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Sample records for parturient paresis

  1. Effect of intravenous calcium borogluconate and sodium phosphate in cows with parturient paresis.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Zulliger, P; Liesegang, A; Bleul, U; Hässig, M

    2009-03-07

    Thirty cows with parturient paresis were divided into three groups of 10. All the cows were given 500 ml of a 40 per cent calcium borogluconate solution intravenously over a period of 10 minutes, and 20 were also given 500 ml of a 10 per cent solution of sodium phosphate intravenously; in 10 of the cows this solution was administered over a period of 10 minutes immediately after the calcium borogluconate solution, and in the other 10 cows 200 ml of the solution was administered rapidly and the remaining 300 ml was added to 10 litres of sodium chloride and glucose solution and infused slowly over six hours. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the outcome of the treatments; six or seven of the cows in each group stood within eight hours of the treatment. There were no significant differences between the changes in serum calcium concentrations among the groups. The mean concentrations of inorganic phosphorus in the groups given sodium phosphate were increased above the normal range initially, but after eight hours there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the numbers of cows that were hypophosphataemic. There were no significant differences between the three groups with respect to changes after treatment in the serum concentrations of magnesium or parathyroid hormone.

  2. Treatment of cows with parturient paresis using intravenous calcium and oral sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Grob, D; Hässig, M

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether intravenous infusion of 1000 ml 40% calcium borogluconate combined with the oral adminstration of 500 g sodium phosphate leads to a better cure rate and longer-lasting normocalcaemia and normophosphataemia than standard intravenous treatment with 500 ml calcium borogluconate in cows with parturient paresis. Forty recumbent cows with hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia were alternately allocated to group A or B. Cows of both groups were treated intravenously with 500 ml 40% calcium borogluconate, and cows of group B additionally received another 500 ml calcium borogluconate via slow intravenous infusion and 500 g sodium phosphate administered via an orogastric tube. Thirty-two cows stood within 8 hours after the start of treatment and 8 did not; of the 32 cows that stood, 18 belonged to group A and 14 to group B (90% of group A vs. 70% of group B; P = 0.23). Seven cows relapsed; of these and the 8 that did not respond to initial treatment, 10 stood after two standard intravenous treatments. Downer cow syndrome occurred in 5 cows, 3 of which recovered after aggressive therapy. The overall cure rate did not differ significantly between groups A and B. Twelve (60%) cows of group A and 14 (70%) cows of group B were cured after a single treatment and of the remaining 14, 11 were cured after two or more treatments. Two downer cows were euthanized and one other died of heart failure during treatment. Serum calcium concentrations during the first eight hours after the start of treatment were significantly higher in group B than in group A, and oral sodium phosphate caused a significant and lasting increase in inorganic phosphate. More cows of group B than group A were cured after a single treatment (P > 0.05). These findings, although not statistically significant, are promising and should be verified using a larger number of cows.

  3. Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite A administration in the dry period.

    PubMed

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2001-03-01

    To test the effects of a zeolite feed supplement on parturient calcium status and milk fever, two groups of dry cows were treated with either 1 kg of zeolite/d or none for 4 wk prepartum. At calving and d 1 and 2 after calving all cows were given 250 g of calcium carbonate as a drench, and a blood sample was taken. Serum calcium analysis revealed a greater calcium concentration in zeolite-treated cows. While three control cows contracted milk fever, necessitating intravenous calcium therapy, and six out of eight control cows experienced serum calcium levels below 2 mmol/L in one or more samples taken, none of the zeolite-treated cows contracted milk fever or experienced subclinical hypocalcemia.

  4. Monocular elevator paresis in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Egan, R A; Thompson, C R; MacCollin, M; Lessell, S

    2001-05-08

    A retrospective review of 29 consecutive unselected patients referred for neuro-ophthalmic evaluation after the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) showed that four of them had a monocular elevator paresis. In two of the four MRI demonstrated lesions, presumed to be schwannomas, of the third nerve. These findings indicate that monocular elevator paresis is a common neuro-ophthalmic finding in NF2, which the authors suspect is probably a sign of third nerve infiltration or compression by a schwannoma.

  5. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  6. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  7. [Antioxidant therapy in combined treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M A

    2004-01-01

    Method of treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis with antioxidant emoxipin in experiment demonstrated that stabilization of redox processes and antioxidant systems in intestinal tissues leads to compensation of energy deficiency and recovery of intestinal peristalsis. Clinical use of this method in combined treatment of patients with postoperative intestinal paresis in acute generalized peritonitis reduces time of postoperative intestinal paresis and intoxication, lethality reduced 1,7-fold.

  8. Voice range in superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C A; Sataloff, R T; Hawkshaw, M; Spiegel, J R; Mandel, S

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of Physiologic Frequency Range (PFR) and Musical Frequency Range (MRP) of Phonation was performed on 56 adults (singers and nonsingers) presenting with superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paresis or paralysis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography. The most common etiology was neuritis (69.7%), followed by iatrogenic and unknown causes,each accounting for 10.2% of cases, and finally trauma (8.9%). Both female and male singers with SLN paresis or paralysis had significantly higher PFR and MPR than nonsingers. Female classical singers presented PFR and MPR of up to 10 semitones (ST) higher than nonclassical singers and nonsingers. The lowest PFR and musical ranges were found in patients with SLN paresis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis. The authors suggest that voice range measurement is a useful parameter for analyzing the effects of SLN paresis or paralysis on voice and that it may also assist in measuring outcome following voice therapy.

  9. Anesthetic management for parturients with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    El-Refai, Nesrine Abd El-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Anesthesia care for the pregnant and the parturient presenting with a neurological disease requires (1) expertise with neuroanesthesia and obstetric anesthesia care, (2) accurate physical examination of the neurological system preoperatively, (3) safe choice and conductance of the anesthesia technique (mostly regional anesthesia), (4) avoidance of unfavorable drug effects for the fetus and the nervous system of the mother, and (5) intraoperative neuromonitoring together with the control of the fetal heart rate. The most important message is that in the ideal case, any woman with a known, preexisting neurological disorder should discuss her plans to become pregnant with her physician before she becomes pregnant. Neurological diseases in pregnancy can be classified into three categories: (a) Pre-existent chronic neurological diseases such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis (MS). (b) Diseases with onset predominantly in pregnancy such as some brain tumors or cerebrovascular events. (c) Pregnancy-induced conditions such as eclampsia and Hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome. This article addresses specific issues surrounding neurologic disease in pregnant women including MS parturient, spinal cord injury, parturient with increased intracranial pressure and shunts, parturient with brain tumors, Guillain-Barré syndrome and epilepsy. PMID:25885824

  10. Labor analgesia for the obese parturient.

    PubMed

    Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Obese parturients present obstetric anesthesia providers with multiple challenges, including increased incidence of maternal coexisting disease, labor complications, and potential for difficult initiation and failure of neuraxial labor analgesia. This focused review discusses these challenges, and suggests potential methods to increase labor analgesia success in this population.

  11. Role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis and its use in prevention of bovine periparturient paresis.

    PubMed

    Horst, R L; Goff, J P; Reinhardt, T A

    2003-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is essential for life in higher animals. It is involved in the normal functioning of a wide variety of tissues and physiologic processes which include bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting and as a second messenger regulating the actions of many hormones. In order for these functions to be carried out properly, blood Ca concentrations must be monitored and regulated within strict limitations. The discovery of the vitamin D endocrine system has resulted in the realization that Ca regulation in mammals and birds involves a coordinated effort between the hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and the hormonally-active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. Failure of this system to maintain normal blood Ca concentrations at parturition is a common occurrence in ruminants leading to clinical (periparturient paresis, milk fever) and subclinical hypocalcemia. Vitamin D sterols have played a significant role in efforts to avoid parturient hypocalcemia and this report will summarize advantages and disadvantages associated with their use.

  12. [Intensity in the neurorehabilitation of spastic paresis].

    PubMed

    Meimoun, M; Bayle, N; Baude, M; Gracies, J-M

    2015-02-01

    Neurorestoration of motor command in spastic paresis requires a double action of stimulation and guidance of central nervous system plasticity. Beyond drug therapies, electrical stimulation and cell therapies, which may stimulate plasticity without precisely guiding it, two interventions seem capable of driving plasticity with a double stimulation and guidance component: the lesion itself (lesion-induced plasticity) and durable behavior modifications (behavior-induced plasticity). Modern literature makes it clear that the intensity of the neuronal and physical training is a primary condition to foster behavior-induced plasticity. When it comes to working on movement, intensity can be achieved by the combination of two key components, one is the difficulty of the trained movement, the other is the number of repetitions or the daily duration of the practice. A number of recent studies shed light on promising recovery prospects, particularly using the emergence of new technologies such as robot-assisted therapy and concepts such as guided self-rehabilitation contracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Is cold paresis related to axonal depolarization?

    PubMed

    Franssen, Hessel; Gebbink, Tineke A; Wokke, John H J; van den Berg, Leonard H; van Schelven, Leonard J

    2010-09-01

    Cold paresis may occur in multifocal motor neuropathy and lower motor neuron disease. It was proposed to reflect nerve lesions where axons are depolarized due to loss of Na/K-pump activity. In those circumstances, a further decrease in pump activity by cooling may induce extra depolarization, conduction block, and weakness. Evidence for this hypothesis is incomplete because it is unknown if cold induces depolarization in human motor axons and other factors may contribute to the symptoms. To solve these questions, we examined 10 normal subjects. At 37, 25, 20, and 15°C we assessed: excitability in the median nerve, decrement on 3-Hz stimulation, pulsed Doppler of a wrist artery, and thenar muscle strength. Cooling induced: (1) findings compatible with axonal depolarization on excitability testing (fanning-in of threshold electrotonus, steepened current threshold relation, increased refractory period, decreased super- and subexcitability), (2) decreased Doppler peak systolic velocity without causing ischemia, (3) decreased muscle strength and impaired muscle relaxation. Decrement tests and compound muscle action potential amplitude remained normal. The excitability findings induced by cooling were best explained by axonal depolarization due to the effect of temperature on Na/K-pump activity. The induced weakness may be explained not only by this mechanism but also by impaired muscle contraction. © 2010 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. A parturient with severe bullous emphysema from intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Afrangui, B M; Malinow, A M

    2002-04-01

    A parturient with severe talcosis-induced, bullous emphysema presented for urgent cesarean delivery. Respiratory effects of anesthesia, positioning for delivery and residual effects of postoperative analgesics all potentially affect the choice of anesthetic technique and drugs used in a patient with severe emphysema. This parturient was given epidural anesthesia for delivery and postoperative analgesia maintained with epidural infusion of bupivacaine and clonidine.

  15. Bell's palsy: symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis.

    PubMed

    De Seta, Daniele; Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy.

  16. Bell's Palsy: Symptoms Preceding and Accompanying the Facial Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy. PMID:25544960

  17. Isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after TMJ discopexy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Reychler, H; Mahy, P

    2011-01-01

    Isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after TMJ discopexy: a case report. This is the first report of a transient, isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after temporomandibular joint arthrotomy. The paresis seems to have resulted from a crush lesion by Backhaus forceps, placed transcutaneously during the operation to distract the intra-articular space.

  18. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  19. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  20. [Psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients].

    PubMed

    Takács, L; Kodysová, E

    2011-06-01

    To give an overview of the main psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients and present recommendations for good practice. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. Qualitative methodology--content analysis of 189 childbirth narratives written by parturients and demi-structured interviews with 44 parturients. Seven dimensions of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients were identified: 1. staff attitude and behavior; 2. staff communication; 3. parturient's participation in decision-making; 4. support of early mother-baby contact; 5. breastfeeding support; 6. mother-baby friendliness of maternity unit operation rules; 7. clarity of maternity unit operation rules. The most important dimensions include empathy and psychological support, respect for privacy and feelings of shame, relational symmetry/asymmetry and quality of provided information. Psychosocial aspects are a decisive criterion of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients. Psychological competences of health care providers and staff make an inseparable part of their competence, with communication skills development and prevention and therapy of the burn-out syndrome deserving special attention.

  1. Isolated unilateral oculomotor paresis in pure midbrain stroke.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yu; Kudo, Yosuke; Kikyo, Hideyuki; Imazeki, Ryoko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Amari, Kazumitsu; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Johkura, Ken

    2015-04-15

    Pure midbrain stroke can cause isolated unilateral oculomotor paresis. We attempted to determine whether there is a difference in the oculomotor paresis pattern between pure midbrain infarction and midbrain hemorrhage. Pure midbrain stroke patients who presented with isolated unilateral oculomotor paresis were identified from a group of 2447 consecutive patients hospitalized for acute cerebral infarction or hemorrhage during the period May 2008 through April 2014. Detailed oculomotor findings were evaluated in the identified patients per the cause of the stroke. Five patients with infarct and 1 with hemorrhage became our study subjects. Lesions were located in the paramedian area of the midbrain involving the oculomotor fascicles. The pupillary sphincter and inferior rectus muscles were selectively spared in the infarct patients, whereas these muscles were selectively affected in the hemorrhage patient. Fibers in the oculomotor fascicle that innervate the levator palpebrae, superior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles appear to be more susceptible to ischemic damage than those that innervate the pupillary sphincter and inferior rectus muscles. Isolated impairment of the pupillary sphincter and inferior rectus muscles may be suggestive of a non-ischemic process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Laryngoscopic and stroboscopic signs in the diagnosis of vocal fold paresis.

    PubMed

    Estes, Christine; Sadoughi, Babak; Mauer, Elizabeth; Christos, Paul; Sulica, Lucian

    2017-09-01

    To identify strobolaryngoscopic findings significant in the diagnosis of paresis. Retrospective cohort study. Fellowship-trained laryngologists reviewed 34 videostroboscopic examinations (24 with paresis, eight without paresis, two repeat). They indicated presence or absence of paresis, including side and type, degree of confidence in diagnosis, and ranked clinical findings that influenced diagnosis by order of importance. Fleiss's κ was used to assess inter-rater agreement for paresis presence, side, and type. Clinical findings compelling in diagnosis were tabulated and described. Confidence levels for side and type were compared by analysis of variance/Kruskal-Wallis tests and post hoc pairwise comparisons. Thirty-one laryngologists completed the review. Inter-rater agreement on presence or absence of paresis was fair at 0.334 (Fleiss's κ). Fourteen examinations were diagnosed with paresis by >70% of raters and considered strong paresis-candidate exams. Diagnosis of paresis side and type were inconsistent, although with statistically significant differences in confidence ratings (unilateral vs. bilateral, recurrent laryngeal nerve [RLN] vs. superior laryngeal nerve [SLN], RLN vs. mixed RLN/SLN). Laryngoscopic and stroboscopic findings with the strongest association with paresis were vocal fold motion anomalies, vocal fold degeneration, glottic insufficiency, and mucosal wave anomalies. Most laryngologists use strobolaryngoscopy for diagnosis of paresis. Although certain clinical findings were found to be associated with diagnosis, most commonly vocal fold motion anomalies, these varied among raters, especially when determining sidedness and nerve involvement. Future studies should expand the discussion and consideration of strobolaryngoscopic factors and adjunct functional and objective measures to develop a heuristic algorithm for diagnosis of paresis. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2100-2105, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological

  3. A Rare Complication of Herpes Zoster: Segmental Zoster Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Hooi Khee; Chawla, Mayank; Kaushik, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common presentation in both the community and emergency department; however segmental zoster paresis is a rare complication that can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 74-year-old Indian gentleman with a background of well controlled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden right lower limb weakness. This was preceded by a 5-day history of paraesthesia starting in the right foot and ascending up the right lower limb. On examination, there was a characteristic vesicular rash in the L2/3 region with MRC grading 3/5 in the right hip flexors. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI of the spine did not show any evidence of spinal disease. The patient was initiated on IV acyclovir with improvement of the lower limb weakness to MRC grading 5/5 as the vesicles improved. This is an interesting case as it highlights a rare presentation of zoster: segmental motor paresis that recovered fully with resolution of the rash. It shows the importance of recognizing motor neuropathy as a complication of shingles as it has a very good prognosis with most patients regaining full motor function of the affected limb with treatment. PMID:27313622

  4. Can parturients identify the midline during neuraxial block placement?

    PubMed

    Marroquin, Bridget M; Fecho, Karamarie; Salo-Coombs, Victoria; Spielman, Fred J

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether parturients can reliably identify their midline during epidural or spinal needle insertion, and to determine whether parturient feedback helps the anesthesiologist successfully identify the midline. Survey instrument completed by anesthesiologists. Labor and delivery unit of a university-based, tertiary-care hospital. Completed questionnaires were obtained for 554 of 904 (61.3%) neuraxial blocks. Data were collected on the type of neuraxial block, number of needle redirections required to identify the midline, the patient's height and weight, the patient's position during block placement, whether the patient was questioned for assistance identifying the midline, and if so, how helpful the patient was in redirecting the needle to locate the epidural or subarachnoid space. The anesthesiologist requested the assistance of 194 patients (35.0%) for needle location. Of those questioned, the anesthesiologist reported 128 instances (66.0%) when the patient's response was helpful in identification of the midline. Morbidly obese parturients (BMI > 35 kg/m²) were questioned more often than their non-morbidly obese counterparts (48.9% vs. 30.5%; P < 0.0005). Of those morbidly obese parturients who were questioned (n = 64), 76.6% were reported by the anesthesiologist to be helpful. Most patients, including morbidly obese patients, are helpful in identifying the midline during neuraxial anesthesia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p < 0.01) in healthy subjects (not on gastrocnemius medialis co-contraction) while it depended on both tibialis anterior agonist recruitment (βARI(TA) = 0.41, p < 0.001) and gastrocnemius medialis co-contraction (βCCI(MG) = 0.43, p < 0.001) in hemiparetic subjects. In hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  6. Prediction and Outcome of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Paresis.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2016-04-13

    Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. [Anesthetic management for caesarean delivery in a parturient with achondroplasia].

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Hishinuma, Norimasa; Shirotori, Toru; Sasao, Junichi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kawamata, Mikito

    2014-06-01

    A 27-year-old parturient (height, 130 cm; weight, 43 kg) with achondroplasia, which is characterized by rhizomeric short stature, large head and frontal bossing, was scheduled for elective caesarean section (C/S) because of her contracted pelvis. Her first delivery had been performed by C/S under general anesthesia at a regional hospital 6 years before. Preoperative airway assessment showed normal mouth opening and mobile cervical spine. Since she had anxiety about needle puncture and refused neuraxial blockade and since we considered the trachea could be intubated, we decided to perform C/S under general anesthesia at 37 weeks of gestation. The patient and baby had an uneventful perioperative course. Underdevelopment of bone formation results in characteristic craniofacial and vertebral abnormalities in patients with achondroplasia. Anesthetic management of achondroplastic parturients should be specified to individual basis based on careful preoperative assessment of craniofacial and vertebral deformities.

  8. Pain perception among parturients in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onah, H E; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C; Ezike, H A; Ogbuokiri, C M; Ezugworie, J O

    2007-08-01

    In order to evaluate pain perception among parturients in Enugu, South-east Nigeria, a cross-sectional questionnaire study of parturients who delivered vaginally in four health institutions in Enugu from 2 December 2005 to 21 January 2006 was administered. Data analysis was by means of percentages, means +/- SD, correlation coefficients, t-tests, chi2-tests, one-way ANOVA and other inferential statistics using the statistical package SPSS for MS Windows at the 95% confidence level. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 181 were correctly filled and returned for a response rate of 72.4%. On a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 representing no pain and 10 representing maximal pain, the mean intensity of pain recorded by the respondents was 7.7 +/- 2.8. A total of 40 (22.1%) parturients received some pain relieving drug during their labour while 141 (77.9%) did not. Of the 40 women who received intra-partum analgesia, three women received pethidine, 17 (42.5%) received pentazocine, while 20 (50%) did not know the analgesic they received. Of the 141 respondents who did not receive intra-partum analgesia, 79 (56.0%) would have liked to have receive analgesia, while 62 (44.0%) would not. Of the 92 women who had their backs rubbed by companions during labour, 67 (72.8%) reported that this practice was helpful in relieving their labour pains, while 25 (27.2%) did not find it helpful. Of the 141 women who had a companion, 103 (73.0%) reported that this was helpful in relieving labour pains, while 38 (27.0%) reported no benefit. Antenatal care, place of residence, ethnicity, religion, marital status, occupational level, receiving intra-partum analgesia, type of analgesia received, having a companion during labour or receiving lectures on labour pains during the antenatal period had no significant impact on pain perception by the respondents (p > 0.05 for each of these variables). There was no significant correlation between pain scores and the respondents' ages

  9. Anaesthetic management of a parturient with Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, K; Cockerham, R

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of a parturient with Laron syndrome, a rare form of dwarfism which results from an inability to generate insulin-like growth factor 1. In addition to dwarfism these patients may have craniofacial abnormalities, atlantoaxial instability, spinal stenosis and metabolic, musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. The patient underwent an urgent caesarean section using combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Laron syndrome is reviewed and its anaesthetic implications discussed.

  10. Acute onset of trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresis and dysphagia after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Gkekas, Nikolaos; Primikiris, Panagiotis; Georgakoulias, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the rare and first documented case of concomitant microvascular decompression of trigeminal, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves for the management of intractable to medical therapy acute onset of trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresis and dysphagia after mild head injury.

  11. The sensitivity of the bielschowsky head-tilt test in diagnosing acquired bilateral superior oblique paresis.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Brinda; Irsch, Kristina; Peggy Chang, Han-Ying; Guyton, David L

    2014-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test and other commonly used criteria in identifying patients with true bilateral superior oblique paresis. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients seen between 1978 and 2009 who were diagnosed with acquired bilateral superior oblique paresis. All patients had a confirmed history of head trauma or brain surgery with altered consciousness followed by symptomatic diplopia. Bilateral superior oblique paresis was defined and diagnosed by the above history, including the presence of greater extorsion in downgaze than upgaze on Lancaster red-green testing, a V-pattern strabismus, and bilateral fundus extorsion. We analyzed findings of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test, the Parks 3-step test, and reversal of the hypertropia from straight-ahead gaze to the other 8 diagnostic positions of gaze to determine these tests' sensitivity in identifying true bilateral superior oblique paresis. Twenty-five patients were identified with the diagnosis of true bilateral superior oblique paresis. The Bielschowsky head-tilt test had a 40% sensitivity, the Parks 3-step test had a sensitivity of 24%, and reversal of the hypertropia had a sensitivity of 60% in making the diagnosis of true bilateral superior oblique paresis. What previously has been described as masked bilateral superior oblique paresis simply may be a reflection of inherent poor sensitivity of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test, the Parks 3-step test, and reversal of the hypertropia in diagnosing bilateral superior oblique paresis. Hence, none of these tests should be relied on exclusively to make this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (p<0.01). Eighteen (60%) patients had ptosis, six (20%) of whom had bilateral ptosis. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected.

  13. Differentiating bilateral superior oblique paresis from sensory extorsion.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Brinda; Peggy Chang, Han-Ying; Irsch, Kristina; Ying, Howard S; Muthusamy, Kirithika; Anwar, Didar; Guyton, David L

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether patients historically diagnosed with bilateral superior oblique paresis (BSOP) categorized into (1) immediate-onset and (2) gradual-onset torsional diplopia groups are also distinguishable on the basis of patterns of subjective misalignment in various directions of gaze, consistent with the gradual-onset group being caused by sensory extorsion rather than by BSOP. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with BSOP, V-pattern esotropia, or V-pattern exotropia between 1978 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Those patients with torsional diplopia were classified into immediate- or gradual-onset diplopia groups. The torsional misalignments measured by Lancaster red-green plots were compared, and the surgical outcomes were evaluated. Of 38 patients identified, 27 had immediate-onset and 11 gradual-onset diplopia. There was a statistically significant difference in the increase in extorsion from up- to downgaze between the immediate- versus gradual-onset group (17.8° versus -1.5°, P < 0.001). Patients in the immediate-onset group fared significantly better with bilateral Harada-Ito procedures than with bilateral inferior oblique-weakening procedures (P = 0.02), whereas patients in the gradual-onset group fared equally well with either procedure (P = 0.72). Extorsion in upgaze is largely absent in patients with immediate-onset BSOP but is present in both up- and downgaze in patients with gradual-onset sensory extorsion. Lancaster red-green testing aids in distinguishing these two groups. The bilateral Harada-Ito procedure is a better procedure for true BSOP, whereas a bilateral inferior oblique-weakening procedure may be preferred for patients with sensory extorsion. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripartum management of two parturients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ituk, U; Constantinescu, O C; Allen, T K; Small, M J; Habib, A S

    2012-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is a rare X-linked disorder in which female carriers are usually heterozygous for the ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency gene. In pregnancy it has been associated with altered mental status, seizures, coma and death, especially in the postpartum period. We report the management of labor and delivery in two parturients with known ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Both patients were maintained on arginine, citrulline and sodium phenylacetate therapy with restricted protein intake during pregnancy. Neuraxial techniques were used for pain relief in labor and anesthesia for operative delivery. A dextrose infusion provided caloric intake during labor and perioperatively.

  15. Literature review of evidence based physiotherapy in patients with facial nerve paresis.

    PubMed

    Hg Beurskens, Carien; Al Burgers-Bots, Ingrid; W Kroon, Dineke; Ab Oostendorp, Rob

    2004-01-01

    A variety of physiotherapeutic approaches have been tried out during the past 25 years to alleviate the plight of patients with peripheral facial nerve paresis. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy in patients with facial nerve paresis. Trials were identified by computerised searches of biomedical databases, reference lists, and by contacting investigators. Selection criteria were randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy for the improvement of sequelae of facial nerve paresis, comparing the treatment with either another intervention or no intervention. Two reviewers independently assessed the trials using the PEDro scale. Two physiotherapy randomised controlled studies were identified. Interventions used for treatment of patients with facial nerve paresis in the included studies were relaxation, biofeedback and exercise therapy. Neither of the two randomised controlled studies showed scientific evidence of a physiotherapeutic approach in comparison with a control group. Both studies described benefits of the interventions. Further randomised controlled studies are required to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy in patients with facial nerve paresis.

  16. A qualitative analysis of parturients' perspectives on neuraxial labor analgesia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, P; Sun, J; Peralta, F; Grobman, W A; Wong, C A; Hasnain-Wynia, R

    2013-04-01

    The decision to use, or not use, neuraxial analgesia is complex and likely multi-factorial. The objectives of this study were to understand parturients' concerns about neuraxial analgesia, and the reasons for not anticipating the use of neuraxial analgesia using qualitative methodology. English-speaking, term parturients, who had not requested or received labor analgesia, were recruited for this mixed-methods study. In addition to a quantitative survey, the results of which have been published elsewhere, women were asked open-ended questions regarding concerns about neuraxial analgesia and reasons for not anticipating its use. Answers were recorded verbatim and analyzed using qualitative methodology. Interviews were conducted with 509 women. Thirty-nine percent of patients expressed some concern about neuraxial analgesia. These concerns were thematically represented by misunderstandings about neuraxial analgesia, general fears about the procedure, and lack of trust in providers. Many of the concerns were misunderstandings that were not supported by the medical literature. Of the 129 patients who did not anticipate using neuraxial analgesia, 23% stated that this was because they desired a natural childbirth and/or control over their labor experience, whereas 46% cited concerns about the procedure and its complications as the basis for their decision. Many women who anticipate not using neuraxial analgesia may be basing their decision on an inaccurate understanding of the risks of the procedure. Improved patient education and counseling that target specific areas of concern may address these misunderstandings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adjustable superior oblique tendon spacer with application of nonabsorbable suture for treatment of isolated inferior oblique paresis.

    PubMed

    Fard, Masoud A; Ameri, Ahmad; Anvari, Faramaz; Jafari, Alireza K; Yazdian, Ziaeddin

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate and report the outcomes of a superior oblique tendon spacer procedure using nonabsorbable adjustable sutures in patients with inferior oblique (10) paresis. This interventional case series included 6 eyes of 6 patients with 10 paresis. All met Bielschowsky/Parks Three-step Test criteria to identify an isolated 10 paresis. In all patients, the superior oblique tendon was exposed; 2 nonabsorbable polyester sutures were placed 3 mm apart, and the tendon was cut. With the use of a slipknot, the cut ends of the tendon were separated 5 to 7 mm. Tendon separation was adjusted intraoperatively according to the fundus torsion and exaggerated traction test. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.1 months (range, 5-12 [corrected] months). Four patients had congenital 10 paresis and 2 had iatrogenic 10 paresis following denervation/myectomy of 10. Mean primary position hypotropia improved from 15.2 prism diopters (PD) before surgery to 2.7 PD in congenital 10 paresis and from 11.5 PD to 2.5 PD in iatrogenic 10 paresis. In congenital 10 paresis, mean preoperative superior oblique overaction and 10 underaction was +2 and -2, which decreased to 0 and -1.25 respectively; fundus incyclotorsion resolved in all patients. Superior oblique overaction and 10 underaction improved in iatrogenic 10 paresis as well. In no patient did an overcorrection develop. The adjustable superior oblique tendon suture spacer procedure is an effective and safe option for correcting 10 paresis without developing iatrogenic superior oblique paresis.

  18. Recurrent Patent Foramen Ovale-Related Cerebral Infarcts Alternately Causing Bilateral Hand Paresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Isolated hand paresis is a rare presentation of stroke, which mostly results from a lesion in the cortical hand motor area, a knob-like area within the precentral gyrus. I report the case of a patient who experienced recurrent ischemic stroke alternately involving bilateral hand knob areas, causing isolated hand paresis. There was no abnormal finding on brain and neck magnetic resonance angiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and 48-h Holter monitoring, and there were no abnormal immunologic and coagulation laboratory findings. The only embolic source was found to be a patent foramen ovale, which was proven on transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent percutaneous device closure of patent foramen ovale after alternately repeated paresis of both hands despite antiplatelet treatment. This case suggests that ischemic stroke affecting the cortical knob area, albeit extremely rare, may recur due to a patent foramen ovale, and it necessitates complete investigation, including transesophageal echocardiography, to identify possible embolic sources.

  19. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    PubMed

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  1. Tabes dorsalis progressing to general paresis after 20 years despite routine penicillin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Giles, A J

    1980-01-01

    A man with a history of treatment for early syphilis presented with tabes dorsalis. Despite receiving a course of penicillin accepted as adequate by the World Health Organisation the illness progressed to tabo-paresis after 20 years. Reinfection cannot be excluded. PMID:7448579

  2. Temporary hindlimb paresis following dystocia due to foetal macrosomia in a Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John James; Bettembourg, Vanessa; Østevik, Liv; Modig, Michaela; Jâderlund, Karin Hultin; Lervik, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A multiparous Celebes crested macaque presented with dystocia due to foetal macrosomia, causing foetal mortality and hindlimb paresis. After emergency caesarean section, recovery of motor function took 1 month before hindlimbs were weight bearing and 2 months before re-integration with the troop. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Influence of facial paresis on ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Chieh; Young, Yi-Ho

    2013-06-01

    The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) test with eyes up condition may help differentiate facial paresis with and without vestibular nerve deficit, while the oVEMP test with the eyes closed condition is not reliable for testing patients with facial paresis. This study investigated the influence of facial paresis on oVEMPs via the eyes up versus eyes closed conditions. Twenty patients with unilateral facial paresis underwent a battery of audiovestibular function tests. The oVEMP test was performed via bone-conducted vibration stimuli with the eyes up and eyes closed conditions used in a randomized order. Under the eyes up condition, the rate of abnormal oVEMP tests in the lesion ear was 30%, significantly higher than the 0% in the opposite healthy ear, indicating that the lesion ear not the recorded eye is responsible for abnormal oVEMPs. However, abnormal oVEMP test results of lesion ears under the eyes closed condition did not significantly differ from those of opposite healthy ears. Analysis of caloric and oVEMP test results indicated that both tests obtained normal responses from 10 ears, and abnormal responses from 5 ears. The caloric and oVEMP test results were significantly correlated.

  4. Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery in a Morbidly Obese Parturient With Spinal Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Allison; DiGiovanni, Neil; Hart, Stuart; Russo, Melissa; Bui, Cuong

    2012-01-01

    We report our experience with epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a morbidly obese parturient with progressive paraplegia from a spinal meningioma. Epidural anesthesia may represent a safe anesthetic choice in such clinical situations. PMID:22778679

  5. Epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a morbidly obese parturient with spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Allison; Digiovanni, Neil; Hart, Stuart; Russo, Melissa; Bui, Cuong

    2012-01-01

    We report our experience with epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a morbidly obese parturient with progressive paraplegia from a spinal meningioma. Epidural anesthesia may represent a safe anesthetic choice in such clinical situations.

  6. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section and Hysterectomy in a Parturient with Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Tülay Özkan; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Edipoğlu, İpek; Baştu, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta complicates the anaesthetic and surgical approach in caesarean section. In this report, a parturient with placenta accreta and multiple drug allergies who was managed using combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for caesarean hysterectomy is discussed. PMID:27366410

  7. Risks of postoperative paresis in motor eloquently and non-eloquently located brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When treating cerebral metastases all involved multidisciplinary oncological specialists have to cooperate closely to provide the best care for these patients. For the resection of brain metastasis several studies reported a considerable risk of new postoperative paresis. Pre- and perioperative chemotherapy (Ctx) or radiotherapy (Rtx) alter vasculature and adjacent fiber tracts on the one hand, and many patients already present with paresis prior to surgery on the other hand. As such factors were repeatedly considered risk factors for perioperative complications, we designed this study to also identify risk factors for brain metastases resection. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, we resected 206 brain metastases consecutively, 56 in eloquent motor areas and 150 in non-eloquent ones. We evaluated the influences of preoperative paresis, previous Rtx or Ctx as well as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class on postoperative outcome. Results In general, 8.7% of all patients postoperatively developed a new permanent paresis. In contrast to preoperative Ctx, previous Rtx as a single or combined treatment strategy was a significant risk factor for postoperative motor weakness. This risk was even increased in perirolandic and rolandic lesions. Our data show significantly increased risk of new deficits for patients assigned to RPA class 3. Even in non-eloquently located brain metastases the risk of new postoperative paresis has not to be underestimated. Despite the microsurgical approach, our cohort shows a high rate of unexpected residual tumors in postoperative MRI, which supports recent data on brain metastases’ infiltrative nature but might also be the result of our strict study protocol. Conclusions Surgical resection is a safe treatment of brain metastases. However, preoperative Rtx and RPA score 3 have to be taken into account when surgical resection is considered. PMID:24422871

  8. Risks of postoperative paresis in motor eloquently and non-eloquently located brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Obermueller, Thomas; Schaeffner, Michael; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2014-01-14

    When treating cerebral metastases all involved multidisciplinary oncological specialists have to cooperate closely to provide the best care for these patients. For the resection of brain metastasis several studies reported a considerable risk of new postoperative paresis. Pre- and perioperative chemotherapy (Ctx) or radiotherapy (Rtx) alter vasculature and adjacent fiber tracts on the one hand, and many patients already present with paresis prior to surgery on the other hand. As such factors were repeatedly considered risk factors for perioperative complications, we designed this study to also identify risk factors for brain metastases resection. Between 2006 and 2011, we resected 206 brain metastases consecutively, 56 in eloquent motor areas and 150 in non-eloquent ones. We evaluated the influences of preoperative paresis, previous Rtx or Ctx as well as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class on postoperative outcome. In general, 8.7% of all patients postoperatively developed a new permanent paresis. In contrast to preoperative Ctx, previous Rtx as a single or combined treatment strategy was a significant risk factor for postoperative motor weakness. This risk was even increased in perirolandic and rolandic lesions. Our data show significantly increased risk of new deficits for patients assigned to RPA class 3. Even in non-eloquently located brain metastases the risk of new postoperative paresis has not to be underestimated. Despite the microsurgical approach, our cohort shows a high rate of unexpected residual tumors in postoperative MRI, which supports recent data on brain metastases' infiltrative nature but might also be the result of our strict study protocol. Surgical resection is a safe treatment of brain metastases. However, preoperative Rtx and RPA score 3 have to be taken into account when surgical resection is considered.

