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) cycle. Comparison of repeated XCT scans before and after HIPing, on worst-case samples with different geometries, confirmed that all internal porosity was shrunk to below the resolution limit of the equipment used (~5 µm) following the HIPing cycle, apart from defects with surface connected ligaments.

  9. 75 FR 37990 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...-09-AD; Amendment 39-16341; AD 2010-13-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of Ontic Engineering and... Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., 20400 Plummer Sreet, Chatsworth, CA 91311, e-mail:...

  10. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Kishore, Vidya; Chen, Xun; Ajinjeru, Christine; Duty, Chad; Hassen, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  11. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 1. Architecture. Accomplishments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    recording, and communicating the inherent requirements and realities of the aerosoace manufacturing environment. They are equally effective and valuable in...will be broadly applicable across the whole aerosoace industry. In order to do this, it is necessary to have some understanding of "generic design and

  12. Complex foamed aluminum parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings

    SciTech Connect

    Simancik, F.; Schoerghuber, F.

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of complex shaped aluminum foam parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings has been investigated. The foamed samples were prepared by injection of the foam into sand molds. It turned out that sound castings can be produced if the foam core is properly preheated and/or surface treated before casting. The effect of the foam core on the performance of the casting was evaluated by in compression testing and by measuring structural damping. The gain in the related properties turned out to be much higher than the weight increase of the casting due to the presence of the core. The weight increase may be partially offset through a reduction of the wall-thickness of the shell.

  13. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  15. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  16. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  17. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  18. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  19. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 8. Technology Transfer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    VALIDATIOA IS EXPERT REVIEW4, MULTIPLE MODELS ALLOW FOR SIMPLIFICATION1 ’OF THE CONCEP-TS IND SY𔃻TAX FOR EA CH REVIEW AND THEREBY ENHANCE COMMUNICATON . 0...THE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE CAN BE DEFINED. "THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS BEEN AWARDED A "TO-BE" ARCHITECTURE CONTRACT FOR A "CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR...COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM)" FOR THE AEROSPACE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE. (AS A POINT OF INTEREST, THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS INDEPENDENTLY DECIDED

  20. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  1. Practical aspects of modern interferometry for optical manufacturing quality control: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Modern phase shifting interferometers enable the manufacture of optical systems that drive the global economy. Semiconductor chips, solid-state cameras, cell phone cameras, infrared imaging systems, space based satellite imaging and DVD and Blu-Ray disks are all enabled by phase shifting interferometers. Theoretical treatments of data analysis and instrument design advance the technology but often are not helpful towards the practical use of interferometers. An understanding of the parameters that drive system performance is critical to produce useful results. Any interferometer will produce a data map and results; this paper reviews some of the key issues to minimize error sources in that data and provide a valid measurement.

  2. Methods for tape fabrication of continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    Weisberg, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    A method for forming a composite structure according to one embodiment includes forming a first ply; and forming a second ply above the first ply. Forming each ply comprises: applying a bonding material to a tape, the tape comprising a fiber and a matrix, wherein the bonding material has a curing time of less than about 1 second; and adding the tape to a substrate for forming adjacent tape winds having about a constant distance therebetween. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  3. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 6. Composite Information Model of ’Manufacture Product’ (MFG1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-08

    Y WOAOS ( Continue on revert• .1 1de il nec••••ry and rdenrlfy by blo number’) Manufacturing Architecture ICAM MFGl Model of Manufacturing IDEF ...the success of the !CAM program. A key to the achievement of this goal is the development of the !CAM Definition ( IDEF ) Methods and the !CAM...manufacturing environments. There are three !CAM Definition Methods: IDEF ~ - Function Modeling; IDEFl - Information Modeling; and IDEF2 - Dynamics

  4. ICAM Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 3. Computerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    for the aluminum 2024 beaded panel manufactured with rubber press process require no other 43 manufacturing complexities, such as joggles , flanges...lineal aluminum part 2B, length= 24 inches, to compare the BPCOST and JOGGLES cost (cost of the base part plus joggles ) as a function of the cost...base part, plus joggles for the three manufacturing methods, shows that the minimum cost (by the rubber press method) is about 0.3 man-hours per part

  5. Layered YSZ/SCSZ/YSZ Electrolytes for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Part I: Design and Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Orlovskaya, Nina; Klimov, Mikhail; Huang, Xinyu; Cullen, David A; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    (Sc2O3)0.1(CeO2)0.01(ZrO2)0.89 (SCSZ) ceramic electrolyte has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (700 800 C), but it does not exhibit good phase and chemical stability in comparison with 8 mol% Y2O3 ZrO2 (YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability in the whole electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed. Because of a mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli of SCSZ and YSZ phases, upon cooling of the electrolytes after sintering, thermal residual stresses will arise, leading to a possible strengthening of the layered composite and, therefore, an increase in the reliability of the electrolyte. Laminated electrolytes with three, four, and six layers design were manufactured using tape-casting, lamination, and sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at 30 m, the thickness of the SCSZ inner layer varied from 30 m for a Y SC Y three-layered electrolyte, 60 m for a Y 2SC Y four-layered electrolyte, and 120 m for a Y 4SC Y six-layered electrolyte. The microstructure, crystal structure, impurities present, and the density of the sintered electrolytes were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and water immersion techniques.

  6. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  7. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Inconel 718 Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Chou, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the crystallographic texture of an Inconel 718 part fabricated by selective laser melting was investigated. The front surface (X-Z plane) microstructure is characterized by the columnar grains growing along the build direction, and the width of columnar grains is in the range of about 75-150 µm, with the bottom layers having narrower grains as a result of a higher cooling rate. In addition to equiaxed grains, the top surface (X-Y plane) has a feature of patch patterns resulting from the laser scanning strategy. Based on the electron backscatter diffraction results, there appears only weak crystallographic texture in both the X-Z plane and the X-Y plane of the part. From the grain boundary map, the microstructures are composed of high-angle boundaries with a larger fraction of subgrain boundaries.

  8. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Inconel 718 Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Chou, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the crystallographic texture of an Inconel 718 part fabricated by selective laser melting was investigated. The front surface (X-Z plane) microstructure is characterized by the columnar grains growing along the build direction, and the width of columnar grains is in the range of about 75-150 µm, with the bottom layers having narrower grains as a result of a higher cooling rate. In addition to equiaxed grains, the top surface (X-Y plane) has a feature of patch patterns resulting from the laser scanning strategy. Based on the electron backscatter diffraction results, there appears only weak crystallographic texture in both the X-Z plane and the X-Y plane of the part. From the grain boundary map, the microstructures are composed of high-angle boundaries with a larger fraction of subgrain boundaries.

  9. Additive Manufacturing: Which DLA-Managed Legacy Parts are Potential AM Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    part is a CSI, the failure of which can result in loss of life)  End item application environment (for example, some polymers are sensi- tive to...decision support process can be automated and provided as a web-based application to DoD personnel. We include a set of functional require- ments for...or capability and to identify the necessary interfaces; and  which DLA activity or organization will pay for development, implemen- tation

  10. Diffusion bonding and its application to manufacturing. [for joining of metal parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurgeon, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    In its simplest form diffusion bonding is accomplished by placing clean metal surfaces together under a sufficient load and heating. The natural interatomic attractive force between atoms transforms the interface into a natural grain boundary. Therefore, in principle, the properties of the bond area are identical to those of the parent metal. Other advantages of diffusion bonding over conventional methods of bonding include freedom from residual stresses, excessive deformation, foreign metals, or changed crystal structures. Stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, and aluminum alloys have all been successfully joined. Complex hardware, including integrated flueric devices, jet engine servovalves, and porous woven structures have been fabricated. The processing involved is discussed, along with such theoretical considerations as the role of metal surfaces, the formation of metal contact junctions, and the mechanisms of material transport in diffusion bonding.

  11. An Efficient Multi-Scale Simulation Architecture for the Prediction of Performance Metrics of Parts Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Zeng, Kai; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an overview of the computational tools developed in the area of metal-based additively manufactured (AM) to simulate the performance metrics along with their experimental validations will be presented. The performance metrics of the AM fabricated parts such as the inter- and intra-layer strengths could be characterized in terms of the melt pool dimensions, solidification times, cooling rates, granular microstructure, and phase morphologies along with defect distributions which are a function of the energy source, scan pattern(s), and the material(s). The four major areas of AM simulation included in this study are thermo-mechanical constitutive relationships during fabrication and in- service, the use of Euler angles for gaging static and dynamic strengths, the use of algorithms involving intelligent use of matrix algebra and homogenization extracting the spatiotemporal nature of these processes, a fast GPU architecture, and specific challenges targeted toward attaining a faster than real-time simulation efficiency and accuracy.

  12. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  13. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  14. Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 2: Comparison of Cost and Production between a Traditional Bundle System and Modular Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    also saw this project as an opportunity for our manufacturing management students to see first hand how companies respond to changes in their economic...Modular Manufacturing . We wanted to see if it was just a fad or a new business strategy that could be added to a manufacturer’s arsenal in the master...Fashion Industries 227 West 27 Street 000301 New York, NY 10001 Defense Logistics Agency DLA Manufacturing Engineering Branch Cameron Station (DLA

  15. Convective instabilities in complex systems with partly free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, Dietrich

    2007-04-01

    Experiments and observations and some selected theoretical studies of thermocapillary instabilities are reviewed and presented together with new unpublished work. We start with simple idealized model systems of pure thermocapillarity and add to them more complex features like gravity forces, temperature gradients inclined to the free surface, static and dynamic surface deformations, solutocapillary effects and reacting or moving crystal boundaries (like during unidirectional solidification). Many effects and instabilities are demonstrated in video clips which can be downloaded from http://meyweb.physik.uni-giessen.de/1_Forschung/crystalgrowth/video/homepage.html. We try to point out the relationship of thermocapillary instabilities in the more complex systems with those in theoretical studies where the names of these instabilities have been coined.

  16. Laser Consolidation - A Novel One-Step Manufacturing Process for Making Net-Shape Functional Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    addition , this computer-aided manufacturing process provides an excellent opportunity for manufacturing complex parts that are difficult to make by...consolidation process, more unique features can be added to the components to provide additional functionality, reduce manufacturing time and cost...Functional Prototypes IN-625 alloy 316L S.S Stellite 6 alloy LC IN-738 Applications - Manufacturing Complex Net-Shape Parts LC IN-625LC IN-625 Applications

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye...

  18. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    PubMed

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  1. Toward Failure Modeling In Complex Dynamic Systems: Impact of Design and Manufacturing Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; McAdams, Daniel A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When designing vehicle vibration monitoring systems for aerospace devices, it is common to use well-established models of vibration features to determine whether failures or defects exist. Most of the algorithms used for failure detection rely on these models to detect significant changes during a flight environment. In actual practice, however, most vehicle vibration monitoring systems are corrupted by high rates of false alarms and missed detections. Research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center has determined that a major reason for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections is the numerous sources of statistical variations that are not taken into account in the. modeling assumptions. In this paper, we address one such source of variations, namely, those caused during the design and manufacturing of rotating machinery components that make up aerospace systems. We present a novel way of modeling the vibration response by including design variations via probabilistic methods. The results demonstrate initial feasibility of the method, showing great promise in developing a general methodology for designing more accurate aerospace vehicle vibration monitoring systems.

  2. Hot-melt extrusion as a continuous manufacturing process to form ternary cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Justine; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jerome, Christine; Evrard, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hot-melt extrusion (HME) as a continuous process to form cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes in order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of itraconazole (ITZ), a class II model drug molecule of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Different CD derivatives were tested in a 1:1 (CD:ITZ) molar ratio to obtain CD ternary inclusion complexes in the presence of a polymer, namely Soluplus(®) (SOL). The CD used in this series of experiments were β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) with degrees of substitution of 0.63 and 0.87, randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (Rameb(®)), sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (Captisol(®)) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Crysmeb(®)). Rheology testing and mini extrusion using a conical twin screw mini extruder were performed to test the processability of the different CD mixtures since CD are not thermoplastic. This allowed Captisol(®) and Crysmeb(®) to be discarded from the study due to their high impact on the viscosity of the SOL/ITZ mixture. The remaining CD were processed by HME in an 18mm twin screw extruder. Saturation concentration measurements confirmed the enhancement of solubility of ITZ for the four CD formulations. Biphasic dissolution tests indicated that all four formulations had faster release profiles compared to the SOL/ITZ solid dispersion. Formulations of HPβCD 0.63 and Rameb(®) even reached 95% of ITZ released in both phases after 1h. The formulations were characterized using thermal differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance infra-red analysis. These analyses confirmed that the increased release profile was due to the formation of ternary inclusion complexes.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  7. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Justin; Youd, Tom; Mastrovich, Zach; Peterson, Cody; Khan, Sarah; Sasser, Todd A.; Sander, Ian M.; Doney, Justin; Turner, Clark; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2–2.7 g/cm3), a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm3 of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm3 created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of 99mTechnetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization. PMID:28245589

  8. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Justin; Youd, Tom; Mastrovich, Zach; Peterson, Cody; Khan, Sarah; Sasser, Todd A; Sander, Ian M; Doney, Justin; Turner, Clark; Leevy, W Matthew

    2017-02-24

    Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2-2.7 g/cm³), a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm³ of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm³ created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of (99m)Technetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization.

  9. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  10. Additive Manufacturing by selective laser melting the realizer desktop machine and its application for the dental industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Schmidt, Frank-Michael; Hötter, Jan-Steffen; Sokalla, Wolfgang; Sokalla, Patrick

    Additive Manufacturing of metal parts by Selective Laser Melting has become a powerful tool for the direct manufacturing of complex parts mainly for the aerospace and medical industry. With the introduction of its desktop machine, Realizer targeted the dental market. The contribution describes the special features of the machine, discusses details of the process and shows manufacturing results focused on metal dental devices.

  11. Instructional Materials in Manufacturing for Junior High School Industrial Arts. Final Report and Parts I-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

    This Title XI Institute was designed and conducted to introduce the participants to inquiry and invention taking place in industrial arts curriculum across the United States. The institute participated in the inquiry stage through advanced study of manufacturing technology and industrial arts curriculum, and in the invention stage through the…

  12. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  13. National Institutes of Health-Sponsored Clinical Islet Transplantation Consortium Phase 3 Trial: Manufacture of a Complex Cellular Product at Eight Processing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ricordi, Camillo; Goldstein, Julia S; Balamurugan, A N; Szot, Gregory L; Kin, Tatsuya; Liu, Chengyang; Czarniecki, Christine W; Barbaro, Barbara; Bridges, Nancy D; Cano, Jose; Clarke, William R; Eggerman, Thomas L; Hunsicker, Lawrence G; Kaufman, Dixon B; Khan, Aisha; Lafontant, David-Erick; Linetsky, Elina; Luo, Xunrong; Markmann, James F; Naji, Ali; Korsgren, Olle; Oberholzer, Jose; Turgeon, Nicole A; Brandhorst, Daniel; Friberg, Andrew S; Lei, Ji; Wang, Ling-Jia; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Willits, Jamie; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hering, Bernhard J; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-11-01

    Eight manufacturing facilities participating in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Clinical Islet Transplantation (CIT) Consortium jointly developed and implemented a harmonized process for the manufacture of allogeneic purified human pancreatic islet (PHPI) product evaluated in a phase 3 trial in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Manufacturing was controlled by a common master production batch record, standard operating procedures that included acceptance criteria for deceased donor organ pancreata and critical raw materials, PHPI product specifications, certificate of analysis, and test methods. The process was compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Current Good Tissue Practices. This report describes the manufacturing process for 75 PHPI clinical lots and summarizes the results, including lot release. The results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a harmonized process at multiple facilities for the manufacture of a complex cellular product. The quality systems and regulatory and operational strategies developed by the CIT Consortium yielded product lots that met the prespecified characteristics of safety, purity, potency, and identity and were successfully transplanted into 48 subjects. No adverse events attributable to the product and no cases of primary nonfunction were observed.

  14. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  15. Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of atmospheric mercury and its gas-particulate partition in the vicinity of a semiconductor manufacturing complex.

    PubMed

    Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Ie, Iau-Ren; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the tempospatial variation of atmospheric mercury and its gas-particulate partition in the vicinity of a semiconductor manufacturing complex, where a plenty of flat-monitor manufacturing plants using elemental mercury as a light-initiating medium to produce backlight fluorescence tubes and may fugitively emit mercury-containing air pollutants to the atmosphere. Atmospheric mercury speciation, concentration, and the partition of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) were measured at four sites surrounding the semiconductor manufacturing intensive district/complex. One-year field measurement showed that the seasonal averaged concentrations of TGM and Hgp were in the range of 3.30-6.89 and 0.06-0.14 ng/m(3), respectively, whereas the highest 24-h TGM and Hgp concentrations were 10.33 and 0.26 ng/m(3), respectively. Atmospheric mercury apportioned as 92.59-99.01 % TGM and 0.99-7.41 % Hgp. As a whole, the highest and lowest concentrations of TGM were observed in the winter and summer sampling periods, respectively, whereas the concentration of Hgp did not vary much seasonally. The highest TGM concentrations were always observed at the downwind sites, indicating that the semiconductor manufacturing complex was a hot spot of mercury emission source, which caused severe atmospheric mercury contamination over the investigation region.

  16. Respiratory morbidity due to ammonia exposure among the employees of a urea manufacturing industry located in western part of India

    PubMed Central

    Zala, Naman; Kavishvar, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia is produced in the fertilizer industry. The amount of ammonia inhaled by employees of a urea manufacturing industry is very high. It would be interesting to study whether such an amount has any impact on the employees working there for many years. This study explores the magnitude of respiratory morbidity among employees of a urea manufacturing industry and to establish its association with exposure to ammonia. Data was collected related to significant respiratory illnesses of all the employees over a period of 10 years using computer-based medical record system of the industry′s hospital. The results obtained from the data analysis showed that there is no cause and effect relationship between exposure to ammonia and respiratory morbidity. Thus it was advised to the medical authority at industry to go for mass treatment with anthelmintics and that all the employees should be screened for specific allergens and this information should be used while managing respiratory morbidity. PMID:23776325

  17. Layered Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014215 TITLE: Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities ...Research Society LL1.4 Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities Khershed P. Cooper Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research...Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5343, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Layered Manufacturing (LM) refers to computer-aided manufacturing processes in which parts are made

  18. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  19. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  20. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  1. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  2. Reduction of the Residual Porosity in Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Using Skywriting and High Focus Offset Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancisidor, A. M.; Garciandia, F.; Sebastian, M. San; Álvarez, P.; Díaz, J.; Unanue, I.

    Residual porosity is observed in Inconel 718 samples manufactured by SLM within the optimum process window regardless the process parameters whose origin has been directly related to the starting and finishing of the laser scanning tracks. This porosity is concentrated preferentially in overlaps of fields (stripes and chessboard strategies) and borders. Location of pores has been demonstrated on long stripes, where laser stops only at borders, not in the hatch. It has been concluded that porosity is due to a high interaction time of the laser with powder which increases the energy in those points. Two different strategies have been validated to reduce this effect and thus diminish porosity. These strategies are the skywriting function, where the laser is switched off during the accelerating and decelerating portions and to increase the focus offset. The defocusing strategy is not as effective as the skywriting reducing the residual porosity.

  3. Technology improvement of chromium on steel parts electrodeposition using complex command and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to provide improved technological process of electrochemical deposition of chromium on steel for decorative parts for corrosion protection but also to improve mechanical properties. The proposed idea is perfectly suited to be grafted onto existing electrodeposition installations, but it can be applied successfully in the development of new such plants. Complex command and control systems are designed to operate in high aggressive environmental conditions specific to these types of installations. The theoretical part completes the experimental results obtained on a laboratory facility.

  4. Numerical modeling of conjugate heat transfer on complex geometries with diagonal Cartesian method. Part 2: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.D.; Lin, W.L.; Chen, C.J. |

    1999-05-01

    Part 1 of this study discusses the diagonal Cartesian method for temperature analysis. The application of this method to the analysis of flow and conjugate heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger is given in Part 2. In addition to a regular (i.e., Cartesian-oriented) fin arrangement, two complex fin arrangements are modeled using the diagonal Cartesian method. The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the different configurations are compared. It is found that enhanced heat transfer and reduced pressure drop can be obtained with the modified fin arrangements for this compact heat exchanger.

  5. Selective laser melting additive manufactured Inconel 718 superalloy parts: High-temperature oxidation property and its mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qingbo; Gu, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    This work presented a comprehensive study of high-temperature oxidation behaviors and mechanisms of Selective laser melting (SLM) processed Inconel 718 superalloy parts using different methods including isothermal oxidation testing, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the oxidation process of the tested parts processed at a lower volumetric laser energy density experienced the severe spallation. On reasonably increasing the applied volumetric laser energy density, the oxidation kinetics of the as-produced parts obeyed a parabolic law, exhibiting the significantly improved oxidation resistance performance. The constitutional phases within the oxidation film were identified and the corresponding formation mechanisms were elucidated in detail according to the thermodynamic principles. The cross-sectional morphologies of oxidized Inconel 718 parts indicated that the oxidation microstructure mainly consisted of an external oxidation layer and an internal oxidation zone. The oxidation process was controlled by the outward diffusion of oxide forming elements and inward penetration of oxygen, by which the interaction mechanisms between the microstructures and internal oxidation zones were clarified. On the basis of the experimental results and theoretical analyses, the physical oxidation mechanisms were accordingly established to illustrate the oxidation behaviors of SLM-processed Inconel 718 parts at elevated operative temperatures.

  6. Predicting the impact of quenching on mechanical properties of complex-shaped aluminum alloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.D.; Mudawar, I.

    1995-05-01

    The mechanical properties of age-hardenable aluminum alloy extrusions are critically dependent on the rate at which the part is cooled (quenched) after the forming operation. The present study continues the development of an intelligent spray quenching system, which selects the optimal nozzle configuration based on part geometry and composition such that the magnitude and uniformity of hardness (or yield strength) is maximized while residual stresses are minimized. The quenching of a complex-shaped part with multiple, overlapping sprays was successfully modeled using spray heat transfer correlations as boundary conditions within a finite element program. The hardness distribution of the heat-treated part was accurately predicted using the quench factor technique; that is, the metallurgical transformations that occur within the part were linked to the cooling history predicted by the finite element program. This study represents the first successful attempt at systematically predicting the mechanical properties of a quenched metallic part from knowledge of only the spray boundary conditions. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Manufacture and mechanical characterisation of high voltage insulation for superconducting busbars - (Part 1) Materials selection and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, N.; Crouchen, M.; Devred, A.; Evans, D.; Gung, C.-Y.; Lathwell, I.

    2017-04-01

    It is planned that the high voltage electrical insulation on the ITER feeder busbars will consist of interleaved layers of epoxy resin pre-impregnated glass tapes ('pre-preg') and polyimide. In addition to its electrical insulation function, the busbar insulation must have adequate mechanical properties to sustain the loads imposed on it during ITER magnet operation. This paper reports an investigation into suitable materials to manufacture the high voltage insulation for the ITER superconducting busbars and pipework. An R&D programme was undertaken in order to identify suitable pre-preg and polyimide materials from a range of suppliers. Pre-preg materials were obtained from 3 suppliers and used with Kapton HN, to make mouldings using the desired insulation architecture. Two main processing routes for pre-pregs have been investigated, namely vacuum bag processing (out of autoclave processing) and processing using a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (silicone rubber), to apply the compaction pressure on the insulation. Insulation should have adequate mechanical properties to cope with the stresses induced by the operating environment and a low void content necessary in a high voltage application. The quality of the mouldings was assessed by mechanical testing at 77 K and by the measurement of the void content.

  8. Quality by design approach of a pharmaceutical gel manufacturing process, part 1: determination of the design space.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcel; González, Josep M; Alcalá, Manel

    2011-10-01

    This work was conducted in the framework of a quality by design project involving the production of a pharmaceutical gel. Preliminary work included the identification of the quality target product profiles (QTPPs) from historical values for previously manufactured batches, as well as the critical quality attributes for the process (viscosity and pH), which were used to construct a D-optimal experimental design. The experimental design comprised 13 gel batches, three of which were replicates at the domain center intended to assess the reproducibility of the target process. The viscosity and pH models established exhibited very high linearity and negligible lack of fit (LOF). Thus, R(2) was 0.996 for viscosity and 0.975 for pH, and LOF was 0.53 for the former parameter and 0.84 for the latter. The process proved reproducible at the domain center. Water content and temperature were the most influential factors for viscosity, and water content and acid neutralized fraction were the most influential factors for pH. A desirability function was used to find the best compromise to optimize the QTPPs. The body of information was used to identify and define the design space for the process. A model capable of combining the two response variables into a single one was constructed to facilitate monitoring of the process.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  10. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting: Toward the Era of Manufacturing Human Organs as Spare Parts for Healthcare and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mir, Tanveer Ahmad; Nakamura, Makoto

    2017-03-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been used in industrial worlds for decades. Three-dimensional bioprinting has recently received an increasing attention across the globe among researchers, academicians, students, and even the ordinary people. This emerging technique has a great potential to engineer highly organized functional bioconstructs with complex geometries and tailored components for engineering bioartificial tissues/organs for widespread applications, including transplantation, therapeutic investigation, drug development, bioassay, and disease modeling. Although many specialized 3D printers have been developed and applied to print various types of 3D tissue constructs, bioprinting technologies still have several technical challenges, including high resolution distribution of cells, controlled deposition of bioinks, suitable bioink materials, maturation of cells, and effective vascularization and innervation within engineered complex structures. In this brief review, we discuss about bioprinting approach, current limitations, and possibility of future advancements for producing engineered bioconstructs and bioartificial organs with desired functionalities.

  11. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Culicoides dewulfi should not be considered part of the Culicoides obsoletus complex.

    PubMed

    Schwenkenbecher, J M; Mordue, A J; Piertney, S B

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence data has proven invaluable for defining the relationships among taxa, as well as resolving their evolutionary histories. Here, we analyzed DNA sequence variation of one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear regions (ITSI and II) to clarify the phylogenetic position of Culicoides dewulfi, a midge species widely spread in Europe and a suspected vector for bluetongue virus. Various authors have described C. dewulfi either as part of the Culicoides obsoletus sensu lato complex or as a separate taxonomic group. A maximum likelihood phylogeny, based upon an optimal model of sequence evolution, placed C. dewulfi outwith the C. obsoletus s.l. complex. Shimodaira-Hasegawa test highlighted that this topology was significantly more likely than any topology that placed C. dewulfi anywhere else in the phylogeny. As such, C. dewulfi should not be considered part of the C. obsoletus s.l. complex and instead be treated as a separate group, phylogenetically close to the classical Old World vector C. imicola.

  13. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part I: Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and structural dynamics have spurred the adoption of transmissibility functions in academia and industry alike. Due to the inherent randomness of measurement and variability of environmental conditions, uncertainty impacts its applications. This study is focused on statistical inference for raw scalar transmissibility functions modeled as complex ratio random variables. The goal is achieved through companion papers. This paper (Part I) is dedicated to dealing with a formal mathematical proof. New theorems on multivariate circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution are proved on the basis of principle of probabilistic transformation of continuous random vectors. The closed-form distributional formulas for multivariate ratios of correlated circularly-symmetric complex normal random variables are analytically derived. Afterwards, several properties are deduced as corollaries and lemmas to the new theorems. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is utilized to verify the accuracy of some representative cases. This work lays the mathematical groundwork to find probabilistic models for raw scalar transmissibility functions, which are to be expounded in detail in Part II of this study.