  9. A retrospective study of positive antibody screens at delivery in Rh-negative parturients.

    PubMed

    Cambic, Christopher R; Scavone, Barbara M; McCarthy, Robert J; Eisenberg, Paul; Sanchez, Elizabeth M; Sullivan, John T; Wong, Cynthia A

    2010-09-01

    Rhesus- (Rh-) negative women receiving anti-D antibodies antenatally often have a positive antibody screen at delivery. We investigated the incidence of positive antibody screens at delivery in this population and examined how the presence of positive antibody screens affected the time required to obtain type and screen or type and crossmatch results. Records of parturients who had type and screen or type and crossmatch done upon presentation for delivery from June to October 2007 were examined to determine estimated gestational age at admission, Rh-status, the presence of positive antibody screens, and the time interval from receipt of specimen in the blood bank to the availability of antibody screen results. Of the 480 specimens sent for type and screen or type and crossmatch, 20% of parturients were Rh-negative, with 57% of those demonstrating a positive antibody screen compared with 4% of the Rh-positive parturients (P < 0.01). In the Rh-negative group, 100% (95% CI 98-102) of positive antibody screens were anti-D antibodies. There was a longer median laboratory time for Rh-negative vs Rh-positive parturients (146 vs 65 min), for antibody positive vs antibody negative parturients (243 vs 65 min) (P < 0.001 for both), but not for Rh-positive/antibody positive vs Rh-negative/antibody positive patients (312 vs 218 min) (P = 0.09). The antibody screen was positive in 100% of Rh-negative parturients until 37 weeks gestation, after which there was a decline. Rh-negative parturients who receive anti-D antibodies antenatally have a higher incidence of positive antibody screens at delivery than Rh-positive parturients due to the presence of anti-D antibodies.

  10. [Care for parturient women by obstetrical nurses in the Midwifery project: an experience report].

    PubMed

    Davim, Rejane Marie Barbosa; Bezerra, Luiz Gonzaga de Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the nursing care models that value the woman in childbirth process. Authors described the humanized care provided to the parturient by obstetric nurses in the "Midwifery Project" developed at a University Maternity Hospital. They emphasized that the practice of these models enable the nurse's active participation in the childbirth process, resulting in the satisfaction of the parturient and of the professional.

  11. Transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the delivery of a preeclamptic parturient with severe left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Eric J; Klimkina, Oksana; Hassan, Zaki-Udin; Colclough, George; Fragneto, Regina

    2014-09-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to the preterm delivery of a preeclamptic parturient with severe left ventricular (LV) noncompaction and pulmonary hypertension using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as a monitor of hemodynamic status in lieu of a pulmonary artery catheter during general anesthesia for Cesarean section is presented. This case adds to the available literature on LV noncompaction with pulmonary hypertension in preeclamptic parturients, and addresses the anesthetic concerns and approaches to management using echocardiography in these highly complex patients.

  12. Urinary profiles of progestin and androgen metabolites in female polar bears during parturient and non-parturient cycles

    PubMed Central

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Owen, Megan A.; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Due to the environmental and anthropogenic impacts that continue to threaten the reproductive success of polar bears, a more detailed understanding of their reproductive cycle is needed. Captive populations of polar bears provide an excellent opportunity to learn more about the reproductive physiology of the species. Progestin (P4) and androgen (T) metabolites in urine, and their ratio (P4:T), were examined during 11 reproductive cycles of captive female polar bears (n = 4) to characterize the steroid hormone profile during pregnancy and determine possible variations related to reproductive failure. The concentration of hormone metabolites in urine were determined through enzyme immunoassay. Reproductive cycles were classified as pregnant (n = 3), anovulatory (n = 4) and ovulatory-non-parturient (n = 4) based on the changes in urinary hormone metabolite values and cub production. In the absence of a lactational suppression of estrus, elevated androgen concentrations suggested resumption of follicular development within 3 weeks of parturition. Breeding behaviours were most often observed when androgen values were at their highest or in decline. Ovulation was identified by a return to basal androgen concentration and elevation of progestins within 1–4 weeks after breeding. As a result, urinary concentrations of progestins were greater than androgens (P4:T ratio ≥ 1.0) during ovulatory cycles whereas the P4:T ratio was <1.0 when females were anovulatory. Progestins and the P4:T ratio of parturient cycles were greatest beginning in June/July (17–20 weeks after breeding) and reached a peak at 24–37 weeks (mid-October/mid-November, 4–9 weeks before birth of cubs). Non-invasive monitoring of hormone metabolites in urine provided a rapid determination of endocrine function for improved husbandry and reproductive management of polar bears in captivity. Further research is warranted to understand the reproductive endocrinology of polar bears and its impact

  13. Topical distribution of initial paresis of the limbs to predict clinically relevant spasticity after ischemic stroke: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Picelli, A; Tamburin, S; Dambruoso, F; Midiri, A; Girardi, P; Santamato, A; Fiore, P; Smania, N

    2014-10-01

    The degree of initial paresis relates to spasticity development in stroke patients. However, the importance of proximal and distal paresis in predicting spasticity after stroke is unclear. To investigate the role of topical distribution of initial limb paresis to predict clinically relevant spasticity in adults with stroke. Retrospective cohort study Seventy-two first-ever ischemic stroke patients were examined. At the acute phase of illness, demographics and the European Stroke Scale motor items (maintenance of outstretched arm position, arm raising, wrist extension, grip strength, maintenance of outstretched leg position, leg flexion, foot dorsiflexion) were evaluated. At six months after the stroke onset, spasticity was assessed at the upper and lower limb with the modified Ashworth Scale. Clinically relevant spasticity was defined as modified Ashworth Scale ≥3 (0-5). The degree of initial paresis of the proximal muscles of the upper limb and the distal muscles of the lower limb showed the strongest association and the best profile of sensitivity-specificity in predicting clinically relevant spasticity at the upper and lower limb, respectively. Younger age showed higher risk for developing clinically relevant spasticity in the upper limb. Our findings support the hypothesis that the initial degree of proximal paresis of the upper limb and distal paresis of the lower limb as well as age may be considered early predictors of clinically relevant spasticity in adults with ischemic stroke. Our findings further improve the role of initial paresis as predictor of spasticity after stroke.

  14. Ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school horses.

    PubMed

    Friday, P A; Scarratt, W K; Elvinger, F; Timoney, P J; Bonda, A

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of neurologic disease associated with serologic evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection occurred in a herd of 46 riding school horses. Ataxia and paresis were observed in 14 geldings and 5 barren mares. Eight affected horses had distal limb edema, 1 horse had a head tilt, and 3 others had urinary incontinence. Other clinical signs included fever, depression, and inappetance in 30 horses. Seven horses with neurologic signs were treated with acyclovir. Serum neutralizing antibody titers against EHV-1 increased 4-fold between acute and convalescent samples or exceeded 1:256 in 19 of 44 horses, confirming recent infection. A significantly greater proportion of horses that seroconverted were mares (P = .014). Of the 19 horses exhibiting ataxia and paresis, 17 made a complete recovery, 1 made a partial recovery, and 1 was euthanized.

  15. Transient unilateral combined paresis of the hypoglossal nerve and lingual nerve following intubation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hulya; Besir, Ahmet; Cekic, Bahanur; Kosucu, Muge; Geze, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    Nerve damage may occur in the pharyngolaryngeal region during general anesthesia. The most frequently injured nerves are the hypoglossal, lingual and recurrent laryngeal. These injuries may arise in association with several factors, such as laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and tube insertion, cuff pressure, mask ventilation, the triple airway maneuver, the oropharyngeal airway, manner of intubation tube insertion, head and neck position and aspiration. Nerve injuries in this region may take the form of an isolated single nerve or of paresis of two nerves together in the form of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (Tapia's syndrome). However, combined injury of the lingual and hypoglossal nerves following intubation anesthesia is a much rarer condition. The risk of this damage can be reduced with precautionary measures. We describe a case of combined unilateral nervus hypoglossus and nervus lingualis paresis developing after intubation anesthesia.

  16. Predicting recovery of voluntary upper extremity movement in subacute stroke patients with severe upper extremity paresis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chia-Lin; Pan, Shin-Liang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wang, Yen-Ho; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of voluntary upper extremity (UE) movement recovery is largely unknown in patients with little voluntary UE movement at admission. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the extent and variation of voluntary UE movement recovery, and (2) the best predictive model of the recovery of voluntary UE movement by clinical variables in patients with severe UE paresis. Prospective cohort study. 140 (out of 590) stroke patients with severe UE paresis completed all assessments. Voluntary UE movement was assessed using the UE subscale of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM-UE). Two outcome measures, STREAM-UE scores at discharge (DC(STREAM-UE)) and changes between admission and discharge (Δ(STREAM-UE)), were investigated to represent the final states and improvement of the recovery of voluntary UE movement. Stepwise regression analyses were used to investigate 19 clinical variables and to find the best predictive models of the two outcome measures. The participants showed wide variation in both DC(STREAM-UE) and Δ(STREAM-UE). 3.6% of the participants almost fully recovered at discharge (DC(STREAM-UE) > 15). A large improvement (Δ(STREAM-UE) >= 10) occurred in 16.4% of the participants, while 32.9% of the participants did not have any improvement. The four predictors for the DC(STREAM-UE) (R(2) = 35.0%) were 'baseline STREAM-UE score', 'hemorrhagic stroke', 'baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score', and 'cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex'. The three predictors for the Δ(STREAM-UE) (R(2) = 22.0%) were 'hemorrhagic stroke', 'baseline NIHSS score', and 'cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex'. Recovery of voluntary UE movement varied widely in patients with severe UE paresis after stroke. The predictive power of clinical variables was poor. Both results indicate the complex nature of voluntary UE movement recovery in patients with severe UE paresis after stroke.

  17. Community-based exercise for upper limb paresis: a controlled trial with telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, Francesco; Stuart, Mary; Cappena, Veruska; Gabella, Sara; Corsi, Sara; Taviani, Antonio; Albino, Antonio; Scattareggia Marchese, Sandro; Weinrich, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Arm paresis remains a major impairment after stroke despite the best conventional rehabilitation. Randomized, controlled trials of intensive exercise programs have demonstrated improvements in arm function for patients with chronic stroke. However, the gains achieved have been relatively modest for the large investments in patient and therapist time. To evaluate the safety, acceptance, adherence, and effectiveness of a community-based exercise program for upper limb paresis in patients with chronic stroke and the effects of telerehabilitation monitoring in kiosks distributed through the community. Longitudinal cohort with geographic control group. The experimental group received devices needed for a home exercise program based on the Carr and Shepherd "Motor Learning Program" and were instructed to practice the exercises at least twice a week at the kiosk and at least 3 more days a week at home. The control group received usual care. Compared with the control group, patients in the experimental group demonstrated significant gains in arm function as measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test, 9-Hole Peg Test, Motricity Index, and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The intervention received high satisfaction ratings and produced no adverse events. Only 30% of the subjects attended kiosks regularly. Outcomes for this group did not differ significantly from those who only practiced at home. Home- and community-based exercise for arm paresis is safe and effective. Telerehabilitation interventions will need additional enhancements to improve effectiveness. The optimal upper extremity exercise prescription poststroke remains to be established. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The Performance of the Intubation Difficulty Scale among Obese Parturients Undergoing Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Eiamcharoenwit, Jatuporn; Itthisompaiboon, Napon

    2017-01-01

    Background. There have not yet been any studies to validate the intubation difficulty scale (IDS) in obese parturients. Objectives of this study were to determine the performance of the IDS in defining difficult intubation (DI) and to identify the optimal cutoff points of the IDS among obese parturients. Methods. This was a prospective observational study. Parturients with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 who underwent cesarean section utilizing endotracheal intubation were enrolled. The intubating performers were asked to assess the difficulty of endotracheal intubation and categorize it as easy, somewhat DI, and DI. Main Results. A total of 517 parturients were recruited with a mean BMI of 33.9 kg/m2. The incidence of some degree of DI was 14.5%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the IDS for detecting somewhat DI and DI was 1.0. The optimal cutoff point to define somewhat DI was ≥3 and DI was ≥5, which both had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conclusions. The IDS scoring is a good tool for defining DI among obese parturients. The IDS scores of ≥3 and ≥5 are the optimal cutoff points to define somewhat DI and DI, respectively. PMID:28246593

  19. The Performance of the Intubation Difficulty Scale among Obese Parturients Undergoing Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Eiamcharoenwit, Jatuporn; Itthisompaiboon, Napon; Limpawattana, Panita; Siriussawakul, Arunotai

    2017-01-01

    Background. There have not yet been any studies to validate the intubation difficulty scale (IDS) in obese parturients. Objectives of this study were to determine the performance of the IDS in defining difficult intubation (DI) and to identify the optimal cutoff points of the IDS among obese parturients. Methods. This was a prospective observational study. Parturients with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) who underwent cesarean section utilizing endotracheal intubation were enrolled. The intubating performers were asked to assess the difficulty of endotracheal intubation and categorize it as easy, somewhat DI, and DI. Main Results. A total of 517 parturients were recruited with a mean BMI of 33.9 kg/m(2). The incidence of some degree of DI was 14.5%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the IDS for detecting somewhat DI and DI was 1.0. The optimal cutoff point to define somewhat DI was ≥3 and DI was ≥5, which both had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conclusions. The IDS scoring is a good tool for defining DI among obese parturients. The IDS scores of ≥3 and ≥5 are the optimal cutoff points to define somewhat DI and DI, respectively.

  20. Anaesthetists' experiences with the early labour epidural recommendation for obese parturients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L K; van Zundert, A A J; Lipman, J; Gallois, C

    2016-09-01

    Caring for obese pregnant women presents challenges for all medical professionals. Despite a lack of supporting evidence, expert opinion and international guidelines suggest early labour epidural insertion for obese women. Anecdotally this is not supported by all anaesthetists. This qualitative study explored the experiences of anaesthetists regarding early epidural analgesia in obese parturients, to answer the research question: Are anaesthetists consistent in how they apply early epidural analgesia in obese parturients? Personal in-depth interviews with 42 specialist anaesthetists working in south-east Queensland, Australia, were completed between February and April, 2015. Leximancer™ text analysis software applied a validated algorithm to the data to identify themes and concepts. The major themes were explored by the first author to answer the research question. Three major themes were identified: the demands associated with caring for obese women; concern regarding the anaesthetic technique used in obese women; and the importance of communication with obstetric staff. Disagreement regarding interpretation and application of early epidural analgesia was identified within this group of anaesthetists. These anaesthetists were inconsistent in how they interpreted and applied early epidural analgesia for obese parturients, with some questioning the validity of the practice. The combination of uncertainty, urgency and technical difficulty presented by obese parturients provoked anxiety in these clinicians, particularly the anticipation of unplanned general anaesthesia. Consistent anaesthetic practice could improve the implementation of early epidural analgesia in obese parturients.

  1. Ethnicity and the distance to the epidural space in parturients.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Richard C; White, William D; Schultz, John R; Jaklitsch, Paul M; Habib, Ashraf S

    2008-01-01

    In a pilot study, we previously demonstrated a higher average skin to lumbar epidural space distance (STLESD) in our obstetric population compared with the published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrated differences in STLESD based on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the STLESD in our patient population by expanding the number of patients and ethnic groups included. Data from 3,305 patients were obtained from our electronic database from September 2003 through November 2005. Self-declared ethnicity included 1,177 Caucasians (36%), 1,162 African Americans (35%), 760 Hispanics (23%), 135 Asians (4%), and 71 Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Sri Lankans (2%). The influences of body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and their interaction on the STLESD were tested with a multiple linear regression model. The mean +/- SD STLESD differed among the ethnic groups ranging from 4.8 +/- 0.9 cm in Asian patients to 6.3 +/- 1.6 cm in African American parturients. When all ethnic groups were compared, BMI had a significant influence on STLESD (P < .0001), but so did ethnicity (P = .0004). The Hispanic group demonstrated STLESDs that were significantly lower than the African American and Caucasian groups at high BMI (P < .0001). In a subanalysis performed without the Hispanic group, the influence of BMI on STLESD was found to be similar for each group. In this subanalysis, the African American group had STLESDs that were deeper compared with the other 3 ethnic groups (P < .0001), regardless of BMI. In this study we found that the STLESD was deeper than what was previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, ethnicity, in addition to BMI, influenced the STLESD.

  2. Efficacy of the methoxyflurane as bridging analgesia during epidural placement in laboring parturient

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Jamil S.; Khalil, Laith; Terkawi, Abdullah S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing an epidural in an agitated laboring woman can be challenging. The ideal pain control technique in such a situation should be effective, fast acting, and short lived. We assessed the efficacy of inhalational methoxyflurane (Penthrox™) analgesia as bridging analgesia for epidural placement. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four laboring women who requested epidural analgesia with pain score of ≥7 enrolled in an observational study, 56 of which completed the study. The parturients were instructed to use the device prior to the onset of uterine contraction pain and to stop at the peak of uterine contraction, repeatedly until epidural has been successfully placed. After each (methoxyflurane inhalation-uterine contraction) cycle, pain, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), nausea and vomiting were evaluated. Maternal and fetal hemodynamics and parturient satisfaction were recorded. Results: The mean baseline pain score was 8.2 ± 1.5 which was reduced to 6.2 ± 2.0 after the first inhalation with a mean difference of 2.0 ± 1.1 (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.3, P < 0.0001), and continued to decrease significantly over the study period (P < 0.0001). The RASS scores continuously improved after each cycle (P < 0.0001). Only 1 parturient from the cohort became lightly sedated (RASS = −1). Two parturients vomited, and no significant changes in maternal hemodynamics or fetal heart rate changes were identified during treatment. 67% of the parturients reported very good or excellent satisfaction with treatment. Conclusion: Penthrox™ provides rapid, robust, and satisfactory therapy to control pain and restlessness during epidural placement in laboring parturient. PMID:26543451

  3. Abdominal girth, vertebral column length and spread of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang-Na; Zhang, Yin-Fa; Xia, Feng; Wang, Li-Zhong; Zhou, Qing-He

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to test whether abdominal girth and vertebral column length were predictors of spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine spread in term parturients. A total of 128 parturients having elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled. Combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia was performed at the L3/4 interspace, confirmed by ultrasonography. Two mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine was injected intrathecally and spinal spread assessed at three-minute intervals. If loss of discrimination of pinprick sensation at the T6 level was not obtained within 15min after injection, 5mL of 2% lidocaine was administered epidurally. Correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyse the relationship between patient variables, including age, height, weight, abdominal girth, vertebral column length and neonatal biparietal diameter, and the spread of spinal anaesthesia. Two parturients were excluded. Significant univariate correlation with spinal spread existed for height, weight, abdominal girth and vertebral column length (r=-0.446, 0.201, 0.372, P<0.711, respectively, all P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parturients' abdominal girth and vertebral column length were the key determinants of spinal spread (both P<0.0001). The adjusted R(2) was 0.742 for the regression equation between abdominal girth, vertebral column length and height of block. Parturient abdominal girth and vertebral column length have significant predictive value in determining the cephalad spread of spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine in term parturients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anesthetic management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome for urgent cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, B T; Muravyea, M; Kuo, C; Drexler, C; Pagel, P S

    2016-08-01

    Stiff person syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:1000000. The underlying pathophysiology is truncal and proximal limb muscle stiffness resulting from continuous co-contracture of agonist and antagonist muscle groups concomitant with superimposed episodic muscle spasms. Loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition creates chronic excitation manifested by tonic agonist-antagonist muscle contraction. To date, only three case reports referred indirectly to the anesthetic management of parturients with Stiff person syndrome. The authors describe their management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome who underwent urgent cesarean delivery under epidural anesthesia.

  5. Ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by anterior cerebral artery territory infarct.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongfeng; Liu, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Ipsilateral hemiparesis is rare after a supratentorial stroke, and the role of reorganization in the motor areas of unaffected hemisphere is important for the rehabilitation of the stroke patients. In this study, we present a patient who had a subclinical remote infarct in the right pons developed ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by a new infarct in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. Our case suggests that the motor areas of the unaffected hemisphere might be reorganized after stroke, which is important for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  6. Ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by anterior cerebral artery territory infarct

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongfeng; Liu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Ipsilateral hemiparesis is rare after a supratentorial stroke, and the role of reorganization in the motor areas of unaffected hemisphere is important for the rehabilitation of the stroke patients. In this study, we present a patient who had a subclinical remote infarct in the right pons developed ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by a new infarct in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. Our case suggests that the motor areas of the unaffected hemisphere might be reorganized after stroke, which is important for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. PMID:27356659

  7. Predicting Recovery of Voluntary Upper Extremity Movement in Subacute Stroke Patients with Severe Upper Extremity Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Chia-Lin; Pan, Shin-Liang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wang, Yen-Ho; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Prediction of voluntary upper extremity (UE) movement recovery is largely unknown in patients with little voluntary UE movement at admission. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the extent and variation of voluntary UE movement recovery, and (2) the best predictive model of the recovery of voluntary UE movement by clinical variables in patients with severe UE paresis. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods 140 (out of 590) stroke patients with severe UE paresis completed all assessments. Voluntary UE movement was assessed using the UE subscale of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM-UE). Two outcome measures, STREAM-UE scores at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE) and changes between admission and discharge (ΔSTREAM-UE), were investigated to represent the final states and improvement of the recovery of voluntary UE movement. Stepwise regression analyses were used to investigate 19 clinical variables and to find the best predictive models of the two outcome measures. Results The participants showed wide variation in both DCSTREAM-UE and ΔSTREAM-UE. 3.6% of the participants almost fully recovered at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE > 15). A large improvement (ΔSTREAM-UE >= 10) occurred in 16.4% of the participants, while 32.9% of the participants did not have any improvement. The four predictors for the DCSTREAM-UE (R2 = 35.0%) were ‘baseline STREAM-UE score’, ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. The three predictors for the ΔSTREAM-UE (R2 = 22.0%) were ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline NIHSS score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. Conclusions Recovery of voluntary UE movement varied widely in patients with severe UE paresis after stroke. The predictive power of clinical variables was poor. Both results indicate the complex nature of voluntary UE movement recovery in patients

  8. General paresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 239. Review Date 2/27/2016 Updated by: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, Attending ...

  9. Comparison of parturient - controlled remifentanil with epidural bupivacain and sufentanil for labour analgesia: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stourac, Petr; Suchomelova, Hana; Stodulkova, Marta; Huser, Martin; Krikava, Ivo; Janku, Petr; Haklova, Olga; Hakl, Lubomir; Stoudek, Roman; Gal, Roman; Sevcik, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Epidural analgesia (EA) has significant contraindications including coagulation disorders and parturient refusal. One alternative is intravenous self-administered analgesia using the ultra short-acting opioid remifentanil (rPCA). We compared the efficiency and safety of standard epidural analgesia with parturient-controlled intravenous analgesia using remifentanil as well as personal satisfaction. We enrolled twelve ASA I classified women with singleton pregnancy who delivered vaginally in the period 3/2010-5/2010 and who received rPCA (n=12) in standard analgesic protocol: 20 µg boluses using PCA pump with a lockout interval of 3 min. The control group consisted of 12 pregnant women who received EA (n=12): 0.125% bupivacaine with sufentanil 0.5 µg/mL in top-up boluses every hour until delivery. Data were acquired from standard Acute Pain Service (APS) form and patient medical records (demographic, labour course parameters), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Bromage Scale (BS) and adverse effects of analgesia. There were no demographic or labour course parameter differences between groups (P>0.05). The differences in VAS decrease (P=0.056) and parturient satisfaction (P=0.24) during the whole analgesia administration were statistically insignificant. The main limitation of the study was small sample and enrolment of healthy singleton pregnant women only. Remifentanil use in obstetric analgesia is a viable alternative to EA, especially in cases of EA contraindications and parturient disapproval.

  10. Effects of Mirror Therapy Using a Tablet PC on Central Facial Paresis in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House–Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. Results Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. Conclusion Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke. PMID:28758071

  11. Effects of Mirror Therapy Using a Tablet PC on Central Facial Paresis in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-A; Chun, Min Ho; Choi, Su Jin; Chang, Min Cheol; Yi, You Gyoung

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House-Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke.

  12. Parturient recall of neuraxial analgesia risks: Impact of labor pain vs no labor pain.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Christopher M; Olsen, David A; Sviggum, Hans P; Jacob, Adam K

    2017-02-01

    Information exchange between anesthesia providers and parturients about neuraxial analgesia risks often occurs in the presence of labor pain. This study examined whether the presence of pain impacted the level of recall of information provided to parturients regarding risks of neuraxial techniques. Single-center, nonrandomized study. Labor and delivery suite and postpartum patient rooms in a large academic medical center. Two hundred six primigravidas admitted to our labor and delivery suites and receiving neuraxial analgesia were included. Informed consent for epidural and spinal placement was obtained by an obstetric anesthesia resident as per our standard practice. At the time of consent, parturients' self-reported level of pain was recorded. After delivery, patients completed a questionnaire asking which risks they recalled. Also queried were patient self-reported levels of anxiety at the time of consent, patient satisfaction with the informed consent process, overall satisfaction with pain control, as well as their preferred method and timing of information exchange. Only 20.9% of the 206 participating parturients recalled all risks and none of the distractors. There was no difference in recall between those with pain and those without pain at the time of consent. Women experiencing any pain at the time of consent were more likely to be very satisfied with the communication of risks compared with women without pain (96.2% vs 85.5%, P=.005). There was no difference in the preferred method (P=.780) or timing (P=.779) of discussion of risks between women in active labor compared with women with a scheduled induction of labor. Although parturients' recall of neuraxial risks did not differ based on the existence of labor pain, those having pain reported greater satisfaction with the informed consent process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolated double herpes zoster paresis involving the left facial nerve and the right peroneal nerve following disseminated herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Hideto; Tsukahara, Nanako; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ito, Satoshi; Sakuramoto, Chieko

    2007-05-01

    A 72-year-old Japanese male developed disseminated herpes zoster and could not easily walk due to right drop foot and pain. He soon developed numbness and pain on the left side of his face, and noticed difficulty closing his left eye. The left angle of his mouth dropped. The patient was diagnosed as having a double mononeuropathy (a left facial nerve paresis and a right peroneal nerve paresis) following disseminated herpes zoster. Given that the patient was elderly and had diabetes mellitus, the patient appeared to be an immunocompromised host. We also describe other rare complications of herpes zoster from the published work.

  14. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation guided cerebral protection in a parturient with Takayasu's arteritis undergoing cesarean section: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Tianlong; Fu, Wenya; Wang, Fengying; Zhao, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this case report is to present the successful use of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring guided cerebral protection for cesarean delivery in a parturient with Takayasu's arteritis at 38weeks' gestation. The parturient presented with impaired cerebral and renal perfusion. Titrated epidural anesthesia was performed. During the procedure, we used rScO2 guided cerebral protection strategies, which helped to optimize cerebral oxygen delivery and prevent cerebral complications.

  15. Post-traumatic Vertical Gaze Paresis in Nine Patients: Special Vulnerability of the Artery of Percheron in Trauma?

    PubMed

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to present a case series of vertical gaze paresis in patients with a history of cranioencephalic trauma (CET). The clinical characteristics and management are presented of nine patients with a history of CET secondary to motor vehicle accidents with associated vertical gaze paresis. Neuroimaging studies indicated posttraumatic contusion of the thalamic-mesencephalic region in all nine patients who corresponded to the artery of Percheron region; four patients had signs of hemorrhagic transformation. Vertical gaze paresis was present in all patients, ranging from complete paralysis of the upward and downward gaze to a slight limitation of upward gaze. Posttraumatic vertical gaze paresis is a rare phenomenon that can occur in isolation or in association with other neurological deficits and can cause a significant limitation in the quality-of-life. Studies in the literature have postulated that the unique anatomy of the angle of penetration of the thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries makes these vessels more vulnerable to isolated selective damage in certain individuals and can cause-specific patterns of CET.

  16. Post-traumatic Vertical Gaze Paresis in Nine Patients: Special Vulnerability of the Artery of Percheron in Trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to present a case series of vertical gaze paresis in patients with a history of cranioencephalic trauma (CET). Methods: The clinical characteristics and management are presented of nine patients with a history of CET secondary to motor vehicle accidents with associated vertical gaze paresis. Results: Neuroimaging studies indicated posttraumatic contusion of the thalamic-mesencephalic region in all nine patients who corresponded to the artery of Percheron region; four patients had signs of hemorrhagic transformation. Vertical gaze paresis was present in all patients, ranging from complete paralysis of the upward and downward gaze to a slight limitation of upward gaze. Discussion: Posttraumatic vertical gaze paresis is a rare phenomenon that can occur in isolation or in association with other neurological deficits and can cause a significant limitation in the quality-of-life. Studies in the literature have postulated that the unique anatomy of the angle of penetration of the thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries makes these vessels more vulnerable to isolated selective damage in certain individuals and can cause-specific patterns of CET. PMID:26180479

  17. CMT2C with vocal cord paresis associated with short stature and mutations in the TRPV4 gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, D-H; Sul, Y; Weiss, M; Hillel, A; Lipe, H; Wolff, J; Matsushita, M; Raskind, W; Bird, T

    2010-11-30

    Recently, mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 gene (TRPV4) have been reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2C (CMT2C) with vocal cord paresis. Other mutations in this same gene have been described in separate families with various skeletal dysplasias. Further clarification is needed of the different phenotypes associated with this gene. We performed clinical evaluation, electrophysiology, and genetic analysis of the TRPV4 gene in 2 families with CMT2C. Two multigenerational families had a motor greater than sensory axonal neuropathy associated with variable vocal cord paresis. The vocal cord paresis varied from absent to severe, requiring permanent tracheotomy in 2 subjects. One family with mild neuropathy also manifested pronounced short stature, more than 2 SD below the average height for white Americans. There was one instance of dolichocephaly. A novel S542Y mutation in the TRPV4 gene was identified in this family. The other family had a more severe, progressive, motor neuropathy with sensory loss, but less remarkable short stature and an R315W mutation in TRPV4. Third cranial nerve involvement and sleep apnea occurred in one subject in each family. CMT2C with axonal neuropathy, vocal cord paresis, and short stature is a unique syndrome associated with mutations in the TRPV4 gene. Mutations in TRPV4 can cause abnormalities in bone, peripheral nerve, or both and may result in highly variable orthopedic and neurologic phenotypes.

  18. Combination of cyclosporin A and prednisolone for juvenile cellulitis concurrent with hindlimb paresis in 3 English cocker spaniel puppies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-01-01

    Three 7-week-old, English cocker spaniel littermates were diagnosed as having juvenile cellulitis with concurrent neurologic signs based on history, histopathology, and therapeutic response. The puppies were treated with cyclosporin A and prednisolone. Skin lesions and hindlimb paresis improved following treatment. PMID:21286328

  19. Feasibility of High-Repetition, Task-Specific Training for Individuals With Upper-Extremity Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Kimberly J.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Hornby, T. George

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the feasibility of delivering an individualized, progressive, high-repetition upper-extremity (UE) task-specific training protocol for people with stroke in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. METHOD. Fifteen patients with UE paresis participated in this study. Task-specific UE training was scheduled for 60 min/day, 4 days/wk, during occupational therapy for the duration of a participant’s inpatient stay. During each session, participants were challenged to complete ≥300 repetitions of various tasks. RESULTS. Participants averaged 289 repetitions/session, spending 47 of 60 min in active training. Participants improved on impairment and activity level outcome measures. CONCLUSION. People with stroke in an inpatient setting can achieve hundreds of repetitions of task-specific training in 1-hr sessions. As expected, all participants improved on functional outcome measures. Future studies are needed to determine whether this high-repetition training program results in better outcomes than current UE interventions. PMID:25005508

  20. [Clinical course and serial brain MRI findings in a patient with Lissauer form of general paresis].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tomohiko; Ishihara, Ayako; Ozawa, Tetutaro; Sanpei, Kazuhiro; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with progressive dementia and generalized convulsions. An initial MRI revealed a widespread high-intensity area with a mass effect in the right frontal and temporal lobes on T2-weighted images. Findings on digital subtraction angiography were normal. Serum and CSF tests showed high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, which helped to distinguish neurosyphilis from glioma. He was initially treated with penicillin injection; however, it caused liver dysfunction and penicillin was switched to erythromycin. Even after antibiotic therapy for 2 months, his dementia did not improve. He underwent brain MRI four times during the treatment course, and they showed steady progression of brain atrophy in the right hemisphere. Taking these findings together, we diagnosed Lissauer form of general paresis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Lissauer form of paretic neurosyphilis, in which the progression of brain atrophy was clearly demonstrated on MRI.

  1. A novel homozygous HOXB1 mutation in a Turkish family with hereditary congenital facial paresis.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yavuz; Güngör, Olcay; Ayaz, Akif; Güngör, Gülay; Sahin, Bedia; Yaykasli, Kursad; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) is characterized by isolated dysfunction of the facial nerve (CN VII) due to congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. HCFP has genetic heterogeneity and HOXB1 is the first identified gene. We report the clinical, radiologic and molecular investigations of three patients admitted for HCFP in a large consanguineous Turkish family. High-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing of all patients revealed a novel homozygous mutation p.Arg230Trp (c.688C>T) within the HOXB1 gene. The report of the mutation brings the total number of HOXB1 mutations identified in HCFP to four. The results of this study emphasize that in individuals with congenital facial palsy accompanied by hearing loss and dysmorphic facial features, HOXB1 mutation causing HCFP should be kept in mind. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascending paresis as presentation of an unusual association between necrotizing autoimmune myopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    García-Reynoso, Marco Julio; Veramendi-Espinoza, Liz Eliana; Ruiz-Garcia, Henry Jeison

    2014-01-01

    A 45 year-old man went to the emergency room due to disease duration of 15 days of insidious onset and progressive course. It began with symmetrical weakness and pain in feet and ankles that extends upward to the knees. Later, this progressed to paraparesis with Creatine phosphokinase levels of 44,270 U/L and respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. Electromyography and muscle biopsy of quadriceps were made. The patient responded to corticotherapy in pulses and supporting management. The presentation of ascending paresis suggested the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, the degree of muscle involvement with rhabdomyolysis explains the neurological damage by itself. The biopsy revealed pathological criteria for necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM), as well as other clinical and laboratory evidence. Patient disease continued and reached criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the NAM and SLE association.