  14. Arabidopsis chloroplast lipid transport protein TGD2 disrupts membranes and is part of a large complex.

    PubMed

    Roston, Rebecca; Gao, Jinpeng; Xu, Changcheng; Benning, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    In most plants the assembly of the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane requires lipid precursors synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thus, the transport of lipids from the ER to the chloroplast is essential for biogenesis of the thylakoids. TGD2 is one of four proteins in Arabidopsis required for lipid import into the chloroplast, and was found to bind phosphatidic acid in vitro. However, the significance of phosphatidic acid binding for the function of TGD2 in vivo and TGD2 interaction with membranes remained unclear. Developing three functional assays probing how TGD2 affects lipid bilayers in vitro, we show that it perturbs membranes to the point of fusion, causes liposome leakage and redistributes lipids in the bilayer. By identifying and characterizing five new mutant alleles, we demonstrate that these functions are impaired in specific mutants with lipid phenotypes in vivo. At the structural level, we show that TGD2 is part of a protein complex larger than 500 kDa, the formation of which is disrupted in two mutant alleles, indicative of the biological relevance of this TGD2-containing complex. Based on the data presented, we propose that TGD2, as part of a larger complex, forms a lipid transport conduit between the inner and outer chloroplast envelope membranes, with its N terminus anchored in the inner membrane and its C terminus binding phosphatidic acid in the outer membrane.

  15. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  16. Method of producing complex aluminum alloy parts of high temper, and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Fully annealed aluminum sheet is first stretch formed to the complex, doubly compound shape of a previously prepared forming die, e.g., an ejection seat blowout panel of a shuttlecraft. The part is then marked with a series of grid lines for monitoring later elongation. Thereafter it is solution heat treated and refrigerated to retard hardening. While still soft, it is stretched a second time on the same die to induce a modicum of work hardening, after which it is aged to the desired stress corrosion resistant temper, preferably the T8 level, to provide the desired hardness and stress corrosion resistance.

  17. Methodology for the analysis of the impact of the forging parameters on metallurgy and mechanical properties in case of solid electromagnetic manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsenberger, Marc; Baudouin, Cyrille; Benabou, Abdelkader; Bigot, Régis; Faverolle, Pierre; Mipo, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    For electromagnetic applications the microstructure and the final mechanical state are key parameters. These can be obtained by a judicious choice of the material, a particular design like laminated steels but also through the determination and the mastering of the fabrication process. This present paper contains a brief introduction to electromagnetics and the qualification of a "good" electromagnetic quality. Then the article highlights, based on literature, first the influence of the process parameters on microstructure, mechanical state and secondly the impact these properties themselves on magnetic properties. Eventually, a methodology is proposed in order to predict the functional behavior of a part in its final system, taking into account its manufacturing process. The academic study case presented here can illustrate such a methodology. This kind of methodology includes in particular experimental tests, physical analysis and numerical modeling.

  18. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  19. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  1. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  2. Vatless manufacturing of low-moisture part-skim mozzarella cheese from highly concentrated skim milk microfiltration retentates.

    PubMed

    Ardisson-Korat, A V; Rizvi, S S H

    2004-11-01

    Low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were made from concentration factor (CF) 6, 7, 8, and 9, pH 6.0 skim milk microfiltration (MF) retentates using a vatless cheese-making process. The compositional and proteolytic effects of cheese made from 4 CF retentates were evaluated as well as their functional properties (meltability and stretchability). Pasteurized skim milk was microfiltered using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C to a retentate CF of 6, 7, 8, and 9. An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein:fat ratio in the 4 cheesemilks. The ratio of rennet to casein was also kept constant in the 4 cheesemilks. The compositional characteristics of the cheeses made from MF retentates did not vary with retentate CF and were within the legal range for LMPS Mozzarella cheese. The observed reduction in whey drained was greater than 90% in the cheese making from the 4 CF retentates studied. The development of proteolytic and functional characteristics was slower in the MF cheeses than in the commercial samples that were used for comparison due to the absence of starter culture, the lower level of rennet used, and the inhibition of cheese proteolysis due to the inhibitory effect of residual whey proteins retained in the MF retentates, particularly high molecular weight fractions.

  3. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  4. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing.

  5. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing. PMID:27917133

  6. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source Provisions... SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines?...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source Provisions... SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines?...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source Provisions... SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines?...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source Provisions... SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines?...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4247 - What parts of the mobile source provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions apply to me if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Source Provisions... SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines?...

  11. Compartmental models for apical efflux by P-glycoprotein. Part 1. Evaluation of model complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Swati; Tucker, Jalia; Weiskircher, Erica A.; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Korzekwa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of quantifying P-gp transport kinetics, Part 1 of these manuscripts evaluates different compartmental models and Part 2 applies these models to kinetic data. Methods Models were developed to simulate the effect of apical efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations of six drugs. The effect of experimental variability on model predictions was evaluated. Several models were evaluated, and characteristics including membrane configuration, lipid content, and apical surface area (asa) were varied. Results Passive permeabilities from MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence of cyclosporine gave lower model errors than from MDCK control cells. Consistent with the results in Part 2, model configuration had little impact on calculated model errors. The 5-compartment model was the simplest model that reproduced experimental lag times. Lipid content and asa had minimal effect on model errors, predicted lag times, and intracellular concentrations. Including endogenous basolateral uptake activity can decrease model errors. Models with and without explicit membrane barriers differed markedly in their predicted intracellular concentrations for basolateral drug exposure. Single point data resulted in clearances similar to time course data. Conclusions Compartmental models are useful to evaluate the impact of efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations. Whereas a 3-compartment model may be sufficient to predict the impact of transporters that efflux drugs from the cell, a 5-compartment model with explicit membranes may be required to predict intracellular concentrations when efflux occurs from the membrane. More complex models including additional compartments may be unnecessary. PMID:24019023

  12. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  13. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  14. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-15

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  15. Magmatic complexes of the Urals as suspect parts of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Petrogenetic, geochemical studies and isotope age determinations of flood basalts, dolerites, trachybasalts, picrite-basalts, rapakivi granites, layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions and also alkaline and carbonatite magmatic complexes of the Urals permit to put forward a preliminary list of objects - “candidates” at being attributed to Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) - manifestations of superplume activity. Their petro-geochemical properties distinguish them from spreading and subduction types, and are closer to epicontinental rift zones. They are characterized by wide areas of development and very short periods of activity. In the Southern Urals near the base of the Lower Riphean (Uppermost Paleoproterozoic and Lower Mesoproterozoic) there are volcanic deposits of the Navysh Subformation, represented by trachybasalts. The age of the unit was determined as 1752 ± llMa. Volcanic rocks of the age level of 1750-1780 Ma are developed not only in some other places of Baltica, but also in the Northern Africa, Siberia, Laurentia (parts of Nuna supercontinent). Therefore, they may belong to a LIP. Higher up the section of the Riphean, at the base of the Middle Riphean (Mid-Mesoproterozoic), rhyolites of the basalt-rhyolite Mashak Formation were dated as 1380-1385 Ma. The same ages have also rapakivi granites, layered gabbro, carbonatites and dolerite dykes developed in the Southern Urals and encountered in boreholes of the East European platform; magmatic rocks of the same age are traced to Laurentia and Siberian cratons and date the beginning of Nuna supercontinent break-up. Less confidently we may speak of the younger Neoproterozoic magmatic complexes of the Southern Urals as LIPs, dated as ca. 720 Ma and 680 Ma (Arshinian and Kiryabinka complexes); they need a further study. The next in the succession of magmatic episodes, represented by subalkaline volcanics, is connected with a rift process that started at ca. 490 Ma, that led to oceanic spreading and formation of

  16. Polymetamorphic complexes in the eastern parts of the Balkan Peninsula: 600 Ma of geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorchev, I.

    2007-12-01

    Polymetamorphic amphibolite-facies complexes are exposed in the eastern and central parts of the Balkan Peninsula in different Alpine tectonic zones and under different Cadomian to Alpine collisional and exhumation histories and regimes. All complexes consist mostly of biotite and two-mica gneisses and schists, and amphibolites. Strong Cadomian overprint led to intimate mixing (tectonometamorphic amalgamation) of crustal and mantle (and/or oceanic crust)-derived (serpentinized ultramafics, eclogites) products. The pre-Cadomian complex in Central Sredna-gora Mountains evolved through Cadomian collision with c. 617 Ma granites, Hercynian 340 to 250 Ma granitoids, Late Permian exhumation, and Triassic-Jurassic sedimentation followed by Mid-Cretaceous exhumation. P-T conditions never reached amphibolite facies in post-Cadomian times except for some shear zones. The pre-Cadomian amphibolite-facies complex in Sakar Mt. was intruded by c. 500 Ma old granites, deeply eroded in late Permian time, and covered with depositional contact by Triassic terrestrial and marine sediments. Both basement and Triassic cover suffered folding and amphibolite-facies metamorphism (c. 150 Ma BP) followed by exhumation. Included in the Srednogorie Late Cretaceous volcanic arc as crystalline cores, these complexes have been affected by latest Cretaceous exhumation. Amphibolite-facies polymetamorphic cores (Ograzhdenian complex) within the Serbo-Macedonian massif and other units in SW Bulgaria and the adjacent countries were subjected to intense Cadomian (560 - 520 Ma BP) synmetamorphic collision and granite activity. Some units suffered Cadomian collision under greenschist-facies with a Neoproterozoic to Cambrian diabase-phyllitoid complex or have been exhumed and directly covered by Cambrian (followed by Cambrian limestones) or Tremadocian marine sandstones. After Palaeozoic exhumation, their structure was sealed by Permian, Triassic and Jurassic terrestrial and marine sediments, and after

  17. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-05

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with (2)B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50=0.58μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  18. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  19. The Bemisia tabaci species complex: additions from different parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; Vosman, Ben; Hidayati, Nurul; Jaya Supena, Ence Darmo; Visser, Richard G F; van Heusden, Adriaan Willem

    2013-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most threatening pests in many crops. We sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene from fifty whitefly populations collected in Indonesia, Thailand, India and China. Nineteen unique sequences (haplotypes) of the cytochrome oxidase I were identified in these populations. They were combined with sequences available in databases, resulting in a total of 407 haplotypes and analyzed together with nine outgroup accessions. A phylogenetic tree was calculated using the maximum likelihood method. The tree showed that all groups that were found in previous studies were also present in our study. Additionally, seven new groups were identified based on the new haplotypes. Most B. tabaci haplotypes grouped based on their geographical origin. Two groups were found to have a worldwide distribution. Our results indicate that our knowledge on the species complex around B. tabaci is still far from complete.

  20. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  1. Modeling of additive manufacturing processes for metals: Challenges and opportunities

    DOE PAGES

    Francois, Marianne M.; Sun, Amy; King, Wayne E.; ...

    2017-01-09

    Here, with the technology being developed to manufacture metallic parts using increasingly advanced additive manufacturing processes, a new era has opened up for designing novel structural materials, from designing shapes and complex geometries to controlling the microstructure (alloy composition and morphology). The material properties used within specific structural components are also designable in order to meet specific performance requirements that are not imaginable with traditional metal forming and machining (subtractive) techniques.

  2. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  3. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  5. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  6. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  7. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  8. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  9. Localized slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinized dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Renard, François; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Dehydration of partly or completely serpentinized ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure, a process referred to as dehydration embrittlement. However the extents of strain localization and unstable frictional sliding during deserpentinization are still under debate. In the layered ultramafic sections of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of Mg-rich and coarse-grained olivine with abundant magnetite inclusions and δ18O values 1.0- 1.5 ‰ below the host rock. Embrittlement associated with the dehydration caused faulting along highly localized (<10 μm-wide) slip planes near the centers of the original serpentinite veins and pulverization of wall rock olivine. These features along with an earthquake-like size distribution of fault offsets suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. Structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins clearly have first-order controls on strain localization and frictional sliding during dehydration. As most of the oceanic lithosphere is incompletely serpentinized, heterogeneities represented by a non-uniform distribution of serpentinite are common and may increase the likelihood that dehydration embrittlement triggers earthquakes.

  10. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  11. Geology of the Northern Part of the Harcuvar Complex, West-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Bruce; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    In west-central Arizona near the northeast margin of the Basin and Range Province, the Rawhide detachment fault separates Tertiary and older rocks lacking significant effects of Tertiary metamorphism from Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks in the Harcuvar metamorphic core complex below. Much of the northern part of the Harcuvar complex in the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains is layered granitic gneiss, biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and minor pelitic schist that was probably deformed and metamorphosed in Early Proterozoic time. In the eastern Buckskin Mountains, Early and Middle Proterozoic plutons having U-Pb zircon ages of 1,683?6.4 mega-annum (Ma) and 1,388?2.3 Ma, respectively, intruded the layered gneiss. Small plutons of alkaline gabbro and diorite intruded in Late Jurassic time. A sample of mylonitized diorite from this unit has a U-Pb zircon age of 149?2.8 Ma. In the Early Cretaceous, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism was accompanied by partial melting and formation of migmatite. Zircon from a granitic layer in migmatitic gneiss in the eastern Harcuvar Mountains has a U-Pb age of 110?3.7 Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, sills and plutons of the granite of Tank Pass were emplaced in both the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains. In the Buckskin Mountains those intrusions are locally numerous enough to form an injection migmatite. A pluton of this granite crops out over almost half the area of the eastern Harcuvar Mountains. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were caught as slices along south-vergent Cretaceous thrusts related to the Maria fold and thrust belt and were metamorphosed beneath a thick sheet of Proterozoic crustal rocks. Inception of volcanism and basin formation in upper-plate rocks indicates that regional extension started at about 26 Ma, in late Oligocene. The Swansea Plutonic Suite, composed of rocks ranging from gabbro to granite, intruded the lower-plate rocks in the Miocene and Oligocene(?). Granite and a gabbro

  12. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  13. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  14. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  15. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Systems of Microsystem Nanospacecraft- Status of the Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesseria, J. Y.; Corbelli, A.; Masse, C.; Rigo, O.; Pambaguian, L.; Bonvoisin, B.

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of an ESA TRP project, CSL, SIRRIS, ALMASpace and TAS-F associated to evaluate advanced manufacturing methods for application to space hardware.The state of the art of the new manufacturing methods, including additive manufacturing but also advanced bonding, joining and shaping techniques has been reviewed. Then three types of case studies have been developed successively. The first type was a re- manufacture of an existing piece of hardware using advanced techniques to evaluate if there is some potential improvement to be achieved (cost, production time, complexity reduction). The second level was to design and manufacture a part based on the application requirements. The last level was to design and manufacture a part taking into account the subsystem to which it belongs. All case studies have been tested in terms of achieved performances and resistance to the mechanical and thermal environment.

  17. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  18. Robotics In Manufacturing: Army View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, F. J.