  3. Mirror therapy for patients with severe arm paresis after stroke--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Holm; Bayn, Maria; Wurg, Marco; Zange, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of individual or group mirror therapy on sensorimotor function, activities of daily living, quality of life and visuospatial neglect in patients with a severe arm paresis after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation centre. Sixty patients with a severe paresis of the arm within three months after stroke. Three groups: (1) individual mirror therapy, (2) group mirror therapy and (3) control intervention with restricted view on the affected arm. Motor function on impairment (Fugl-Meyer Test) and activity level (Action Research Arm Test), independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index), quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale) and visuospatial neglect (Star Cancellation Test). After five weeks, no significant group differences for motor function were found (P > 0.05). Pre-post differences for the Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Test: individual mirror therapy: 3.4 (7.1) and 3.2 (3.8), group mirror therapy: 1.1 (3.1) and 5.1 (10.0) and control therapy: 2.8 (6.7) and 5.2 (8.7). However, a significant effect on visuospatial neglect for patients in the individual mirror therapy compared to control group could be shown (P < 0.01). Furthermore, it was possible to integrate a mirror therapy group intervention for severely affected patients after stroke. This study showed no effect on sensorimotor function of the arm, activities of daily living and quality of life of mirror therapy compared to a control intervention after stroke. However, a positive effect on visuospatial neglect was indicated.

  4. Bovine spastic paresis: A review of the genetic background and perspectives for the future.

    PubMed

    Goeckmann, Victoria; Rothammer, Sophie; Medugorac, Ivica

    2016-10-01

    Bovine spastic paresis (BSP) is a sporadic, progressive neuromuscular disease that is thought to affect all breeds of cattle. The disease manifests as a unilateral or bilateral hyperextension of the hind limb due to increased muscle tone or permanent spasm of mainly the gastrocnemius and/or the quadriceps muscle. Clinical signs only appear in rising, standing and moving animals, which is an important diagnostic feature. Although several medical treatments have been described, surgical procedures such as neurectomy or tenectomy are generally indicated. Even though complete recovery can be achieved, BSP-affected animals should not be used for breeding, since BSP is commonly considered a hereditary disease. The condition therefore negatively affects animal welfare, economics and breeding. When first described in 1922, BSP was already assumed to be heritable, and this assumption has been perpetuated by subsequent authors who have only discussed its possible modes of inheritance, which included monogenetic and polygenetic modes and gene-environment interactions. Besides some clinical aspects and the consideration of the tarsal joint angle as a BSP-correlated trait, this review mainly focuses on the assumed genetic aspects of BSP. Evaluation of the published literature demonstrates that to date, irrevocable proof for the assumed heritability of BSP is still missing. The assumption of heredity is further contradicted by known allele frequencies and incidences of proven hereditary diseases in cattle, such as arachnomelia or bovine spinal muscular atrophy. Consequently, future research is needed to determine the cause of spastic paresis. Procedures that will help test the null-hypothesis ('BSP is not hereditary') and possible modes of inheritance are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early hemi-diaphragmatic plication through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy in postcardiotomy phrenic nerve paresis

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Visouli, Aikaterini N.; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Christofis, Christos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Mpakas, Andreas; Courcoutsakis, Nicolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    New symptom onset of respiratory distress without other cause, and new hemi-diaphragmatic elevation on chest radiography postcardiotomy, are usually adequate for the diagnosis of phrenic nerve paresis. The symptom severity varies (asymptomatic state to severe respiratory failure) depending on the degree of the lesion (paresis vs. paralysis), the laterality (unilateral or bilateral), the age, and the co-morbidity (respiratory, cardiac disease, morbid obesity, etc). Surgical treatment (hemi-diaphragmatic plication) is indicated only in the presence of symptoms. The established surgical treatment is plication of the affected hemidiaphragm which is generally considered safe and effective. Several techniques and approaches are employed for diaphragmatic plication (thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, video-assisted mini-thoracotomy, laparoscopic surgery). The timing of surgery depends on the severity and the progression of symptoms. In infants and young children with postcardiotomy phrenic nerve paresis the clinical status is usually severe (failure to wean from mechanical ventilation), and early plication is indicated. Adults with postcardiotomy phrenic nerve paresis usually suffer from chronic dyspnoea, and, in the absence of respiratory distress, conservative treatment is recommended for 6 months -2 years, since improvement is often observed. Nevertheless, earlier surgical treatment may be indicated in non-resolving respiratory failure. We present early (25th day postcardiotomy) right hemi-diaphragm plication, through a video assisted mini-thoracotomy in a high risk patient with postcardiotomy phrenic nerve paresis and respiratory distress. Early surgery with minimal surgical trauma, short operative time, minimal blood loss and postoperative pain, led to fast rehabilitation and avoidance of prolonged hospitalization complications. The relevant literature is discussed. PMID:23304442

  6. An initially unnoticed piece of nasal jewelry in a parturient: implications for intraoperative airway management.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M; Benumof, Jonathan L; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias; Kotzur, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    The literature documenting the anesthetic implications of body piercing consists only of a few case reports that focus exclusively on interference with airway management by oral jewelry. To date, no case reports documenting anesthetic problems resulting from the presence of nasal jewelry have been reported. We present a case of a parturient who presented for an emergency cesarean section with nasal jewelry in situ, which was unnoticed preoperatively and then became externally loosened intraoperatively. This situation necessitated fiberoptic examination of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cavities and radiologic imaging studies to rule out aerodigestive tract aspiration of retained and missing piece(s) of the jewelry. Based on this experience, we now advise all laboring parturients with nasal or oral jewelry in situ to remove the hardware on admission to Labor and Delivery for safety precautions.

  7. Management of parturients in active labor with Arnold Chiari malformation, tonsillar herniation, and syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Tverdohleb, Tatiana; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arnold-Chiari malformation Type 1 (ACM-1) in parturients is a topic of ongoing discussion between obstetricians and anesthesiologists. The primary unanswered question remains; How should the anesthesia provider proceed with labor analgesia and anesthesia for cesarean section when confronted with an advanced, asymptomatic, or minimally symptomatic case of ACM-1 during labor? Case Description: A 24-year-old, ASA II, G1P0 full-term parturient presented to Labor and Delivery for vaginal delivery. A diagnosis of ACM-1 was made 12 years ago when a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for right-sided numbness following a rear-end motor vehicle collision. The patient had been asymptomatic since then and had been seen by an outside neurologist frequently for the past 10 years. During the anesthesia evaluation, it was noted that she had an exaggerated patellar reflex, and a questionable left-sided Babinski; subsequently, an MRI study was requested. Review of a brain MRI demonstrated an advanced form of ACM with a 1.7 cm transtonsillar herniation and a large syrinx extending from C1 down to C5. Following a discussion with the patient, family, and primary OB team, a plan for elective cesarean section was made per neurosurgical recommendations. This was conducted uneventfully under general anesthesia. The patient had no complaints in the post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusion: Unfamiliarity of health care providers with regards to ACM-1 parturients can be countered by increasing awareness of this condition throughout medical specialties involved in their care. The Ghaly Obstetric Guide to Arnold-Chiari malformation Type 1, along with proper training of anesthesia care providers regarding the specificities of ACM-1 parturients aids in better management and understanding of this complex condition. PMID:28217389

  8. Anesthetic considerations in a parturient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Z; Qasem, F; Katsiris, S

    2017-02-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction and sensory loss, including nociceptive hyposensitivity. It is this autonomic dysfunction that makes both general and neuraxial anesthesia challenging. Testing the block during neuraxial anesthesia may be difficult and the patient may be prone to hypotension and bradycardia. This case report describes the anesthetic management of a parturient with congenital insensitivity to pain presenting for cesarean delivery.

  9. Pain perception among parturients at a University Teaching Hospital, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aduloju, Olusola Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Labour pain is a universal experience. Relief of labour pains and companionship in labour are important aspects of quality of care in labour. Objectives: To evaluate perception of labour pains among parturients, their knowledge and awareness of pain relief during labour, the types of obstetric analgesia available and the outcome of their labour at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using questionnaire administered to pregnant women between 37 and 42 weeks gestational age in labour ward of the hospital. Results: The study revealed that 75.2% of the parturients experienced severe labour pains and 35.3% of them received analgesia in labour with Pentazocine injection being the only analgesic used. Only 18.3% had maximum relief of their pains. Parturients with increasing parity, higher social class and educational attainment and who had antenatal education on labour pains were associated with severe perception of labour pains with P values of 0.03, 0.03, 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Parturients who were given Pentazocine injection for pains and had relief in labour had more spontaneous vaginal deliveries, P = 0.030 and better outcome for their babies, P = 0.028. Majority of the women reported that the practice of companionship and back rubbing in labour helped them to cope better with the labour process. Conclusion: Most women desire relief of pains of labour but the practice is still suboptimal in this centre. Efforts should be made towards developing the practice of obstetric analgesia and companionship in labour in this environment. PMID:24249944

  10. Anesthetic Management of the Parturient for Lumbar Disc Surgery in the Prone Position.

    PubMed

    Martel, Colleen G; Volpi-Abadie, Jacqueline; Ural, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    While back pain is common in pregnancy, urgent surgical intervention is rarely required. A parturient in the third trimester presented with foot drop and sensory deficits. Surgical intervention was deemed necessary and was performed in the prone position to facilitate exposure. A multidisciplinary approach was vital to the management plan. For any pregnant patient undergoing nonobstetric surgery, the care provided should be individualized and thoughtful, keeping in mind both the mother and fetus.

  11. Anesthetic Management of the Parturient for Lumbar Disc Surgery in the Prone Position

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Colleen G.; Volpi-Abadie, Jacqueline; Ural, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Background While back pain is common in pregnancy, urgent surgical intervention is rarely required. Case Report A parturient in the third trimester presented with foot drop and sensory deficits. Surgical intervention was deemed necessary and was performed in the prone position to facilitate exposure. A multidisciplinary approach was vital to the management plan. Conclusion For any pregnant patient undergoing nonobstetric surgery, the care provided should be individualized and thoughtful, keeping in mind both the mother and fetus. PMID:26412999

  12. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Ali M.; Elsakka, Ahmed I.; Ali, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Results: Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns. PMID:27746564

  13. Anesthetic management for Cesarean delivery in parturients with a diagnosis of dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elizabeth M S; Toledo, Paloma; Stariha, Jillian; Nixon, Heather C

    2016-08-01

    The literature on the anesthetic management of parturients with dwarfism is sparse and limited to isolated case reports. Pregnancy complications associated with dwarfism include an increased risk of respiratory compromise, an increased risk of Cesarean delivery, and an unpredictable degree of anesthesia with neuraxial techniques. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective review to evaluate the anesthetic management of parturients with a diagnosis of dwarfism. We used a query of billing data to identify short statured women who underwent a Cesarean delivery during May 1, 2008 to May 1, 2013. We then hand searched the electronic medical record for qualifying patients with heights < 148 cm and a diagnosis of dwarfism. The extracted data included patient demographics and obstetric and anesthetic information. We identified 13 women with dwarfism who had 15 Cesarean deliveries in total. Twelve of the women had disproportionate dwarfism, and ten of the 15 Cesarean deliveries were due to cephalopelvic disproportion. Neuraxial anesthesia was attempted in 93% of deliveries. The dose chosen for initiation of neuraxial anesthesia was lower than the typical doses used in parturients of normal stature. Neuraxial anesthetic complications included difficult neuraxial placement (64%), high spinal (7%), inadequate surgical level (13%), and unrecognized intrathecal catheter (7%). The data collected suggest that females with a diagnosis of dwarfism may have difficult neuraxial placement and potentially require lower dosages of local anesthetic for both spinal and epidural anesthesia to achieve adequate surgical blockade.

  14. Current prevalence of hepatitis B infection among parturient women in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gunardi, Hartono; Zaimi, Liza F; Soedjatmiko; Turyadi; Harahap, Alida R; Muljono, David H

    2014-01-01

    to determine the current prevalence of hepatitis B infection among parturient women in Jakarta, Indonesia. a cross-sectional study was conducted in women giving birth between May and July 2009, recruited by consecutive sampling technique in 2 hospitals and 13 public health centers in Jakarta. Mothers with history of chronic liver disease were excluded. Data were collected by questionnaires including obstetric history, hepatitis B immunization history, and the presence of jaundice; maternal venous blood samples were taken before parturition for HBsAg determination that was performed by ELISA. of 1,009 parturient women screened for hepatitis B infection, 22 were found positive, giving an overall hepatitis B prevalence of 2.2%, previous 5.2% in 1985. None of the subjects had any symptoms of HBV infection. The highest HBsAg prevalence was found in the East Jakarta study site, with predominance in mothers aged <20 years and those with multi-parities. present prevalence of HBsAg among Indonesian parturient women in Jakarta was 2.2% and markedly reduced compared with prevalence in 1985.

  15. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Ali M; Elsakka, Ahmed I; Ali, Hassan M

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns.

  16. Bridle transfer for paresis of the anterior and lateral compartment musculature.

    PubMed

    Prahinski, J R; McHale, K A; Temple, H T; Jackson, J P

    1996-10-01

    In the Riordan (bridle) transfer, the posterior tibialis muscle as motor is routed through the interosseous membrane and anastomosed into a "bridle" formed by the distal tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles. In theory, the bridle provides inversion/eversion balance even if the transfer effects only tenodesis. However, the procedure has been criticized because its insertion is not into bone. This review analyzes the use of bridle transfer in flaccid paresis involving musculature innervated by the peroneal nerve. Surgery was performed 1 to 3 years after injury for patients with traumatic etiology. Ten patients are reviewed at 61 months' mean follow-up. Eight patients had traumatic peroneal nerve loss. Two had neuromuscular etiology. Evaluation included review of records, telephone interviews, and physical examinations. Data on functional status included walking barefoot running, need for bracing, return to duty, and patient satisfaction. Physical examination recorded ankle position and motions, gait findings, and results of static electromyograms. All patients were able to walk barefoot, but 6 of 10 had a mild to moderate limp. Five patients returned to running initially; only two were able to keep running. Nine patients were brace-free initially (polio sequela required bracing initially), and four others returned to bracing. Of these, two experienced an acute "tearing" and dorsiflexion loss, one sustained a prolonged gradual loss of dorsiflexion, and one sustained a contralateral cerebrovascular accident. Only three of seven patients returned to active duty, and one is on jump status. All patients were satisfied with their initial result. Only two patients had no detectable swing phase problems (both returned to active duty). Five patients had peroneal nerve exploration with repair or neurolysis; two of them sustained complete transections. Postoperative electromyograms showed insignificant, if any, nerve return. The Riordan transfer works well for

  17. Stance control is not affected by paresis and reflex hyperexcitability: the case of spastic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, A; Galante, M; Lucas, B; Schieppati, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Spastic patients were studied to understand whether stance unsteadiness is associated with changes in the control of voluntary force, muscle tone, or reflex excitability, rather than to abnormal posture connected to the motor deficit itself.
METHODS—Twenty four normal subjects, 12 patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), seven by spastic paraparesis, and 14 by hemiparesis were studied. All patients featured various degrees of spasticity and paresis but were free from clinically evident sensory deficits. Body sway during quiet upright stance was assessed through a stabilometric platform under both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. The sudden rotation of a supporting platform, in a toe up and toe down direction respectively, evoked short (SLR) and medium latency (MLR) reflex responses to stretch of the soleus or the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle.
RESULTS—No relation was found between clinical findings (tone, muscle strength, tendon reflexes, plantar response, and duration of disease) and body sway. On average, all patient groups exhibited a forward shift of the centre of foot pressure (CFP) with respect to normal subjects; in addition, paraparetic and to a much larger extent hemiparetic patients showed a lateral shift of CFP. Body sway area was significantly increased only in the hemiparetic patients. No relation was found between position of the CFP and sway within any patient group. Soleus SLR was increased in all patients with respect to normal subjects. TA SLR was often seen in both patients with ALS and paraparetic patients, but only rarely in normal subjects and hemiparetic patients. However, no relation was found between amplitude of soleus or TA SLRs and stabilometric variables. The frequency and size of soleus MLR and TA MLR were decreased in all patients. These responses were decreased in size and not modulated by background EMG in the affected leg of hemiparetic patients, suggesting a disturbed control of

  18. Dynamics of prolactin, gonadotropin, and of sex steroids in the blood serum of parturients during laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, M. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of the effect (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser radiation with the energy density of 0.6 to 0.8 J cm-2 on parturients affected by nipples' rhagades. In our experiments, we determined the content of prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and of progesterone (P) in the parturients' blood serum. It was found that laser radiation produced an insignificant effect on the prolactic (PRL) content in parturients with the normal lactation level. On the contrary, it produced a stimulating effect on the PRL level in parturients with hypogalactia. Possibly, laser radiation promoted the decrease in the FSH level in the parturients' blood serum. It was also found that this laser radiation produced an insignificant effect on the levels of LH, estradiol (E2), and of progesterone. Women subsequently affected by mastitis exhibited a significantly higher PRL level in their blood serum, as compared with women of the control group.

  19. Deficit in late-stage contingent negative variation provides evidence for disrupted movement preparation in patients with conversion paresis.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Hyland, Brian I; Hammond-Tooke, Graeme D; Anson, J Greg

    2015-07-01

    Conversion paresis is the presence of unexplained weakness without detectable neuropathology that is not feigned. To examine the 'abnormal preparation' and 'disrupted execution' hypotheses proposed to explain the movement deficits in conversion paresis, electroencephalographic, electromyographic and kinematic measures were recorded during motor preparation and execution. Six patients with unilateral upper limb conversion weakness, 24 participants feigning weakness and 12 control participants performed a 2-choice precued reaction time task. Precues provided advance information about the responding hand or finger. Patients and feigners demonstrated similar diminished force, longer movement time and extended duration of muscle activity in their symptomatic limb. Patients showed significantly suppressed contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitudes, but only when the symptomatic limb was precued. Despite the similarity in performance measures, this CNV suppression was not seen in feigners. Diminished CNV for symptomatic hand precues may reflect engagement of an inhibitory mechanism suppressing cortical activity related to preparatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Autopsy case of Lissauer's general paresis with rapidly progressive left hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Mari; Ando, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Makoto; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2009-06-01

    A 48-years-old man presented with slowly progressive bradykinesia, personality change and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis. On admission, he presented dementia, poor judgment, left hemiparesis. MRI revealed a widespread high intensity area in right hemisphere and MRA was almost normal. Serological tests of serum and CSF demonstrated high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. He was treated for syphilis with daily penicillin injections without improvement. He died of sepsis eight months after admission. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1,100 g and the right cerebral hemisphere was atrophic, especially in frontal base, temporal, parietal, angular, and posterior regions covered by thickened, fibrotic leptomeninges. Microscopically, chronic meningoencephalitis was observed. Severe neuronal loss with gliosis was seen in the right cerebral cortices. Scattered rod-shaped microglia and inflammatory cell infiltration were visible in the cerebral parenchyma. The dorsal column of the spinal cord was not involved and meningovascular syphilis was unclear. The distribution of the encephalitic lesions was well correlated with the clinical and neuroradiological findings. This was a rare autopsy case presenting Lissauer's general paresis, clinically manifesting as rapidly progressive stroke-like episode.

  1. Interlimb coordination of posture in patients with spastic paresis. Impaired function of spinal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Berger, W

    1984-09-01

    Activation of leg musculature on both sides following a unilateral displacement was studied during stance on separate see-saws, or on stable force-measuring platforms, in patients with spastic hemiparesis and paraparesis. During balancing the movements on the spastic side were damped and the degree of muscle activation reduced. Whereas in healthy subjects the tibialis anterior muscles of both sides were activated, following a unilateral displacement, with the same strength and latency (see-saws 55 ms, platforms 85 ms), in hemispastic patients the EMG responses were delayed (by about 20 to 30 ms) and of reduced strength on the spastic leg, irrespective of whether the unaffected or the spastic side was displaced. In addition, the compensatory movements on the spastic side were damped in both conditions, although the amplitude of displacement was the same bilaterally. Although there was no correlation between the delay and the reduction in EMG response, the latter was correlated with the severity of paresis. In patients with spastic paraparesis quite similar results were obtained with delayed and reduced EMG responses on both sides. It is concluded that in spasticity the impaired regulation of quick compensatory movements is due to a dysfunction of a spinal interneuronal system by which the early EMG responses are mediated. This could be explained by loss of supraspinal control. In addition to the impaired neural activation of leg muscles, changes in the mechanical properties of muscle can be assumed to contribute to the damped movements on the spastic side.

  2. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block as a diagnostic aid in demonstrating quadriceps involvement in bovine spastic paresis.

    PubMed

    De Vlamynck, Caroline; Vlaminck, Lieven; Hauspie, Stijn; Saunders, Jimmy; Gasthuys, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a femoral nerve block via a dorsal paralumbar injection in healthy calves and calves suffering from spastic paresis. Based on bony landmarks and using ultrasound guidance, the femoral nerves of eight healthy calves were blocked bilaterally with a 4% procaine solution containing blue dye. In 11/16 nerve blocks, paralysis of the quadriceps muscle was obtained after dorsal paralumbar injection. Paralysis was total in 8/16 cases. The injection site was confirmed by post mortem dissection, and in 12/16 cases, the blue dye was found <2mm from the nerve. Clinical use of the technique was then demonstrated in two cases of atypical bovine spastic paresis. In such calves an objective diagnostic tool is required to identify those calves which are suitable for partial tibial neurectomy. The femoral nerve block used in this study has the potential to be such a method and can be used to establish the involvement of the quadriceps femoris in calves suffering from the quadriceps or mixed presentation form of spastic paresis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with syphilis in parturient women in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital syphilis is a major public health concern, even after the implementation of intervention protocols in several countries. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional factors associated with syphilis in parturient women attending public maternity hospitals in Northeast, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2010 with a proportionate stratified sampling of 222 parturient women using a structured questionnaire. The study analyzed socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional variables. The structured questionnaire was conducted with parturient women and complementary information was obtained through hospitals records, admission forms and prenatal cards. Data were stored using the Statistical Package SPSS version 18. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using frequency distribution, central tendency and measures of spread for the variables. A bivariate analysis was done using chi square test and Fisher’s exact test, with a significance level of 5% and a 95% confidence interval, in order to analyze the relation between the variables and risk factors for syphilis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was done in the statistical package STATA, version 11.0. Results The prevalence of syphilis in parturient women was 7.7%. The bivariate analyses showed that the rate was higher among women who: were from Fortaleza (p = 0.019), studied for less than nine years (p = 0.044), had more than one sexual partner in life (p = 0.021), did not live with partner (p = 0.022), used illegal drugs (p < 0.0001), whose partner used illegal drugs and had diagnosis of syphilis (p = 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). The non-adjusted analysis found significant positive association between syphilis and the following variable: being from Fortaleza (OR = 7.26; CI 95% = 1.49-100.20), having studied for less than nine years (OR

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with syphilis in parturient women in Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; de Freitas, Silvio Carlos Rocha; de Moura, Heber José; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães

    2013-03-07

    Congenital syphilis is a major public health concern, even after the implementation of intervention protocols in several countries. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional factors associated with syphilis in parturient women attending public maternity hospitals in Northeast, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2010 with a proportionate stratified sampling of 222 parturient women using a structured questionnaire. The study analyzed socio-demographic, behavioral and institutional variables. The structured questionnaire was conducted with parturient women and complementary information was obtained through hospitals records, admission forms and prenatal cards. Data were stored using the Statistical Package SPSS version 18. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using frequency distribution, central tendency and measures of spread for the variables. A bivariate analysis was done using chi square test and Fisher's exact test, with a significance level of 5% and a 95% confidence interval, in order to analyze the relation between the variables and risk factors for syphilis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was done in the statistical package STATA, version 11.0. The prevalence of syphilis in parturient women was 7.7%. The bivariate analyses showed that the rate was higher among women who: were from Fortaleza (p = 0.019), studied for less than nine years (p = 0.044), had more than one sexual partner in life (p = 0.021), did not live with partner (p = 0.022), used illegal drugs (p < 0.0001), whose partner used illegal drugs and had diagnosis of syphilis (p = 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). The non-adjusted analysis found significant positive association between syphilis and the following variable: being from Fortaleza (OR = 7.26; CI 95% = 1.49-100.20), having studied for less than nine years (OR = 7.97; CI 95% = 0

  5. Prevalence and predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx.

    PubMed

    Doe, Samfee; LoBue, Stephen; Hamaoui, Abraham; Rezai, Shadi; Henderson, Cassandra E; Mercado, Ray

    2017-04-01

    It is reported that the rates of perinatal depressive disorders are high in ethnic minority groups from non-English speaking countries. However, very few studies have compared the prevalence of positive screening for postpartum depression (PPD) in minority communities living in an inner city. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx. The study is a chart review of 314 minority parturients, Black or Hispanic, screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) tool. The overall prevalence of a positive EPDS screen among Black and Hispanic women was similar, 24.04 and 18.75%, respectively. The Black immigrant cohort had comparable positive screens with 23.81 as African Americans. Hispanic women born in the USA had the least prevalence of positive screens, 7.14%, and those who moved from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico had a prevalence of 17.24% of positive screens. The women who immigrated from Mexico, Central America, or South America had the highest prevalence of positive screens for PPD, 32.26%. As to the socioeconomic status (SES), there was a significant increase of 27.04 vs. 13.95% (P < 0.019) in positive screens for PPD for the unemployed mothers. Overall, Black and Hispanic parturients had similar rates of positive screens for PPD. Among the Hispanic women, immigrants had higher rates of positive screens, with those from Mexico, Central, and South America as the highest. The hospital experience did not affect the rates of positive screens. Neither did the SES with one exception; those unemployed had the higher rates of positive screens.

  6. Risk of Epidural Hematoma after Neuraxial Techniques in Thrombocytopenic Parturients: A Report from the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linden O; Bateman, Brian T; Kheterpal, Sachin; Klumpner, Thomas T; Housey, Michelle; Aziz, Michael F; Hand, Karen W; MacEachern, Mark; Goodier, Christopher G; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Bauer, Melissa E

    2017-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been considered a relative or even absolute contraindication to neuraxial techniques due to the risk of epidural hematoma. There is limited literature to estimate the risk of epidural hematoma in thrombocytopenic parturients. The authors reviewed a large perioperative database and performed a systematic review to further define the risk of epidural hematoma requiring surgical decompression in this population. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study using the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database to identify thrombocytopenic parturients who received a neuraxial technique and to estimate the risk of epidural hematoma. Patients were stratified by platelet count, and those requiring surgical decompression were identified. A systematic review was performed, and risk estimates were combined with those from the existing literature. A total of 573 parturients with a platelet count less than 100,000 mm who received a neuraxial technique across 14 institutions were identified in the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database, and a total of 1,524 parturients were identified after combining the data from the systematic review. No cases of epidural hematoma requiring surgical decompression were observed. The upper bound of the 95% CI for the risk of epidural hematoma for a platelet count of 0 to 49,000 mm is 11%, for 50,000 to 69,000 mm is 3%, and for 70,000 to 100,000 mm is 0.2%. The number of thrombocytopenic parturients in the literature who received neuraxial techniques without complication has been significantly increased. The risk of epidural hematoma associated with neuraxial techniques in parturients at a platelet count less than 70,000 mm remains poorly defined due to limited observations.

  7. [Anesthetic management of a parturient with congenital afibrinogenemia undergoing cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Sakimura, Shotaro; Higashi, Midoriko; Nanishi, Noriko; Sugioka, Norimitsu; Sirouzu, Kazuhiro; Yamaura, Ken; Hoka, Sumio

    2012-12-01

    A 29-year-old parturient with congenital afibrinogenemia was scheduled to receive cesarean section 38 weeks 2 days of gestation. Due to the bleeding ter dency by her abnormality of fibrinogen and afibrinogenemia, general anesthesia was chosen. In addition to routine administration of fibrinogen, perioperative supplementation of fibrinogen with the meticulous evaluation of the coagulation and fibrinolysis status using rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) enabled the patient to deliver a healthy baby without any hematological complications. The ROTEM was a useful device to check coagulopathy and fibrinolysis in this patient.

  8. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients

    PubMed Central

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-01-01

    Background Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of chorioamnionitis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. Methods HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placenta examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. Results A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of histologic chorioamnionitis in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity which were related to severity of the disease. PMID:25887063

  9. Bacterial Infection in Deep Paraspinal Muscles in a Parturient Following Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xuhong; Song, Jiefu; Liang, Qingyuan; Qin, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial infection related to epidural catheterizations could occur. In general, the incidence of postoperative infection at the insertion site is very low. Paucity literatures are reported for paraspinal muscle infection after epidural analgesia in parturient. We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia in a parturient, who was subjected to because of threatened preterm labor. Epidural morphine was administered for 2 days for childbirth pain control. She began to have constant low-back pain and fever on postpartum Day 2. Magnetic resonance image revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. A catheter-related bacterial infection was suspected. The surgical debridement and drainage was required combined with intravenous antibiotics on postpartum Day 3. She was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. A literature search yielded 7 other cases of catheter-related epidural abscess or soft tissue infection. Vigilance for these infections, especially in postpartum patients with backache, is needed. Moreover, early detection and proper treatment of infectious signs at postanesthetic visit are very important. PMID:26683923

  10. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients.

    PubMed

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placentas examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of HCA in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity, which were related to severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Incidence of epidural catheter replacement in parturients: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Eappen, S; Blinn, A; Segal, S

    1998-10-01

    We noted in our practice of obstetric anesthesia at a large teaching hospital that the epidural catheter failure rate was higher than previously reported. We undertook this study to determine the incidence of epidural catheter failure in parturients and to determine the primary causes of failure. After institutional approval, we evaluated the charts of parturients who received epidural analgesia for labor or anesthesia for cesarean section for 6 randomly selected months spanning one year. We examined 4240 anesthesia records for patient-related data, operator-related data (years of training) and technical information. The participants were unaware there was a study in progress, and data were collected in a systematic fashion so as to minimize data collection related biases. Chi2, Mantel-Haenszel chi2, analysis of variance and univariate logistic regression were used to analyze data. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall epidural catheter failure rate was 13.1% with a dural puncture rate of 1.03%. The major causes of catheter failure were no analgesia and unilateral block. The experience of the anesthesiologist, the mode of delivery, patient age, patient weight, type of epidural catheter, occurrence of paresthesia and the use of CSE were all associated with significantly different epidural catheter replacement rates. Despite the initially high failure rate, the overall patient satisfaction rate was greater than 98%.

  12. The effects of 2-chloroprocaine on coagulation and fibrinolysis in the parturient: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Sa Rego, Monica; Kaynar, A Murat; Urman, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    Amide local anesthetics are known to inhibit coagulation. 2-chloroprocaine is the only ester agent used in obstetric anesthesia. It is used during obstetric emergencies, and also to supplement inadequate epidural block produced by amide local anesthetics. There is no study to date that has evaluated the effect of ester local anesthetics on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in the parturient. In this study, we obtained blood samples from healthy, term-parturients and mixed them with varying amounts of 2-chloroprocaine for final concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 7.8 mM. Thromboelastograph(®) was used to study the coagulation profile of these samples. Chloroprocaine impaired coagulation in a dose dependent manner, with increased R and K, and decreased MA and α. The difference, when compared to saline controls, reached statistical significance at a dose of 7.8 mM. An additional significant finding was that 2-chloroprocaine also enhanced fibrinolysis. Amide local anesthetics are known to impair coagulation, but 2-chloroprocaine produced significant fibrinolysis in addition to decreasing coagulation. This is the first study to date to demonstrate fibrinolytic properties of an ester local anesthetic. Further study evaluations are required to determine the cause of the variation in fibrinolysis. There is also a need to address the mechanism of increased fibrinolysis observed with 2-chroloprocaine.

  13. Continuous spinal labor analgesia for two deliveries in a parturient with severe subvalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Shunsuke; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Various degrees of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction have been seen in patients with subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS). Regional analgesia during labor for parturients with SAS is relatively contraindicated because it has a potential risk for hemodynamic instability due to sympathetic blockade as a result of vasodilation by local anesthetics. We thought continuous spinal analgesia (CSA) using an opioid and minimal doses of local anesthetic could provide more stable hemodynamic status. We demonstrate the management of a 28-year-old pregnant patient with SAS who received CSA for her two deliveries. For her first delivery (peak pressure gradient (∆P) between LV and aorta was approximately 55 mmHg), intrathecal fentanyl was used as a basal infusion, but we needed a small amount of bupivacaine to provide supplemental intrathecal analgesia as labor progressed. Although there were mild fluctuations in hemodynamics, she was asymptomatic. For her second delivery (∆P between LV and aorta was approximately 90 mmHg), minimal doses of continuous bupivacaine were used as a basal infusion. For her additional analgesic requests, bolus co-administration of fentanyl was effective. There were no fluctuations in her hemodynamics. Although her SAS in her second pregnancy was more severe than in the first, her hemodynamics exhibited less fluctuation during the second delivery with this method. In conclusion, CSA using fentanyl combined with minimal doses of bupivacaine provided satisfactory analgesia and stable hemodynamics in parturient with severe SAS.

  14. A survey of Papua New Guinean parturients at the Port Moresby General Hospital: sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Klufio, C A; Amoa, A B; Kariwiga, G

    1994-04-01

    A survey of 673 consecutive Papua New Guinea parturients carried out at the Port Moresby General Hospital between May and June 1990 showed that socioeconomic and educational factors played a part in predicting perinatal death. Mothers who have previously experienced a perinatal death are more likely to experience a second one.

  15. The management of peripheral facial nerve palsy: "paresis" versus "paralysis" and sources of ambiguity in study designs.

    PubMed

    Linder, Thomas E; Abdelkafy, Wael; Cavero-Vanek, Sandra

    2010-02-01

    Conservative management of idiopathic or herpetic acute peripheral facial palsy (herpes zoster oticus, HZO) often leads to a favorable outcome. However, recent multicenter studies have challenged the necessity of antivirals. Whereas large numbers of patients are required to reveal statistical differences in a disease with an overall positive outcome, surprisingly few studies differentiate between patients with paresis and paralysis. Analyzing our own prospective cohort of patients and reviewing the current literature on conservative treatment of Bell's palsy and HZO, we reveal the importance of initial baseline assessment of the disease course to predict the outcome and to validate the impact of medical treatment options. STUDY DESIGN AND DATA SOURCE: Prospective analysis of consecutive patients referred to 2 tertiary referral centers and research on the Cochrane Library for current updates of their previous reviews and search of MEDLINE (1976-2009) for randomized trials on conservative treatment of acute facial palsy were conducted. One hundred ninety-six patients with Bell's palsy or HZO were followed up prospectively until complete recovery or at least for 12 months. The numeric Fisch score (FS) was used to classify facial function, and patients were separated between incomplete palsy (=paresis) and complete paralysis. Electroneuronography (ENoG) was used to further subdivide patients with paralysis. The treatment protocol was independent of the ongoing investigation including prednisone and valacyclovir in most patients. A total of 250 previous studies on facial palsy outcome were evaluated regarding their distinction between different severity scores at baseline and its impact on treatment outcome. Trials not making the distinction between paresis and paralysis at baseline and with an insufficient follow-up of less than 12 months were excluded. In the Bell's and HZO paresis group, all except 1 patient recovered completely, most of them within 3 months

  16. Role of contralesional hemisphere in paretic arm reaching in patients with severe arm paresis due to stroke: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sambit; Harrington, Rachael; Chan, Evan; Dromerick, Alexander W; Breceda, Erika Y; Harris-Love, Michelle

    2016-03-23

    Stroke is highly prevalent and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability among American adults. Impaired movement (i.e. paresis) of the stroke-affected arm is a major contributor to post-stroke disability, yet the mechanisms of upper extremity motor recovery are poorly understood, particularly in severely impaired patients who lack hand function. To address this problem, we examined the functional relevance of the contralesional hemisphere in paretic arm motor performance in individuals with severe arm paresis. Twelve individuals with severe stroke-induced arm paresis (Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment=17.1 ± 8.5; maximum score=66) participated in the study. Participants performed a reaching response time task with their paretic arm. At varying time intervals following a 'Go' cue, a pair of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses were delivered to contralesional hemisphere primary motor (M1) or dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) to momentarily disrupt the pattern of neural firing. Response time components and hand-path characteristics were compared across the 2 sites for trials with and without TMS disruption. There was no significant effect of TMS disruption on overall Response time or Reaction time, but Movement time was significantly longer (i.e. slower) with disruption of the contralesional hemisphere (p=0.015), regardless of which area was stimulated. Peak hand-path velocity and hand-path smoothness were also significantly lower (p=0.005 and p<0.0001, respectively) with TMS disruption of the contralesional hemisphere. The data from this study provide evidence supporting a functionally relevant role of contralesional hemisphere motor areas in paretic arm reaching movements in individuals with severe post-stroke arm impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An exploratory analysis of the self-reported goals of individuals with chronic upper-extremity paresis following stroke.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Kimberly J; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L; Bland, Marghuretta D; Lang, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    To classify the self-identified goals of individuals post-stroke with chronic upper extremity (UE) paresis, and determine if age, UE functional capacity and pre-stroke hand dominance influence overall goal selection. Sixty-five subjects participated. Using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to establish treatment goals, the top five goals were categorized using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework into five categories: activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), leisure, work and general UE movement. A Chi-square analysis determined if age, UE functional capacity (measured by the Action Research Arm Test) and UE hand dominance influenced individual goal selection. The majority of goals were in the ADL (37%) and IADL (40%) categories. A small percentage (12%) was related to general UE movement. Individuals with moderate UE functional capacity identified more ADL goals than those with higher UE functional capacity. There was not a difference between age and UE dominance across all five goal areas. Individuals with chronic UE paresis had specific goals that were not influenced by age or hand dominance, but partially influenced by severity. General UE movement goals were identified less than goals related to specific activities. Considering the specificity of individual goals following stroke, it is recommended that clinicians regularly utilize a goal setting tool to help establish client goals. It is recommended that clinicians further inquire about general goals in order to link upper extremity deficits to functional activity limitations. Age, upper extremity functional capacity and hand dominance have little influence on the rehabilitation goals for individuals with chronic paresis after stroke.

  18. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  <6°. An upper cervical SCI patient, empowered by the exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  19. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  <6°. An upper cervical SCI patient, empowered by the exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. Significance. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of

  20. An exploratory analysis of the self-reported goals of individuals with chronic upper-extremity paresis following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Kimberly J.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To classify the self-identified goals of individuals post-stroke with chronic upper extremity (UE) paresis, and determine if age, UE functional capacity, and pre-stroke hand dominance influence overall goal selection. Method Sixty five subjects participated. Using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to establish treatment goals, the top five goals were categorized using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework into five categories: activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), leisure, work, and general UE movement. A chi-square analysis determined if age, UE functional capacity (measured by the Action Research Arm Test), and UE hand dominance influenced individual goal selection. Results The majority of goals were in the ADL (37%) and IADL (40%) categories. A small percentage (12%) was related to general UE movement. Individuals with moderate UE functional capacity identified more ADL goals than those with higher UE functional capacity. There was not a difference between age and UE dominance across all five goal areas. Conclusions Individuals with chronic UE paresis had specific goals that were not influenced by age or hand dominance, but partially influenced by severity. General UE movement goals were identified less than goals related to specific activities. PMID:26146964

  1. The Hsp72 response in peri-parturient dairy cows: relationships with metabolic and immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Catalani, Elisabetta; Amadori, Massimo; Vitali, Andrea; Bernabucci, Umberto; Nardone, Alessandro; Lacetera, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy peri-parturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined progressively after calving. The percentage of PBMC expressing CD14 receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4 increased and decreased in the early postpartum period, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationships between Hsp72 and NEFA, and between PBMC proliferation in response to LPS and the percentage of PBMC expressing TLR-4. Conversely, significant negative relationships were found between LPS-triggered proliferation of PBMC and both intracellular and plasma Hsp72. Literature data and changes of metabolic and immunological parameters reported herein authorize a few interpretative hypotheses and encourage further studies aimed at assessing possible cause and effect relationships between changes of PBMC and circulating Hsp72, metabolic, and immune parameters in dairy cows.

  2. Mu opioid modulation of oxytocin secretion in late pregnant and parturient rats. Involvement of noradrenergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Selim; Yilmaz, Bayram; Canpolat, Sinan; Sandal, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mete; Kumru, Selahattin; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated effects of micro- and kappa-opioid agonists and antagonists on plasma oxytocin levels and noradrenaline content in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of 20-day pregnant rats. beta-Endorphin, oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone profiles in late pregnant and parturient rats were also sought. Stage of estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal smear, and pro-estrous animals were left overnight with male. In the first set of experiments, pregnant rats were monitored and decapitated on days 20 and 21 and after the delivery of second pup. In the second set, 20-day pregnant rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with morphine (50 microg/10 microl), U50,488H (kappa-agonist; 50 microg/10 microl), clocinnamox (micro-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl). Controls received saline alone. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and plasma oxytocin and beta-endorphin by radioimmunoassay. Noradrenaline and its metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol) were determined in micropunched hypothalamic nuclei by HPLC-ECD. In parturient rats, oxytocin levels were increased (p < 0.05) and beta-endorphin decreased (p < 0.01) compared to 20-day pregnant animals. Serum progesterone concentrations progressively declined towards parturition (p < 0.001). Clocinnamox raised oxytocin levels (p < 0.01) while U50,488H caused decreases (p < 0.05). Noradrenaline content was elevated by clocinnamox in the SON (p < 0.01) and PVN (p < 0.05) compared to control values. Other agonists and antagonists had no significant effect on the noradrenergic neurotransmission or oxytocin secretion. We suggest that noradrenaline may mediate the inhibitory effects of micro-opioids on oxytocin release. Our findings have also shown that kappa-opioid receptors are not involved in modulation of oxytocin neurons in late pregnant rats. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Gene expression in pre-term, pre-labour and parturient canine placenta.

    PubMed

    Fellows, E J; Hazzard, T M; Kutzler, M A

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-A receptor (Flt-1) and KiSS-1 receptor (KiSS-1R) all play a role in trophoblast invasion in a number of mammalian species. However, mRNA expression of factors regulating trophoblast invasion has not been studied in dogs. Abnormal expression of these factors at the end of canine gestation may contribute to placental retention and/or subinvolution of placental sites. Therefore, we sought to determine the relative mRNA expression of these factors in canine chorioallantois tissue at 61 ± 1 day past the LH surge (pre-term; n = 4), following elective c-section at 64 ± 1 day past the LH surge prior to first-stage labour (pre-labour; n = 4) and following natural delivery (parturient; n = 3). Total RNA was isolated, real-time RT-PCR was performed, and relative expression was calculated using the relative quantitation (2-ΔΔCT) method. MMP-9 mRNA expression was significantly higher in pre-term samples compared to pre-labour and parturient samples. The results showed no significant difference between MMP-2, TIMP-2, VEGF-A and Flt-1 mRNA expression among the three groups. KiSS-1R mRNA was not expressed in any tissues studied. Gene expression of MMP-9 may be related to the onset of labour, whereas MMP-2, VEGF-A, Flt-1, TIMP-2 and KiSS-1R mRNA do not appear to play a role at the end of gestation in the dog.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Music Use During Epidural Catheter Placement on Laboring Parturient Anxiety, Pain, and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Drzymalski, Dan M; Tsen, Lawrence C; Palanisamy, Arvind; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Kodali, Bhavani S

    2017-02-01

    Although music is frequently used to promote a relaxing environment during labor and delivery, the effect of its use during the placement of neuraxial techniques is unknown. Our study sought to determine the effects of music use on laboring parturients during epidural catheter placement, with the hypothesis that music use would result in lower anxiety, lower pain, and greater patient satisfaction. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of laboring parturients undergoing epidural catheter placement with or without music. The music group listened to the patient's preferred music on a Pandora® station broadcast through an external amplified speaker; the control group listened to no music. All women received a standardized epidural technique and local anesthetic dose. The primary outcomes were 3 measures of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included pain, patient satisfaction, hemodynamic parameters, obstetric parameters, neonatal outcomes, and anesthesia provider anxiety. Intention-to-treat analysis with Bonferroni correction was used for the primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, a P value of <.001 was considered statistically significant. A total of 100 parturients were randomly assigned, with 99 included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups; in the music group, the duration of music use was 31.1 ± 7.7 minutes (mean ± SD). The music group experienced higher anxiety as measured by Numeric Rating Scale scores immediately after epidural catheter placement (2.9 ± 3.3 vs 1.4 ± 1.7, mean difference 1.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.2-2.7], P = .02), and as measured by fewer parturients being "very much relaxed" 1 hour after epidural catheter placement (51% vs 78%, odds ratio {OR} 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9], P = .02). No differences in mean pain scores immediately after placement or patient satisfaction with the overall epidural placement experience were observed; however, the desire for music use with

  5. Anesthetic management of super-morbidly obese parturients for cesarean delivery with a double neuraxial catheter technique: a case series.

    PubMed

    Polin, C M; Hale, B; Mauritz, A A; Habib, A S; Jones, C A; Strouch, Z Y; Dominguez, J E

    2015-08-01

    Parturients with super-morbid obesity, defined as body mass index greater than 50kg/m(2), represent a growing segment of patients who require anesthetic care for labor and delivery. Severe obesity and its comorbid conditions place the parturient and fetus at greater risk for pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery, as well as surgical and anesthetic complications. The surgical approach for cesarean delivery in these patients may require a supra-umbilical vertical midline incision due to a large pannus. The dense T4-level of spinal anesthesia can cause difficulties with ventilation for the obese patient during the procedure, which can be prolonged. Patients also may have respiratory complications in the postoperative period due to pain from the incision. We describe the anesthetic management of three parturients with body mass index ranging from 73 to 95kg/m(2) who had a cesarean delivery via a supra-umbilical vertical midline incision. Continuous lumbar spinal and low thoracic epidural catheters were placed in each patient for intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, respectively. Continuous spinal catheters were dosed with incremental bupivacaine boluses to achieve surgical anesthesia. In one case, the patient required respiratory support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Two cases were complicated by intraoperative hemorrhage. All patients had satisfactory postoperative analgesia with a thoracic epidural infusion. None suffered postoperative respiratory complications or postdural puncture headache. The use of a continuous lumbar spinal catheter and a low thoracic epidural provides several advantages in the anesthetic management of super-morbidly obese parturients for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Postherpetic pseudohernia: delayed onset of paresis of abdominal muscles due to herpes zoster causing an ipsilateral abdominal bulge.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shunsuke; Togawa, Yasuhiro; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Wataru

    2016-05-26

    Postherpetic pseudohernia causes an abdominal bulge as well as an abdominal wall herniation. This disease is one of the neurological complications of herpes zoster and essentially consists of paresis of ipsilateral abdominal muscles. Postherpetic pseudohernia may be mistaken for abdominal wall herniation because it is not well known. We describe two cases presenting an abdominal bulge. The ipsilateral abdominal bulge appeared after recovery from abdominal zoster. Abdominal CT showed no evidence of a herniation or mass. We diagnosed a postherpetic pseudohernia. One of the patients recovered spontaneously 4 months after the onset, and the other partially recovered after 2 months. This disease can be expected to disappear spontaneously, unlike abdominal herniation requiring surgery. It has been reported that 79.3% of patients eventually recovered spontaneously. For surgeons and general practitioners, it is beneficial to keep this disease in mind when examining a patient presenting an abdominal bulge. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Julius Wagner-Jauregg and the Legacy of Malarial Therapy for the Treatment of General Paresis of the Insane

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a preeminent Austrian psychiatrist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1927 for the development of malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis, or general paresis of the insane. Despite being only one of three psychiatrists to win a Nobel Prize, he has faded from public consciousness and his name recognition pales in comparison to his contemporary and fellow Austrian, Sigmund Freud. This paper explores his contributions to the field of biological psychiatry and also touches upon reasons, such as the growing bioethics movement, his controversial affiliation with the Nazi Party, and the evolution of neurosyphilis, that explain why Wagner-Jauregg is not more widely celebrated for his contributions to the field of psychiatry, even though his malarial treatment could be considered the earliest triumph of biological psychiatry over psychoanalysis. PMID:23766744

  8. Neck abscess and vocal cord paresis: delayed complications of a self-extruded long fishbone stuck in throat.

    PubMed

    Vallamkondu, V; Carlile, S; Shakeel, M; Ah-See, K W

    2013-11-18

    A 57-year-old Caucasian man, otherwise fit and well, presented with a 2-week history of dysphagia, odynophagia. Two weeks prior to the presentation, he had felt a fishbone stuck in his throat which was self-extruded after 3 days. Subsequently he developed a right anterior neck swelling and hoarseness. Transnasal endoscopic examination of larynx revealed an injected and oedematous right hemilarynx with right vocal cord paresis. An ultrasound examination of the neck confirmed a collection in the neck on the right side, and frank pus was aspirated from the neck abscess and he responded well to conservative management. Subsequent examination in follow-up had shown complete recovery of vocal cord movement. The patient did not seek medical attention immediately after getting a 5 cm fishbone extruded from the throat which resulted in significant morbidity. All patients should be alerted to the possibility of delayed complications and they should be encouraged to seek urgent medical attention.

  9. Paresis in an Asian small clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) associated with vertebral and ischial osteolysis caused by a malignant lymphangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Carpenter, James W; Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia; Brinkman, Erin

    2008-06-01

    A 10-yr-old male intact Asian small clawed otter (Aonyx cinerus) was presumptively diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry with lymphangiosarcoma after bony destruction of the ischium and spinal column from local tumor invasion had caused progressive signs of hind limb lameness and paresis/paralysis, which led to humane euthanasia. At necropsy, the primary tumor was identified as a flocculent mass present under the caudal lumbar vertebrae. Multiple nerves were seen to run from the spinal cord into the wall of the mass. This mass had locally invaded the surrounding muscle, vertebral column, and spinal cord, which led to the clinical signs noted at presentation. Bony destruction was severe with almost complete obliteration of the right ischium and osteolysis of L6, exposing the spinal cord beneath. The tumor had metastasized to at least two different sites within the spleen. The abdominal tumor was confirmed to be of endothelial origin by the use of immunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen and was confirmed as lymphatic origin versus vascular origin because of the lack of red blood cells within the vessels. The length of time from initial presentation with hind limb lameness to euthanasia because of hind limb paralysis was 4 mo. This is the first report of lymphangiosarcoma, an uncommon malignant neoplasm of lymphatic origin, in a mustelid and the first report of neoplastic disease in an Asian small clawed otter. In addition, the presentation of hind limb paresis associated with bony lysis because of local tumor invasion has not been previously reported with lymphangiosarcoma in humans, domestic animals, or nondomestic animals.

  10. Training of reaching in stroke survivors with severe and chronic upper limb paresis using a novel nonrobotic device: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ruth N; Brauer, Sandra G; Carson, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    Severe upper limb paresis is a major contributor to disability after stroke. This study investigated the efficacy of a new nonrobotic training device, the Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training (SMART) Arm, that was used with or without electromyography-triggered electrical stimulation of triceps brachii to augment elbow extension, permitting stroke survivors with severe paresis to practice a constrained reaching task. A single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 42 stroke survivors with severe and chronic paresis. Thirty-three participants completed the study, of whom 10 received training using the SMART Arm with electromyography-triggered electrical stimulation, 13 received training using the SMART Arm alone, and 10 received no intervention (control). Training consisted of 12 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was "upper arm function," item 6 of the Motor Assessment Scale. Secondary outcome measures included impairment measures; triceps muscle strength, reaching force, modified Ashworth scale; and activity measures: reaching distance and Motor Assessment Scale. Assessments were administered before (0 weeks) and after training (4 weeks) and at 2 months follow-up (12 weeks). Both SMART Arm groups demonstrated significant improvements in all impairment and activity measures after training and at follow-up. There was no significant difference between these 2 groups. There was no change in the control group. Our findings indicate that training of reaching using the SMART Arm can reduce impairment and improve activity in stroke survivors with severe and chronic upper limb paresis, highlighting the benefits of intensive task-oriented practice, even in the context of severe paresis.

  11. Synergy effects of combined multichannel EMG-triggered electrical stimulation and mirror therapy in subacute stroke patients with severe or very severe arm/hand paresis.

    PubMed

    Schick, Thomas; Schlake, Hans-Peter; Kallusky, Juliane; Hohlfeld, Günter; Steinmetz, Maria; Tripp, Florian; Krakow, Karsten; Pinter, Michaela; Dohle, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Neurorehabilitation requires the development of severity-dependent and successful therapies for arm/hand rehabilitation in stroke patients. To evaluate the effectiveness of adding mirror therapy to bilateral EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation for the treatment of severe arm/hand paresis in stroke patients. The subjects of this randomized, controlled, multicentre study were stroke patients who had suffered their first insult between 1 and 6 months before study start and had severe or very severe arm/hand paresis, as classified by Fugl-Meyer-Assessment. Subjects were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 16) or control group (n = 17). Both groups were treated for 3 weeks (5x week, 30 minutes) with bilateral EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation. The intervention group additionally received mirror feedback of the unaffected limb. The primary outcome measure was motor recovery of the upper extremities, as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. The Intervention Group with very severe paresis had significantly better motor recovery in total Fugl-Meyer Assessment (p = 0.017) at a medium effect size (Cohen) of d = 0.7, due to a significant recovery of shoulder and elbow function (p = 0.003) in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Part A subtest. For subjects with severe paresis, additional mirror therapy did not significantly influence outcome. Additional mirror therapy in combination with EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation is therapeutically beneficial for post-acute stroke patients with very severe arm/hand paresis.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of preinsertion ultrasound guidance for spinal anaesthesia in pregnancy: outcomes among obese and lean parturients: ultrasound for spinal anesthesia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Tulay; Balaban, Onur; Sahin, Levent; Solak, Mine; Toker, Kamil

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine if preinsertion lumbar ultrasound scanning helps with performance of spinal puncture, as a tool for decreasing the number of puncture attempts and spinal procedure time and increasing the success rate. We hypothesized that ultrasound can facilitate neuraxial blockade, particularly in pregnant women with difficult topographic anatomy. One hundred (50 lean, BMI <30 kg/m(2), and 50 obese, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) parturients scheduled for cesarean delivery were divided into ultrasound and control groups. Subarachnoid block was performed with prepuncture ultrasound examination in lean parturients (group 1, n = 25) and in obese parturients (group 2, n = 25), and subarachnoid block was performed without prepuncture ultrasound examination in lean parturients (group 3, n = 25) and in obese parturients (group 4, n = 25). The number of puncture attempts and puncture levels were recorded. A lower number of puncture attempts and fewer puncture levels were detected in ultrasound (US) groups (p < 0.001). First attempt success rate under US guidance was 92 % in comparison to 44 % using a conventional technique in obese parturients (p < 0.001). In 52 % of the lean patients and in 54.2 % of the obese patients, the intercristal line was at the L3-L4 and at the L2-L3 interspace, respectively. The duration of spinal procedure was shorter in US groups (22 vs. 52 s, p = 0.031). We found a high correlation between ultrasound and needle depth (r = 0.709, p < 0.001). We found a high level of success in the prepuncture ultrasound-determined insertion point. The ultrasound imaging technique can be a reliable guide to facilitate spinal anesthesia, especially in obese parturients.

  13. Pulmonary effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guiqi; Li, Wenhui; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    To study the change of maternal pulmonary function when ropivacaine and bupivacaine were used in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, 40 ASA physical status I and II parturient scheduled to undergo cesarean section were randomly divided into bupivacaine and ropivacaine groups. Bupivacaine 9 mg and ropivacaine 14 mg were intrathecal injected respectively. FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with spirometry before anesthesia and 2 h after intrathecal injection. Anesthesia level, the degree of motor block and VAS were also recorded. Results: The final level of sensory blockade was not different between groups. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased with bupivacaine (3.0 ± 0.4 L to 2.7 ± 0.3 L, P < 0.05) and ropivacaine (2.9 ± 0.4 L to 2.5 ± 0.4 L, P < 0.05) while there were no difference between two groups. Forced expiratory volume during the first second and Peak expiratory flow rate were not decreased in each group. The degree of motor block in group R was less than group B at 2 h after intrathecal injection. Conclusions: Decreases in maternal pulmonary function tests were similar following spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine or ropivacaine for cesarean section. The clinical maternal effects of these alterations appeared negligible. PMID:24995105

  14. Evidence-based anesthesia: fever of unknown origin in parturients and neuraxial anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lisa; Snyder, Michelle; Villecco, Dante; Jacob, Aaron; Pyle, Shawn; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy

    2008-06-01

    The safety of neuraxial analgesia in febrile patients is controversial. We performed an evidenced-based project in an effort to establish a guideline for our active obstetric clinical practice. Neuraxial anesthesia is generally safe for parturients, and complications are rare; however, serious adverse outcomes can result. Because of the devastating nature of the morbidity, the decision to proceed with a neuraxial anesthetic in the face of infection may be contentious. Fever and sepsis are considered relative contraindications to regional anesthesia; however, epidural anesthesia is a superior method of management of pain during labor. One must also consider that 30% to 40% of patients with chorioamnionitis require cesarean delivery. Because of the increased morbidity and mortality of general anesthesia in this population, it may be reasonable to proceed with regional anesthesia. Based on a review of the literature, it is difficult to estimate the risk of an infrequently occurring event. We recommend evaluation of each individual to determine the risks and benefits of the anesthetic. However, it is prudent to administer antibiotics before the regional anesthetic and adhere to strict aseptic technique. Postprocedure monitoring is essential for early detection and treatment of complications.

  15. Elective cesarean delivery in a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, T; Jee, R; Kilpatrick, N; Douglas, J

    2013-11-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is defined by congenital fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae and can be associated with abnormalities in multiple systems. Management poses challenges to the anesthesiologist, particularly in pregnancy. Cervical spine immobility and instability can make the management of the airway fraught with danger and vertebral column distortion may make neuraxial anesthesia unreliable. We present the management of a nulliparous patient with features consistent with Type I Klippel-Feil syndrome undergoing elective cesarean delivery. The patient had a potentially difficult airway and features consistent with an unstable cervical spine and severe thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. A combined spinal-epidural technique was used which initially provided satisfactory anesthesia, but ultimately proved inadequate despite use of the epidural component. Satisfactory anesthesia for surgery was eventually achieved with the addition of an intravenous remifentanil infusion. We review previous case reports discussing anesthetic management of parturients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, and describe the challenges encountered and lessons learned from management of this case.

  16. The parturient with implanted spinal cord stimulator: management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Young, Adam C; Lubenow, Timothy R; Buvanendran, Asokumar

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an approved treatment for complex regional pain syndrome and other chronic pain conditions. These devices enable women with chronic pain to maintain relatively normal lives, with some encountering pregnancy. Use of previously implanted SCS systems in pregnant women is considered controversial due to lack of long-term prospective studies evaluating both maternal and fetal safety. Seven patients at a university pain clinic were identified as having SCS implanted before becoming pregnant. Data on these patients before, during, and after labor were collected through chart review and patient interview. Onset of labor varied among the 7 patients (2 preterm and 5 term). Mode of anesthesia for delivery included 4 neuraxial anesthetics, with 3 successfully obtaining an adequate level of anesthesia for delivery. Four general anesthetics were administered for cesarean delivery, one of which included a failed attempt at neuraxial anesthesia. All infants were born healthy. Management approaches and outcomes in our patients, as well as those previously reported are discussed within this article. Definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from this small cohort. We believe that management of a parturient with an implanted SCS requires careful planning between all peripartum physicians.

  17. Safety and community: the maternity care needs of rural parturient women.

    PubMed

    Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate rural parturient women's experiences of obstetric care in the context of the social and economic realities of life in rural, remote, and small urban communities. Data collection for this exploratory qualitative study was carried out in 7 rural communities chosen to represent diversity of size, distance to hospital with Caesarean section capability and distance to secondary hospital, usual conditions for transport and access, and cultural and ethnic subpopulations. We interviewed 44 women who had given birth up to 24 months before the study began. When asked about their experiences of giving birth in rural communities, many participants spoke of unmet needs and their associated anxieties. Self-identified needs were largely congruent with the deficit categories of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which recognizes the contingency and interdependence of physiological needs, the need for safety and security, the need for community and belonging, self-esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization. For many women, community was critical to meeting psychosocial needs, and women from communities that currently have (or have recently had) access to local maternity care said that being able to give birth in their own community or in a nearby community was necessary if their obstetric needs were to be met. Removing maternity care from a community creates significant psychosocial consequences that are imperfectly understood but that probably have physiological implications for women, babies, and families. Further research into rural women's maternity care that considers the loss of local maternity care from multiple perspectives is needed.

  18. Prevalence and descriptive analysis of congenital heart disease in parturients: obstetric, neonatal, and anesthetic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Christine M; Hart, Jan E; Lynch, Anne M; Hawkins, Joy A; Bucklin, Brenda A

    2015-09-01

    The study objectives are to (1) assess prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD), (2) describe outcomes of pregnancies in women with CHD, (3) compare outcomes in women with and without CHD, and (4) characterize neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by CHD. This was a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at the University of Colorado Hospital. Diagnosis of CHD was identified based on history of cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, or subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis during labor and confirmed with echocardiogram when available. Comprehensive retrospective review of anesthetic, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes was performed. University of Colorado Hospital. 18,226 women. Medical record review. Valvular abnormalities, New York Heart Failure Association classification scores, types of CHD, maternal age, race, gravidity, parity, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, cigarette use, type of delivery, type of analgesia used, early initiation of neuraxial analgesia, arrhythmias, need for peripartum diuretics, prolonged maternal hospital stay, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal CHD, neonatal or maternal intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and maternal or neonatal death. We identified 117 pregnancies in 110 women with CHD. Parturients with CHD were more likely to have operative vaginal delivery (P < .0001), neonatal ICU admissions (P = .003), and had prolonged hospital stays. Occurrence of CHD in neonates was 6%. Moderate-to-severe valvular disease was associated with increased rates of operative vaginal delivery, early initiation of neuraxial labor analgesia, cardiac complications (including arrhythmia and use of diuretics), prolonged hospital stay, and maternal ICU admission. However, most deliveries and births were uncomplicated; and there were one case each of maternal mortality and fetal death after birth. Operative abdominal deliveries and neonatal ICU admissions are more common in women with CHD, but these pregnancies

  19. Prevalence of constipation and its influence on post-parturient disorders in tropical sows.

    PubMed

    Pearodwong, Pachara; Muns, Ramon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of constipation and its influence on farrowing duration and the evidence of post-parturient disorders in tropical sows and to evaluate the efficacy of a laxative supplementation during gestation and around farrowing on the incidence of constipation. Two experiments were performed in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. In experiment 1, the prevalence of constipation was determined in 96 gestating sows. Subsequently, 62 of them (64.6 %), with a severe to moderate degree of constipation, received 20 ml of a laxative for 3 days during gestation. In experiment 2, constipation score was determined in sows before, during, and after farrowing. A total of 98 sows were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the treatment group (n = 48) received 20 ml of a laxative for 3 days before farrowing, and the control group (n = 50) did not receive any laxative. Rectal temperature, appetite score, incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS), and vaginal discharge score was determined for 4 days. In experiment 1, supplementation of laxative reduced the proportion of sows with moderate to severe constipation (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, sows with moderate to very severe constipation had a 28-min longer duration of farrowing than sows with normal faeces. Constipation in sows on the day of farrowing resulted in reduced appetite on day 1 postpartum (P = 0.008). The incidence of sows with fever on day 1 postpartum was two times higher in sows with constipation than in sows with normal faeces (36.2 and 16.7 %, respectively; P = 0.041).

  20. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  1. Continuous spinal anesthesia for Cesarean hysterectomy and massive hemorrhage in a parturient with placenta increta.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Pervez; Hilton, Gill; Butwick, Alexander; Carvalho, Brendan

    2012-05-01

    We present anesthetic management using a continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) technique in a patient with placenta increta who underwent elective Cesarean hysterectomy with massive postpartum hemorrhage. A 34-yr-old parturient (G3P2) was scheduled for Cesarean delivery and possible hysterectomy at 35(+3) weeks due to suspected placenta accreta. Her body mass index was 21 kg·m(-2) and she had a reassuring airway. Inadvertent dural puncture occurred during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) placement, and a decision was made to thread the epidural catheter and utilize a CSA technique. Following delivery of a healthy infant, morbid adherence of the placenta to the myometrium was confirmed, and a supracervical hysterectomy was performed. Eight litres of blood loss occurred postpartum requiring resuscitation with crystalloid 3,800 mL, colloid 1,500 mL, red blood cells 16 units, fresh frozen plasma 16 units, platelets 4 units, and cryoprecipitate 1 unit. The patient developed pulmonary edema requiring conversion to general anesthesia. The patient's cardiovascular status was stable throughout surgery, and her lungs were mechanically ventilated for 18 hr postoperatively in the intensive care unit. The intrathecal catheter was removed 24 hr after placement. She developed no adverse neurological sequelae and reported no postdural puncture headache. The pathology report confirmed placenta increta. A CSA technique may be a viable option in the event of inadvertent dural puncture during planned CSE or epidural placement in patients with a reassuring airway undergoing Cesarean delivery. Although a catheter-based neuraxial technique is appropriate for Cesarean hysterectomy for abnormal placentation, conversion to general anesthesia may be required in the event of massive perioperative hemorrhage and fluid resuscitation.

  2. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  3. Offspring-exposure reduces depressive-like behaviour in the parturient female rat.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2009-01-30

    In women, breastfeeding generally results in reductions in anxiety and increased positive mood. However, approximately 10-15% of women experience depressed mood and increased anxiety during the first year postpartum. Recent research has demonstrated that offspring-exposure is important for the reduction in behaviours related to depression and anxiety in the mother. It remains to be determined whether these effects are due to factors related to pregnancy and/or pup-exposure, are associated with the degree of maternal behaviour by the mother towards offspring, or persist after weaning. To address these questions the present study used four groups of female rats; primiparous, nulliparous, primip-no-pups (primiparous females with pups permanently removed), and sensitized females. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours were assessed 1 week after weaning/pup-exposure (4 weeks after birth for primip-no-pups animals) using the forced swim test for measures of depressive-like behaviour, and the open field test and elevated plus maze for measure of anxiety-like behaviour. Results demonstrate that primiparous females without pup-exposure have increased depressive-like, but not anxiety-like, behaviour compared to primiparous and sensitized females. In addition, kyphotic nursing by primiparous mothers was negatively related to behavioural measures of depression and anxiety. From this work it is clear that pup-exposure is important for reductions in depressive-like behaviour in parturient females. Further research is needed to determine the extent of these changes and the neural and hormonal correlates of these events.

  4. Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain Among Parturients Who Undergo Cesarean Delivery With Neuraxial Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Yuan-Yi; Lo, Yuan; Chen, Yan-Bo; Liu, Chun-Peng; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wen, Chun-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the risk of chronic low back pain (LBP) in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) with neuraxial anesthesia (NA). LBP is common during pregnancy and also after delivery, but its etiology is poorly understood. Previous studies that investigated the correlation between epidural labor analgesia and chronic low back pain were inconclusive. These studies lacked objective diagnostic criteria for LBP and did not exclude possible confounders. We performed this nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between CD with NA and subsequent LBP. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we identified all primiparas who had given birth between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013. Using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure codes, we identified the women who had vaginal delivery (VD) and those who had CD. The mode of anesthesia was ascertained by the NHI codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of postpartum LBP in women undergoing CD with NA compared with those having VD. The outcome was a diagnosis of LBP according to the first ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. The patients were observed for 3 years after delivery or until diagnosis of postpartum LBP, withdrawal from the NHI system, death, or December 31, 2013. Of the 61,027 primiparas who underwent delivery during the observation period, 40,057 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these women, 27,097 (67.6%) received VD, 8662 (21.6%) received CD with spinal anesthesia, and 4298 (10.7%) received CD with epidural anesthesia (EA). Women who received CD with EA were found to have higher risk of LBP than did women who received VD, with the adjusted OR being 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17–1.34). CD with EA might increase the risk of subsequent chronic LBP. PMID:27100449

  5. Ruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm associated with facial nerve paresis successfully treated with interlocking detachable coils--case report.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, R; Saito, R; Nakamura, Y; Kagami, H; Ichikizaki, K

    1999-11-01

    An 81-year-old female presented with severe headache. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. She developed right facial nerve paresis on the next day. Angiography revealed a right vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully occluded with interlocking detachable coils (IDCs) on the 7th day. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 1 month after IDC placement showed partially thrombosed aneurysm near the internal acoustic meatus. Ten months after the ictus, MR imaging revealed marked resolution of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus and reduction of the aneurysm size. Her facial nerve function gradually recovered during this period. Her facial nerve paresis was probably caused by acute stretching of the facial nerve by the ruptured aneurysm that was in direct contact with the nerve. Intra-aneurysmal thrombosis using coils can reduce aneurysm size and alleviate cranial nerve symptoms.

  6. An observational study of the relationship between lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index in Michigan parturients.

    PubMed

    Clinkscales, C P; Greenfield, M L V H; Vanarase, M; Polley, L S

    2007-10-01

    Studies of urban parturient populations demonstrate increasing prevalence of obesity, which contributes to difficult epidural catheter placement. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index in United States parturients from Michigan. We studied the records of 2009 parturients at or beyond 36 weeks' gestation. In addition to lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index, we recorded maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace of epidural placement. A multi-linear regression model was created with centimeter depth from skin to lumbar epidural space as the dependent variable and body mass index as the independent variable, adjusted for maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace. Lumbar epidural space depth was (mean +/- SD) 5.3 cm+/-1.21, with more than 96% of catheters placed at L2-3 or L3-4. Mean body mass index was 31.5+/-6.2 kg/m(2). Mean maternal age was 29.3+/-5.7 years while mean gestational age was 39.3+/-1.3 weeks. In a multi-linear regression model, body mass index and maternal age were significant predictors of centimeter depth. When adjusted for maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace of catheter placement, body mass index was associated with an increase in depth (P<0.0001, R(2)=0.3646). Maternal age, when adjusted for body mass index and vertebral interspace, was associated with a decreased depth (P=0.0014). When maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace are controlled for, increasing body mass index is associated with increasing depth, while increasing maternal age is associated with decreasing depth.