    1983-05-01

    (Figure 1) This is an outline of my presentation today. The U. S. Army has a dual interest in the use of robots, namely: 1. As a substitute for or an extension of the soldier in the battlefield, and 2. in the factories that make Army materiel, or - as we call it -the the production base. The Production Base can again be divided into three separate segments, i.e., the Army owned and operated facilities or GOG6s, such as Rock Island and Watervliet arsenals, and not to be overlooked, the depot operations. There the Army manufactures gun tubes and other related parts for artillery weapons and repairs and overhauls them. A second category is the Army owned and contractor operated facilities or GOCOs,such as the ammunition plants, the tank plants at Lima, Ohio and Warren, Michigan and the Stratford Engine Plant in Connecticut where gas turbines for helicopter and the Abrams tank are manufactured. The last category covers the industrial base, that is those factories which are not only operated but also owned by the contractor himself also referred to as COCOs. You can see from this description that the Army is supported by a base which produces a diversified line of products. Therefore, the task of technology development and technology insertion is considerably more complex than what one encounters in the average U. S. Manufacturing organization.

  19. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  20. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  2. Complex-shaped hardened parts fatigue limit prediction according to the witness sample study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surgutanova, Yu N.; Mikushev, N. N.; Surgutanov, N. A.; Kiselev, P. E.; Shlyapnikov, P. A.; Meshcheryakova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of assessment of the effect of preparatory surface plastic deformation by hydraulic shot blasting on the fatigue strength of cylindrical parts of different diameters (10-40 mm) of D16T alloy with circular notches of semicircular section, based on measurements of residual stress (initial deformations) of a witness sample. The residual stresses of smooth parts were used to calculate the residual stresses of parts with stress raisers. These were used to predict the increment of these parts fatigue limit caused by hardening hydraulic shot blasting. It was found that the highest compressive residual stresses in the smooth parts obtained through calculations differ from the observed values not more than by 7%, and in notched parts by 8%. Using the criterion of mean integral residual stresses, we calculate the increments of the fatigue limit of parts due to superficial hardening. The discrepancy between the experimental and calculated increment values of the fatigue limit of hardened parts with raisers does not exceed 17%.

  3. Copper(i) complexes with phosphine derived from sparfloxacin. Part I - structures, spectroscopic properties and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Komarnicka, Urszula K; Starosta, Radosław; Kyzioł, Agnieszka; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-07-28

    In this paper we present new copper(i) iodide or copper(i) thiocyanate complexes with hydroxymethyldiphenylphosphine (PPh2(CH2OH)) or phosphine derivatives of sparfloxacin, a 3(rd) generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent (PPh2(CH2-Sf)) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) auxiliary ligands. The synthesised complexes were fully characterised by NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry. Selected structures were additionally analysed using X-ray and DFT methods. All complexes proved to be stable in solution in the presence of water and atmospheric oxygen for several days. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes was tested against two cancer cell lines (CT26 - mouse colon carcinoma and A549 - human lung adenocarcinoma). Applying two different incubation times, the studies enabled a preliminary estimation of the dependence of the selectivity and the mechanism of action on the type of diimine and phosphine ligands. The results obtained showed that complexes with PPh2(CH2-Sf) are significantly more active than those with PPh2(CH2OH). On the other hand, the relative impact of diimine on cytotoxicity is less pronounced. However, the dmp complexes are characterised by strong inhibitory properties, while the bq ones are rather not. This confirms the interesting and promising biological properties of the investigated group of copper(i) complexes, which undoubtedly are worthy of further biological studies.

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  5. The use of Tecnomatix software to simulate the manufacturing flows in an industrial enterprise producing hydrostatic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, S.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis performed on manufacturing flows within industrial enterprises producing hydrostatic components twos made on a number of factors that influence smooth running of production such: distance between pieces, waiting time from one surgery to another; time achievement of setups on CNC machines; tool changing in case of a large number of operators and manufacturing complexity of large files [2]. To optimize the manufacturing flow it was used the software Tecnomatix. This software represents a complete portfolio of manufacturing solutions digital manufactured by Siemens. It provides innovation by linking all production methods of a product from process design, process simulation, validation and ending the manufacturing process. Among its many capabilities to create a wide range of simulations, the program offers various demonstrations regarding the behavior manufacturing cycles. This program allows the simulation and optimization of production systems and processes in several areas such as: car suppliers, production of industrial equipment; electronics manufacturing, design and production of aerospace and defense parts.

  6. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  7. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  8. [Methods for the protection against counterfeit medications. Part 2. The assessment of interlot dispersion of the metoprolol succinate tablets fabricated by different manufacturers].

    PubMed

    Iakushev, V A; Morozova, M A; Elizarova, T E; Fitilev, S B; Pletneva, T V

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of the metoprolol succinate tablets fabricated by two different manufacturers, Akrikhin (Russia) and AstraZeneka (Sweden) by near-IR spectroscopy in the combination with the chemometric processing of the data obtained (discriminative analysis). It is concluded that this method is applicable for the assessment of interlot dispersion of the metoprolol succinate tablets.

  9. Subpallial origin of part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Legaz, Isabel; García-López, Margarita; Medina, Loreta

    2005-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex originate in the subpallium. To that end, we prepared organotypic cultures of embryonic telencephalic slices, and applied the cell tracker CMTMR to the ventricular/subventricular zone of the lateral or medial ganglionic eminence. Following 48 h of incubation, we observed a number of CMTMR-labeled cells (showing red fluorescence) of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex. To know whether some of these cells of subpallial origin were calbindin-positive, we performed immunofluorescence for calbindin using an Alexa 488-conjugated secondary antiserum (green fluorescence). Our results showed that some of the CMTMR-labeled cells of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex are calbindin-positive (and possibly GABAergic). The subpallial origin of part of these cells was confirmed by observation of double labeled neurons in the claustral complex that expressed both Lhx6 mRNA (a marker of cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence) and calbindin. Future studies will be required to analyze the existence of a subpopulation of non-GABAergic calbindin cells in the claustral complex and piriform cortex, and to know their origin.

  10. Mechanical analysis of lightweight constructions manufactured with fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagsik, A.; Josupeit, S.; Schoeppner, V.; Klemp, E.

    2014-05-01

    Additive production techniques have the advantage of manufacturing parts without needing a forming tool. One of the most used additive manufacturing processes is "Fused Deposition Modeling" (FDM) which allows the production of prototypes and end-use parts. Due to the manufacture layer by layer, also complex part geometries can be created in one working step. Furthermore, lightweight parts with specific inner core structures can be manufactured in order to achieve good weightrelated strength properties. In this paper the mechanical behavior of lightweight parts manufactured with the 3D production system Fortus 400mc from Stratasys and the material Polyetherimide (PEI) with the trade name Ultem*9085 is analyzed. The test specimens were built up with different inner structures and building directions. Therefore, test specimens with known lightweight core geometries (e.g. corrugated and honeycomb cores) were designed. A four-point bending test was conducted to analyze the strength properties as well as the weight-related strength properties. Additionally the influence of the structure width, the structure wall thickness and the top layer thickness was analyzed using a honeycomb structure.

  11. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review): Part 2. Modification of production technologies for photoelectric converters, development of contact structures, and choice of promising technologies for expansion of FEC production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-12-01

    As the development of the first part of the review of modern industrial technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) of solar power, the present paper considers modifications of technologies for manufacture of PECs, including various thin-film techniques. Main tendencies in the advancement of contact structures of PECs are described. Formulation and substantiation are made for promising, in the authors' opinion, lines of the development of industry of PECs in Russia based on the upcoming implementation of 1.5 GW network photovoltaic power plants to 2020, which are developed with the national support under conditions of the fulfillment of rigid requirements to manufacture localization. As the most prospective technology for development of the competitive manufacture of photoelectric converters subject to the Russian scientific and engineering groundwork, the authors recommend the technology based on single-crystal silicon of the n type with the passivation of the frontal and rear sides and symmetrical contacts ( n-PASHa), which provides the possibility to produce double-faced solar modules also.

  12. Developmental engineering: a new paradigm for the design and manufacturing of cell-based products. Part II: from genes to networks: tissue engineering from the viewpoint of systems biology and network science.

    PubMed

    Lenas, Petros; Moos, Malcolm; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-12-01

    The field of tissue engineering is moving toward a new concept of "in vitro biomimetics of in vivo tissue development." In Part I of this series, we proposed a theoretical framework integrating the concepts of developmental biology with those of process design to provide the rules for the design of biomimetic processes. We named this methodology "developmental engineering" to emphasize that it is not the tissue but the process of in vitro tissue development that has to be engineered. To formulate the process design rules in a rigorous way that will allow a computational design, we should refer to mathematical methods to model the biological process taking place in vitro. Tissue functions cannot be attributed to individual molecules but rather to complex interactions between the numerous components of a cell and interactions between cells in a tissue that form a network. For tissue engineering to advance to the level of a technologically driven discipline amenable to well-established principles of process engineering, a scientifically rigorous formulation is needed of the general design rules so that the behavior of networks of genes, proteins, or cells that govern the unfolding of developmental processes could be related to the design parameters. Now that sufficient experimental data exist to construct plausible mathematical models of many biological control circuits, explicit hypotheses can be evaluated using computational approaches to facilitate process design. Recent progress in systems biology has shown that the empirical concepts of developmental biology that we used in Part I to extract the rules of biomimetic process design can be expressed in rigorous mathematical terms. This allows the accurate characterization of manufacturing processes in tissue engineering as well as the properties of the artificial tissues themselves. In addition, network science has recently shown that the behavior of biological networks strongly depends on their topology and has

  13. Exploring Manufacturing Occupations. Instructor's Guide. The Manufacturing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Rutherford, NJ.

    The major focus of this guide and its accompanying student manual (CE 010 397) is to help the student understand the manufacturing enterprise. (The guide and student manual are part of a manufacturing cluster series which addresses itself to career awareness, orientation, exploration, and preparation.) Seven sections are included. An overview of…

  14. Goal Neglect and Spearman's "g": Competing Parts of a Complex Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John; Parr, Alice; Woolgar, Alexandra; Thompson, Russell; Bright, Peter; Cox, Sally; Bishop, Sonia; Nimmo-Smith, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In goal neglect, a person ignores some task requirement though being able to describe it. Goal neglect is closely related to general intelligence or C. Spearman's (1904) "g" (J. Duncan, H. Emslie, P. Williams, R. Johnson, & C. Freer, 1996). The authors tested the role of task complexity in neglect and the hypothesis that different task components…

  15. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  16. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds: part II: Case study of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in effluents of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant and its wastewater treatment plant. A 50-fold increase between the two effluents mass flows was observed. The water quality of two drinking water treatment plants located downstream at 15 and 25 km from the manufacturing plant was examined. An increase of the sum of PFCs was observed between the river (30 ng/L) and an alluvial well (70 ng/L), and between the raw water (9 ng/L) and the outlet of a biological treatment (97 ng/L). These results indicate a possible degradation of fluorotelomers, occurring during wastewater treatment, sediment infiltration in the alluvial aquifer, and drinking water treatment.

  17. Verification of correctness of using real part of complex root as Rayleigh-wave phase velocity with synthetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yudi; Xia, Jianghai; Zeng, Chong

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency (≥ 2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave phase velocities have been utilized to determine shear-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. One of the key steps is to calculate theoretical dispersion curves of an earth model. When the earth model contains a low-velocity half-space, however, some roots of the dispersion equation turn out to be complex numbers, which makes phase velocities disappear at some frequencies. When encountering this situation, the common practice is to append an additional high velocity layer as the half-space to the model to make the roots real or use the real parts of complex roots as Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. The correctness of the first method has been verified. The correctness of the second method, however, remains to be unproved. We use synthetic data generated by numerical modeling of the wave equation to verify the correctness of the second method. In this paper, we firstly discuss the reasons that only complex numbers of the dispersion equation exist at some frequencies when an earth model contains a low velocity half-space. Then we discuss how the nearest offset affects a synthetic model and recommend an optimal nearest offset in generating synthetic data that are close to real-world situations. Several synthetic models are used to verify correctness of using real parts of complex roots as Rayleigh-wave phase velocities when an earth model contains a low velocity layer as the half-space.

  18. Good-Enough Understanding: Theorising about the Learning of Complex Ideas (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Vicki; Reid, David A.

    2004-01-01

    In part 1 of this article Zack and Reid offered two examples of students operating with good-enough understandings in mathematics, and related their understandings to features of good-enough understanding identified by Mackey (I997) in the context of reading. Mackey contends that the ability to read further, on the basis of a very imperfect…

  19. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  20. A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.

  1. Numerical modeling of conjugate heat transfer on complex geometries with diagonal Cartesian method. Part 1: Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.L.; Carlson, K.D.; Chen, C.J. |

    1999-05-01

    In this study, a diagonal Cartesian method for thermal analysis is developed for simulation of conjugate heat transfer over complex boundaries. This method uses diagonal line segments in addition to Cartesian coordinates. The velocity fields are also modeled using the diagonal Cartesian method. The transport equations are discretized with the finite analytic (FA) method. The current work is validated by simulating a rotated lid-driven cavity flow with conjugate heat transfer, and accurate results are obtained.

  2. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  3. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  4. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  5. ICAM (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing) Conceptual Design for Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Volume 2, Part 1. Task B. Establishment of the Factory of the Future Conceptual Framework Scoping Document (SD).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This document, Volume II, Part I, of the Final Technical Report contains the Factory of the Future Conceptual Framework Scoping Document. This...configuration management) in the 1995 timeframe. (2) An overall conceptual framework of the FOF for the 1995 timeframe, to include multi-purpose

  6. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  8. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  9. Immediate Single-Stage Reconstruction of Complex Frontofaciobasal Injuries: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  10. Studying the Laws of the Thermoviscoplastic Deformation of a Solid Under Nonisothermal Complex Loading. Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Yu. N.; Terekhov, R. G.