  7. The model of active participation of the father in childbirth, based on the preferences of the parturient women.

    PubMed

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Poręba, Ryszard; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-01-01

    The model of family-assisted birth is an element of obstetric care that met with large interest, with the development of perinatology in numerous countries. The modern father is expected to more actively participate both during pregnancy and birth, and also in the childcare. The comparative analysis of the parturient Polish women and the forms of activity of the fathers participating in family-assisted births in order to know which forms of father's activity correlate with the expectations of women in labor and define the range of tasks for the father (model of action for family-assisted birth) that would correspond to the preferences of parturient women. 250 parturient women and 250 fathers who participated in the delivery were included in the survey. Couples after physiological delivery with the participation of father in all stages of childbirth were qualified. The surveys were conducted in the first day after the childbirth. The survey tool was an author-developed survey questionnaire in two versions: (A) for the mother and (B) for the child's father who participated in the birth. The statistical calculations were performed with use of the Statistical PL software. The frequency of occurrence of respective quality (non-measurable) features was evaluated with χ² (chi-square) nonparametric test. The level of statistical significance adopted for tests was p<0.05. The largest coherence between the form of father's activity and the expectations of the parturient woman was found in case of psychical support in every stage of the delivery. Another form of activity of fathers, that in 85% of cases was concurrent with the expectations of women in labor was the act of cutting the umbilical cord and the participation of father in the child measurements and tests (78.5% coherence) and the need of stay of father with the woman and the newborn in the post-delivery period (70% coherence). Obstetric care should take the preferences, connected with family-assisted birth, of

  8. The energy cost of level walking before and after hydro-kinesi therapy in patients with spastic paresis.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, P; Pagliaro, P

    1998-08-01

    In this study the energy cost of level walking was measured in 23 patients with stationary spastic paresis before and after a two-week treatment (45 min daily) of hydro-kinesi therapy, the latter consisting of passive and active movements in warm (32 degrees C) sea water, free swimming and water immersion walking. Among the subjects (80.2 +/- 13.2 kg body mass; 56.0 +/- 14.6 years of age; 10.7 +/- 6.6 years of duration of spasticity), 12 were affected by hemiparesis, 4 by multiple sclerosis and 7 by spinal cord injury. The energy cost of level walking (Cw) was measured before and after therapy from the ratio of the overall steady-state oxygen consumption to the effective speed of progression. The differences in Cw due to the treatment, at matched speeds, were found to be negligible at speeds higher than 0.75 m.s-1 (less than 5%) but to increase, with decreasing speed, up to about 17% at 0.1 m.s-1. The treatment was therefore effective in improving the gait characteristics of the subjects, through a decrease of their Cw, mainly at low speeds of progression.

  9. [Delayed paresis of the femoral nerve after total hip arthroplasty associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP)].

    PubMed

    Schuh, A; Dürr, V; Weier, H; Zeiler, G; Winterholler, M

    2004-07-01

    Delayed lesions of the femoral or sciatic nerve are a rare complication after total hip arthroplasty. Several cases in association with cement edges, scar tissue, broken cerclages, deep hematoma, or reinforcement rings have been published. We report about a 62-year-old female who developed a pure motor paresis of the quadriceps muscle 2 weeks after total hip arthroplasty. After electrophysiological evaluation had revealed an isolated femoral nerve lesion, revision of the femoral nerve was performed. During operative revision no pathologic findings could be seen. One week later the patient developed paralysis of the left wrist and finger extensors after using crutches. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed several nerve conduction blocks in physiological entrapments and the diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) was established. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a rare disease with increased vulnerability of the peripheral nerve system with mostly reversible sensorimotor deficits. It should be taken into consideration in cases of atypical findings of compression syndromes of peripheral nerves or delayed neuropathy, e. g., after total hip arthroplasty.

  10. [Psychosocial climate in maternity hospitals from the perspective of parturients I. Results from a national survey on perinatal care satisfactionusing a representative sample of 1195 Czech parturients].

    PubMed

    Takács, L; Seidlerová, J

    2013-04-01

    To assess women's satisfaction with psychosocial aspects of perinatal care provided in Czech maternity hospitals, to identify areas that need improvement and to compare satisfaction with maternity care between selected subgroups of parturients. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. A survey on satisfaction with perinatal care was conducted with a sample of 1195 Czech parturients. The sample was representative of the Czech parturients population in terms of educational level, age, parity, and rate of vaginal and caesarean section delivery. The sample was proportionated as regards the number of births at small and large hospitals and at hospitals in different regions as well. All currently existing Czech maternity hospitals were included. For the data collection, the original Czech questionnaire KLI-P was used. The KLI-P measures psychosocial climate of maternity hospitals on following six scales: helpfulness and empathy of caregivers; control and involvement in decision-making; communication of information and availability of caregivers; dismissive attitude and lack of interest; physical comfort and services. In addition, differences in satisfaction rates between different subgroups of respondents were investigated: primiparas/multiparas, women with lower/higher educational status, women who gave birth at smaller/lager hospitals (< 800 / > 800 births per year), women who gave birth at university/other hospitals, women after vaginal delivery/caesarean section, women accommodated in high-standard rooms at after-birth unit, and women who filled the questionnaire within one year after/later than one year after delivery. The overall satisfaction with care provided at delivery unit (DU) and after-birth unit (ABU) was 70% and 61%, respectively. The best rated scale at DU was physical comfort and services (69%), the worst evaluation score received the scale control and involvement in decision-making (34%). At ABU, the

  11. Remifentanil target-controlled infusion during second stage labour in high-risk parturients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, G L; Volmanen, P; Albrechtsen, S; Bjoernestad, E

    2013-07-01

    Providing adequate analgesia and appropriate sedation to high-risk parturients during late second stage labour without compromising foetal safety remains a major challenge, especially in situations when neuraxial block is not applicable. Remifentanil emerged as an option for labour analgesia during the last decade but may be suitable for the facilitation of complicated vaginal deliveries as well. A retrospective chart review of nine labouring women with significant medical and/or obstetrical risk factors was conducted. According to the assessment of an experienced obstetrician, vaginal delivery could only be achieved with profound analgesia, and neuraxial block was not possible because of contraindications, technical failure, or shortage of time. Mode of delivery, need for neonatal resuscitation, maternal and neonatal vital parameters, drug consumption, and personnel resource expenses were recorded. Remifentanil target-controlled infusion (TCI) facilitated vaginal delivery in eight out of nine women. No serious adverse events were observed, but three newborns needed initial respiratory support for a few minutes. The total cost of remifentanil TCI administration to facilitate vaginal delivery compared with the estimated additional cost of an emergency caesarean section was negligible. This case series suggests that remifentanil TCI may be used to facilitate vaginal delivery in high-risk parturients when other forms of analgesia are limited. However, the small number of patients studied does not allow generalisation of the results; neither can safety concerns be dispelled yet. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Induction of Labor and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Low Risk Parturients

    PubMed Central

    Khireddine, Imane; Le Ray, Camille; Dupont, Corinne; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Labor induction is an increasingly common procedure, even among women at low risk, although evidence to assess its risks remains sparse. Our objective was to assess the association between induction of labor and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in low-risk parturients, globally and according to its indications and methods. Method Population-based case-control study of low-risk women who gave birth in 106 French maternity units between December 2004 and November 2006, including 4450 women with PPH, 1125 of them severe, and 1744 controls. Indications for labor induction were standard or non-standard, according to national guidelines. Induction methods were oxytocin or prostaglandins. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to test the independent association between induction and PPH, quantified as odds ratios. Results After adjustment for all potential confounders, labor induction was associated with a significantly higher risk of PPH (adjusted odds ratio, AOR1.22, 95%CI 1.04–1.42). This excess risk was found for induction with both oxytocin (AOR 1.52, 95%CI 1.19–1.93 for all and 1.57, 95%CI 1.11–2.20 for severe PPH) and prostaglandins (AOR 1.21, 95%CI 0.97–1.51 for all and 1.42, 95%CI 1.04–1.94 for severe PPH). Standard indicated induction was significantly associated with PPH (AOR1.28, 95%CI 1.06–1.55) while no significant association was found for non-standard indicated inductions. Conclusion Even in low risk women, induction of labor, regardless of the method used, is associated with a higher risk of PPH than spontaneous labor. However, there was no excess risk of PPH in women who underwent induction of labor for non-standard indications. This raises the hypothesis that the higher risk of PPH associated with labor induction may be limited to unfavorable obstetrical situations. PMID:23382990

  13. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  14. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children. PMID:27861523

  15. A randomized crossover study to determine the effect of a 30° head-up versus a supine position on the functional residual capacity of term parturients.

    PubMed

    Hignett, Rachel; Fernando, Roshan; McGlennan, Alan; McDonald, Sarah; Stewart, Adrienne; Columb, Malachy; Adamou, Tina; Dilworth, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Airway management continues to pose challenges to the obstetric anesthesiologist. Functional residual capacity (FRC), which acts as an oxygen reservoir, is reduced from the second trimester onwards and is exacerbated in the supine position. Mechanisms to increase FRC may delay the onset of hypoxemia during periods of apnea. Values for changes in FRC in term parturients in semierect positions are unknown. We hypothesized that the FRC of healthy term parturients would increase significantly in the 30° head-up position in comparison with the supine position. Twenty-two healthy term parturients were recruited. Initial screening spirometry was performed to exclude undiagnosed respiratory disease. FRC was measured using the helium dilution technique in the supine, 30° head-up, and sitting erect positions. Subjects were randomized to sequence of position testing order. Noninvasive systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured twice in each testing position. Results from 20 subjects were analyzed. The spirometry results for all subjects were within predicted normal reference intervals. FRC measurements differed significantly (P<0.001) among all positions. FRC increased by a mean of 188 mL (95% confidence interval 18 to 358 mL) from the supine to the 30° head-up position (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in vital signs among testing positions (P>0.16). We have demonstrated that the FRC of healthy term parturients increases significantly in the 30° head-up position in comparison with supine.

  16. Influence of gestational diabetes on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics and placental distribution of metoprolol and its metabolites in parturients

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Natalícia de Jesus; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho; Marques, Maria Paula; Moisés, Elaine Christine Dantas; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the kinetic disposition and transplacental and amniotic fluid distribution of metoprolol and its metabolites O-desmethylmetoproloic acid and α-hydroxymetoprolol stereoisomers in hypertensive parturients receiving a single dose of the racemic drug. METHODS The study was conducted on hypertensive parturients with well-controlled GDM (n = 11) and non-diabetic hypertensive parturients (n = 24), all receiving a single 100 mg oral dose of racemic metoprolol tartrate before delivery. Serial maternal blood samples (0–24 h) and umbilical blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected for the quantitation of metoprolol and its metabolite stereoisomers using LC-MS/MS or fluorescence detection. RESULTS The kinetic disposition of metoprolol and its metabolites was stereoselective in the diabetic and control groups. Well-controlled GDM prolonged tmax for both enantiomers of metoprolol (1.5 vs. 2.5 h R-(+)-MET; 1.5 vs. 2.75 h S-(−)-MET) and O-desmethylmetoproloic acid (2.0 vs. 3.5 h R-(+)-AOMD; 2.0 vs. 3.0 h S-(−)-OAMD), and for the four stereoisomers of α-hydroxymetoprolol (2.0 vs. 3.0 h for 1′S,2R-, 1′R,2R- and 1′R,2S-OHM; 2.0 vs. 3.5 h for 1′S,2S-OHM) and reduced the transplacental distribution of 1′S,2S-, 1′R,2R-, and 1′R,2S-OHM by approximately 20%. CONCLUSIONS The kinetic disposition of metoprolol was enantioselective, with plasma accumulation of the S-(−)-MET eutomer. Well-controlled GDM prolonged the tmax of metoprolol and O-desmethylmetoproloic acid enantiomers and the α-hydroxymetoprolol stereoisomers and reduced by about 20% the transplacental distribution of 1′S,2S-, 1′R,2R-, and 1′R,2S-OHM. Thus, well-controlled GDM did not change the activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A involved in metoprolol metabolism. PMID:25291152

  17. Anesthetic and obstetric outcomes in morbidly obese parturients: a 20-year follow-up retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tonidandel, A; Booth, J; D'Angelo, R; Harris, L; Tonidandel, S

    2014-11-01

    In 1993, Hood and Dewan published the results of a trial comparing obstetric and anesthetic outcomes of 117 morbidly obese parturients with matched controls. The authors demonstrated a higher initial epidural anesthesia failure rate, a higher cesarean delivery rate and an increased risk of obstetric complications. We replicated the previous study to provide updated information on outcomes in the morbidly obese pregnant population. We hypothesized that morbidly obese women would still have higher complication and failure rates compared to matched controls and that general anesthesia would be less commonly used than in the previous study. The medical records of 230 patients weighing >136 kg (300 pounds) were compared to matched controls: the next patient delivered by the same obstetrician with a weight <113 kg (250 pounds). The mean body mass index of the morbidly obese group was 53.4 ± 6.6 kg/m² [corrected] compared to 31.1±5.4 kg/m2 in the control group. Fifty percent of morbidly obese women required cesarean delivery compared to 32% of controls (P < 0.01). Morbidly obese patients had a longer first stage of labor (P < 0.01), larger neonates (P < 0.01), and were more likely to have a failed initial neuraxial technique for labor analgesia (P < 0.01). The need for a replacement procedure for labor was 17%, significantly less than 20 years ago when 42% of catheters in morbidly obese women failed (P < 0.01). Failure rates of neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery were similar between groups. Neuraxial procedure times were greater in morbidly obese parturients (P < 0.01). Morbidly obese women were less likely to receive general anesthesia compared to 20 years ago (3% vs. 24%, P < 0.01). Morbidly obese parturients are still at increased risk for antenatal comorbidities, failed labor analgesia, longer first stage of labor and operative delivery. Replacement labor epidural catheters and general anesthesia for cesarean delivery are less commonly required anesthetic

  18. Prolonged muscle weakness following general anesthesia in a parturient on combined antiretroviral therapy--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jotish; Maddali, Madan Mohan; Fahr, Jutta

    2007-10-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy; ambulatory 32 year old parturient on combined antiretroviral therapy that developed prolonged muscle weakness needing postoperative artificial ventilation. Despite no preoperative indication of muscle weakness, she developed respiratory insufficiency following general anesthesia with drugs that are deemed safe for her condition. After ruling out all the likely causes for her respiratory insufficiency that needed 12 hrs of artificial ventilation, we address the issue of undiagnosed preoperative muscle weakness as a likely cause for her problem. The role of a preoperative neurological evaluation to caution the anesthesiologist of the likelihood of a possible need for prolonged artificial ventilation following general anesthesia in this subgroup of patients, emphasized.

  19. Clubbing, cyanosis and a new diagnosis of atrial septal defect in a parturient: a straightforward diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome?

    PubMed

    Butcher, Charles; Plyman, Carla; Hughes, Marina; Walker, Fiona

    2013-01-17

    A parturient required emergency admission to intensive care following a major postpartum haemorrhage. She was hypovolaemic, hypoxic and cyanosed and was also noted to have digital clubbing. A transthoracic echo showed a large atrial septal defect (ASD) with right heart dilation and possible anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Eisenmenger syndrome was diagnosed with cyanosis due to shunt reversal at atrial level (right atrium to left), as a consequence of an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance from chronically increased pulmonary blood flow. After a full initial recovery, she was referred to a specialist grown-up congenital heart disease unit for further investigation. Cardiac MRI confirmed an ASD but showed that the cause of the cyanosis was anatomical in origin. An elongated Eustachian valve was diverting desaturated inferior venacaval blood across the intra-atrial septum into the left atrium. Her congenital heart defect was therefore amenable to corrective surgery.

  20. Clubbing, cyanosis and a new diagnosis of atrial septal defect in a parturient: a straightforward diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Charles; Plyman, Carla; Hughes, Marina; Walker, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A parturient required emergency admission to intensive care following a major postpartum haemorrhage. She was hypovolaemic, hypoxic and cyanosed and was also noted to have digital clubbing. A transthoracic echo showed a large atrial septal defect (ASD) with right heart dilation and possible anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Eisenmenger syndrome was diagnosed with cyanosis due to shunt reversal at atrial level (right atrium to left), as a consequence of an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance from chronically increased pulmonary blood flow. After a full initial recovery, she was referred to a specialist grown-up congenital heart disease unit for further investigation. Cardiac MRI confirmed an ASD but showed that the cause of the cyanosis was anatomical in origin. An elongated Eustachian valve was diverting desaturated inferior venacaval blood across the intra-atrial septum into the left atrium. Her congenital heart defect was therefore amenable to corrective surgery. PMID:23329721

  1. How muscles recover from paresis and atrophy after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A: Study in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Ma, Jianjun; Lee, Cassandra; Smith, Beth P; Smith, Thomas L; Tan, Kim H; Koman, L Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a potent biological toxin widely used for the management of skeletal muscle spasticity or dynamic joint contracture. Intramuscular injection of BoNT-A causes muscle denervation, paresis, and atrophy. This clinical effect of botulinum toxin A lasts 3 to 6 months, and injected muscle eventually regains muscle mass and recovers muscle function. The goal of the present study was to characterize the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) regeneration and skeletal muscle functional recovery after BoNT-A injection. Fifty-six 1-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Botulinum toxin A was injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle at a dosage of 6 units/kg body weight. An equivalent volume of saline was injected into the right gastrocnemius muscle to serve as control. The gastrocnemius muscle samples were harvested from both hind limbs at 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days after administration of toxin. In addition, the gastrocnemius muscles from 1-month-old rats with no injections were harvested to serve as uninjected control group. Muscle samples were processed and mRNA was extracted. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene microarray technology were used to identify key molecules involved in NMJ stabilization and muscle functional recovery. More than 28,000 rat genes were analyzed and approximately 9000 genes are expressed in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Seven days following BoNT-A injection, 105 genes were upregulated and 59 genes were downregulated. Key molecules involved in neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stabilization and muscle functional recovery were identified and their time course of gene expression following BoNT-A injection were characterized. This animal study demonstrates that following intramuscular injection of BoNT-A, there is a sequence of cellular events that eventually leads to NMJ stabilization, remodeling, and myogenesis and muscle

  2. [The Mysterious Paresis].

    PubMed

    Biskup, Ewelina; Necek, Magdalena; Changjin, Qu; Xue, Guanhua

    2016-04-27

    Internal jugular central venous line placement is a standardized and common clinical procedure. However, even the most skillful physician may face complications. Careful patient evaluation and detailed vascular anatomical knowledge can minimize the risk of iatrogenic injuries. Following a strict protocol in case of unsuccessful attempts of venous puncture helps to improve patient outcome. In this case report, we present a patient who suffered an unusual injury. Further, we discuss current treatment options for pseudoaneurysms.

  3. Partially irreversible paresis of the deep peroneal nerve caused by osteocartilaginous exostosis of the fibula without affecting the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Dysfunction of the lower limb's muscles can cause severe impairment and immobilisation of the patient. As one of the leg's major motor and sensory nerves, the deep peroneal nerve (synonym: deep fibular nerve) plays a very important role in muscle innervation in the lower extremities. We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who suffered from a brace-like exostosis 6-cm underneath her left fibular head causing a partially irreversible paresis of her deep peroneal nerve. This nerve damage resulted in complete atrophy of her extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus muscle, and in painful sensory disturbance at her left shin and first web space. The tibialis anterior muscle stayed intact because its motor branch left the deep peroneal nerve proximal to the nerve lesion. Diagnosis was first verified 6 years after the onset of symptoms by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of her complete left lower leg. Subsequently, the patient was operated on in our clinic, where a neurolysis was performed and the 4-cm-long osteocartilaginous exostosis was removed. Paralysis was already irreversible but sensibility returned completely after neurolysis. The presented case shows that an osteocartilaginous exostosis can be the cause for partial deep peroneal nerve paresis. If this disorder is diagnosed at an early stage, nerve damage is reversible. Typical for an exostosis is its first appearance during the juvenile growth phase. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stationary facial nerve paresis after surgery for recurrent parotid pleomorphic adenoma: a follow-up study of 219 cases in Denmark in the period 1985-2012.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Anders; Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Homøe, Preben

    2016-10-01

    The purpose was to assess degree of permanent facial nerve dysfunction after surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) of the parotid gland, including variables that might influence re-operation outcomes. Nationwide retrospective longitudinal cohort study including a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing surgery for RPA. Of 219 living patients, 198 (92 %) responded and 127 (63 %) reported no facial dysfunction. Statistically significant associations were found between number of surgeries and permanent facial nerve dysfunction of all degrees (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.16-1.78, p = 0.001). A not significant tendency for females to be associated with worse outcome was found (p = 0.073). Risks of different degrees of paresis after the second-fourth surgeries were found (OR 1.86-2.19, p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates a significant correlation between number of surgeries for RPA of the parotid and severity of facial nerve paresis. This is important when informing and planning treatment of these patients.

  5. Goal-directed fluid therapy may improve hemodynamic stability in parturient women under combined spinal epidural anesthesia for cesarean section and newborn well-being.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Duan, Qingfang; Zhao, Lei; Chi, Xinzuo; Wang, Fengying; Ma, Daqing; Wang, Tianlong

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) with the LiDCOrapid system can reduce the incidence of maternal hypotension and improve neonatal outcome. One hundred healthy term parturient women scheduled for elective cesarean section were recruited. After loading with 10 mL/kg Lactated Ringer's solution, parturient women were randomized to the GDFT and control group. In the GDFT group, individualized fluid therapy was implemented to optimize stroke volume, guided by the LiDCOrapid system. The control group received routine fluid therapy. Primary endpoints included onset of maternal hypotension, and vasopressor doses prior to delivery. The secondary endpoints included umbilical blood gas abnormalities and neonatal adverse events. Incidence of hypotension and mean phenylephrine dose administered prior to delivery were significantly higher in the control group than in the GDFT group (P < 0.01). There was no difference in Apgar score between the two groups. In the control group, mean umbilical artery and vein blood pH were significantly lower, corresponding to significantly higher incidences of neonatal hypercapnia and hypoxemia, compared with the GDFT group (P < 0.05). LiDCOrapid -guided GDFT may provide benefit to healthy parturient women and their newborns. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Utilization of "Stand-By" Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a High-Risk Parturient With Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Dilation and Evacuation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cesar; Hernandez Conte, Antonio; Ramzy, Danny; Lubin, Lorraine; LaBounty, Troy; Chung, Judith H; Zeng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Parturients may present with evidence of acute heart failure or respiratory distress during the peripartum period. This case report documents utilization of "stand-by" extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for a 40-year-old woman with a history of severe left ventricular dysfunction who presented for elective dilation and evacuation of triplets at 20 weeks' gestation. The patient's medical history was significant for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, methamphetamine use (acute/chronic), and cardiac-respiratory arrest before her previous emergent cesarean delivery. The patient underwent general anesthesia with the placement of peripheral venous and arterial cannulas for "stand-by" ECMO. The patient remained stable throughout the procedure, and "stand-by" ECMO was not initiated; the patient was discharged 5 days' postprocedure. The use of "stand-by" ECMO in the parturient with severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction is still in its infancy. Centers managing populations of both high-risk parturients and nonparturients may consider development of algorithms for implementation and utilization of ECMO.

  7. Reported Pain During Labour – A Qualitative Study of Influencing Factors among Parturient During Confinement in Private or Government Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, M.; Hemanthkumar, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Labour pain is distressing and it produces undue side effects both to the mother and the baby. The incidence is high in developing countries like India where the awareness about labour analgesia is still lacking. Aim It is to find out the incidence of labour pain and the influence of various described factors on pain with a comparison between patients admitted in a government set up with a private set up in a south Indian semi-urban area. Materials and Methods Two hundred continuous uneventful normal deliveries each in a Government (group G) and a private hospital (group P) were enrolled for the study. The reported pain during labour was noted 6-7 hours after delivery by interacting with the patient. The factors like age of the mother, sex and weight of the baby, literacy, socioeconomic status, the use of oxytocics and analgesia were evaluated. Results The incidence of severe pain was more in group G (43.5%) than group P (12%). There was no analgesic intervention in 68.5% in group G while it was 13.5% (27/200) in group P. Even among these 27 patients who did not receive analgesics, only three parturients reported severe pain. Even administration of analgesics in a Government set up did not decrease pain to a significant extent. There were richer and more literate patients in group P. Booked cases were less in group G. Logistic regression analyses to find out factors which influenced pain in either group was used. Gravida, analgesic intervention and admission in a Govt. hospital influenced the pain experience of the parturient. There was minimal antenatal preparation in both the groups. There were no post partum complications. Conclusion Mothers suffered from labour pain to a significant extent and there is an urgent need for awareness about labour analgesia. Primigravida, admission in a Govt. set up and analgesic interventions were the factors which influenced pain than others. Patients admitted in Govt. hospitals suffered more pain with less analgesic

  8. Reported Pain During Labour - A Qualitative Study of Influencing Factors among Parturient During Confinement in Private or Government Hospital.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, S; Ravishankar, M; Hemanthkumar, V R

    2016-03-01

    Labour pain is distressing and it produces undue side effects both to the mother and the baby. The incidence is high in developing countries like India where the awareness about labour analgesia is still lacking. It is to find out the incidence of labour pain and the influence of various described factors on pain with a comparison between patients admitted in a government set up with a private set up in a south Indian semi-urban area. Two hundred continuous uneventful normal deliveries each in a Government (group G) and a private hospital (group P) were enrolled for the study. The reported pain during labour was noted 6-7 hours after delivery by interacting with the patient. The factors like age of the mother, sex and weight of the baby, literacy, socioeconomic status, the use of oxytocics and analgesia were evaluated. The incidence of severe pain was more in group G (43.5%) than group P (12%). There was no analgesic intervention in 68.5% in group G while it was 13.5% (27/200) in group P. Even among these 27 patients who did not receive analgesics, only three parturients reported severe pain. Even administration of analgesics in a Government set up did not decrease pain to a significant extent. There were richer and more literate patients in group P. Booked cases were less in group G. Logistic regression analyses to find out factors which influenced pain in either group was used. Gravida, analgesic intervention and admission in a Govt. hospital influenced the pain experience of the parturient. There was minimal antenatal preparation in both the groups. There were no post partum complications. Mothers suffered from labour pain to a significant extent and there is an urgent need for awareness about labour analgesia. Primigravida, admission in a Govt. set up and analgesic interventions were the factors which influenced pain than others. Patients admitted in Govt. hospitals suffered more pain with less analgesic intervention possibly due to illiteracy. The increased

  9. A petrogenetic study of anorogenic felsic magmatism in the Cretaceous Paresis ring complex, Namibia: evidence for mixing of crust and mantle-derived components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingram, B.; Trumbull, R. B.; Littman, S.; Gerstenberger, H.

    2000-10-01

    Paresis is one of a group of Cretaceous ring complexes extending from the coast some 350 km NE across the Damara Belt. It consists of over 90% rhyolites and comendites, with subordinate intrusions of quartz syenite and alkali-feldspar syenite. These felsic units are accompanied by very minor amounts of silica-undersaturated basalt, phonolite and lamprophyre. Located near the edge of the Congo Craton, Paresis is the farthest inland of any felsic complex in the Cretaceous ring complex group. The other ring complexes in the vicinity consist of carbonatites and undersaturated alkaline rocks (e.g., Okorusu, Kalkfeld, Etaneno, Ondurakorume). Geochemical and isotopic data provide evidence for both mantle and crustal components in the sources of the Paresis magmas. The alkaline basalts, phonolite and lamprophyre have overlapping Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios which plot within the mantle array close to bulk-earth values ( ɛNd=-0.9 to -2.8 and 87Sr/ 86Sr(i)=0.7042-0.7054) and may indicate a mantle plume component. The rhyolite units comprise metaluminous feldspar rhyolites and peraluminous, more differentiated quartz-feldspar rhyolites. Both units show prominent negative Nb and Ta anomalies on mantle-normalized multielement diagrams and have extremely nonradiogenic Nd ratios ( ɛNd=-21) and Sr initial ratios of 0.7117-0.7138. These isotopic values suggest a crustal origin from pre-Damara (Early Precambrian) gneisses and granitoids, which are exposed in the Congo craton and related inliers in northern Namibia. The comendites are peralkaline, highly differentiated rocks. In contrast to the rhyolites, comendites lack mantle-normalized Nb and Ta anomalies, have higher HFSE and LREE contents, extreme negative Eu anomalies and ɛNd values of -11. Like the comendites, alkali-feldspar syenites are peralkaline, lack Nb and Ta anomalies, have negative Eu anomalies and high HFSE concentrations. Their ɛNd values are -6.5 to -8. The quartz syenites overlap with the peralkaline

  10. Electrical stimulation-supported voice exercises are superior to voice exercise therapy alone in patients with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis: results from a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ptok, Martin; Strack, Daniela

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, electrical stimulation procedures for unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis (URLNP) therapy have been proposed. However, it is unclear whether electrical stimulation therapy is effective for URLNP patients. In this study we compare the outcome of traditional voice exercise treatment (VE) with electrical stimulation-supported voice exercise (ES). A total of 90 URLNP patients were recruited to participate in a prospective, randomized trial. The decrease in vocal fold irregularity (CFx) and increase in maximum phonation time (MPT) after a 3-month therapy period were the dependent variables. In the ES group, CFx improved to a significantly greater extent than in the VE group. MPT increased similarly in both groups. Our data indicate that ES is superior to VE for patients with URLNP. Because no further data exist, it can be assumed that improvement following VE only reflects spontaneous recovery. However ES appears to be an effective non-surgical therapeutic procedure.

  11. 0.2% ropivacaine with fentanyl in the management of labor analgesia: A case study of 30 parturients.

    PubMed

    Karhade, Seema Shreepad; Sardesai, Shalini Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine is recommended by the manufacturers for labor analgesia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, degree of motor blockade, obstetric outcome in the form of incidence of normal vaginal, assisted vaginal and lower segment cesarean section. Pilot study. In this pilot study, 30 nulliparous parturients in active labor had epidural analgesia established using 0.2% ropivacaine with 25 mcg fentanyl for initiation when cervical dilatation was 3-4 cm and then analgesia was maintained with 0.2% ropivacaine at 10 ml/h till the delivery of baby. It was done by Wilcoxon sign rank test and paired t-test as applicable. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between prebolus, postbolus and postinfusion with respect to visual analog score. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05) between prebolus, postbolus, and postinfusion with respect to Bromage motor score, (Wilcoxon sign rank test). Six out of 30 paturients complained of tingling and heaviness in lower limbs after continuous infusion of 2-2.5 h. We conclude that 0.2% ropivacaine (8 ml) with fentanyl 25 mcg is good for initiation of ambulatory labor analgesia. But for maintenance of labor analgesia lower concentration of ropivacaine may be preferred.

  12. Parturient hypocalcemia in jersey cows fed alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation to anion ratios.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P J; Mueller, F J; Miller, J K; Ramsey, N; Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    1989-10-01

    Jersey cows were fed three alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation-anion balances beginning 6 wk preceding third or later calving and ending 24 to 36 h postpartum. Sodium and Cl as percentages of dietary DM were .08 and 1.66 in diet 1 (anionic, 5 cows), .44 and .91 in diet 2 (intermediate, 6 cows), and 1.60 and .34 in diet 3 (cationic, 6 cows). Cation-anion balances were 22, 60, and 126 meq/100 g DM; Ca:P ratios averaged 4:1. Cows fed diet 1 in comparison with cows fed diets 2 or 3 over 6 wk had similar concentrations of Ca, P, and Na but higher concentrations of Mg and K in plasma and higher urinary excretions of Ca and Mg. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 d before parturition were higher in cows fed diet 1 than in cows fed diets 2 or 3. Within 36 h after calving, mean concentrations of Ca in plasma (mg/dl, range) of cows fed diets 1 to 3, respectively, were 7 (8.7 to 6.2), 6.5 (7.8 to 3.9), and 6.3 (7.8 to 3.8). Number of cases of clinical milk fever by diet were 0 of 5, 2 of 6, and 1 of 6 cows. Alteration of dietary cation-anion balance by addition of Cl may effectively reduce incidence and severity of parturient hypocalcemia.

  13. Effect of remifentanil for general anesthesia on parturients and newborns undergoing cesarean section: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhui; Lu, Hongmei; Fu, Zheng; Zhang, Huijun; Li, Ye; Li, Wei; Gao, Jingui

    2017-08-01

    The results presented by studies investigating the effect of remifentanil on both parturients and newborns during cesarean section differed significantly. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of remifentanil on these patients. Potentially eligible studies published before 15 March 2016 were searched through four databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, ISI web of knowledge and EBSCO. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to estimate the strength of relationship. A total number of seven randomized-controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that Apgar values at 1 min and 5 min were significantly lower in the infants of remifentanil-treated mothers, with the WMD and corresponding 95% CI of -0.835 (-1.515, -0.154) and -0.296 (-0.570, -0.021), respectively. The pH value of umbilical artery was significantly higher in the remifentanil group (WMD: 0.014, 95% CI: 0.002, 0.025). The highest and lowest systolic blood pressures were significantly lower in remifentanil-treated mothers, with the WMD and corresponding 95% CI of -18.913 (-34.468, -3.359) and -12.982 (-21.479, -4.485), respectively. Remifentanil shows potential value of maternal circulation response during general anesthesia, which reduces maternal blood pressure in response to intubation and surgery. However, whether it is beneficial for the neonate is still controversial. More randomized-controlled trials with larger sample size are required to assess the adverse effects of remifentanil.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in parturients delivering by caesarean section and the implication of anaesthesia: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, U; Meyer, M; Loures, V; Iselin-Chaves, I; Epiney, M; Kern, C; Haller, G

    2017-06-02

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in 1-7% of women following childbirth. While having a caesarean section (C-section) is known to be a significant risk factor for postpartum PTSD, it is currently unknown whether coexisting anaesthesia-related factors are also associated to the disorder. The aim of this study was to assess anaesthesia-linked factors in the development of acute postpartum PTSD. We performed a prospective cohort study on women having a C-section in a tertiary hospital in Switzerland. Patients were followed up six weeks postpartum. Patient and procedure characteristics, past morbidity or traumatic events, psychosocial status and stressful perinatal events were measured. Outcome was divided into two categories: full PTSD disease and PTSD profile. This was based on the number of DSM-IV criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) present. The PTSD Checklist Scale and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale were used for measurement. Of the 280 patients included, 217 (77.5%) answered the questionnaires and 175 (62.5%) answered to an additional phone interview. Twenty (9.2%) had a PTSD profile and six (2.7%) a PTSD. When a full predictive model of risk factors for PTSD profile was built using logistic regression, maternal prepartum and intrapartum complications, anaesthetic complications and dissociative experiences during C-section were found to be the significant predictors for PTSD profile. This is the first study to show in parturients having a C-section that an anaesthesia complication is an independent risk factor for postpartum PTSD and PTSD profile development, in addition to known perinatal and maternal risk factors.

  15. A randomized controlled comparison between combined spinal-epidural and single-shot spinal techniques in morbidly obese parturients undergoing cesarean delivery: time for initiation of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vernon H; Dean, Laura S; Thomas, John A; Harris, Lynne C; Pan, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    There is no current consensus on the optimal technique for subarachnoid anesthesia in morbidly obese parturients even though some providers prefer the combined spinal-epidural (CSE) over single-shot spinal (SSS) technique. In this randomized controlled study, we compared the time required for initiation of subarachnoid anesthesia between SSS and CSE techniques in morbidly obese parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. Morbidly obese parturients presenting for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to receive subarachnoid anesthesia performed either with a SSS or a CSE technique. The spinal procedure in the sitting position was attempted by an experienced resident for up to 10 minutes, and if unsuccessful, the attending obstetric anesthesiologist assumed control of the procedure. The primary outcome was the time it took from the insertion of the introducer needle (SSS group) or insertion of the epidural needle (CSE group) to the end of intrathecal injection of drugs (procedure time). Forty-four patients were enrolled and completed the study. Three were excluded due to protocol violations. Of the remaining, 21 patients were in the SSS group and 20 in the CSE group. Demographic variables and mean (SD) body mass index (48.7 ± 7.6 kg/m for SSS; 49.9 ± 8.6 kg/m for CSE) were not different between groups. The median [interquartile range] for procedure time was 210 [116-692] seconds and 180 [75-450] seconds for SSS and CSE groups, respectively (P = 0.36), while the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference was -80 to +180 seconds. The first operator completed the procedure in <10 minutes in 71% of subjects in the SSS group and 95% of those in the CSE group (P = 0.09) and the 95% CI of the difference was -2% to +45%. There were more attempts to successful completion of the procedure in the SSS group (P = 0.007) with its 95% CI of the difference being +1 to +6. Our results suggest that the CSE technique is noninferior to the SS technique in morbidly

  16. Bacterial Infection in Deep Paraspinal Muscles in a Parturient Following Epidural Analgesia: A Case Report and Literature Review: A CARE-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xuhong; Song, Jiefu; Liang, Qingyuan; Qin, Jibin

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial infection related to epidural catheterizations could occur. In general, the incidence of postoperative infection at the insertion site is very low. Paucity literatures are reported for paraspinal muscle infection after epidural analgesia in parturient. We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia in a parturient, who was subjected to because of threatened preterm labor. Epidural morphine was administered for 2 days for childbirth pain control. She began to have constant low-back pain and fever on postpartum Day 2. Magnetic resonance image revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. A catheter-related bacterial infection was suspected. The surgical debridement and drainage was required combined with intravenous antibiotics on postpartum Day 3. She was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. A literature search yielded 7 other cases of catheter-related epidural abscess or soft tissue infection. Vigilance for these infections, especially in postpartum patients with backache, is needed. Moreover, early detection and proper treatment of infectious signs at postanesthetic visit are very important.

  17. Depiction of facial nerve paresis in the gallery of portraits carved in stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Sibenik Cathedral dating from the 15th century.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana

    2011-06-01

    The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall. From the intriguing amalgamation of portraits of anonymous people this master came across in his surrounding, the fiftieth head in the row has been selected for this occasion. On the face of a younger man the authors have recognized and described pathognomonic right-sided facial nerve paresis. The question posed here is whether this is coincidental or it represents the master's courage, given that instead of famous people in the cathedral he situated not only ordinary people but also those "labelled" and traditionally marginalized, thus, in the most beautiful manner, foreshadowing the forthcoming spirit of Humanism and Renaissance in Croatian and European art.

  18. Use of a Robotic Device for the Rehabilitation of Severe Upper Limb Paresis in Subacute Stroke: Exploration of Patient/Robot Interactions and the Motor Recovery Process

    PubMed Central

    Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Hutin, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering observational study explored the interaction between subacute stroke inpatients and a rehabilitation robot during upper limb training. 25 stroke survivors (age 55 ± 17 years; time since stroke, 52 ± 21 days) with severe upper limb paresis carried out 16 sessions of robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training (InMotion 2.0, IMT, Inc., MA, USA) combined with standard therapy. The values of 3 patient/robot interaction parameters (a guidance parameter: Stiffness, a velocity-related parameter: Slottime, and Robotic Power) were compared between sessions 1 (S1), 4 (S4), 8 (S8), 12 (S12), and 16 (S16). Pre/post Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores were compared in 18 patients. Correlations between interaction parameters and clinical and kinematic outcome measures were evaluated. Slottime decreased at S8 (P = 0.003), while Guidance decreased at S12 (P = 0.008). Robotic Power tended to decrease until S16. FMA scores improved from S1 to S16 (+49%, P = 0.002). Changes in FMA score were correlated with the Stiffness parameter (R = 0.4, P = 0.003). Slottime was correlated with movement velocity. This novel approach demonstrated that a robotic device is a useful and reliable tool for the quantification of interaction parameters. Moreover, changes in these parameters were correlated with clinical and kinematic changes. These results suggested that robot-based recordings can provide new insights into the motor recovery process. PMID:25821804

  19. Use of a robotic device for the rehabilitation of severe upper limb paresis in subacute stroke: exploration of patient/robot interactions and the motor recovery process.

    PubMed

    Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Hutin, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering observational study explored the interaction between subacute stroke inpatients and a rehabilitation robot during upper limb training. 25 stroke survivors (age 55 ± 17 years; time since stroke, 52 ± 21 days) with severe upper limb paresis carried out 16 sessions of robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training (InMotion 2.0, IMT, Inc., MA, USA) combined with standard therapy. The values of 3 patient/robot interaction parameters (a guidance parameter: Stiffness, a velocity-related parameter: Slottime, and Robotic Power) were compared between sessions 1 (S1), 4 (S4), 8 (S8), 12 (S12), and 16 (S16). Pre/post Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores were compared in 18 patients. Correlations between interaction parameters and clinical and kinematic outcome measures were evaluated. Slottime decreased at S8 (P = 0.003), while Guidance decreased at S12 (P = 0.008). Robotic Power tended to decrease until S16. FMA scores improved from S1 to S16 (+49%, P = 0.002). Changes in FMA score were correlated with the Stiffness parameter (R = 0.4, P = 0.003). Slottime was correlated with movement velocity. This novel approach demonstrated that a robotic device is a useful and reliable tool for the quantification of interaction parameters. Moreover, changes in these parameters were correlated with clinical and kinematic changes. These results suggested that robot-based recordings can provide new insights into the motor recovery process.

  20. Therapeutic synergism in the treatment of post-stroke arm paresis utilizing botulinum toxin, robotic therapy, and constraint-induced movement therapy.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Takashi; Amano, Satoru; Hanada, Keisuke; Umeji, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) injection, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), and robotic therapy (RT) each represent promising approaches to enhance arm motor recovery after stroke. To provide more effective treatment for a 50-year-old man with severe left spastic hemiparesis, we attempted to facilitate CIMT with adaptive approaches to extend the wrist and fingers using RT for 10 consecutive weeks after BtxA injection. This combined treatment resulted in substantial improvements in arm function and the amount of arm use in activities of daily living, and may be effective for stroke patients with severe arm paresis. However, we were unable to sufficiently prove the efficacy of combined treatment based only on a single case. To fully elucidate the efficacy of the combined approach for patients with severe hemiparesis after stroke, future studies of a larger number of patients are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impairment-oriented training or Bobath therapy for severe arm paresis after stroke: a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Platz, T; Eickhof, C; van Kaick, S; Engel, U; Pinkowski, C; Kalok, S; Pause, M

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of augmented exercise therapy time for arm rehabilitation as either Bobath therapy or the impairment-oriented training (Arm BASIS training) in stroke patients with arm severe paresis. Single blind, multicentre randomized control trial. Three inpatient neurorehabilitation centres. Sixty-two anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients. Random assignment to three group: (A) no augmented exercise therapy time, (B) augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy and (C) augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training. Fugl-Meyer arm motor score. Secondary measure: Action Research Arm Test (ARA). Ancillary measures: Fugl-Meyer arm sensation and joint motion/pain scores and the Ashworth Scale (elbow flexors). An overall effect of augmented exercise therapy time on Fugl-Meyer scores after four weeks was not corroborated (mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) of change scores: no augmented exercise therapy time (n=20) 8.8, 5.2-12.3; augmented exercise therapy time (n=40) 9.9, 6.8-13.9; p = 0.2657). The group who received the augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training (n=20) had, however, higher gains than the group receiving the augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy (n=20) (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath 7.2, 2.6-11.8; BASIS 12.6, 8.4-16.8; p = 0.0432). Passive joint motion/pain deteriorated less in the group who received BASIS training (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath -3.2, -5.2 to -1.1; BASIS 0.1, -1.8-2.0; p = 0.0090). ARA, Fugl-Meyer arm sensation, and Ashworth Scale scores were not differentially affected. The augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training enhanced selective motor control. Type of training was more relevant for recovery of motor control than therapeutic time spent.

  2. Effects of orthotic therapeutic electrical stimulation in the treatment of patients with paresis associated with acute cervical spinal cord injury: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, K; Hayashi, T; Watanabe, R; Nishimura, A; Ueta, T; Maeda, T; Shiba, K

    2017-06-27

    A randomized controlled trial. To determine the effects of orthotic therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) on the hand in patients with paresis associated with acute cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal Injuries Center, Fukuoka, Japan. The study included patients treated for spinal cord injuries (Frankel classification, grades B and C) at our institution within 1 week post injury between May 2011 and December 2014. The patients were allocated randomly to TES and control groups at the time of admission and underwent TES+conventional training or conventional training alone, respectively. Both hands of each patient were treated in the same way. The primary outcome was total passive motion (TPM) of the fingers (degrees). The secondary outcomes were edema (cm) and the upper-extremity motor scores of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). After randomization, outcomes were assessed at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post injury in both groups. Twenty-nine individuals were assessed at 3 months (15, TES; 14, control). There were no significant between-group differences for TPM of the fingers, edema and upper-extremity motor scores at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after injury, although TPM of the fingers tended to be lower in the control group. It is unclear from the results of this study whether TES has a therapeutic effect on TPM, edema or the upper-extremity motor score of the ISNCSCI. The results of this study provide useful data for future meta-analyses.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 27 June 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.74.

  3. Electrically Assisted Movement Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients With Severe Upper Limb Paresis: A Pilot, Single-Blind, Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Carda, Stefano; Biasiucci, Andrea; Maesani, Andrea; Ionta, Silvio; Moncharmont, Julien; Clarke, Stephanie; Murray, Micah M; Millán, José Del R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of electrically assisted movement therapy (EAMT) in which patients use functional electrical stimulation, modulated by a custom device controlled through the patient's unaffected hand, to produce or assist task-specific upper limb movements, which enables them to engage in intensive goal-oriented training. Randomized, crossover, assessor-blinded, 5-week trial with follow-up at 18 weeks. Rehabilitation university hospital. Patients with chronic, severe stroke (N=11; mean age, 47.9y) more than 6 months poststroke (mean time since event, 46.3mo). Both EAMT and the control intervention (dose-matched, goal-oriented standard care) consisted of 10 sessions of 90 minutes per day, 5 sessions per week, for 2 weeks. After the first 10 sessions, group allocation was crossed over, and patients received a 1-week therapy break before receiving the new treatment. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment for the Upper Extremity, Wolf Motor Function Test, spasticity, and 28-item Motor Activity Log. Forty-four individuals were recruited, of whom 11 were eligible and participated. Five patients received the experimental treatment before standard care, and 6 received standard care before the experimental treatment. EAMT produced higher improvements in the Fugl-Meyer scale than standard care (P<.05). Median improvements were 6.5 Fugl-Meyer points and 1 Fugl-Meyer point after the experimental treatment and standard care, respectively. The improvement was also significant in subjective reports of quality of movement and amount of use of the affected limb during activities of daily living (P<.05). EAMT produces a clinically important impairment reduction in stroke patients with chronic, severe upper limb paresis. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A duplication with severe paresis of the proximal lower limb muscles: a long‐term follow‐up study

    PubMed Central

    Berciano, J; Gallardo, E; García, A; Infante, J; Mateo, I; Combarros, O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe a large pedigree with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) duplication in which severe pelvic and thigh musculature weakness occurred in two patients, detected by analysing the leg muscle atrophy pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods The pedigree comprised 18 patients, aged between 15 and 85 (median 46) years, who were serially evaluated for up to three decades. All 18 patients and 13 non‐affected at‐risk people underwent electrophysiological examination. An MRI study of lower limb musculature was carried out in four patients. Three patients underwent sural‐nerve biopsy. Genetic testing was carried out in 17 patients and in all 13 at‐risk normal people. Results Fourteen patients were asymptomatic or slightly disabled. The two oldest patients, aged 84 and 80, showed a moderate phenotype. Two other patients, aged 70 and 53, showed late‐onset and gradually progressive peroneal paresis extending up to the thigh and pelvic musculature, resulting in waddling gait. MRI scans of all three patients with a mild phenotype showed subtle and subclinical fatty infiltration of calf anterolateral muscle compartments, with thigh muscle involvement in one patient, and extensive atrophy of intrinsic foot muscles. In the youngest patient with proximal leg weakness, the MRI scan showed massive fatty atrophy of all the calf muscles, posteromedial thigh muscle compartments, and internal and external hip rotator muscles. Sural‐nerve biopsy specimens showed hypertrophic neuropathy with no superimposed inflammation. Good correlation was seen between electrophysiological and genetic testing. Conclusions Late in the clinical course, a small proportion of patients with CMT1A develop severe proximal leg weakness, and long‐term follow‐up is essential for its detection. MRI scans may show subclinical involvement of the thigh musculature. PMID:16788010

  5. The effect of an increased pulse width on the pattern of motor response (unilateral versus bilateral) during the Tsui test in labouring parturients: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Zakus, Paul; Bittencourt, Ricardo; Downey, Kristi; Tsui, Ban C H; Carvalho, Jose C A

    2017-09-21

    The typical response to the Tsui test performed via an epidural catheter placed in the lumbar area is the unilateral motor response of the lower limbs. Studies show that longer pulse widths can stimulate peripheral nerves at a lower threshold current from a farther distance. Therefore, we designed a study to test the hypothesis that epidural catheter stimulation with a 1.0-msec pulse width would increase the incidence of bilateral motor response in parturients when compared with stimulation with a 0.1-msec pulse width. Parturients requesting epidural analgesia were recruited into this randomized crossover study. The Tsui test was performed at both pulse widths before and five minutes after an epidural test dose of 2% lidocaine 3 mL. The primary outcome was the motor response pattern (either unilateral or bilateral) to the epidural catheter stimulation at baseline. Twenty women were recruited for the study, which was stopped early due to futility. The rates of unilateral motor response in the 0.1-msec (18/20) and the 1-msec (18/20) group were both 90% (rate difference, 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 0.3; P = 1.0). The mean (SD) current required to elicit a motor response at baseline was 4.2 (2.6) mA in the 0.1-msec group and 1.7 (1.1) mA in the 1-msec group (mean difference, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.3; P < 0.001). The motor response pattern following the stimulation of a lumbar epidural catheter with pulse widths of 0.1 msec or 1 msec is similar and typically unilateral. The threshold current is lower with the 1-msec pulse width stimulus. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02762149. Registered 2 May 2016.

  6. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  7. [Influence of acupoint injection with small dose of fentanyl-droperidol mixed liquor on labor analgesia and level of stress hormone in parturient].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Xia; Yao, Yuan; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Yuan; Yan, Li-Rong; Su, Xin-Jing

    2013-04-01

    To observe the clinical effect of acupoint injection with small dose of fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor at different time stages on labor analgesia, and explore its function mechanism. One hundred and fifty cases of full-term primiparas who were intended to take vaginal delivery were randomly divided into 3 groups, 50 cases in each one. The acupoint injection with fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor at different time stages was applied in the group I, where Shenshu (BL 23) was selected in active phase and Ciliao (BL 32) was selected in the 2nd stage of labor. The subcutaneous injection with fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor was adopted in group II. The group III, which was considered as a control group, was treated with subcutaneous injection of 0.9% NaCl at the same time stage as group I and II. The blood pressure, VAS score and level of norepinephrine and adrenaline were observed at different time stages. Compared before the injection, the blood pressure of group III in the active phase and 2nd stage of labor was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and that in group II and III was obviously higher than that in the group I (P < 0.05). The VAS score of group I in the active phase and 2nd stage of labor was significantly lower than that in the group II and III (P < 0.01). After the injection, the level of NE and E was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), which was lower than that in the group II and III (P < 0.05). The acupoint injection with small dose of fentanyl-droperido mixed liquor at different time stages has positive effect on labor analgesia, and it could significantly relieve stress reaction of parturient during the labor. Its mechanism could be related to the reduction of stress hormone in parturient.

  8. Determination of a cut-off value of antral area measured in the supine position for the fast diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jay, Lucille; Zieleskiewicz, Laurent; Desgranges, François-Pierrick; Cogniat, Bérengère; Pop, Marius; Boucher, Pierre; Bellon, Amandine; Léone, Marc; Chassard, Dominique; Bouvet, Lionel

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area of the stomach, performed in the supine position, has been described for preoperative assessment of gastric content in the adult, but, to date, no study has determined the cut-off value of the antral area for the diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient. Nevertheless, previous studies in parturients have reported that the use of a simple qualitative grading scale (0 to 2) was reliable for the estimation of the gastric fluid volume. However, this qualitative grading score requires turning the parturient into the right lateral decubitus position for the ultrasound examination, something which may not be easily feasible, particularly in the case of an obstetric emergency. To calculate the cut-off value of the antral area, measured in the supine position during established labour, for the diagnosis of 'empty' stomach. A prospective cohort study. Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France. Seventy-three women in established labour. For each parturient, ultrasound assessment of gastric contents was performed in the supine and right lateral decubitus position and scored 0 to 3 on a qualitative grading scale. This assessment was followed by ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area in both the supine and right lateral positions. To assess the performance of the antral area measured in the supine position for the diagnosis of an 'empty' stomach (gastric antrum grade 0), a receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Data from 73 women were analysed. For the diagnosis of grade 0, the cut-off value for the antral area measured in the supine position was 381 mm (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 76% and negative predictive value, 80%). With a parturient lying in the supine position, a single assessment of the antral cross-sectional area may be used for the fast diagnosis of an empty

  9. Ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia for a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system undergoing cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Luo, LinLi; Ni, Juan; Wu, Lan; Luo, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with preexisting diseases is challenging and individualized approaches need to be determined based on patients’ complications. We report here a case of ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia in combination with low-dose ketamine during cesarean delivery on a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system and airway problems. The ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia was performed in the L1–L2 space, followed by an intravenous administration of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) for sedation and analgesia. Satisfactory anesthesia was provided to the patient and spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the surgery. The mother and the baby were discharged 5 days after surgery, no complications were reported for either of them. Our work demonstrated that an ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia combined with low-dose ketamine can be used to successfully maintain spontaneous ventilation and provide effective analgesia during surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative anesthesia-related pulmonary infection. PMID:25999759

  10. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2014-10-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach.

  11. [The relationship between the peri-parturient period and output of nematodes eggs in naturally infected Anglo Nubiana goats in a semi-extensive system of production].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jaqueline Maria Da S; De Oliveira, Marcos Antônio L; Alvares, Caio Tácito; Costa-Dias, Roberta; Dos Santos, Maico Henrique

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the excretion of nematodes eggs in naturally infected Anglo-Nubians breed goats under conditions of semi-extensive production system and the peri-parturient period. Were used 63 goats, with weight average 35, 05 +/- 6, 54 kg and reproductive cycle from goats. Animals were separated and two groups homogeneous as to the age and nutritional status and two groups (pregnants and nonpregnants). Faecal samples were collected weekly during the periparturient period (ended four weeks of pregnancy and the four first weeks of post-parturition) and equal dates in non-pregnants group. The group of pregnant animals showed increasing EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) in the 5th and 8th week of collection and animals not pregnant and in the 5th and 6th week. The highest counts of EPG were coincident with the highest concentration of births; there is a direct relationship between to release eggs from gastrointestinal nematodes in the female goats, near to birth.

  12. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25368788

  13. An observational study of agreement between percentage pain reduction calculated from visual analog or numerical rating scales versus that reported by parturients during labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Pratici, E; Nebout, S; Merbai, N; Filippova, J; Hajage, D; Keita, H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction, derived from visual analog or numerical rating scales, and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in patients having labor epidural analgesia. In a prospective observational study, parturients were asked to rate their pain intensity on a visual analog scale and numerical rating scale, before and 30min after initiation of epidural analgesia. The percentage pain reduction 30min after epidural analgesia was calculated by the formula: 100×(score before epidural analgesia-score 30min after epidural analgesia)/score before epidural analgesia. To evaluate agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction, we computed the concordance correlation coefficient and performed Bland-Altman analysis. Ninety-seven women in labor were enrolled in the study, most of whom were nulliparous, with a singleton fetus and in spontaneous labor. The concordance correlation coefficient with patient-reported percentage pain reduction was 0.76 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) for the visual analog and numerical rating scale, respectively. The Bland-Altman mean difference between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction for the visual analog and numerical rating scales was -2.0% (limits of agreement at 29.8%) and 0 (limits of agreement at 28.2%), respectively. The agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction from a visual analog or numerical rating scale and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in the context of labor epidural analgesia was moderate. The difference could range up to 30%. Patient-reported percentage pain reduction has advantages as a measurement tool for assessing pain management for childbirth but differences compared with other assessment methods should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Midwifery care in rural and remote British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study of perinatal outcomes of rural parturient women with a midwife involved in their care, 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Kathrin; Kornelsen, Jude

    2014-01-01

    Midwifery has been regulated and publicly funded in British Columbia since 1998. Midwives are currently concentrated in urban areas; access to care is limited in rural communities. Rural midwifery practice can be challenging because of low birth numbers, solo practice, lack of on-site cesareans and specialist backup, and interprofessional tensions resulting from the integration of midwives into rural maternity care systems. Despite these barriers, rural midwives have made a substantial contribution to rural maternity care in British Columbia. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study is to examine outcomes of midwife-involved births in rural British Columbia in the postregionalization era. We analyzed the outcomes of all parturient women with postal codes outside of the core urban areas of the province, and their singleton infants without a diagnosed congenital anomaly, who had a midwife involved in their care between April 1, 2003, and March 31, 2008. Outcomes are reported for 6 obstetric service levels. Service levels are assigned to parturient women via maternal postal codes. Women who reside further than 60 minutes from a hospital with maternity services were assigned a distance category (2 levels: >2 hours, 1-2 hours); women residing within one hour of a hospital with maternity services were assigned the level of service available at their catchment hospital (4 levels, ranging from maternity care without cesarean to cesarean provided by general surgeons or obstetricians). Eight percent of rural parturient women had a midwife involved in their care. Rates of planned home birth exceeded the provincial average (26.1%) in 5 of the 6 service levels. Rates of actual home birth were lowest among women who resided 2 or more hours away from maternity services. Obstetric intervention rates were lower for women residing in communities without cesareans or with intermittent access to cesareans. The prevalence of adverse neonatal outcomes was very low across service

  15. Dexmedetomidine for an awake fiber-optic intubation of a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, Type I Arnold Chiari malformation and status post released tethered spinal cord presenting for repeat cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tanmay H; Badve, Manasi S; Olajide, Kowe O; Skorupan, Havyn M; Waters, Jonathan H; Vallejo, Manuel C

    2011-07-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) have congenital fusion of their cervical vertebrae due to a failure in the normal segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of gestation and also have myriad of other associated anomalies. Because of limited neck mobility, airway management in these patients can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We describe a unique case in which a dexmedetomidine infusion was used as sedation for an awake fiber-optic intubation in a parturient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, who presented for elective cesarean delivery. A 36-year-old female, G2P1A0 with KFS (fusion of cervical vertebrae) who had prior cesarean section for breech presentation with difficult airway management was scheduled for repeat cesarean delivery. After obtaining an informed consent, patient was taken in the operating room and non-invasive monitors were applied. Dexmedetomidine infusion was started and after adequate sedation, an awake fiber-optic intubation was performed. General anesthetic was administered after intubation and dexmedetomidine infusion was continued on maintenance dose until extubation. Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is a rare congenital disorder for which the true incidence is unknown, which makes it even rare to see a parturient with this disease. Patients with KFS usually have other congenital abnormalities as well, sometimes including the whole thoraco-lumbar spine (Type III) precluding the use of neuraxial anesthesia for these patients. Obstetric patients with KFS can present unique challenges in administering anesthesia and analgesia, primarily as it relates to the airway and dexmedetomidine infusion has shown promising result to manage the airway through awake fiberoptic intubation without any adverse effects on mother and fetus.

  16. Intrathecal magnesium sulfate does not reduce the ED50 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean delivery in healthy parturients: a prospective, double blinded, randomized dose-response trial using the sequential allocation method.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Xu, Wenping; Feng, Ying; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yinfa; Wang, Lizhong; Chen, Xinzhong

    2017-01-17

    Addition of intrathecal magnesium sulfate to local anesthetics has been reported to potentiate spinal anesthesia and prolong analgesia in parturients. The current study was to determine whether intrathecal magnesium sulfate would reduce the dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and sufentanil for cesarean delivery. Sixty healthy parturients undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 5 μg sufentanil with either 0.9% sodium chloride (Control group) or 50% magnesium sulfate (50 mg) (Magnesium group). Effective anesthesia was defined as a bilateral T5 sensory block level achieved within 10 min of intrathecal drug administration and no additional epidural anesthetic was required during surgery. Characteristic of spinal anesthesia and the incidence of side effects were observed. The ED50 for both groups was calculated using the Dixon and Massey formula. There was no significant difference in the ED50 of bupivacaine between the Magnesium group and the Control group (4.9 mg vs 4.7 mg) (P = 0.53). The duration of spinal anesthesia (183 min vs 148 min, P < 0.001) was longer, the consumption of fentanyl during the first 24 h postoperatively (343 μg vs 550 μg, P < 0.001) was lower in the Magnesium group than that in the Control group. Intrathecal magnesium sulfate (50 mg) did not reduce the dose requirement of intrathecal bupivacaine, but can extend the duration of spinal anesthesia with no obvious additional side effects. This study was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) on 15 Jul. 2014 and was given a trial ID number ChiCTR-TRC- 14004954 .

  17. Swallowing therapy--a prospective study on patients with neurogenic dysphagia due to unilateral paresis of the vagal nerve, Avellis' syndrome, Wallenberg's syndrome, posterior fossa tumours and cerebellar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Prosiegel, M; Höling, R; Heintze, M; Wagner-Sonntag, E; Wiseman, K

    2005-01-01

    No studies exist dealing with the outcome of dysphagic patients with posterior fossa (IV. ventricle) tumours (PFT) or cerebellar hemorrhage (CH), and the outcome of patients with Wallenberg's syndrome (WS) after functional swallowing therapy (FST) has so far not been studied in detail. Patients and methods. 208 patients with neurogenic dysphagia (ND) who were consecutively admitted for functional swallowing therapy (FST) over a 3 year period to our hospital were examined clinically, by use of a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and/or fibreoptic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The most frequent etiology was stroke (48%), followed by CNS tumours (13%). In the present study we defined three groups. Group 1 comprised 8 patients with PFT or CH. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients with WS, which was the leading cause among patients with non-hemispheric stroke. Since in WS a vagal nerve paresis due to affection of the Nucleus ambiguus occurs, 8 patients with Avellis' syndrome or unilateral paresis of the vagal nerve served as controls and were defined as group 3. Findings. In the three groups, functional feeding status showed significant improvement after FST comprising methods of restitution, compensation and adaptation, each of which were applied in more than 80% of patients. Outcome was, however, significantly worse in group 1 as compared to group 2 and in group 2 as compared to group 3. Dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter and reflex triggering were significantly more severely disturbed in groups 1 and 2 as compared to group 3. Group 1 showed significantly more severe disturbances of the oral phase as compared to groups 2 and 3. After FST, more than 50% (5/8) of group 1 and 30% (8/27) of WS patients (group 2) were dependent on tube feeding, whereas all patients of group 3 were full-oral feeders. Interpretation. This is the first study dealing with the outcome of dysphagic patients with PFT or CH. Based on our results it can be assumed that in these

  18. Could local dynamic stability serve as an early predictor of falls in patients with moderate neurological gait disorders? A reliability and comparison study in healthy individuals and in patients with paresis of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Fabienne; Vuadens, Philippe; Deriaz, Olivier; Terrier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Falls while walking are frequent in patients with muscular dysfunction resulting from neurological disorders. Falls induce injuries that may lead to deconditioning and disabilities, which further increase the risk of falling. Therefore, an early gait stability index would be useful to evaluate patients in order to prevent the occurrence of future falls. Derived from chaos theory, local dynamic stability (LDS), defined by the maximal Lyapunov exponent, assesses the sensitivity of a dynamic system to small perturbations. LDS has already been used for fall risk prediction in elderly people. The aim of the present study was to provide information to facilitate future researches regarding gait stability in patients with neurological gait disorders. The main objectives were 1) to evaluate the intra-session repeatability of LDS in patients and 2) to assess the discriminative power of LDS to differentiate between healthy individuals and neurological patients. Eighty-three patients with mild to moderate neurological disorders associated with paresis of the lower extremities and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The participants performed 2×30 s walking wearing a 3D accelerometer attached to the lower back, from which 2×35 steps were extracted. LDS was defined as the average exponential rate of divergence among trajectories in a reconstructed state-space that reflected the gait dynamics. LDS assessed along the medio-lateral axis offered the highest repeatability and discriminative power. Intra-session repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient between the two repetitions) in the patients was 0.89 and the smallest detectable difference was 16%. LDS was substantially lower in the patients than in the controls (33% relative difference, standardized effect size 2.3). LDS measured in short over-ground walking tests seems sufficiently reliable. LDS exhibits good discriminative power to differentiate fall-prone individuals and opens up the possibility of

  19. From Paresis to PANDAS and PANS

    MedlinePlus

    ... years later led to the virtual eradication of neuro-syphilis, as the disorder came to be called, ... MRI scans of a PANDAS patient, showing reduced inflammation in the caudate nucleus(area circled just to ...

  20. [Facial paresis in children; consider Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, E M; Kouwenberg, J M

    2001-05-26

    Three girls, aged 3, 7 and 13 years, developed acute peripheral facial palsy. The first patient was initially diagnosed as having Bell's palsy. The third patient had negative serology at first assessment, on the basis of which the diagnosis of Lyme disease was temporarily rejected. Ultimately, all three appeared to have neuroborreliosis. They were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and recovered well. Facial palsy in childhood is frequently caused by Lyme borreliosis and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi should therefore be investigated, even if there are no signs of a tick bite or erythema migrans. Diagnosis is made by serology, followed by immunoblotting to confirm a positive result. In case of strong suspicion based on the patient's history or physical examination or a positive serology, lumbar puncture should be carried out. Antibiotic treatment facilitates recovery and prevents complications.

  1. An evaluation of the effect of age and the peri-parturient period on bone metabolism in dairy cows as measured by serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Reiichiro; Onda, Ken; Kato, Hajime; Ochiai, Hideharu; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Iriki, Tsunenori; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Yamazaki, Yukio; Wada, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Various biochemical markers help to evaluate the state of bone turnover in humans and could be used during the peri-parturient period in dairy cows when calcium (Ca) metabolism changes dramatically. To investigate this, the peri-partum characteristics of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were investigated. Both serum BAP activity and urinary DPD concentrations were increased and demonstrated wide variability in younger animals, and these findings were consistent with other bone turnover markers. Around the time of parturition, serum Ca concentration and serum BAP activity in multiparous cows were significantly lower than in primiparous cows, but urinary DPD concentration was unchanged. The use of BAP as a bone formation marker appears to be valuable for evaluating bone remodelling status in cows, but the specificity of the test needs to be confirmed. The DPD/BAP ratio around parturition demonstrated a clear difference in bone turnover status between the two parity groups with multiparous cows demonstrating increased signs of bone resorption compared with primiparous cows, corresponding to the Ca requirement for milk production. In future studies, the applicability of the ratio of bone resorption marker to bone formation marker should be evaluated for bone turnover assessment.

  2. The effect of 0.5 L 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus 1 L Ringer's lactate preload on the hemodynamic status of parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery using arterial pulse contour analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Karakosta, Agathi; Pandazi, Ageliki; Niokou, Dimitra; Christodoulaki, Kalliopi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Fluid loading attenuates the hypotensive response to spinal anesthesia (SA). This study aimed to compare the preload efficacy of 0.5 L hydroxyethyl starch (HES) versus 1 L Ringer's lactate (R/L) in the prevention of hypotension after SA for elective cesarean delivery (CD). Assessment of maternal hemodynamic variables using FloTrac/Vigileo™ and neonatal outcome constituted secondary outcomes. Thirty-two ASA I/II parturients scheduled for elective CD were preloaded with either 1 L R/L (Group R/L, n = 16) or 0.5 L HES 6% 130/0.42 (Group T, n = 16) approximately 25 min before SA. Hypotension, defined as a 20% decrease of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) from baseline or SAP <100 mmHg, was treated with vasopressors according to a predetermined algorithm. The overall duration of hypotensive episodes and the total amount of vasopressors administered determined the severity of the hemodynamic instability. The incidence of hypotension was 73.3% in Group R/L and 46.7% in Group T. HES compared to R/L preload was associated with a shorter overall duration of hypotensive episodes (p < 0.001), a significantly less usage of ephedrine and phenylephrine (p = 0.015 and p = 0.029, respectively) and a greater impact, although not statistically significant, on cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI). Although no statistical difference was detected between groups over time, there was a significant drop in CI, SVI and SAP within groups (p < 0.001) up to 14 min after SA. No difference was recorded in neonatal outcome. Preloading with 0.5 L HES 130/0.42 produced more stable hemodynamics compared to 1 L R/L solution in obstetric patients.

  3. [Knowledge and attitudes on breastfeeding among parturients].

    PubMed

    Mujkić, Aida; Vuletić, Gorka

    2004-01-01

    During human history, the natural process of breastfeeding has become ever less present as a mode of infant feeding. Numerous incentives have been introduced worldwide to stop this unfavorable trend. The aim of the study was to find the basic attitudes and knowledge about breastfeeding among mothers after delivery while they were at maternity wards. Two surveys were conducted, with 940 participants in 1989-1990, and 626 participants in 1997. The women answered a self administered questionnaire with multiple choice questions. Data from the 1989-1990 and 1997 surveys were analyzed and compared. A high percentage of women (98%), stated that they wanted to breastfeed their children, but only about 44% of them expected it to be problem-free. A great number of women did not know how and when to estimate milk secretion, or its adequacy for the baby. A significant proportion of the mothers believe that milk of some women is "watery" and thus inappropriate for their children. A great number of mothers (83%), answered correctly that the child need to be fed on demand rather than according to a strict schedule. In the second phase of the survey some positive changes in their knowledge were found, however, yet quite inadequate. Comprehensive and continuing education about breastfeeding of future mothers and fathers and the society as a whole is required.

  4. [What does conservative therapy of "idiopathic" facial paresis accomplish?].