    2001-06-01

    The studies made at the thermoplasticity department of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics are analyzed. These studies involve experimental validations of the kinematic equation of creep damage and the constitutive equations describing simple thermoviscoelastoplastic loading, with history, of isotropic and transversally isotropic bodies, for elastoviscoplastic deformation of bodies along slightly curved paths, for complex loading along arbitrary paths lying either in a plane arbitrarily oriented in the five-dimensional space of stresses or in one coordinate plane, and for elastoplastic deformation of a body's elements along paths of moderate curvature and small torsion

  11. Myoclonus dystonia and muscular dystrophy: ɛ‐sarcoglycan is part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in brain

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adrian J.; Carlisle, Francesca A.; Chan, Yiumo Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Myoclonus‐dystonia is a neurogenic movement disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding ɛ‐sarcoglycan. By contrast, mutations in the α‐, β‐, γ‐, and δ‐sarcoglycan genes cause limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The sarcoglycans are part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in muscle that is disrupted in several types of muscular dystrophy. Intriguingly, patients with myoclonus‐dystonia have no muscle pathology; conversely, limb‐girdle muscular dystrophy patients have not been reported to have dystonia‐associated features. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we searched for evidence of a sarcoglycan complex in the brain. Methods Immunoaffinity chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to purify ubiquitous and brain‐specific ɛ‐sarcoglycan directly from tissue. Cell models were used to determine the effect of mutations on the trafficking and assembly of the brain sarcoglycan complex. Results Ubiquitous and brain‐specific ɛ‐sarcoglycan isoforms copurify with β‐, δ‐, and ζ‐sarcoglycan, β‐dystroglycan, and dystrophin Dp71 from brain. Incorporation of a muscular dystrophy‐associated β‐sarcoglycan mutant into the brain sarcoglycan complex impairs the formation of the βδ‐sarcoglycan core but fails to abrogate the association and membrane trafficking of ɛ‐ and ζ‐sarcoglycan. Conclusions ɛ‐Sarcoglycan is part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in brain. Partial preservation of ɛ‐ and ζ‐sarcoglycan in brain may explain the absence of myoclonus dystonia‐like features in muscular dystrophy patients. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27535350

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  17. PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART II, MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING AND RELATED FINANCIAL PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDMAN, BURTON DEAN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS THE SECOND PART OF A REPORT, PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART 1, EA 001 170, SUBTITLED "ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS," CONTAINS AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX WITHIN EACH STATE EDUCATION AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT IS A MANUAL PRESENTING THE…

  18. Interlace properties for the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes-Nájera, Alfonso; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Some general properties of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum are studied. The main results are presented in a series of lemmas, corollaries and theorems that are satisfied by the zeros of the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions on the real line. In particular, it is shown that such zeros interlace so that the corresponding probability densities ρ(x) are never null. We find that the profile of the imaginary part VI(x) of a given complex-valued potential determines the number and distribution of the maxima and minima of the related probability densities. Our conjecture is that VI(x) must be continuous in R, and that its integral over all the real line must be equal to zero in order to get control on the distribution of the maxima and minima of ρ(x) . The applicability of these results is shown by solving the eigenvalue equation of different complex potentials, these last being either PT-symmetric or not invariant under the PT-transformation.

  19. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  20. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  1. A novel high-efficiency methodology for metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Wei, Zhengying; Wang, Xin; Fang, Xuewei; Zhao, Guangxi

    2016-11-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) offers unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complex parts. However, the high capital costs and slow throughput printing have severely restricted its application. In this paper, a new metal AM process, referred to as the "metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM)", was developed for highly efficient metal parts production. This new process is the combination of metal fused-coating process and laser surface melting process. A two-dimensional numerical model was established to provide an insight into the primary thermo-physical phenomena occurring in the MFCAM process. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility of the proposed process. The good agreement between experimental and simulated results demonstrated the reasonableness of the established models.

  2. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  3. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  4. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  5. [Smoking and digestive tract: a complex relationship. Part 2: Intestinal microblota and cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Begon, Jacques; Juillerat, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-06-10

    The digestive tract is colonized from birth by a bacterial population called the microbiota which influences the development of the immune system. Modifications in its composition are associated with problems such as obesity or inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotics are known to influence the intestinal microbiota but other environmental factors such as cigarette smoking also seem to have an impact on its composition. This influence might partly explain weight gain which is observed after smoking cessation. Indeed there is a modification of the gut microbiota which becomes similar to that of obese people with a microbiotical profile which is more efficient to extract calories from ingested food. These new findings open new fields of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches through the regulation of the microbiota.

  6. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  7. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924

  8. Evolution of the cephalopod head complex by assembly of multiple molluscan body parts: Evidence from Nautilus embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Sasaki, Takenori; Moritaki, Takeya; Kasugai, Takashi; Vecchione, Michael; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2008-01-01

    Cephalopod head parts are among the most complex occurring in all invertebrates. Hypotheses for the evolutionary process require a drastic body-plan transition in relation to the life-style changes from benthos to active nekton. Determining these transitions, however, has been elusive because of scarcity of fossil records of soft tissues and lack of some of the early developmental stages of the basal species. Here we report the first embryological evidence in the nautiloid cephalopod Nautilus pompilius for the morphological development of the head complex by a unique assembly of multiple archetypical molluscan body parts. Using a specialized aquarium system, we successfully obtained a series of developmental stages that enabled us to test previous controversial scenarios. Our results demonstrate that the embryonic organs exhibit body plans that are primarily bilateral and antero-posteriorly elongated at stereotyped positions. The distinct cephalic compartment, foot, brain cords, mantle, and shell resemble the body plans of monoplacophorans and basal gastropods. The numerous digital tentacles of Nautilus develop from simple serial and spatially-patterned bud-like anlagen along the anterior-posterior axis, indicating that origins of digital tentacles or arms of all other cephalopods develop not from the head but from the foot. In middle and late embryos, the primary body plans largely change to those of juveniles or adults, and finally form a "head" complex assembled by anlagen of the foot, cephalic hood, collar, hyponome (funnel), and the foot-derived epidermal covers. We suggest that extensions of the collar-funnel compartment and free epidermal folds derived from multiple topological foot regions may play an important role in forming the head complex, which is thought to be an important feature during the body plan transition.

  9. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  10. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  11. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  12. Optimizing Clinical Operations as part of a Global Emergency Medicine Initiative in Kumasi, Ghana: Application of Lean Manufacturing Principals to Low Resource Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Desmond, Jeffery S.; Akanbobnaab, Christopher; Oteng, Rockefeller A.; Rominski, Sarah; Barsan, William G.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many global health programs focus on providing clinical care or medical education, improving clinical operations can have a significant effect on patient care delivery, especially in developing health systems without high-level operations management. Lean manufacturing techniques have been effective in decreasing emergency department (ED) length of stay, patient waiting times, numbers of patients leaving without being seen, and door-to-balloon times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in developed health systems; but use of Lean in low to middle income countries with developing emergency medicine systems has not been well characterized. Objectives To describe the application of Lean manufacturing techniques to improve clinical operations at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana and to identify key lessons learned to aid future global EM initiatives. Methods A three-week Lean improvement program focused on the hospital admissions process at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital was completed by a 14-person team in six stages: problem definition, scope of project planning, value stream mapping, root cause analysis, future state planning, and implementation planning. Results The authors identified eight lessons learned during our use of Lean to optimize the operations of an ED in a global health setting: 1) the Lean process aided in building a partnership with Ghanaian colleagues; 2) obtaining and maintaining senior institutional support is necessary and challenging; 3) addressing power differences among the team to obtain feedback from all team members is critical to successful Lean analysis; 4) choosing a manageable initial project is critical to influence long-term Lean use in a new environment; 5) data intensive Lean tools can be adapted and are effective in a less resourced health system; 6) several Lean tools focused on team problem solving techniques worked well in a low resource system without modification; 7) using Lean highlighted that

  13. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  15. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  16. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  17. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds. Part I: Case study of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. They are used in various applications and high levels have been found in water bodies located near highly industrialized sites. In the present study, 10 PFCs were quantitatively determined in water samples collected in the vicinity of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant and in drinking water resources located downstream. The release of PFHxA and PFNA to the receiving river was estimated at 10 and 4.5 tons/year, respectively. PFHxA (0.058-0.156 μg/L), PFNA (0.013-0.035 μg/L) and PFOA (0.007-0.025 μg/L) were predominant and prevalent in all the studied drinking water resources, confirming with the composition profile the impact of the industrial park release.

  18. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  19. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part II: Probabilistic model and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    In Part I of this study, some new theorems, corollaries and lemmas on circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution have been mathematically proved. This part II paper is dedicated to providing a rigorous treatment of statistical properties of raw scalar transmissibility functions at an arbitrary frequency line. On the basis of statistics of raw FFT coefficients and circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution, explicit closed-form probabilistic models are established for both multivariate and univariate scalar transmissibility functions. Also, remarks on the independence of transmissibility functions at different frequency lines and the shape of the probability density function (PDF) of univariate case are presented. The statistical structures of probabilistic models are concise, compact and easy-implemented with a low computational effort. They hold for general stationary vector processes, either Gaussian stochastic processes or non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The accuracy of proposed models is verified using numerical example as well as field test data of a high-rise building and a long-span cable-stayed bridge. This study yields new insights into the qualitative analysis of the uncertainty of scalar transmissibility functions, which paves the way for developing new statistical methodologies for modal analysis, model updating or damage detection using responses only without input information.

  20. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    ScienceCinema

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-07-12

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  1. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  2. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  3. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants. First draft of final report of part one and quarterly report of part two, January 3, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1994-11-01

    Included in this report is a compiled partial list of presently used processing materials in the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry and the manufacturers, intended uses, and applications of each. Also listed are the processing materials that have received final acceptance for this contracted study. An analytical methodology discussion is presented, including the final decision and the limitations of said methodology, as well as how to establish a level of confidence in observed immiscible material components in two 32 ISO VG polyolesters: (1) Mobil EAL Arctic 32; and (2) ICI Emkarate RL32H; both with HFC 134a refrigerant solutions.

  4. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  5. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  6. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  7. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  8. Suspended Manufacture of Biological Structures.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Samuel R; Cooke, Megan E; Cox, Sophie C; Snow, Martyn; Jeys, Lee; Jones, Simon W; Smith, Alan M; Grover, Liam M

    2017-04-01

    A method for the production of complex cell-laden structures is reported, which allows high-levels of spatial control over mechanical and chemical properties. The potential of this method for producing complicated tissues is demonstrated by manufacturing a complex hard/soft tissue interface and demonstrating that cell phenotype can be maintained over four weeks of culture.

  9. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection... PACKAGINGS Pt. 180, App. C Appendix C to Part 180—Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL... current examination with visual inspection must develop, update, and maintain a written...

  11. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  12. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  13. Manufacturing: workers, technology, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumia, Ronald

    1995-11-01

    Manufacturing is a challenging activity. One must coordinate many activities to achieve success. There appears to be no magic formula which ensure quality. Simple prescriptions for all of manufacturing ills have been suggested, but the theory works better than the practice. This paper explores manufacturing from the standpoint of the interactions of workers, management, and the technology they use in their jobs. These three factors form a complex system, and to optimize the system is virtually impossible without a greater level of understanding. Technology is clearly one factor which makes a company excel, but it is not the only factor. Technology cannot be looked upon as the savior of manufacturing, but as one component of a complex system.

  14. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  15. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  16. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  17. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  18. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  19. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  20. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  1. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  2. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  3. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy.

  4. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  5. 19 CFR 191.24 - Certificate of manufacture and delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured or produced under a general manufacturing drawback ruling, the unique computer-generated number... manufactured or produced under a specific manufacturing drawback ruling, either the unique computer number or... it supports (unless previously filed) (see § 191.51 of this part). (d) Effect of certificate....

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  7. Gas migration pathways in a complex faulted hangingwall in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, Emil K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2013-04-01

    The studied fault is positioned in the westernmost Danish part of the Norwegian Danish Basin at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin. The dominating fault is the so called D-1 fault, which is part of a fault trend which follows the southern pinch-out line of the Zechstein salt and detach along the top Zechstein evaporites. Just north of the D-1 fault is the only Danish commercial HC producing area outside the Mesozoic Central Graben -the Siri Canyon- located The presence of gas within the Neogene sediments at the hanging-wall of the D-1 fault was reported in the D-1 well and the D-1 fault was analyzed in detail using 2-D seismic data in the early 90-ies. Due to the open seismic grid used then it was not possible to link the presence of possible gas occurrences and the faults as well as linking the small faults associated to the hanging-wall deformation. The area was subject to renewed interest due to the HC discoveries in the Siri Valley and industrial 3-D seismic data was acquired covering the D-1 fault.The 3D seismic data has enabled a very detailed mapping of the entire D-1 fault complex as well as seismic attribute analysis (courtesy OpendTect). The D-1 fault is in map-view characterized by segments approximately 10 km long striking E-W and NE-SW respectively. In the Cretaceous and Cenozoic part is the main fault coherent whereas the antithetic and secondary synthetic faults in the hanging-wall are smaller (both with respect to offset and length). The character of the internal hanging-wall faults varies along strike of the main fault. In areas adjacent to NE-SW striking segments is the number of faults much higher and they strike both parallel to the main fault and at an angle to it; whereas the faults are longer, less numerous and dominantly parallel to the main fault in the E-W striking central parts. Gas occurrences are observed as bright-spots associated to small faults in the hanging-wall next to the NE-SW striking segments, whereas

  8. Forest Fires, Oil Spills, and Fractal Geometry: An Investigation in Two Parts. Part 2: Using Fractal Complexity to Analyze Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, L. Charles

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)

  9. Remobilization and degradation of Muostakh Island (Laptev Sea) as part of the collapsing Arctic coastal ice complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Vonk, J.; Charkin, A.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2010-05-01

    East Siberiańs permafrost is thought to contain about 400 GtC (Giga = 109) [1] in form of the so-called Yedoma or Ice Complex, a huge stock of carbon mainly as frozen loess deposits formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (~40,000 years ago). The Pleistocene Ice Complex has not undergone much alteration by soil microorganisms since deposited, which makes it particularly sensitive to global warming effects on large-scale C dynamics. Accelerated coastal erosion of the Ice Complexes is brought on by a combination of thermal collapse, sea-level rise and enhanced wave fetch from loss of coastal sea-ice cover [2, 3]. Despite coastal erosion is estimated to deliver as much OC to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as all the great Russian-Arctic rivers combined [3], the process is poorly understood, in particular with regard to the fate of the OM derived from coastal erosion. This study aims to alleviate the lack of information on the remobilization of OM from massive coastal erosion in the ESAS. The erosion evolution of a significant example of this destructive geological process (Muostakh Island, SE Laptev Sea), has been observed over the past decade and it has been estimated a retreat rate up to 20 m during the summer months (from 2001 to 2009). In summer 2006, soil samples were collected from Muostakh at 11 different locations along four 'erosion transects', spanning reliefs with ranges of approximately 25 m from the top plateau to the water boundary. On-site CO2measurements were carried out on the surface along five different transects across the island. Quantification of the organic carbon (OC), bulk 14C content and biomarker analysis (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, sterols) were performed to elucidate whether the old carbon forms eroded from Muostakh Island are subject to degradation. Elemental and isotopic analyses showed a vertical trend of younger (~modern) and C-enriched (OC~38%) material toward the plateau of the island, in contrast to the older

  10. 78 FR 45052 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 35 RIN 2120-AJ88 Critical Parts for Airplane... analysis to identify a propeller critical part. Manufacturers would identify propeller critical parts, and establish engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance processes for propeller critical parts....

  11. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  13. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  14. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  15. Computer-integrated manufacturing system for OPTICAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipps, Joe D., Jr.; Czajkowski, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Optical design, engineering, and manufacturing operate as independent entities. Outmoded specifications for material, geometry, tolerances, and mounting add to cost, lead time, and manufacturing complexity of both military and commercial optics. The optics industry maintains outdated stand-alone design, engineering, and manufacturing systems that do not support integration or communications. This single island of technology adds greatly to the final cost of optical systems.

  16. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  17. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB.

  18. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  19. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Naskar, Amit K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  20. Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Tekinalp, Halil L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M.; ...

    2014-10-16

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. Furthermore, this phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  1. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  2. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  3. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 10. The complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its methyl derivatives. An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffoor, Fatima; Ford, Thomas A.

    2008-11-01

    Ab initio calculations, at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms, have been carried out on the donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its mono-, di- and trimethyl derivatives. The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the complexes have been determined. An eclipsed and a staggered conformer have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer was found to be the staggered species in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some similar complexes containing boron trifluoride and a series of oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, methanol, methanethiol, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide) and the effect of successive methyl substitution in all three series has been investigated.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Functional Elements on Sheet Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Adam; Ahuja, Bhrigu; Butzhammer, Lorenz; Osterziel, Johannes; Schmidt, Michael; Merklein, Marion

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM) process with its advantages of high design flexibility and free form manufacturing methodology is often applied limitedly due to its low productivity and unsuitability for mass production compared to conventional manufacturing processes. In order to overcome these limitations, a hybrid manufacturing methodology is developed combining the additive manufacturing process of laser beam melting with sheet forming processes. With an interest towards aerospace and medical industry, the material in focus is Ti-6Al-4V. Although Ti-6Al-4V is a commercially established material and its application for LBM process has been extensively investigated, the combination of LBM of Ti-6Al-4V with sheet metal still needs to be researched. Process dynamics such as high temperature gradients and thermally induced stresses lead to complex stress states at the interaction zone between the sheet and LBM structure. Within the presented paper mechanical characterization of hybrid parts will be performed by shear testing. The association of shear strength with process parameters is further investigated by analyzing the internal structure of the hybrid geometry at varying energy inputs during the LBM process. In order to compare the hybrid manufacturing methodology with conventional fabrication, the conventional methodologies subtractive machining and state of the art Laser Beam Melting is evaluated within this work. These processes will be analyzed for their mechanical characteristics and productivity by determining the build time and raw material consumption for each case. The paper is concluded by presenting the characteristics of the hybrid manufacturing methodology compared to alternative manufacturing technologies.

  5. Technology: Manufacturing, Transportation, Construction, Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The technology-based student activities in this curriculum resource book are intended to be incorporated into any industrial arts/technology education program. The activities are classified according to one of four technological systems--construction, communications, manufacturing, and transportation. Within the four parts of the guide, individual…

  6. Biological evaluation of mechlorethamine-Pt(II) complex, part II: antimicrobial screening and lox study of the complex and its ligand.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Ivana D; Petrović, Zorica D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Simijonović, Dušica; Petrović, Vladimir P; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with anticancer-alkylating agent mechlorethamine hydrochloride (CH(3)NH(C(2)H(4)Cl)(2) x HCl = HN2×HCl), in the molar ratio 1 : 2, affords the complex [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)]. In vitro antimicrobial and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the complex and its precursor were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity of the HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex was investigated against 29 species of microorganisms. Testing is performed by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. The difference between antimicrobial activity of precursor and corresponding platinum(II) complex is noticed and the activity of the precursor was higher. Tested compounds demonstrated the high and significant antifungal activity and low to moderate antibacterial activity. It was shown that the gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than the gram-negative. UV absorbance-based enzyme assays were performed with HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex, in order to evaluate their in vitro inhibitory activity of soybean lipoxygenase (LOX), also. Assay with LOX showed significantly greater inhibitory activity of the complex, than the precursor.

  7. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  8. 5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Looking east, south elevation of main manufacturing plant visible, part of tail race also visible. - Falls of the Neuse Manufacturing Plant, West bank of Neuse River at State Route 2000, Falls, Wake County, NC

  9. Fixtureless nonrigid part inspection using depth cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2016-10-01

    In automobile industry, flexible thin shell parts are used to cover car body. Such parts could have a different shape in a free state than the design model due to dimensional variation, gravity loads and residual strains. Special inspection fixtures are generally indispensable for geometric inspection. Recently, some researchers have proposed fixtureless nonridged inspect methods using intrinsic geometry or virtual spring-mass system, based on some assumptions about deformation between Free State shape and nominal CAD shape. In this paper, we propose a new fixtureless method to inspect flexible parts with a depth camera, which is efficient and low computational complexity. Unlike traditional method, we gather two point cloud set of the manufactured part in two different states, and make correspondences between them and one of them to the CAD model. The manufacturing defects can be derived from the correspondences. Finite element method (FEM) disappears in our method. Experimental evaluation of the proposed method is presented.

  10. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  11. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  12. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  13. Technological Support of Critical Parts for Railway Transport Working Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabets, A. V.; Gabets, D. A.; Markov, A. M.; Radchenko, M. V.; Leonov, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The materials of complex research of operational properties of a new brand cast iron CHMN-35M. Optimal chemical composition was determined. The obtained results allow to conclude about possibility of its use for the manufacture of critical parts of rolling stock of railway transport, in particular of a side bearing cap

  14. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  15. Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Shirvanyants, David; Ermoshkin, Nikita; Janusziewicz, Rima; Johnson, Ashley R; Kelly, David; Chen, Kai; Pinschmidt, Robert; Rolland, Jason P; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Samulski, Edward T; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-03-20

    Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

  16. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  17. Magnet cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.

    1990-10-01

    The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  19. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  20. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods.

  1. Utility of cyclodextrins in the formulation of genistein part 1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of genistein complexes with native cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, Balázs; Mátyus, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács, Mária; Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szoke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2008-11-04

    Isoflavones are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The molecular encapsulation with CDs results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of isoflavones. Genistein, a key isoflavone constituent of Ononidis spinosae radix was found to form a supramolecular, non-covalent inclusion complex with both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD), while it did not form a stable complex with alpha-CD. The guest genistein was found to spatially located in the less polar cavity of cyclodextrin. The isolated binary genistein/CD complexes appeared novel crystalline lattices. The in vitro dissolution of genistein entrapped into both beta- and gamma-CD, significantly surpassed that of the plain isoflavone.

  2. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 1 - Nickel(II) complexes with the antibacterial drug sparfloxacin: structure and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Psycharis, Vassilis; Terzis, Aris; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2009-12-01

    The mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the third-generation quinolone antibacterial agent sparfloxacin in the absence or presence of nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligands (1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The experimental data suggest that sparfloxacin acts as deprotonated bidentate ligand coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the ketone and carboxylato oxygens. The crystal structure of (1,10-phenanthroline)bis(sparfloxacinato) nickel(II), 2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes recorded in dmso solution and in 1/2 dmso/buffer (containing 150 mM NaCl and 15 mM trisodium citrate at pH 7.0) solution have shown that in the presence of CT DNA they can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA and 2 exhibits the highest binding constant to CT DNA. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested on three different microorganisms and has revealed that the inhibition provided by the complexes is slightly decreased in comparison to free sparfloxacin. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human and bovine serum albumin proteins having relatively high binding constant values.

  3. “Additive Manufacturing: Building the Pathway Towards Process and Material Qualification”

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    The potential benefits of metal additive manufacturing, as compared with more traditional, subtractive-only approaches, has created excitement within design circles seeking to take advantage of the ability to build and repair complex shapes, to integrate or consolidate multiple parts and minimize joining concerns, and to locally tailor material properties to increase functionality. Tempering the excitement of designers, however, has been concerns with the material deposited by the process. It is not enough for a part to ‘look’ right from a geometric perspective. Rather, the metallurgical aspects associated with the material being deposited must ‘look’ and ‘behave’ correctly along with themore » aforementioned geometric accuracy. Finally, without elucidation of the connections between processing, microstructure, properties, and performance from a materials science perspective, metal additive manufacturing will not realize its potential to change the manufacturing world for property and performance-critical engineering applications.« less

  4. “Additive Manufacturing: Building the Pathway Towards Process and Material Qualification”

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Herderick, Edward; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Sears, James

    2016-06-14

    The potential benefits of metal additive manufacturing, as compared with more traditional, subtractive-only approaches, has created excitement within design circles seeking to take advantage of the ability to build and repair complex shapes, to integrate or consolidate multiple parts and minimize joining concerns, and to locally tailor material properties to increase functionality. Tempering the excitement of designers, however, has been concerns with the material deposited by the process. It is not enough for a part to ‘look’ right from a geometric perspective. Rather, the metallurgical aspects associated with the material being deposited must ‘look’ and ‘behave’ correctly along with the aforementioned geometric accuracy. Finally, without elucidation of the connections between processing, microstructure, properties, and performance from a materials science perspective, metal additive manufacturing will not realize its potential to change the manufacturing world for property and performance-critical engineering applications.

  5. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  6. Operation of Prisma flexible manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W.; Rudolph, K.; Mueller, E.

    1985-03-01

    The development of technology and organization in the parts manufacturing taking place in machine construction factories occurs both in job site automation and in process-referred automation. It is characterized by the comprehensive employment of microelectronics which in turn leads to new more highly automated engineering solutions in the areas of manufacturing devices, transport technology and storage technology and manufacturing control. Systems used to process about 850 prismatic individual parts differing in design, differing technologically, and having the maximum dimensions 500 mm x 800 mm x 500 mm are described.

  7. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    PubMed

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  8. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  9. ICAM ’Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide’ (MC/DG). Volume 1. Demonstration Sections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    The base part is an element in its simplest form and with designer-influenced cost elements (DICE) such as, in the case of sheet metal, joggles , cut...introducing manufacturing complexities. This is shown below: * Added standard manufacturing operations - Joggles Flanged holes - Special lineal trim...Percentage Brake Form 71.4 Hydro Form 17.1 Die Form 6.0 Stretch Form 1.7 Roll Form 1.3 Hammer Form 1.1 Joggle Form 1.0 Other Methods 0.4 Distribution by

  10. The importance of integration and top-down salience when listening to complex multi-part musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2013-08-15

    In listening to multi-part music, auditory streams can be attended to either selectively or globally. More specifically, musicians rely on prioritized integrative attention which incorporates both stream segregation and integration to assess the relationship between concurrent parts. In this fMRI study, we used a piano duet to investigate which factors of a leader-follower relationship between parts grab the listener's attention and influence the perception of multi-part music. The factors considered included the structural relationship between melody and accompaniment as well as the temporal relationship (asynchronies) between parts. The structural relationship was manipulated by cueing subjects to the part of the duet that had to be prioritized. The temporal relationship was investigated by synthetically shifting the onset times of melody and accompaniment to either a consistent melody or accompaniment lead. The relative importance of these relationship factors for segregation and integration as attentional mechanisms was of interest. Participants were required to listen to the cued part and then globally assess if the prioritized stream was leading or following compared to the second stream. Results show that the melody is judged as more leading when it is globally temporally ahead whereas the accompaniment is not judged as leading when it is ahead. This bias may be a result of the interaction of salience of both leader-follower relationship factors. Interestingly, the corresponding interaction effect in the fMRI-data yields an inverse bias for melody in a fronto-parietal attention network. Corresponding parameter estimates within the dlPFC and right IPS show higher neural activity for attending to melody when listening to a performance without a temporal leader, pointing to an interaction of salience of both factors in listening to music. Both frontal and parietal activation implicate segregation and integration mechanisms and a top-down influence of salience

  11. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  12. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  13. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  14. VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE FACILITY WAS DESCRIBED AS THE MOST MODERN NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING BUILDING IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX, WITH MANY PRECISION INSTRUMENTS. (9/21/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  16. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  17. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-0221 CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) Nainesh B. Rathod Imaginestics, LLC SEPTEMBER 2013...SUBTITLE CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-C-5515 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63680F 6...Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM) initiative sought to improve participation of small manufacturers in building components for the military by

  18. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  19. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  20. The sarcolemmal calcium pump, alpha-1 syntrophin, and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase are parts of a macromolecular protein complex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Judith C; Armesilla, Angel L; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Hagarty, Cassandra L; McIntyre, Fiona H; Schomburg, Sybille; Zaki, Aly O; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Buch, Mamta H; Emerson, Michael; Neyses, Ludwig

    2006-08-18

    The main role of the plasma membrane Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA) is in the removal of Ca2+ from the cytosol. Recently, we and others have suggested a new function for PMCA as a modulator of signal transduction pathways. This paper shows the physical interaction between PMCA (isoforms 1 and 4) and alpha-1 syntrophin and proposes a ternary complex of interaction between endogenous PMCA, alpha-1 syntrophin, and NOS-1 in cardiac cells. We have identified that the linker region between the pleckstrin homology 2 (PH2) and the syntrophin unique (SU) domains, corresponding to amino acids 399-447 of alpha-1 syntrophin, is crucial for interaction with PMCA1 and -4. The PH2 and the SU domains alone failed to interact with PMCA. The functionality of the interaction was demonstrated by investigating the inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-1 (NOS-1); PMCA is a negative regulator of NOS-1-dependent NO production, and overexpression of alpha-1 syntrophin and PMCA4 resulted in strongly increased inhibition of NO production. Analysis of the expression levels of alpha-1 syntrophin protein in the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, uterus, kidney, or liver of PMCA4-/- mice, did not reveal any differences when compared with those found in the same tissues of wild-type mice. These results suggest that PMCA4 is tethered to the syntrophin complex as a regulator of NOS-1, but its absence does not cause collapse of the complex, contrary to what has been reported for other proteins within the complex, such as dystrophin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate for the first time the localization of PMCA1b and -4b to the syntrophin.dystrophin complex in the heart and provide a specific molecular mechanism of interaction as well as functionality.