    PubMed

    Oeken, F W; Görisch, I; Weilepp, M

    1978-09-01

    The results of conservative therapy in 160 patients with so-called idiopathic facial paralysis are reported. In 94.2% of the patients a complete or far extending normalisation took place. In incomplete paralysis the number of patients restored to health was about 96.1%, and 93.3% incomplete paralysis. We treated with salicyl-pyrazon-dervatives or combined with corticosteroids and with antibiotics resp. sulfonamids combined with corticosteroids. Physical therapy was applicated additionally in every case. Recovery did not depend from the sort of medicaments which were chosen.

  5. Using Laryngeal Electromyography to Differentiate Presbylarynges from Paresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Sheila V.; Bielamowicz, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Differential diagnosis of patients over 64 years of age reporting hoarseness is challenging. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) was used to determine the status of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves. The authors hypothesized that individuals with hoarseness but normal LEMG would have measures similar to those of patients from…

  6. Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and segmental motor paresis following herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Cengiz; Kalpakcioglu, Ayşe Banu; Kurtulus, Duygu

    2008-08-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who complained of acute onset of pain and weakness of her left shoulder and proximal arm muscles 3 weeks after a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Electromyography revealed involvement of the C5-6 myotomes and the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. Chest X-ray and electromyographic studies documented paralysis of the left diaphragm. One year after onset, muscle strength returned to normal, but radiographic and electrophysiologic findings of diaphragm paralysis were unchanged.

  7. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective: The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation. Conclusion: Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations. PMID:25991947

  8. Using Laryngeal Electromyography to Differentiate Presbylarynges from Paresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Sheila V.; Bielamowicz, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Differential diagnosis of patients over 64 years of age reporting hoarseness is challenging. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) was used to determine the status of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves. The authors hypothesized that individuals with hoarseness but normal LEMG would have measures similar to those of patients from…

  9. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    Objetivo: O objetivo deste relato de caso é descrever uma causa incomum de vestibulopatia periférica associada à perda auditiva unilateral em paciente idoso pós- cateterismo de urgência.Relato de caso: Paciente do gênero masculino, 82 anos, submetido à correção de aneurisma roto de aorta abdominal, no intra-operatório sofreu infarto agudo do miocárdio necessitando de angioplastia primária. Após alta hospitalar refere queixa de hipoacusia acentuada à direita e vertigem incapacitante, sem sinais neurológicos focais. Ao exame clínico otorrinolaringológico apresentava: Teste de Weber lateralizado para a esquerda, nistagmo espontâneo para a esquerda , marcha oscilante, leve disbasia e ataxia, índex-nariz e diadococinesia normais, Teste de Romberg com oscilação sem queda e Fukuda com desvio lateral para a direita. O exame audiométrico evidenciava anacusia à direita e perda neurossensorial à esquerda em agudos, arreflexia vestibular à direita na prova calórica e, na tomografia computadorizada dos ossos temporais e tronco-encefálico, presença de haste metálica atravessando o osso temporal direito, a partir da veia jugular interna e bulbo jugular, atravessando os canais semicirculares posterior, superior e vestíbulo, projetando-se em lobo temporal. O diagnóstico radiológico foi lesão traumática por guia endovascular metálico durante cateterismo de urgência e a conduta, considerando que o paciente não havia compensado o equilíbrio, foi reabilitação vestibular.Conclusão: Queixas de tontura no paciente idoso devem ser criteriosamente avaliadas diante do seu histórico clínico patológico pois os antecedentes de doenças e tratamentos prévios, em geral, direcionam as hipóteses diagnósticas porém podem trazer alterações inesperadas.

  10. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group, but without consequences on colostrum IgG concentrations. Milk yield did not differ between groups during the rest of the experiment. The study data were consistent with the concept that infusion of 5-HTP to dairy cows increases blood 5-HT concentrations, which in turn is a significant regulatory component in the chain of effectors that affect calcium status around parturition, hence the occurrence of clinical or subclinical hypocalcemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cesarean section in morbidly obese parturients: practical implications and complications.

    PubMed

    Machado, Lovina Sm

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached pandemic proportions across nations. Morbid obesity has a dramatic impact on pregnancy outcome. Cesarean section in these women poses many surgical, anesthetic, and logistical challenges. In view of the increased risk of cesarean delivery in morbidly obese women, the practical implications and complications are reviewed in this article. A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in english literature on cesarean section in morbidly obese women. The types of incisions and techniques used during cesarean delivery, intra-operative and postpartum complications, anesthetic and logistical issues, maternal morbidity and mortality were reviewed. Morbidly obese women with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m(2) are at increased risk of pregnancy complications and a significantly increased rate of cesarean delivery. Low transverse skin incisions and transverse uterine incisions are definitely superior and must be the first option. Closure of the subcutaneous layer is recommended, but the placement of subcutaneous drains remains controversial. Thromboprophylaxis adjusted to body weight and prophylactic antibiotics help in reducing postpartum morbidity. Morbidly obese women are at increased risk of postpartum infectious morbidity. Weight reduction in the postpartum period and thereafter must be strongly encouraged for optimal future pregnancy outcomes and well-being.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of prophylactic cefazolin in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; Sultan, Pervez; Drover, David R; Epshtein, Ekaterina; Galinkin, Jeffery L; Carvalho, Brendan

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to characterize the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean delivery and in their neonates; (ii) to assess cefazolin transplacental transmission; (iii) to evaluate the dosing and timing of preoperative, prophylactic administration of cefazolin to pregnant women; and (iv) to investigate the impact of maternal dosing on therapeutic duration and exposure in newborns. Twenty women received 1 g of cefazolin preoperatively. Plasma concentrations of total cefazolin were analyzed from maternal blood samples taken before, during, and after delivery; umbilical cord blood samples obtained at delivery; and neonatal blood samples collected 24 h after birth. The distribution volume of cefazolin was 9.44 liters. [corrected] The values for pre- and postdelivery clearance were 7.18 and 4.12 liters/h, respectively. Computer simulations revealed that the probability of maintaining free cefazolin concentrations in plasma above 8 mg/liter during scheduled caesarean surgery was <50% in the cord blood when cefazolin was administered in doses of <2 g or when it was administered <1 h before delivery. Therapeutic concentrations of cefazolin persisted in neonates >5 h after birth. Cefazolin clearance increases during pregnancy, and larger doses are recommended for surgical prophylaxis in pregnant women to obtain the same antibacterial effect as in nonpregnant patients. Cefazolin has a longer half-life in neonates than in adults. Maternal administration of up to 2 g of cefazolin is effective and produces exposure within clinically approved limits in neonates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Anesthetic Considerations for the Parturient After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moaveni, Daria M; Cohn, Jennifer H; Hoctor, Katherine G; Longman, Ryan E; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 40 years, the success of organ transplantation has increased such that female solid organ transplant recipients are able to conceive and carry pregnancies successfully to term. Anesthesiologists are faced with the challenge of providing anesthesia care to these high-risk obstetric patients in the peripartum period. Anesthetic considerations include the effects of the physiologic changes of pregnancy on the transplanted organ, graft function in the peripartum period, and the maternal side effects and drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents. These women are at an increased risk of comorbidities and obstetric complications. Anesthetic management should consider the important task of protecting graft function. Optimal care of a woman with a transplanted solid organ involves management by a multidisciplinary team. In this focused review article, we review the anesthetic management of pregnant patients with solid organ transplants of the kidney, liver, heart, or lung.

  14. [Reflections on nursing assistance provided to the parturient].

    PubMed

    Velho, Manuela Beatriz; de Oliveira, Maria Emília; dos Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this bibliographic study is to identify the state of the art of production published in the area of obstetrics nursing involving the birth process, to contribute to future investigations, and to assist in reflection upon this theme. Data was collected through the bibliographic analysis of the LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and SciELO databases. Descriptors used: nurse-midwives, childbirth work, normal childbirth, and Nursing care. Five studies were selected and later catalogued in bibliographic files. The themes selected were: professional regulation, care, assistance given, link established, educational actions, administrative activities, and difficulties. While the studies recognize this professional as a capacitated, legally backed professional who offers humanized assistance and thus reaffirms normal vaginal delivery, thus proportioning dignity, security, and autonomy to the delivering mother much still needs to written in order for the same autonomy and ethical-legal respect is acquired for health care professionals and clientele.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Prophylactic Cefazolin in Parturients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Elkomy, Mohammed H.; Sultan, Pervez; Epshtein, Ekaterina; Galinkin, Jeffery L.; Carvalho, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to characterize the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean delivery and in their neonates; (ii) to assess cefazolin transplacental transmission; (iii) to evaluate the dosing and timing of preoperative, prophylactic administration of cefazolin to pregnant women; and (iv) to investigate the impact of maternal dosing on therapeutic duration and exposure in newborns. Twenty women received 1 g of cefazolin preoperatively. Plasma concentrations of total cefazolin were analyzed from maternal blood samples taken before, during, and after delivery; umbilical cord blood samples obtained at delivery; and neonatal blood samples collected 24 h after birth. The distribution volume of cefazolin was 9.44 liters/h. The values for pre- and postdelivery clearance were 7.18 and 4.12 liters/h, respectively. Computer simulations revealed that the probability of maintaining free cefazolin concentrations in plasma above 8 mg/liter during scheduled caesarean surgery was <50% in the cord blood when cefazolin was administered in doses of <2 g or when it was administered <1 h before delivery. Therapeutic concentrations of cefazolin persisted in neonates >5 h after birth. Cefazolin clearance increases during pregnancy, and larger doses are recommended for surgical prophylaxis in pregnant women to obtain the same antibacterial effect as in nonpregnant patients. Cefazolin has a longer half-life in neonates than in adults. Maternal administration of up to 2 g of cefazolin is effective and produces exposure within clinically approved limits in neonates. PMID:24733461

  16. Challenges in the Caesarean Section of a Severely Kyphotic Parturient

    PubMed Central

    Chhetry, Manisha; Banerjee, Basudeb; Subedi, Shanti; Gharti Chhetri, Narayan Bahadur; Gupta, Yogendra

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section in a severely kyphotic patient presents with unique challenges. We report a case of obstructed labor in case of a pregnant lady with severe kyphosis of spine that was managed by caesarean section. Lateral recumbent position with adequate assistance and paramedian or vertical skin incision was used and found to provide good exposure. Baby was delivered by lower segment uterine incision by reverse breech extraction. Postpartum hemorrhage was managed with uterotonics and bilateral uterine artery ligation. Tubal ligation though advised was refused by the patient. Prolonged catheterization was done in view of obstructed labor. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:27066281

  17. [Anesthetic management of parturients with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Fetsch, N I; Bremerich, D H

    2008-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-associated illness affecting multiple organ systems. Symptoms typically occur after the 20th week of gestation and consist of hypertension (>140/90 mmHg) and proteinuria (>300 mg/day). It is one of the leading causes of premature birth worldwide and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for both fetal and maternal health. Therapy is aimed at lowering blood pressure sufficiently to prevent the most severe complications such as intracranial hemorrhages. At the same time attention must be paid to the possible untoward effects of blood pressure medications on uteroplacental perfusion and fetal well being. Magnesium is the cornerstone for both prevention and control of eclamptic cerebrovascular events. In cases of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia prompt delivery is indicated, often carried out by Cesarean section (>34 weeks of gestation). Compared to general anesthesia, regional anesthesia techniques offer certain advantages to both mother and fetus and in the absence of contraindications are the methods of choice.

  18. Lesions to Primary Sensory and Posterior Parietal Cortices Impair Recovery from Hand Paresis after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Abela, Eugenio; Missimer, John; Wiest, Roland; Federspiel, Andrea; Hess, Christian; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Weder, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroanatomical determinants of motor skill recovery after stroke are still poorly understood. Although lesion load onto the corticospinal tract is known to affect recovery, less is known about the effect of lesions to cortical sensorimotor areas. Here, we test the hypothesis that lesions of somatosensory cortices interfere with the capacity to recover motor skills after stroke. Methods Standardized tests of motor skill and somatosensory functions were acquired longitudinally over nine months in 29 patients with stroke to the pre- and postcentral gyrus, including adjacent areas of the frontal, parietal and insular cortices. We derived the recovery trajectories of each patient for five motor subtest using least-squares curve fitting and objective model selection procedures for linear and exponential models. Patients were classified into subgroups based on their motor recovery models. Lesions were mapped onto diffusion weighted imaging scans and normalized into stereotaxic space using cost-function masking. To identify critical neuranatomical regions, voxel-wise subtractions were calculated between subgroup lesion maps. A probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlas was used to quantify of lesion extent and location. Results Twenty-three patients with moderate to severe initial deficits showed exponential recovery trajectories for motor subtests that relied on precise distal movements. Those that retained a chronic motor deficit had lesions that extended to the center of the somatosensory cortex (area 2) and the intraparietal sulcus (areas hIP1, hIP2). Impaired recovery outcome correlated with lesion extent on this areas and somatosensory performance. The rate of recovery, however, depended on the lesion load onto the primary motor cortex (areas 4a, 4p). Conclusions Our findings support a critical role of uni-and multimodal somatosensory cortices in motor skill recovery. Whereas lesions to these areas influence recovery outcome, lesions to the primary motor cortex affect recovery dynamics. This points to a possible dissociation of neural substrates for different aspects of post-stroke recovery. PMID:22363604

  19. Homolateral ataxia and crural paresis: a crossed cerebral-cerebellar diaschisis.

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, M; Creisson, E; Fayolle, H; Gras, P; Vion, P; Brunotte, F; Dumas, R

    1994-01-01

    A patient developed weakness of the right leg and homolateral ataxia of the arm, caused by a subcortical infarct in the area supplied by the anterior cerebral artery in the left paracentral region, demonstrated by CT and MRI. Cerebral blood flow studied by technetium-labelled hexamethyl-propylene-amine oxime using single photon emission computed tomography showed decreased blood flow in the left lateral frontal cortex and in the right cerebellar hemisphere ("crossed cerebral-cerebellar diaschisis"). The homolateral ataxia of the arm may be caused by decreased function of the right cerebellar hemisphere, because of a lesion of the corticopontine-cerebellar tracts, whereas crural hemiparesis is caused by a lesion of the upper part of the corona radiata. Images PMID:8126511

  20. Superficial peroneal nerve paresis in a dancer caused by a midfoot ganglion: case report.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darrell; Dowling, Jamie; Rowan, Fiachra; Casey, Mary; O'Grady, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Ganglion cysts are common benign masses, usually occurring in the hands and feet. This report describes the case of a young female Irish dancer who presented with paresthesia of her foot due to a ganglion in near proximity to the superficial peroneal nerve. Midfoot ganglia in young girls engaged in Irish dance can limit their ability to participate. This pathology requires further epidemiological studies to investigate its prevalence. In the event of failed conservative management, surgical intervention to excise the cyst and decompress the nerve is an effective treatment to facilitate return to dancing.

  1. Hind-limb paresis in a dog with paralumbar solitary T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Maria; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda

    2010-05-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered, male golden retriever was referred to the Ontario Veterinary College, with a 6-week history of hind limb weakness and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar vertebral column, and histopathology and immunohistochemistry following euthanasia identified an uncommon solitary T-cell lymphoma in the paralumbar area.

  2. Brain regions important for recovery after severe post-stroke upper limb paresis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Jane M; Park, Chang-Hyun; Ward, Nick S

    2017-09-01

    Background The ability to predict outcome after stroke is clinically important for planning treatment and for stratification in restorative clinical trials. In relation to the upper limbs, the main predictor of outcome is initial severity, with patients who present with mild to moderate impairment regaining about 70% of their initial impairment by 3 months post-stroke. However, in those with severe presentations, this proportional recovery applies in only about half, with the other half experiencing poor recovery. The reasons for this failure to recover are not established although the extent of corticospinal tract damage is suggested to be a contributory factor. In this study, we investigated 30 patients with chronic stroke who had presented with severe upper limb impairment and asked whether it was possible to differentiate those with a subsequent good or poor recovery of the upper limb based solely on a T1-weighted structural brain scan. Methods A support vector machine approach using voxel-wise lesion likelihood values was used to show that it was possible to classify patients as good or poor recoverers with variable accuracy depending on which brain regions were used to perform the classification. Results While considering damage within a corticospinal tract mask resulted in 73% classification accuracy, using other (non-corticospinal tract) motor areas provided 87% accuracy, and combining both resulted in 90% accuracy. Conclusion This proof of concept approach highlights the relative importance of different anatomical structures in supporting post-stroke upper limb motor recovery and points towards methodologies that might be used to stratify patients in future restorative clinical trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Pneumorrhachis Resulting in Transient Paresis after PICC Line Insertion into the Ascending Lumbar Vein

    PubMed Central

    Sieg, Emily P; Choudhary, Arabinda; Iantosca, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining intravascular access in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is not only critical but also technically challenging. Malposition of the catheter tip is a known and well-documented complication. Specifically, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein can lead to neurological dysfunction and, in some cases, even death. We present the first reported case of pneumorrhachis (PR) following PICC line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein. Our patient presented with lower extremity weakness and imaging confirmed the presence of air within the spinal canal. After conservative treatment, the strength deficit resolved and subsequent imaging revealed resolution of the air within the spinal canal. Insertion of central venous catheters into the ascending lumbar vein is a well-documented complication that can lead to neurologic injury and even death. This should be considered in the evaluation of any neonate presenting with an abnormal neurological examination or unexplained change in exam after line insertion. PMID:27904815

  4. Pneumorrhachis Resulting in Transient Paresis after PICC Line Insertion into the Ascending Lumbar Vein.

    PubMed

    Payne, Russell; Sieg, Emily P; Choudhary, Arabinda; Iantosca, Mark

    2016-10-17

    Obtaining intravascular access in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is not only critical but also technically challenging. Malposition of the catheter tip is a known and well-documented complication. Specifically, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein can lead to neurological dysfunction and, in some cases, even death. We present the first reported case of pneumorrhachis (PR) following PICC line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein. Our patient presented with lower extremity weakness and imaging confirmed the presence of air within the spinal canal. After conservative treatment, the strength deficit resolved and subsequent imaging revealed resolution of the air within the spinal canal. Insertion of central venous catheters into the ascending lumbar vein is a well-documented complication that can lead to neurologic injury and even death. This should be considered in the evaluation of any neonate presenting with an abnormal neurological examination or unexplained change in exam after line insertion.

  5. Efficacy of brain-computer interface-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation for chronic paresis after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mukaino, Masahiko; Ono, Takashi; Shindo, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Ota, Tetsuo; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-04-01

    Brain computer interface technology is of great interest to researchers as a potential therapeutic measure for people with severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of brain computer interface, by comparing conventional neuromuscular electrical stimulation and brain computer interface-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation, using an A-B-A-B withdrawal single-subject design. A 38-year-old male with severe hemiplegia due to a putaminal haemorrhage participated in this study. The design involved 2 epochs. In epoch A, the patient attempted to open his fingers during the application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation, irrespective of his actual brain activity. In epoch B, neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied only when a significant motor-related cortical potential was observed in the electroencephalogram. The subject initially showed diffuse functional magnetic resonance imaging activation and small electro-encephalogram responses while attempting finger movement. Epoch A was associated with few neurological or clinical signs of improvement. Epoch B, with a brain computer interface, was associated with marked lateralization of electroencephalogram (EEG) and blood oxygenation level dependent responses. Voluntary electromyogram (EMG) activity, with significant EEG-EMG coherence, was also prompted. Clinical improvement in upper-extremity function and muscle tone was observed. These results indicate that self-directed training with a brain computer interface may induce activity- dependent cortical plasticity and promote functional recovery. This preliminary clinical investigation encourages further research using a controlled design.

  6. Vestibular perceptual thresholds to angular rotation in acute unilateral vestibular paresis and with galvanic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, Nicholas J; Cousins, Sian; Seemungal, Barry M; Gresty, Michael A; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2011-09-01

    Studies of compensation of injury to the human vestibular system have, in the main, focused on the vestibular-ocular reflex. Probing vestibular perception allows more of the sensory pathway to be assessed. We present a novel paradigm for simultaneously testing vestibular perceptual and nystagmic thresholds to angular acceleration around an earth vertical axis. The perceptual thresholds can be modulated asymmetrically in normal subjects by DC galvanic stimulation with the head flexed in the roll plane, as expected from the main torsional plane of action of the galvanic stimulus. The perceptual and nystagmic thresholds were bilaterally elevated in acute vestibular neuritis, a unilateral condition, possibly due to central suppression of vestibular input. The degree of asymmetry in thresholds was small in comparison with the large caloric asymmetry present in the patients, indicating a relatively preserved capacity for near-threshold performance of the non-damaged labyrinth both in the "on" and "off" directions.

  7. Peripheral paresis of upper extremity nerves following supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children.

    PubMed

    Havránek, P; Véle, F; Hájková, H; Zwingerová, H

    1989-01-01

    The authors observed a lesion of the peripheral nerves in 13 of 401 children with supracondylar humerus fractures (3.2%). Most frequently, the radial nerve was injured. All patients with neural lesions healed spontaneously, a surgical revision of the nerve was not necessary. The authors' opinion is that neural lesions accompanying supracondylar fractures can be treated conservatively. Exceptions are clear indications for surgical revision, as persisting ischaemia of the forearm or extensive open fractures. When treating conservatively, it is necessary to make a thorough clinical and EMG investigation to set exactly the diagnosis of the neural lesion immediately after removing the plaster cast (mostly 3 weeks after the injury). This investigation is to be repeated regularly, as the reinervation dynamics of the affected region is to be followed up. At the same time it is advantageous to perform electrostimulation until reinervation potentials appear, vitaminotherapy and intensive active exercise with the involved extremity. If no signs of reinvertion in the affected area appear within 6 months, a surgical revision of the nerve is to be considered.

  8. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis.

    PubMed

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-10-31

    BACKGROUND Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9-1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. CASE REPORT An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate mid-thoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. CONCLUSIONS Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program.

  9. [On the problem of voice rehabilitation in the case of unilateral vocal fold paresis].

    PubMed

    Shilenkova, V V

    Односторонний парез голосовых складок (ОПГС) значительно снижает качество жизни пациента. Ведущая роль в реабилитации пациентов с ОПГС принадлежит стимулирующей терапии, которая заключается в активации реиннервации мышц гортани и компенсаторных механизмов, позволяющих достичь наиболее полного смыкания голосовых складок при фонации. Цель исследования — оптимизация консервативного лечения больных с ОПГС. 50 пациентам с ОПГС в возрасте 18—70 лет и давностью заболевания не более 6 мес было проведено комплексное лечение, включающее электростимуляцию гортани, витаминотерапию, фонопедию. Пациенты были объединены в две группы — А и Б по 25 человек. В группе А в комплекс лечения был добавлен нейромидин курсом 1,5 мес. Результаты оценивались с использованием ларингостробоскопии, флоуметрии, шкалы GRBAS, акустического анализа голоса (lingWaves), опросника VHI. В группе А восстановление подвижности голосовой складки наступило в 20% случаев, в группе Б — в 8%. Отсутствие эффекта имело место в 12% случаев в группе А и в 28% в группе Б. Различия между группами статистически достоверны, р<0,05. В остальных случаях отмечалась положительная динамика флоуметрии, GRBAS, VHI, времени максимальной фонации, Jitter, DSI, частотного и динамического диапазонов, интенсивности голоса (68% пациентов группы А и 64% больных группы Б). Полученные данные подтверждают целесообразность проведения при ОПГС комплексной терапии, представляющей сочетание электростимуляции гортани, фонопедии и применения холинергических препаратов. Добавление нейромидина в общепринятую схему консервативного лечения позволяет повысить его результативность с 72 до 88%.

  10. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 18 Final Diagnosis: Hemangioma Symptoms: Pain • weaknes of lower limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Decompression and fixation Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9–1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. Case Report: An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate midthoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. Conclusions: Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program. PMID:27795545

  11. Metabolic disorders of cattle.

    PubMed

    Reid, G

    1993-05-01

    Goldberger discovered human pellagra was a non-infectious disease, affecting mostly the small and the timid in overcrowded institutions. Symptoms were diarrhoea, dermatitis and dementia. The staff and older children escaped the disease. They ate the meat and left the small and timid with the gravy. The 'Goldberger syndrome' is observed during competitive feeding of livestock, in ketotic animals and in the zinc depleted which are lethargic and pick all day at their feed. The pellagra preventative factor was later found to be nicotinic acid, derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Deficiencies of copper, magnesium, vitamin B6 (activated by a zinc kinase) inhibit the conversion of tryptophan to nicotinic acid. Stresses, including liver diseases, malabsorption, iron overload, porphyria, marasmus, cold stress, pregnancy, lactation, antibiotics and sulfa drugs, all increase dietary needs of nicotinic acid. Elevated free fatty acids and ketone bodies in the blood are associated with ketosis, zinc depletion and the pre-diabetic state. There is a diminished uptake of glucose by the tissues, a condition also found in parturient paresis of dairy cows when elevated hydrocortisone promotes insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. This defect in insulin response leads to a diabetic-like state. The major predisposing factor in parturient paresis of dairy cows is hypocalcaemia. Gut absorption of dietary calcium may not meet the primary demands of lactation initiation until bone calcium mobilisation is established.

  12. Prophylactic ketamine to prevent shivering in parturients undergoing Cesarean delivery during spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kose, E A; Honca, M; Dal, D; Akinci, S B; Aypar, U

    2013-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of ketamine 0.25 mg/kg with ketamine 0.5 mg/kg to prevent shivering in patients undergoing Cesarean delivery. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Operating rooms and postoperative recovery rooms. 120 ASA physical status 1 and 2 pregnant women scheduled for Cesarean delivery during spinal anesthesia. Patient characteristics, anesthetic and surgical details, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and side effects of the study drugs were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry, tympanic temperature, severity of shivering, and degree of sedation were recorded before intrathecal injection and thereafter every 5 minutes. Patients were randomized to three groups: saline (Group C, n=30), intravenous (IV) ketamine 0.25 mg/kg (Group K-0.25, n=30), or IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K-0.5, n=30). Grade 3 or 4 shivering was treated with IV meperidine 25 mg and the prophylaxis was regarded as ineffective. The number of shivering patients was significantly less in Group K-0.25 and in Group K-0.5 than in Group C (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). The tympanic temperature values of Group C were lower at all times of the study than in either ketamine group. Median sedation scores of Group K-0.5 were significantly higher than in Group K-0.25 or Group C at 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after spinal anesthesia. Prophylactic IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg was as effective as IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg in preventing shivering in patients undergoing Cesarean section during spinal anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cesarean section on a full-term parturient with convulsive crises].

    PubMed

    Errando, C L; Tatay, J; Revert, A; Peiró, C; Lloréns, J

    2003-01-01

    A 34-years-old woman in her 35th week of pregnancy experienced epileptic seizures and underwent emergency cesarean delivery of a healthy boy under general anesthesia. The patient had no history of epilepsy and the seizures were later attributed to an intracerebral cavernous angioma. She received treatment with phenytoin and was asymptomatic 3 months later. Although seizures unrelated to preeclampsia or eclampsia in pregnancy are rare, differential diagnosis must determine the etiology of the crisis.

  14. Management of parturients with Factor XI deficiency-10year case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Lynda; Tingi, Efterpi; Thachil, Jecko; Hay, Charles; Byrd, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This is an article reviewing the management of pregnant women with factor XI (FXI) deficiency. Retrospective review of the electronic records of 67 pregnancies in 25 women with FXI deficiency over a ten-year period was undertaken. All women received care at St Mary's Tertiary Referral Obstetric/Haematology Clinic for some or all of their pregnancies. Outcome measures included antenatal complications, mode of delivery, anaesthesia provided and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and management required. A positive bleeding history was identified in 50% of women prior to pregnancy. Fifteen pregnancies (22%) ended in first trimester miscarriage; there was 1 termination of pregnancy. Two pregnancies were complicated by Antepartum haemorrhage. Of the remaining 51 pregnancies there were 50 live births - 2 preterm and 48 at term. There was one antenatal (34 weeks gestation) stillbirth of a growth restricted baby and one neonatal death secondary to severe prematurity (24 weeks gestation). Twenty -five babies delivered vaginally (20 spontaneous and 5 instrumental). The remaining 26 were delivered by Caesarean section (9 elective and 17 emergency). A sub-analysis of 22 operative deliveries was reviewed; this suggested that regional anaesthesia was safe in selected women with FXI deficiency - a selection that was based on FXI level/range, presence/absence of bleeding history and intended operative intervention.Solvent detergent treated Fresh Frozen Plasma (SD-FFP/Octaplas) and Tranexamic Acid (TXA) were given to those considered vulnerable -an individualised decision made by the multidisciplinary team in accordance with BCSH guidance. Primary PPH complicated 10/51 (15%) deliveries. The commonest cause of PPH was due to atony. Secondary PPH was only seen in only one case. Bleeding in women with FXI deficiency is highly variable and, whilst it does not directly correlate with Factor XI levels, provision of replacement therapy is required if FXI levels are <15 IU/dL as per BCSH guidance. Women with Factor XI levels >40 IU/dL are considered safe for regional anaesthesia following prophylactic FFP as suggested by sub group analysis. Treatment of women with rare bleeding disorders during pregnancy should be by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, to include Haematologist, Anaesthetist and Obstetrician, all of whom have an interest in bleeding disorders in pregnancy. Decisions should then be individualised, based on the presence/absence of a bleeding history and the third trimester FXI levels. Delivery does not have to be by Elective Caesarean. With appropriate care both operative vaginal delivery and regional anaesthesia can be facilitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Iatrogenic water intoxication in healthy parturient causing convulsions and fractured mandible.

    PubMed

    Abu Halaweh, Sami A; Aloweidi, Abdelkareem S; Qudaisat, Ibraheem Y; Al-Kazaleh, Fawaz A

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a mandibular dentoalveolar fracture caused by severe iatrogenic hyponatremia-induced grand mal seizure in a 31-year-old pregnant lady who underwent normal vaginal delivery. She had oxytocin augmentation of her labor, and the seizure happened in the immediate postpartum period. The seizure was thought to be because of severe hyponatremia and prompt management controlled the metabolic disorder. The fracture was reduced and fixed successfully, and she was discharged after 48 hours, healing was uneventful.

  16. Oxytocin treatment does not change cardiovascular parameters, hematology and plasma electrolytes in parturient horse mares.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Wulf, Manuela; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2017-03-15

    In mares, foaling is associated with changes in hematology, plasma electrolytes, blood pressure and heart rate and it has been hypothesized that these are induced by oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, mares (n = 8-14/group) were treated with oxytocin (OT; 20 I.U.) or saline (CON) at 1 h (test A) and 12 h after foaling (test B) and during first postpartum diestrus (test C). Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), atrioventricular blocks, salivary cortisol concentration, blood pressure, plasma electrolytes and blood count were determined. Heart rate decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) but at no time differed between groups. The HRV, blood pressure and occurrence of atrioventricular blocks did not change in response to oxytocin. Cortisol concentration decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001). Oxytocin induced a cortisol release in test B (time x treatment P < 0.001, time x test P < 0.001). Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) but did not differ between groups. In test A, potassium concentration increased in CON but not OT mares (time P < 0.01, time x test P < 0.01, time x treatment P < 0.05). Polymorphnuclear cell (PMN) numbers in blood decreased from test A to C (P < 0.001) while lymphocytes increased (P < 0.05). At no time PMN and lymphocytes differed between groups. Oxytocin treatment had no effect on skin temperature. In conclusion, except for a limited effect on cortisol release, oxytocin was without effect and the hypothesis of oxytocin-induced alterations in cardiac parameters, plasma electrolytes and hematology of foaling mares was not verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cesarean section and sismotherapy in a severe psychotic parturient: A case report].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, C; Smadja, S; Amselem, O; Gay, O; Marcellin, L; Gaillard, R; Mignon, A

    2013-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders may complicate the pregnancy and is one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbidity. We report the case of a patient with severe decompensated schizophrenia during her pregnancy that required prolonged hospitalization in psychiatric ward. The psychiatric status of the patient required the realization of a caesarean section at 36 weeks of amenorrhea. In our case, we decided to perform this cesarean section under general anaesthesia, since regional anaesthesia was not feasible in this patient in a state of uncontrolled agitation. Moreover, general anaesthesia permitted to combine cesarean section with a first session of electroconvulsive therapy, which had been declined during pregnancy. Given the huge amount of antipsychotic agents administered to the patient, we also studied their transplacental transfer and found a very high loxapine concentration in the fetus. Finally, this case raised several important ethical issues related to the management of the mother and her fetus in case of severe psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Mother knows best? Comparing primiparous parturients' expectations and predictions with actual birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Shikma; Benyamini, Yael; Ebrahimoff, Mindy; Many, Ariel

    2014-07-01

    The literature provides no clear evidence linking maternal optimism/pessimism to birth outcomes. Our objective was to determine whether maternal expectations and predictions regarding mode of delivery and epidural anesthesia aligned with birth outcomes. Primiparous, low-risk pregnant women at term filled in questionnaires in which they rated their chances of a vaginal delivery (VD) or a cesarean section (CS), and their intention to receive epidural anesthesia. Their responses were compared to actual outcomes. Pre-birth perceptions of odds of delivery by a CS were significantly higher (P=0.04) among women who eventually had a vacuum extraction (VE) or CS as a result of an arrest disorder, compared with women who had a VD and those who had a CS or a VE due to non-reassuring fetal heart monitor. Intention to receive epidural anesthesia was significantly lower (P<0.001) among women who gave birth without it. The pessimistic pre-birth perceptions of women of high odds for a CS may be related to an increased risk of arrest disorders of labor. However, the prenatal assessments of primiparous women are poor predictors of their demand for epidural anesthesia during labor. Larger-scale studies to determine whether pre-partum psychological interventions may contribute to the process of labor and improve obstetric outcomes are warranted.

  19. Opioids in the parturient with chronic nonmalignant pain: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Ibrahim; da Silva, Orlando; Natale, Renato; Boyd, David; Morley-Forster, Patricia K

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the neonatal outcomes of women who had been taking medically prescribed opioids throughout their pregnancy. A retrospective case study was done of 15 pregnancies associated with maternal opiate use between January 1, 1999, and September 30, 2002. Two cases were excluded due to coaddiction. Neonatal data were collected including gestational age, head circumference, length, birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes, details of resuscitation required, and Neonatal Abstinence Score. There were 13 pregnancies, which resulted in 13 live births; opioids prescribed included oxycodone, codeine, meperidine, fentanyl, dilaudid, morphine, and methadone. There were four babies with one-minute Apgar score = -5, and two babies with five-minute Apgar score = 5. It was concluded that neonatal growth markers in this population were within normal limits as plotted on the standard growth and development record of Gairdner-Pearson. Five out of 13 (38.5 percent) neonates were diagnosed with opioid discontinuation syndrome.