  1. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing... initiated the process to develop and publish energy standards for manufactured housing as directed by the... efficiency standards would cover new manufactured housing, DOE is interested in information that relates...

  2. 46 CFR 160.072-7 - Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer certification and labeling. 160.072-7..., Orange Flag § 160.072-7 Manufacturer certification and labeling. (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as...

  3. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  4. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  5. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  6. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  7. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(c) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  8. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  9. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  10. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  11. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the... manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed,...

  12. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  13. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the FAA does not issue a type certificate if the manufacturing...

  14. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  15. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  16. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  17. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  18. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  19. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  1. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  2. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  3. Capturing the Complexity of Additively Manufactured Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Livescu, Veronica; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Vander Wiel, Scott Alan; Mayeur, Jason Rhea; Brown, Donald William; Dippo, Olivia

    2016-05-12

    The underlying mechanisms and kinetics controlling damage nucleation and growth as a function of material microstructure and loading paths are discussed. These experiments indicate that structural features such as grain boundaries, grain size distribution, grain morphology crystallographic texture are all factors that influence mechanical behavior.

  4. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  5. On the relationship between the Bushveld Complex and its felsic roof rocks, part 2: the immediate roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Emplacement of large volumes of mafic magma into the crust undoubtedly causes significant thermal perturbation to the overlying crust. Despite the clear importance of the country rock in modulating the thermal evolution the Bushveld Complex, little is known about the nature and extent of its roof zone. This manuscript details the lateral variability of the rocks that make up the immediate roof of the intrusion in the Eastern Limb. In the Northern Segment of the eastern Bushveld, the roof is dominated by thermally metamorphosed metapelites; in the Central Segment, the roof is dominated by highly metamorphosed meta-volcanic rocks and their partially molten equivalents; and in the Southern Segment, the roof is likely composed of modestly thermally metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks. The variability of roof lithology is also reflected in the variability of floor rocks to the intrusion. A new model for the emplacement of the eastern Bushveld Complex is proposed in which the mafic magmas intrude at a deeper level in the north and become shallower to the south.

  6. Complex plane integration in the modelling of electromagnetic fields in layered media: part 1. Application to a very large loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Valdelírio da Silva e.; Régis, Cícero; Howard, Allen Q., Jr.

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyses the details of a procedure for the numerical integration of Hankel transforms in the calculation of the electromagnetic fields generated by a large horizontal loop over a 1D earth. The method performs the integration by deforming the integration path into the complex plane and applying Cauchy's theorem on a modified version of the integrand. The modification is the replacement of the Bessel functions J0 and J1 by the Hankel functions H_0^{(1)} and H_1^{(1)} respectively. The integration in the complex plane takes advantage of the exponentially decaying behaviour of the Hankel functions, allowing calculation on very small segments, instead of the infinite line of the original improper integrals. A crucial point in this problem is the location of the poles. The companion paper shows two methods to estimate the pole locations. We have used this method to calculate the fields of very large loops. Our results show that this method allows the estimation of the integrals with fewer evaluations of the integrand functions than other methods.

  7. [The methods for the protection against counterfeit medications. Part 1. The estimation of the quality of metoprolol succinate substance and tablets from different manufacturers in terms of "identity" and "active ingredient content"].

    PubMed

    Iakushev, V A; Morozova, M A; Elizarova, T E; Fitilev, S B; Pletneva, T V

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to report the results of analysis of metoprolol succinate substance and tablets obtained from two manufacturers, Akrikhin (Russia) and AstraZeneca (Sweden). The analysis was performed by spectroscopy in the near IR region and followed by the chemometric treatment of the data obtained. The method was used to confirm the "identity" of metoprolol succinate tablets. The approach to distinguishing the differences between pharmaceutical dosage forms produced by different manufacturers is proposed. Also, the method for the qualitative determination of metoprolol succinate in the pharmaceutical formulations has been developed.

  8. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  9. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  10. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  11. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  12. The grand tour of the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada: Part 1 - Introduction & road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; McGrew, A.J.; Burton, B.R.; Barnes, C.G.; Peters, M.T.; Wright, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this geological excursion is to provide an overview of the multiphase developmental history of the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, northeastern Nevada. Although these mountain ranges are commonly cited as a classic example of a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex developed through large-magnitude, mid-Tertiary crustal extension, a preceding polyphase Mesozoic contractional history is also well preserved in the ranges. An early phase of this history involved Late Jurassic two-mica granitic magmatism, high-temperature but relatively low-pressure metamorphism, and polyphase deformation in the central Ruby Mountains. In the northern Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, a Late Cretaceous history of crustal shortening, metamorphism, and magmatism is manifested by fold-nappes (involving Archean basement rocks in the northern East Humboldt Range), widespread migmatization, injection of monzogranitic and leucogranitic magmas, all coupled with sillimanite-grade metamorphism. Following Late Cretaceous contraction, a protracted extensional deformation partially overprinted these areas during the Cenozoic. This extensional history may have begun as early as the Late Cretaceous or as late as the mid-Eocene. Late Eocene and Oligocene magmatism occurred at various levels in the crust yielding mafic to felsic orthogneisses in the deep crust, a composite granitic pluton in the upper crust, and volcanic rocks at the surface. Movement along a west-rooted, extensional shear zone in the Oligocene and early Miocene led to core-complex exhumation. The shear zone produced mylonitic rocks about 1 km thick at deep crustal levels, and an overprint of brittle detachment faulting at shallower levels as unroofing proceeded. Megabreccias and other synextensional sedimentary deposits are locally preserved in a tilted, upper Eocene through Miocene stratigraphic sequence. Neogene magmatism included the emplacement of basalt dikes and eruption of rhyolitic rocks. Subsequent

  13. Divalent carbon(0) chemistry, part 2: Protonation and complexes with main group and transition metal Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Tonner, Ralf; Frenking, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations with DFT (BP86) and ab initio methods (MP2, SCS-MP2) were carried out for protonated and diprotonated compounds N-H(+) and N-(H(+))(2) and for the complexes N-BH(3), N-(BH(3))(2), N-CO(2), N-(CO(2))(2), N-W(CO)(5), N-Ni(CO)(3) and N-Ni(CO)(2) where N=C(PH(3))(2) (1), C(PMe(3))(2) (2), C(PPh(3))(2) (3), C(PPh(3))(CO) (4), C(CO)(2) (5), C(NHC(H))(2) (6), C(NHC(Me))(2) (7) (Me(2)N)(2)C==C==C(NMe(2))(2) (8) and NHC (9) (NHC(H)=N-heterocyclic carbene, NHC(Me)=N-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene). Compounds 1-4 and 6-9 are very strong electron donors, and this is manifested in calculated protonation energies that reach values of up to 300 kcal mol(-1) for 7 and in very high bond strengths of the donor-acceptor complexes. The electronic structure of the compounds was analyzed with charge- and energy-partitioning methods. The calculations show that the experimentally known compounds 2-5 and 8 chemically behave like molecules L(2)C which have two L-->C donor-acceptor bonds and a carbon atom with two electron lone pairs. The behavior is not directly obvious when the linear structures of carbon suboxide and tetraaminoallenes are considered. They only come to the fore on reaction with strong electron-pair acceptors. The calculations predict that single and double protonation of 5 and 8 take place at the central carbon atom, where the negative charge increases upon subsequent protonation. The hitherto experimentally unknown carbodicarbenes 6 and 7 are predicted to be even stronger Lewis bases than the carbodiphosphoranes 1-3.

  14. An analytic framework for developing inherently-manufacturable pop-up laminate devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Spurred by advances in manufacturing technologies developed around layered manufacturing technologies such as PC-MEMS, SCM, and printable robotics, we propose a new analytic framework for capturing the geometry of folded composite laminate devices and the mechanical processes used to manufacture them. These processes can be represented by combining a small set of geometric operations which are general enough to encompass many different manufacturing paradigms. Furthermore, such a formulation permits one to construct a variety of geometric tools which can be used to analyze common manufacturability concepts, such as tool access, part removability, and device support. In order to increase the speed of development, reduce the occurrence of manufacturing problems inherent with current design methods, and reduce the level of expertise required to develop new devices, the framework has been implemented in a new design tool called popupCAD, which is suited for the design and development of complex folded laminate devices. We conclude with a demonstration of utility of the tools by creating a folded leg mechanism.

  15. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.; ...

    2012-01-01

    A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012), 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs). We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertaintymore » quantification results for a 3D PDE application.« less

  16. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  17. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  18. America Makes: The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Status Report and Future Opportunities (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Missouri, ASM Teachers camps and 3D Printing Summer Camps. America Makes also has a goal of getting “ 3D printers in every school”, which Makerbot...manufacturing, direct part manufacturing, manufacturing institute, public- private partnership, rapid manufacturing, 3D printing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Manufacturing Science and Technology Pro- gram and selected Additive Manufacturing (or more popularly known as 3D printing) as the technical subject. Working

  19. Manufacturing control: A basis for analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, N.

    1989-11-01

    The application of elementary control theory to manufacturing systems demonstrating how the organization of basic shop-floor logistics can be optimized prior to the introduction of computer technology is explored. A control structure is introduced and applied to manufacturing systems, breaking the problem into its constituent parts in such a way that the advantages of improved control technology become more apparent and more readily implementable.

  20. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  1. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  2. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  3. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  4. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  5. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-01-31

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method

  6. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  7. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  8. Heat and fluid flow in complex joints during gas metal arc welding—Part I: Numerical model of fillet welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Kim, C.-H.; DebRoy, T.

    2004-05-01

    Gas metal arc (GMA) fillet welding is one of the most important processes for metal joining because of its high productivity and amiability to automation. This welding process is characterized by the complicated V-shaped joint geometry, a deformable weld pool surface, and the additions of hot metal droplets. In the present work, a three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to examine the temperature profiles, velocity fields, weld pool shape and size, and the nature of the solidified weld bead geometry during GMA fillet welding. The model solved the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy using a boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate system. Apart from the direct transport of heat from the welding arc, additional heat from the metal droplets was modeled considering a volumetric heat source. The deformation of the weld pool surface was calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. Part I of this article is focused on the details of the numerical model such as coordinate transformation and calculation of volumetric heat source and free surface profile. An application of the model to GMA fillet welding of mild steel is described in an accompanying article (W. Zhang, C.-H. Kim and T. DebRoy, J. Appl Phys. 95, 5220 (2004)).

  9. Lessons Learned During the Manufacture of the NCSX Modular Coils

    SciTech Connect

    James H. Chrzanowski,Thomas G. Meighan, Steven Raftopoulos and Lawrence Dudek and Paul J. Fogarty

    2009-09-15

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and high current density requirements due to space constraints. Being the first of their kind, these coils required the implementation of many new manufacturing and measuring techniques and procedures. This was the first time that these manufacturing techniques and methods were applied in the production of coils at the laboratory. This resulted in a steep learning curve for the first several coils. Through the effective use of procedures, tooling modifications, involvement and ownership by the manufacturing workforce, and an emphasis on safety, the assembly team was able to reduce the manufacturing times and improve upon the manufacturing methods. This paper will discuss the learning curve and steps that were taken to improve the manufacturing efficiency and reduce the manufacturing times for the modular coils without forfeiting quality.

  10. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  11. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  12. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  15. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  16. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  17. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  18. Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstattd, William D.

    The Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project's feasibility study concerned with industrial arts curriculum development in manufacturing for the senior high school level is described. The need for an industrial arts curriculum which meets and reflects present and future trends is discussed in the introduction, followed by a review of the…

  19. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  20. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  1. Delta III reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: 6 to 42 months of follow up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing tendency for complex proximal humerus fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic patients to be treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). It has been proposed that RSA has more benefits than other treatment options. The aim of our study was to investigate preoperative characteristics as well as clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with complex 3- or 4-part PHF who had undergone primary RSA. Methods Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months who had undergone a primary RSA after 3- or 4-part PHF in the period between 2008 and 2011 were eligible for the study. Clinical records, X-rays and CT-scans were investigated and a clinical examination was performed. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Constant-Murley score (CMS) were calculated. Sixteen patients were examined as part of the study. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 6-42 months). According to Codman-Hertel classification we encountered 15 Hertel “12” and 1 Hertel “8” type fractures. Results Thirty-two patients (27 female – 84.4%) with a mean age of 72 years underwent operations to treat complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Sixteen patients were reexamined. In 14 cases the dominant upper extremity was on the right, in 2 cases it was on the left, in 6 cases the right side was affected and in 10 cases the left side was affected. The mean CMS was 54.8 (range 18-95) and the mean DASH was 37.5 (range 2.9-81). A trend was established between the CMS and dominance of the affected shoulder. The CMS was better if the affected shoulder was on the non-dominant side (p-value 0.051). No statistical difference was noted between age and clinical outcome. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up shows satisfying results in terms of the treatment of severe displaced fractures in elderly patients with RSA. RSA can provide immediate relief and good shoulder function in elderly patients. Nevertheless, the question of longevity of these

  2. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  3. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  4. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  5. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  6. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  7. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration using experimental design approach. part 1: optimization of complexation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Corneliu; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Jaworska, Agnieszka

    2009-09-30

    The polymer assisted ultrafiltration process combines the selectivity of the chelating agent with the filtration ability of the membrane acting in synergy. Such hybrid process (complexation-ultrafiltration) is influenced by several factors and therefore the application of experimental design for process optimization using a reduced number of experiments is of great importance. The present work deals with the investigation and optimization of cobalt ions removal from aqueous solutions by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration using experimental design and response surface methodological approach. Polyethyleneimine has been used as chelating agent for cobalt complexation and the ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in dead-end operating mode using a flat-sheet membrane made from regenerated cellulose. The aim of this part of experiments was to find optimal conditions for cobalt complexation, i.e. the influence of initial concentration of cobalt in feed solution, polymer/metal ratio and pH of feed solution, on the rejection efficiency and binding capacity of the polymer. In this respect, the central compositional design has been used for planning the experiments and for construction of second-order response surface models applicable for predictions. The analysis of variance has been employed for statistical validation of regression models. The optimum conditions for maximum rejection efficiency of 96.65% has been figured out experimentally by gradient method and was found to be as follows: [Co(2+)](0)=65 mg/L, polymer/metal ratio=5.88 and pH 6.84.

  8. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  9. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  10. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  11. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  12. Quality cell therapy manufacturing by design.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Timmins, Nicholas E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Transplantation of live cells as therapeutic agents is poised to offer new treatment options for a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, the biological complexity of cells has hampered the translation of laboratory-scale experiments into industrial processes for reliable, cost-effective manufacturing of cell-based therapies. We argue here that a solution to this challenge is to design cell manufacturing processes according to quality-by-design (QbD) principles. QbD integrates scientific knowledge and risk analysis into manufacturing process development and is already being adopted by the biopharmaceutical industry. Many opportunities to incorporate QbD into cell therapy manufacturing exist, although further technology development is required for full implementation. Linking measurable molecular and cellular characteristics of a cell population to final product quality through QbD is a crucial step in realizing the potential for cell therapies to transform healthcare.

  13. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  14. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  15. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  16. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

    1980-06-24

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  17. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  18. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  19. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  20. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  1. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... the Manufacturing Council (Council). The March 16, 2010 notice provided that all applications must...

  2. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The November 23, 2010 notice provided that...

  3. Simulation Environment Synchronizing Real Equipment for Manufacturing Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inukai, Toshihiro; Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    Recently, manufacturing industries face various problems such as shorter product life cycle, more diversified customer needs. In this situation, it is very important to reduce lead-time of manufacturing system constructions. At the manufacturing system implementation stage, it is important to make and evaluate facility control programs for a manufacturing cell, such as ladder programs for programmable logical controllers (PLCs) rapidly. However, before the manufacturing systems are implemented, methods to evaluate the facility control programs for the equipment while mixing and synchronizing real equipment and virtual factory models on the computers have not been developed. This difficulty is caused by the complexity of the manufacturing system composed of a great variety of equipment, and stopped precise and rapid support of a manufacturing engineering process. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering environment (MEE) to support manufacturing engineering processes using simulation technologies is proposed. MEE consists of a manufacturing cell simulation environment (MCSE) and a distributed simulation environment (DSE). MCSE, which consists of a manufacturing cell simulator and a soft-wiring system, is emphatically proposed in detail. MCSE realizes making and evaluating facility control programs by using virtual factory models on computers before manufacturing systems are implemented.

  4. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  5. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  6. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  7. Human Issues in Manufacturing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    conventional mass- production manufacturing and the benefits of lean manufacturing . The text details the results of a five-year, multi national study...data and comparisons between mass and lean manufacturing . The key objective is to "illustrate the transition from mass to lean production with...of reference for the transition from current manufacturing systems to the goal state of lean manufacturing . Manufacturing before change is referred to

  8. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  9. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  10. The patterns of fracture and the conditioning tectonics in the region of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and part of the Migmatitic-Gnanulitic Complex in Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeirodossantos, Athos; Schorscher, Hans D.

    1989-07-01

    The structural evolution of the SE portion of Minas Gerais State, including the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and adjacent parts of the Migmatitic-Granulitic Complex are described. The area of complex policiclic evolution is composed of pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, arquean to upper proterozoic in age. In phanerozoic times basaltic magmatism and related tectonism took place principally in the Mesozoic Era, and restricted lacustric sedimentary basins developed in the tertiary and quaternary periods. This study is based on the interpretation of remote sensing products (MSS, RBV, TM and SLAR images) and geological data form literature and field work. An integrated geological map (1:250.000) and a statistical analysis of the patterns of fracturing show the importance of NNE-SSW and E-W directed events of ruptile and ruptile-ductile tectonics in the Archean and in the conditioning of the younger fracture-generations. Further evidences regarding the structural evolution of the Minas Supergroup in the Quadrilaterio Ferrifero revealed different fracture patterns in the Minas - cover in respect to its underlying basement.

  11. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O’Neal, T. Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. This paper discusses the impacts of the DMLS fabrication technique on the design of the turbopump and lessons learned during DMLS hardware fabrication and material testing.

  12. SAR versus S(inc): What is the appropriate RF exposure metric in the range 1-10 GHz? Part II: Using complex human body models.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Anderson, Vitas

    2010-09-01

    This is the second of the two articles that present modeling data and reasoned arguments for specifying the appropriate crossover frequency at which incident power flux density (S(inc)) replaces the peak 10 g averaged value of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) as the designated basic restriction for protecting against radiofrequency electromagnetic heating effects in the 1-10 GHz range. In our first study, we compared the degree of correlation between these basic restrictions and the peak-induced tissue temperature rise (DeltaT) for a representative range of population/exposure scenarios using simple multi-planar models exposed to plane wave conditions. In this complementary study, complex heterogeneous head models for an adult and 12-year-old child were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 GHz for a variety of exposure conditions. The complex models indicate that peak DeltaT is better correlated with peak 10 g SAR than S(inc) at 1 and 3 GHz and with S(inc) at 6-10 GHz, in contrast to the results from Part I. Considering the planar and complex body modeling results together, and given the equivocal indications of the two metrics in the 6-10 GHz range, we recommend that the breakpoint be set at 6 GHz. This choice is also based on other considerations such as ease of assessment. We also recommend that the limit level of S(inc) should be adjusted to provide a better match with 10 g SAR in the induced tissue temperature rise.

  13. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part A--radiomics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground-breaking developments in Omics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and proteins interact in the frame of complex networks to preserve genome integrity has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Nuclear architecture and nuclear processes, including DNA damage responses, are precisely organized in space and time. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone, but requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. Based on the results obtained from studying the relationship between higher-order chromatin structure, DNA double-strand break induction and repair, and the formation of chromosomal translocations, we show the development of Omics solutions especially for radiation research (radiomics) (discussed in this article) and how confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place the Omics data in the context of space and time (discussed in our other article in this issue, "Determining Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part B--Structuromics"). Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting and speculate future perspectives, which may combine nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to observe structure-function correlations in living cells in real time. Thus, the Omics networks obtained from function analyses may be enriched by real-time visualization of Structuromics.

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  17. Manufacture of sintered silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sintered silicon nitrides are manufactured by sintering Si3N powder containing 2 to 15% in wt of a powder mixture composed of nitride powder of lanthanide or Y 100 parts and AIN powder less than 100 parts at 1500 to 1900 deg. temperature under a pressure of less than 200 Kg/sq. cm. The sintered Si3N has high mechanical strength in high temperature. Thus, Si3N4 93.0, Y 5.0 and AlN 2.0% in weight were wet mixed in acetone in N atom, molded and sintered at 1750 deg. and 1000 Kg/sq. cm. to give a sintered body having high hardness.

  18. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  19. Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of the Velay complex (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Marignac, Christian; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Velay complex is a large migmatite dome extending over the central-eastern part of the French Massif Central. Two stages of migmatization were recognized in the southern edge of the complex : (1) "Pre-Velay" anatexis under biotite stable and water saturated conditions. (2) "Velay" water-absent melting synchronous with emplacement of the peraluminous S-type Velay granite cutting across the Early Carboniferous nappe stack. Field study of the southern part of the dome shows that Mg-K-rich micaceous diorites of mantle origin, locally called vaugnerites, outcrop as intrusive bodies in three main settings : (1) Meter-sized stocks are intimately associated with several granite plutons, the comagmatic ascent and crystallization of mafic and felsic melts being evidenced by lobate contacts and intricate shapes. (2) Decameter-sized medium to coarse-grained massifs and sills emplaced in unmolten to metatexitic paragneisses. (3) Fine-grained decimeter-sized concordant lenses are found as clusters in metatexitic to diatexitic orthogneisses. Seven vaugnerites were dated either directly or indirectly through their co-magmatic host granite. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) zircon and monazite U-Pb ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties, spanning from 303.7 ± 3.1 to 307.4 ± 1.8 Ma except for one slightly younger (294.4 ± 3.9 Ma) sample . Granites and vaugnerites of the study area emplaced mainly during a short period of time at ca. 305 Ma. Assuming vaugnerite intrusions are coeval implies that their varied shapes are a consequence of contrasting behavior of the mafic magma depending on the host. Granites from the southern Velay are exactly of the same age, ca. 305 Ma, although several generations can be clearly identified based on field relationships. They display complex zircon inheritance patterns involving Proterozoic to Cambro-Ordovician components; in details, the inheritance pattern varies between (or even within) plutons, pointing to the

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  1. Rapid prototyping applications for manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software, we experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible using this technology to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. We use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This report will focus on our successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  2. The modulation by xanthines of the DNA-damaging effect of polycyclic aromatic agents. Part II. The stacking complexes of caffeine with doxorubicin and mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Piosik, Jacek; Zdunek, Malgorzata; Kapuscinski, Jan

    2002-02-15

    CAF molecules (DeltaE=-29.9kcal/mol). These results indicate that the attenuating effect of caffeine on cytotoxic or mutagenic effects of some polycyclic aromatic mutagens cannot be the result of metabolic activation in the cells, but simply is the physicochemical process of the sequestering of aromatic molecules (e.g. carcinogens or mutagens) by formation of the stacking complexes. The caffeine may then act as the "interceptor" of potential carcinogens (especially in the upper part of digesting track) where its concentration can reach the mM level). There is, however, no indication, both, in the literature or from our experiments, that the xanthines can reverse the damage to nucleic acids at the point when the damage to DNA has already occurred.

  3. Integration of Machining and Inspection in Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bart; Dicken, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    The main challenge for aerospace manufacturers today is to develop the ability to produce high-quality products on a consistent basis as quickly as possible and at the lowest-possible cost. At the same time, rising material prices are making the cost of scrap higher than ever so making it more important to minimise waste. Proper inspection and quality control methods are no longer a luxury; they are an essential part of every manufacturing operation that wants to grow and be successful. However, simply bolting on some quality control procedures to the existing manufacturing processes is not enough. Inspection must be fully-integrated with manufacturing for the investment to really produce significant improvements. The traditional relationship between manufacturing and inspection is that machining is completed first on the company's machine tools and the components are then transferred to dedicated inspection equipment to be approved or rejected. However, as machining techniques become more sophisticated, and as components become larger and more complex, there are a growing number of cases where closer integration is required to give the highest productivity and the biggest reductions in wastage. Instead of a simple linear progression from CAD to CAM to machining to inspection, a more complicated series of steps is needed, with extra data needed to fill any gaps in the information available at the various stages. These new processes can be grouped under the heading of "adaptive machining". The programming of most machining operations is based around knowing three things: the position of the workpiece on the machine, the starting shape of the material to be machined, and the final shape that needs to be achieved at the end of the operation. Adaptive machining techniques allow successful machining when at least one of those elements is unknown, by using in-process measurement to close the information gaps in the process chain. It also allows any errors to be spotted

  4. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  5. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  6. 16 CFR 1204.5 - Manufacturer's instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.5 Manufacturer's instructions. (a) For all antennas covered under this part 1204, the following statement shall...(a)(1)(ii): Under some conditions, this antenna may not prevent electrocution. Users should...

  7. 16 CFR 1204.5 - Manufacturer's instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.5 Manufacturer's instructions. (a) For all antennas covered under this part 1204, the following statement shall...(a)(1)(ii): Under some conditions, this antenna may not prevent electrocution. Users should...

  8. 16 CFR 1204.5 - Manufacturer's instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.5 Manufacturer's instructions. (a) For all antennas covered under this part 1204, the following statement shall...(a)(1)(ii): Under some conditions, this antenna may not prevent electrocution. Users should...

  9. 16 CFR 1204.5 - Manufacturer's instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous and shall be in type that is at least as large as the largest type used on the remainder of the... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.5 Manufacturer's instructions. (a) For all antennas covered under this part 1204, the following statement...

  10. 16 CFR 1204.5 - Manufacturer's instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conspicuous and shall be in type that is at least as large as the largest type used on the remainder of the... SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.5 Manufacturer's instructions. (a) For all antennas covered under this part 1204, the following statement...

  11. How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline.

  12. National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinton, Clare

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

  13. Development of 70/30 Poly- l- dl-Lactic Acid Filaments for 3D Printers (Part 1): Filament Manufacturing and Characterization of Printed Samples for Use as Bioabsorbable Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Vidal, Rafael; da Silva, Luciana Portal; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to manufacture 70/30 poly- l- dl-lactic acid (PLDLLA) filaments for three-dimensional (3D) printers by using the extrusion technique and to study the properties of filaments and printed plates for surgical fracture stabilization. Different extrusion methodologies were tested and filaments were analyzed in terms of homogeneity, accuracy diameter, finishing surface morphology, and chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the filaments have less crystallinity than does the raw material. Infrared and thermogravimetric analysis showed no evidence of chemical degradation. Surgical plates made with the filaments revealed small changes in the material properties after the printing process. PLDLLA filament extrusion and 3D printing are a promising way to satisfy the demand of implantable bioabsorbable products.

  14. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  15. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R.

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  16. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...

  17. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the Administrator does not issue a type certificate if the...

  18. 14 CFR 21.43 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.43... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.43 Location of manufacturing facilities. Except as provided in § 21.29, the Administrator does not issue a type certificate if the...

  19. 21 CFR 123.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 123.5 Section 123.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... manufacturing practice. (a) Part 110 of this chapter applies in determining whether the facilities,...

  20. 21 CFR 120.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 120.5 Section 120.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 120.5 Current good manufacturing practice. Part 110 of this chapter applies in...