  20. Anesthetic management of urgent cesarean delivery in a parturient with acute malaria infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Anna, Antonio Maria; Catarci, Stefano; Frassanito, Luciano; Vagnoni, Salvatore; Draisci, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Nonetheless, several cases of malaria have been reported in Western countries involving travelers from endemic areas, though very few involve pregnant women. In this article, we report a case of a young woman born in Sierra Leone who had been living in Italy for two years. She was admitted to our hospital with malaise; worsening of her condition led to Plasmodium falciparum infection diagnosis early during her hospital stay, as well as an urgent cesarean delivery. We briefly discuss the features of malaria in pregnancy, the difficulties associated with early diagnosis, and the possible fetal and maternal implications, and also consider how the disease may affect anesthetic management. PMID:27066212

  1. Vitamin B12 among parturients and their newborns and its relationship with birthweight.

    PubMed

    Fréry, N; Huel, G; Leroy, M; Moreau, T; Savard, R; Blot, P; Lellouch, J

    1992-07-24

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is an essential nutrient in the diet of humans, particularly during pregnancy, nevertheless very few epidemiological studies have been reported, particularly concerning variation factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of vitamin B12 on birthweight after taking into account potential confounders, such as obstetrical, socioeconomic, and biological factors which will be identified. This study was conducted on 188 single births occurring during a 5-month period in an obstetrical care unit in Paris. Vitamin B12 plasma levels and folate plasma levels of mothers and cords along with haematological parameters were measured. Social and obstetrical features of the mothers as well as their tobacco exposure and alcohol consumption were recorded. Cord blood vitamin B12 levels were highly correlated with maternal levels (r = 0.63, P less than 0.001) and were 2-3-fold higher. Three variation factors of vitamin B12 were identified: maternal age, ethnicity and tobacco exposure. Negative correlations between birthweight and vitamin B12 levels were observed only among the smoker group (r mothers = -0.46, P less than 0.05 and r cords = -0.42, P less than 0.05). After adjustment for ethnicity and parity, birthweight remained negatively linked to vitamin B12 in smokers. This relationship could suggest that the availability of vitamin B12 for fetal development depends on certain biological factors present only in mothers who smoked. We hypothesized this relationship could be explained, in part, by lipid metabolism, particular to smokers.

  2. [Awareness of the methods of primary and secondary childbirth trauma prevention among parturients].

    PubMed

    Veverková, A; Kališ, V; Rušavý, Z

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of fresh mothers regarding the primary prevention of pelvic floor disorders after childbirth. The secondary objective was to identify sources of information, reality of childbirth trauma prevention and attitude to pelvic floor muscle training. Prospective survey study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital and Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Charles University. We included 202 women after a vaginal delivery at our center from 6/2015 to 12/2015. These women completed anonymous questionnaire with six questions. 83% of respondents were informed regarding the possibility of primary prevention of childbirth, nulliparas were informed better (88%). The main source of information was the Internet (46%), while only 5% of women received information from their doctor. Despite the high awareness of postpartum trauma prevention, less than half of interviewed women actually performed it (35%). The most widely used method was the massage of the perineum (29%), vaginal dilatation balloons were used less (7%) and alternative methods were pursued by only 4% of women. Experience with pelvic floor muscle exercises had 79% of women, while 90% wanted to exercise after the delivery. Awareness of mothers regarding primary and secondary prevention of pelvic floor disorders is satisfactory. Nevertheless, the information from doctors is inadequate. Despite high awareness, the antepartum prevention methods are used relatively rarely. The study clearly shows the level of awareness and reality of primary and secondary prevention of pelvic floor disorders in our region.

  3. Anesthetic management of a parturient with type III Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsu, G; Manabat, E; Huffnagle, S; Huffnagle, H J

    2011-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is believed to occur from failure of normal segmentation of cervical somites during gestation. We present the case of a 38-year-old primiparous woman with type III Klippel-Feil syndrome for elective cesarean delivery. Our patient had a short webbed neck, short stature, limited neck flexion and extension, and thoraco-lumbar abnormalities. A multidisciplinary approach, involving obstetrics, medical subspecialties, anesthesiology, otolaryngology, and radiology, were utilized to evaluate and manage this patient. Pulmonary function testing revealed a restrictive defect, but transthoracic echocardiography was normal without pulmonary hypertension. We planned a combined spinal-epidural technique; however, only the epidural technique was obtained. Cesarean delivery was commenced with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Post-operative pain management was provided with intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia.

  4. Epidural anesthesia for repeat cesarean delivery in a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen A; Ray, Adrienne P

    2011-07-01

    A patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, morbid obesity, and scoliosis required cesarean delivery. Her previous cesarean deliveries were performed under general anesthesia. She desired a regional technique. Following aspiration prophylaxis and placement of standard monitors, ultrasound was used to identify midline and L(2-3) interspace. Unintentional dural puncture occurred at 10 cm, with an inability to advance the catheter. On second attempt, an epidural catheter was placed easily. After negative test dose, 18 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine was administered to the patient. A T4 level was achieved. The patient tolerated surgery well. Complete block resolution occurred at 4 hours with no neurologic sequelae.

  5. Meralgia paresthetica affecting parturient women who underwent cesarean section -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kum Hee; Ko, Tong Kyun; Park, Chung Hyun; Chun, Duk Hee; Yang, Hyeon Jeong; Gill, Hyun Jue; Kim, Min Ku

    2010-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is commonly caused by a focal entrapment of lateral femoral cuteneous nerve while it passes the inguinal ligament. Common symptoms are paresthesias and numbness of the upper lateral thigh area. Pregnancy, tight cloths, obesity, position of surgery and the tumor in the retroperitoneal space could be causes of meralgia paresthetica. A 29-year-old female patient underwent an emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia without any problems. But two days after surgery, the patient complained numbness and paresthesia in anterolateral thigh area. Various neurological examinations and L-spine MRI images were all normal, but the symptoms persisted for a few days. Then, electromyogram and nerve conduction velocity test of the trunk and both legs were performed. Test results showed left lateral cutaneous nerve injury and meralgia paresthetica was diagnosed. Conservative treatment was implemented and the patient was free of symptoms after 1 month follow-up. PMID:21286469

  6. Meralgia paresthetica affecting parturient women who underwent cesarean section -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kum Hee; Lee, Jong Yeon; Ko, Tong Kyun; Park, Chung Hyun; Chun, Duk Hee; Yang, Hyeon Jeong; Gill, Hyun Jue; Kim, Min Ku

    2010-12-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is commonly caused by a focal entrapment of lateral femoral cuteneous nerve while it passes the inguinal ligament. Common symptoms are paresthesias and numbness of the upper lateral thigh area. Pregnancy, tight cloths, obesity, position of surgery and the tumor in the retroperitoneal space could be causes of meralgia paresthetica. A 29-year-old female patient underwent an emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia without any problems. But two days after surgery, the patient complained numbness and paresthesia in anterolateral thigh area. Various neurological examinations and L-spine MRI images were all normal, but the symptoms persisted for a few days. Then, electromyogram and nerve conduction velocity test of the trunk and both legs were performed. Test results showed left lateral cutaneous nerve injury and meralgia paresthetica was diagnosed. Conservative treatment was implemented and the patient was free of symptoms after 1 month follow-up.

  7. Observations on the alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme distribution in maternal and amniotic fluid compartments in Nigerian parturients.

    PubMed

    Okpere, E; Okorodudu, A; Gbinigie, O

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of the alkaline phosphates isoenzymes in paired maternal serum and amniotic fluids in term uncomplicated pregnancies and in patients with pre-eclampsia, showed poor correlation coefficients between the levels of both heat stable and heat labile isoenzymes. There was a statistically significant fall in AF (P less than .05) HSAP in pre-eclampsia and a highly significant rise of HLAP in meconial liquor. It is concluded that the poor correlation between the levels of HSAP in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (despite their common source of origin), the normal levels of HLAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly high levels of HSAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly diminished levels in amniotic fluid point to a state of relatively diminished permeability of the chorioamniotic membranes to the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in Nigerians.

  8. Factors Affecting Fecal Egg Counts in Peri-parturient Katahdin Ewes and Their Lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selection for low fecal egg counts (FEC) can be used to genetically enhance resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in growing lambs, thereby reducing the frequency of use of anthelmintics, facilitating marketing of organic lamb, and reducing the risk of development of anthelmintic resista...

  9. Practical approach to problems of the parturient diabetic in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, C

    1977-01-01

    Improved management of diabetic pregnancies at Lautoka Hospital, Fiji, in 1976 resulted in a neonatal survival rate of 100%. Management included attempts to control the maternal blood glucose concentrations with insulin and delaying delivery until there was enough surfactant in the liquor to ensure a viable infant. The techniques are simple to use and require only minimal technological facilities. PMID:922426

  10. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches.

    PubMed

    Veiga, G A L; Milazzotto, M P; Nichi, M; Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Angrimani, D S R; Vannucchi, C I

    2015-04-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs.

  11. Combined Spinal-Epidural for Vaginal Delivery in a Parturient With Takayasu’s Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Sean Patrick; Mick, Paul Brian; Derhake, Brian Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu’s arteritis is a rare, progressive panendarteritis involving all layers of the arterial wall. This disease includes variable involvement of the aorta and its major branches. The most common complication with this condition is severe, uncontrolled hypertension, often leading to end organ dysfunction. We describe the management of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with Takayasu’s arteritis that presented in labor with intense pain and underwent a combined spinal-epidural for anesthetic management. Per literature review, a combined spinal-epidural technique for planned vaginal delivery has not been described for a laboring Takayasu patient. Our technique, utilizing intrathecal opioids and a low-dose local anesthetic-opioid epidural infusion, provided adequate analgesia while maintaining hemodynamic stability throughout labor augmentation and successful vaginal delivery. PMID:28210635

  12. Complete Heart Block in Pregnancy: A Report of Emergency Caesarean Section in a Parturient without Pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Panda, Aparajita; Behera, Satyanarayan; Behera, Jagadish Chandra

    2016-10-01

    Management of women with Complete Heart Block (CHB) presenting without pacing, during pregnancy and labour is debatable. Temporary pacemakers have been routinely inserted for labour and birth probably to withstand any haemodynamic variations. However, due to lack of large scale prospective studies, the necessity of this procedure has not been objectively assessed. Also, the most appropriate anaesthetic technique for caesarean section in women with CHB is yet to be clarified. We report herein the case of a pregnant woman with CHB who had uneventful emergency caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia without temporary pacing. She was an unbooked case detected with congenital CHB first time during active labour; echocardiography showed no structural cardiac disease and her heart rate increased with atropine. We suggest further research so that guidelines could be established to prevent unnecessary morbidity and expense of temporary pacemaker insertion. Newly diagnosed cases of asymptomatic CHB in late pregnancy should be worked up for chronotropic responsiveness using atropine and responsive cases may be managed without pacemaker.

  13. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, G.A.L.; Milazzotto, M.P.; Nichi, M.; Lúcio, C.F.; Silva, L.C.G.; Angrimani, D.S.R.; Vannucchi, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. PMID:25714892

  14. Complete Heart Block in Pregnancy: A Report of Emergency Caesarean Section in a Parturient without Pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Aparajita; Behera, Satyanarayan; Behera, Jagadish Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Management of women with Complete Heart Block (CHB) presenting without pacing, during pregnancy and labour is debatable. Temporary pacemakers have been routinely inserted for labour and birth probably to withstand any haemodynamic variations. However, due to lack of large scale prospective studies, the necessity of this procedure has not been objectively assessed. Also, the most appropriate anaesthetic technique for caesarean section in women with CHB is yet to be clarified. We report herein the case of a pregnant woman with CHB who had uneventful emergency caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia without temporary pacing. She was an unbooked case detected with congenital CHB first time during active labour; echocardiography showed no structural cardiac disease and her heart rate increased with atropine. We suggest further research so that guidelines could be established to prevent unnecessary morbidity and expense of temporary pacemaker insertion. Newly diagnosed cases of asymptomatic CHB in late pregnancy should be worked up for chronotropic responsiveness using atropine and responsive cases may be managed without pacemaker. PMID:27891405

  15. [Analgesia for labour and delivery in a parturient with paramytonia congenita].

    PubMed

    Frossard, B; Combret, C; Benhamou, D

    2013-05-01

    A patient presenting with paramyotonia congenita (Eulenburg's paramyotonia) was seen at the preanaesthetic visit during pregnancy. The underlying disease was known for years. Analysis of the literature and advice taken from specialists emphasized the safe use of regional anaesthesia and analgesia which was indeed used for labour and delivery without any complication. By contrast, the limited information available on the use of general anaesthesia suggests the risks associated with the use of succinylcholine and possibly with halogenated agents. Additional and useful factors that may limit the occurrence of myotonic crises such as maintenance of normal temperature and plasma potassium concentration, should be undertaken simultaneously. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. [Experimental studies on the suppression of the stapedius reflex in comparison with EMG-results in idiopathic facial paresis].

    PubMed

    Javor, P; Bernath, O; Ludin, H P

    1976-01-01

    The recording of intra-aural muscle reflexes elicited by acoustic stimulation is a routine method in clinical audiology. The most important quantitative examinations of the reflex dynamic, i.e. Metz recruitment and reflex decay in low frequencies, allow the judgement of function of the afferent pathway in the stimulated inner ear and acoustic nerve. Quantitative determinations of the efferent branch were carried out by several authors in a few normal subjects and in several patients with multiple sclerosis or facial palsy. Absolute acoustic impedance - a method yielding wide scattering - was used in order to determine changes in reflex activity in pathological conditions. In the first part of our investigations we tried to find a parameter or reflex dynamic allowing to characterize the functional capacity in the efferent part of the reflex arch in the facial nerve. We examined particularly the steepness of the onset of recorded reflex. Statistical analysis showed an extraordinary stability of this parameter in normal and pathological conditions. Measurements in normal subjects yielded very small intra- and inter-individual variability. In the second part of our experiments we studied normal-hearing patients with unilateral Bells palsy. In the early phase of the lesion we found a significant decrease of the onset steepness in the reflex diagram recorded on the paralyzed side. The greatest reduction of this parameter was seen with a 1,000-Hz stimulus. The time course of the alteration of the onset steepness also seems to have a characteristis pattern. In a further investigation we compared the variations of this reflex parameter with findings in stimultaneously recorded electroneuronograms.

  17. Identification of a novel mutation in the spastin gene (SPG4) in an Italian family with hereditary spastic paresis.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, M; Cecchin, S; Lorusso, L; Sidoti, V; Fabbri, A; Lapucci, C; Buda, A; Pandolfo, M

    2006-09-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) includes a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by progressive spasticity and hyper-reflexia of the lower limbs. Autosomal dominant HSP type 4 is the most common clinical form, accounting for about 40-50% of autosomal dominant HSP families. This form is due to mutation of the gene encoding spastin (SPG4), an ATP-ase associated with a variety of cellular function (AAA). Here we describe a novel missense mutation (1297T>C; 391L>P) in exon 8 of SPG4 gene, identified in 2 members (mother and son) of an Italian family with autosomal dominant HSP, clinically pure in the mother and complicated in the son. The mutation lies in a highly conserved AAA box domain between amino acids 342 and 599 in spastin sequence. In both patients, this novel mutation was associated with the absence of relatively common clinical characteristics, such as vibratory sensory deficit and loss of sphincter control, and partial temporal epilepsy, particularly in the son, with infantile onset, secondarily generalised and moderately severe neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  18. [Depressor anguli oris sign (DAO) in facial paresis. How to search it and release the smile (technical note)].

    PubMed

    Labbé, D; Bénichou, L; Iodice, A; Giot, J-P

    2012-06-01

    After facial paralysis recovery, it is common to note a co-contraction between depressor anguli oris (DAO) muscle and zygomatic muscles. This DAO co-contraction will "obstruct" the patient's smile. The purpose of this technical note is to show how to find the DAO sign and how to free up the smile. TECHNICAL: This co-contraction between the zygomatic muscles and DAO research is placing a finger on marionette line, asking the patient to smile: we perceive a rope under the skin corresponding to the abnormal contraction and powerful DAO. A diagnostic test with lidocaine injection into the DAO can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment of pathological DAO's contraction can be by injection of botulinum toxin in the DAO, or by surgical myectomy. In all cases, a speech therapy complete the treatment. The DAO sign is a semiological entity easy to find. His treatment releases smile without negative effect on the facial expression as the DAO is especially useful in the expression of disgust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Distal hereditary motor neuropathy with vocal cord paresis: from difficulty in choral singing to a molecular genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gillian; Barwick, Katy E S; Hartley, Louise; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H; Llewelyn, Gareth; Morris, Huw R

    2016-06-01

    Patients presenting with distal weakness can be a diagnostic challenge; the eventual diagnosis often depends upon accurate clinical phenotyping. We present a mother and daughter with a rare form of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7 in whom the diagnosis became apparent by initial difficulty in singing, from early vocal cord dysfunction. This rare neuropathy has now been identified in two apparently unrelated families in Wales. This family's clinical presentation is typical of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7, and they have the common truncating mutation in the SLC5A7 gene. Advances in genetic analysis of these rare conditions broaden our understanding of their potential molecular mechanisms and may allow more directed therapy.

  20. Facilitating robot-assisted training in MS patients with arm paresis: a procedure to individually determine gravity compensation.

    PubMed

    Bastiaens, H; Alders, G; Feys, P; Notelaers, S; Coninx, K; Kerkhofs, L; Truyens, V; Geers, R; Goedhart, A

    2011-01-01

    Gravity compensation (GC) of the arm is used to facilitate arm movements in conventional therapy as well as in robot-assisted rehabilitation of neurologically impaired persons. Positive effects of GC on Range of Motion (ROM) have been demonstrated in stroke. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), research regarding this topic is lacking. Since an active participation of the patient is required for effective training, full support of the arm might not be advisable. The present study reports on the development of a procedure to measure actively the individual need for GC and to estimate the influence of GC on ROM during reaching, lifting and transporting in severely affected Persons with MS (PwMS). Ten PwMS were tested with the procedure for determination of GC. Maximal reaching movements were performed in a 3D space in three conditions: No support (NS), with GC by the HapticMaster (GC-HM) and with GC by the HapticMaster combined with a sling suspension system (GC-HMS). For the total sample, significant correlations were found between the amount of GC and clinical tests for upper limb function. In four subjects with severe arm dysfunction it was found that mean ROM is larger in the GC-HMS condition compared to the GC-HM condition, and in the GC-HM condition compared to the NS condition, suggesting positive effects of GC on active ROM in PwMS. Therefore, GC could have a positive effect on arm rehabilitation by enabling the PwMS to actively reach a larger ROM during training.

  1. A Thalamic-Fronto-Parietal Structural Covariance Network Emerging in the Course of Recovery from Hand Paresis after Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Abela, Eugenio; Missimer, John H; Federspiel, Andrea; Seiler, Andrea; Hess, Christian Walter; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Wiest, Roland; Weder, Bruno J

    2015-01-01

    To describe structural covariance networks of gray matter volume (GMV) change in 28 patients with first-ever stroke to the primary sensorimotor cortices, and to investigate their relationship to hand function recovery and local GMV change. Tensor-based morphometry maps derived from high-resolution structural images were subject to principal component analyses to identify the networks. We calculated correlations between network expression and local GMV change, sensorimotor hand function and lesion volume. To verify which of the structural covariance networks of GMV change have a significant relationship to hand function, we performed an additional multivariate regression approach. Expression of the second network, explaining 9.1% of variance, correlated with GMV increase in the medio-dorsal (md) thalamus and hand motor skill. Patients with positive expression coefficients were distinguished by significantly higher GMV increase of this structure during stroke recovery. Significant nodes of this network were located in md thalamus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and higher order sensorimotor cortices. Parameter of hand function had a unique relationship to the network and depended on an interaction between network expression and lesion volume. Inversely, network expression is limited in patients with large lesion volumes. Chronic phase of sensorimotor cortical stroke has been characterized by a large scale co-varying structural network in the ipsilesional hemisphere associated specifically with sensorimotor hand skill. Its expression is related to GMV increase of md thalamus, one constituent of the network, and correlated with the cortico-striato-thalamic loop involved in control of motor execution and higher order sensorimotor cortices. A close relation between expression of this network with degree of recovery might indicate reduced compensatory resources in the impaired subgroup.

  2. Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: do the time of diagnosis and delivery route affect pregnancy outcome in parturients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed

    Yuce, T; Acar, D; Kalafat, E; Alkilic, A; Cetindag, E; Soylemez, F

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the determining effects of diagnosis time on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Records of all the pregnant women with thrombocytopenia were evaluated. Those with a confirmed diagnosis of ITP were included in the study. Main outcome measures were antenatal thrombocyte count, postpartum haemorrhage rate, and route of delivery. Foetal outcomes such as foetal thrombocyte count, haemorrhage, and birth weight were also reported as secondary outcome measures. Time of diagnosis either antenatal or preconception did not significantly alter the investigated parameters. Delivery route had no impact on complication rates. Time of diagnosis also did not affect treatment modality. ITP is rare disorder accounting for less than 5 % of all pregnant thrombocytopenias. Time of diagnosis does not affect maternal-foetal outcomes or treatment modality unless diagnosis is made during labour. Compared to gestational thrombocytopenia, treatment rates may differ but treatment modalities remain the same and the effort put into making the differential should be weighed against maternal stress factors for lengthy laboratory evaluation as long as the thrombocytopenia is of pure nature without any systemic involvement.

  3. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Camelo, J S; Jorge, S M; Martinez, F E

    2004-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher). The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  4. Evaluation of parturient perception and aversion before and after primary cesarean delivery in a low-resource country.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Abiodun S; Aboyeji, Abiodun P; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Balogun, Olayinka R; Adesina, Kikelomo T; Isiaka-Lawal, Salamat

    2016-01-01

    To determine the perception of and aversion to cesarean delivery (CD) and their determinants before and after primary CD. A prospective cross-sectional survey of pregnant women undergoing primary CD (elective or emergency) was conducted in six health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria. All participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire before the operation and 3-4days thereafter. The statistical analysis included the calculation of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and a logistic regression. Of the 254 participants, 182 (71.7%) and 53 (20.9%) had an aversion to CD before and after the procedure, respectively. A woman's personal decision was the overriding factor influencing acceptance of the operation. Preoperative predictors of aversion were prenatal admission (OR 2.86 [95% CI,1.07-7.66]; P=0.030) and a history of previous surgery (OR 0.42 [95% CI, 0.24-0.75]; P=0.003), whereas postoperatively a low number of prenatal clinic visits (less than four; OR 3.05 [95% CI,1.63-5.69]; P=0.001) and a history of previous surgery (OR 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.96]; P=0.034) were significant. Postprocedure, 164 (64.6%) women said they would accept a repeat CD. Patient education, prenatal care, and previous surgical experiences were important in determining women's perception of and aversion to CD. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Regional anaesthesia for labor adn delivery in a parturient with neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (tomaculous neuropathy)].

    PubMed

    Berdai, S; Benhamou, D

    2004-10-01

    Tomaculous neuropathy (or hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy [HNLPP]) is a rare and hereditary disease which incidence has probably been underestimated. It is characterised by demyelination resulting in numbness and weakness after nerve pressure, injury or stretch. Despite a well-documented genetic pathophysiologic mechanism, implications for anaesthesia in patients with HNLPP are only speculative and the use of regional anaesthesia is debatable. We report here the case of a patient with HNLPP who was followed during two consecutive pregnancies in the same hospital and for whom an expert of the SOS-RA hotline service was consulted before each delivery. For the first delivery, epidural analgesia was performed for labour pain control but a caesarean section was necessary because of failure to progress (0.0625% bupivacaine with 0.2 microg/ml sufentanil for labour then 2% lidocaine with adrenaline for surgery). Two years later, the patient was again seen for a preanaesthetic visit because elective Caesarean section was planned. Spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine and sufentanil was used. Both deliveries were uneventful and there were no neurologic complaints in the postpartum periods.

  6. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for urgent cesarean section in a parturient with a single ventricle: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sbaraglia, Fabio; Zanfini, Bruno Antonio; Vagnoni, Salvatore; Frassanito, Luciano; Draisci, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The number of women with major congenital heart defects reaching reproductive age is likely increasing. We herein describe the anesthetic management of a 33-year-old woman at 37 gestational weeks with a history of Glenn surgery who was undergoing an urgent cesarean section due to pathological cardiotocography. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was the most suitable technique for urgent cesarean section in our patient with a single ventricle and phasic flow in the pulmonary artery because it provided rapid-onset anesthesia with negligible hemodynamic effects. PMID:27924207

  7. Comparison of Remifentanil and Fentanyl Regarding Hemodynamic Changes Due to Endotracheal Intubation in Preeclamptic Parturient Candidate for Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pournajafian, Alireza; Rokhtabnak, Faranak; Kholdbarin, Alireza; Ghodrati, Mohammadreza; Ghavam, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Background Intravenous opioids are administered to prevent and control hemodynamic changes due to endotracheal intubation. Except for special cases such as preeclampsia, these drugs are not recommended for parturants candidate for cesarean section because of the respiratory depression caused in the newborn. Objectives According to rapid metabolism of remifentanil, the current study aimed to compare hemodynamic changes in preeclamptic parturants who received remifentanil and fentanyl for cesarean section under general anesthesia. Patients and Methods This single blind randomized clinical trial was performed on preeclamptic pregnant women candidate for cesarean section under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups. In the first group 0.05 μg/kg/min remifentanil was infused for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia and in the second group 1ml (50 μg) fentanyl was injected before induction. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) before and after intubation and also Apgar index were measured and compared between the two groups. Results All hemodynamic variables increased after intubation in the fentanyl group (pSBP = 0.146, pDBP = 0.019, pHR < 0.001). Additionally, decrease in SBP (P = 0.018) and DBP (P = 0.955) and mild increase in HR (P = 0.069) after intubation in the remifentanil group was observed. No significant difference was found between Apgar indexes of the two groups (P = 0.771). Conclusions It can be postulated that remifentanil can be used in partituents candidate for cesarean delivery under general anesthesia to prevent severe increase in blood pressure and heart rate during tracheal intubation without adverse effects on newborn. PMID:24223345

  8. Uterine blood flow in sheep and goats during the peri-parturient period assessed by transrectal Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Elmetwally, Mohammed; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate uterine blood flow (UBF) during the postpartum period in small ruminants. The study involved measures of UBF in 5 ewes and 5 goats during the first 4 weeks after parturition. Transrectal quantification of UBF was assessed by determining the diameter (DM), time averaged mean velocity (TAMEAN), blood flow volume (BFV), blood flow acceleration (ACCE) and pulsatility index (PI) in the uterine arteries ipsilateral to the previously gravid uterine horn(s) at Wk 20 of gestation and every 3days from the day of parturition (D 0) until Day 27 postpartum (D 27). The diameters of the uterine arteries decreased (P<0.01) in both species during the postpartum period. The results revealed decreases (P<0.0001) in BFV, ACCE and TAMEAN, while PI increased during the postpartum period in both sheep and goats. Furthermore, there were positive correlations (P<0.05) between blood flow parameters in sheep and goats, respectively (BFV and DM, r=0.62 and 0.58; BFV and ACCE, r=0.32 and 0.26; BFV and TAMEAN, r=0.51 and 0.37). There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between PI and other parameters (PI and BFV, r=-0.39 and -0.36; PI and DM, r=-0.54 and -0.24; PI and ACCE, r=-0.58 and -0.48; and PI and TAMEAN, r=-0.80 and -0.79) in sheep and goats, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that non-invasive Doppler ultrasound parameters provide important information toward understanding changes in the vasculature and its perfusion of the uterus during the postpartum period in sheep and goats.

  9. A Novel Telometric Metric for In-Situ Measurement of Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) in Pregnant and Parturient Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; LaFramboise, M. N.; Hills, E. M.; Daly, M. E.; Mills, N. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During labor and birth, considerable forces exerted on fetuses help instigate certain adaptive postpartum responses (viz., breathing and suckling). To make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in late pregnant rats. A small (1.25 x 4cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor is fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. The balloon is surgically implanted in the uterus on Gestational Day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. During birth, dams are able to deliver their pups and the balloon. IUP arsenals are recorded during labor (G22 or 23) and birth. Data derived from a group of implanted rats indicated that pressures on the balloon increased across the period of birth, reaching 18 mmHg during labor, 25 mmHg during pup births and 39 mmHg just prior to delivery of the balloon. These data are within the range reported for conventional IUP measurement techniques. Dams are simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to analyze behavioral expressions of labor contractions and to integrate in-situ and behavioral findings.

  10. The impact of lambing stress on post-parturient behaviour of sheep with consequences on neonatal homeothermy and survival.

    PubMed

    Darwish, R A; Ashmawy, T A M

    2011-10-01

    During lambing the expression of an appropriate behavioural response from both the ewe and the lamb are extremely important to lamb survival. The aim of this study was to show the effect of length and difficulty of the birth process on the expression of maternal and neonatal behaviour with consequences on homeothermy and survival of the neonate lamb. Data were collected from 61 Finnish Landrace × Rahmani crossbred (second generation) primiparous ewes and their single born lambs. Based on the average length of parturition, the ewes were grouped into short birth (less than 32.5 min) and long birth (equal to or higher than 32.5 min) classes. The data recorded include maternal and neonatal behaviour, lamb body temperature over the first 3 days of life and survival rate of the neonate lamb during the first week after birth. Blood samples were also collected from the lamb, pre-suckling and at 24 and 72 h after birth. The obtained sera were assayed for thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) that are associated with heat production. Ewes that had prolonged and difficult births did not show competent maternal behaviour compared to mothers with short and un-complicated deliveries, as they were slower to begin grooming their lambs after birth, spent less time licking their lambs, made less low-pitched vocalizations and nosing, were more likely to show rejection behaviour (10.34 % vs 5.4 %, P < 0.05), and were more likely to move away when the lamb sought the udder in an attempt to suck (acceptance rate, 55.5 % vs 64.79 %, P < 0.05). Similarly, lambs from a prolonged and difficult birth were significantly less vigorous after birth, as they had taken more time to stand, reach the udder and to suck successfully. These lambs had lower serum concentrations of T(3) and T(4), and they also had a reduced ability to maintain body temperature after birth. This effect persisted over the first 3 days of life and was associated with higher neonatal mortality in the first week after birth (11.54 %), compared to lambs from short and non-stressful birth processes (2.86 %, P < 0.01). From the present study, it can be concluded that, prolonged deliveries with birthing difficulty were one of the main causes of death of large, single-born lambs, as these complications cause the expression of inappropriate behavioural responses from both the ewe and neonatal lamb. Thus, interventions designed to reduce the incidence of prolonged parturitions are likely to be associated with better welfare for the ewe and the lamb and consequently improved lamb homeothermy and survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Telometric Metric for In-Situ Measurement of Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) in Pregnant and Parturient Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; LaFramboise, M. N.; Hills, E. M.; Daly, M. E.; Mills, N. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During labor and birth, considerable forces exerted on fetuses help instigate certain adaptive postpartum responses (viz., breathing and suckling). To make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in late pregnant rats. A small (1.25 x 4cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor is fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. The balloon is surgically implanted in the uterus on Gestational Day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. During birth, dams are able to deliver their pups and the balloon. IUP arsenals are recorded during labor (G22 or 23) and birth. Data derived from a group of implanted rats indicated that pressures on the balloon increased across the period of birth, reaching 18 mmHg during labor, 25 mmHg during pup births and 39 mmHg just prior to delivery of the balloon. These data are within the range reported for conventional IUP measurement techniques. Dams are simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to analyze behavioral expressions of labor contractions and to integrate in-situ and behavioral findings.

  12. Morbidly obese parturient: Challenges for the anaesthesiologist, including managing the difficult airway in obstetrics. What is new?

    PubMed

    Rao, Durga Prasada; Rao, Venkateswara A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fundamental aspects of obesity, pregnancy and a combination of both. The scientific aim is to understand the physiological changes, pathological clinical presentations and application of technical skills and pharmacological knowledge on this unique clinical condition. The goal of this presentation is to define the difficult airway, highlight the main reasons for difficult or failed intubation and propose a practical approach to management Throughout the review, an important component is the necessity for team work between the anaesthesiologist and the obstetrician. Certain protocols are recommended to meet the anaesthetic challenges and finally concluding with "what is new?" in obstetric anaesthesia.

  13. Comparison of remifentanil and fentanyl regarding hemodynamic changes due to endotracheal intubation in preeclamptic parturient candidate for cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Pournajafian, Alireza; Rokhtabnak, Faranak; Kholdbarin, Alireza; Ghodrati, Mohammadreza; Ghavam, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous opioids are administered to prevent and control hemodynamic changes due to endotracheal intubation. Except for special cases such as preeclampsia, these drugs are not recommended for parturants candidate for cesarean section because of the respiratory depression caused in the newborn. According to rapid metabolism of remifentanil, the current study aimed to compare hemodynamic changes in preeclamptic parturants who received remifentanil and fentanyl for cesarean section under general anesthesia. This single blind randomized clinical trial was performed on preeclamptic pregnant women candidate for cesarean section under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups. In the first group 0.05 μg/kg/min remifentanil was infused for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia and in the second group 1ml (50 μg) fentanyl was injected before induction. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) before and after intubation and also Apgar index were measured and compared between the two groups. All hemodynamic variables increased after intubation in the fentanyl group (pSBP = 0.146, pDBP = 0.019, pHR < 0.001). Additionally, decrease in SBP (P = 0.018) and DBP (P = 0.955) and mild increase in HR (P = 0.069) after intubation in the remifentanil group was observed. No significant difference was found between Apgar indexes of the two groups (P = 0.771). It can be postulated that remifentanil can be used in partituents candidate for cesarean delivery under general anesthesia to prevent severe increase in blood pressure and heart rate during tracheal intubation without adverse effects on newborn.

  14. [Anesthetic Management of a Parturient with Eclampsia, Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Pulmonary Edema due to Pregnancy-induced Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Aida, Junko; Okutani, Hiroai; Oda, Yutaka; Okutani, Ryu

    2015-08-01

    A 27-year-old woman with mental retardation was admitted to a nearby hospital for an abrupt onset of seizure. Physical examination revealed remarkable hypertension and pregnancy with estimated gestational age of 28th week. Severe pulmonary edema and hypoxia led to a diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) accompanied by eclampsia. She was orotracheally intubated because of refractory seizure and hypoxemia, and transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Besides severe hypoxia and hypercapnea, an enhanced lesion was detected in the left posterior cerebrum by brain MRI. No abnormal findings were detected in the fetus, with heart rate of 150 beats x min. She was diagnosed with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) caused by PIH and emergency cesarean section under general anesthesia was scheduled. A male newborn was delivered with Apgar score of 1/4 (1/5 min), followed by starting continuous infusion of nicardipine for controlling hypertension. Chest X-P on completion of surgery revealed remarkably alleviated pulmonary edema. She received intensive treatment and continued positive pressure ventilation for four days after delivery. She recovered with no neurological deficits and her child was well without any complications.

  15. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in parturients at Boston City Hospital: implications for public health and obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Donegan, S P; Steger, K A; Recla, L; Hoff, R S; Werner, B G; Rice, P A; Craven, D E

    1992-09-01

    We measured the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in women seeking reproductive services. Demographic and risk behavior data from women were linked anonymously to human immunodeficiency virus antibody results. The overall human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity rate of cord blood was 22 per 1000. Crude seroprevalence rates were higher for black women versus white women (25/1000 vs 22/1000) but lower for black Americans versus white Americans (21/1000 vs 29/1000). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was significantly higher for those women who acknowledge intravenous drug use (odds ratio 12.9, 95% confidence interval 7.3 to 22.7), were born in Haiti (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.1), lacked prenatal care (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.2), or received prenatal care at the hospital clinic versus a neighborhood health center (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 5.3). The seroprevalence rates were 18/1000 for women seeking abortion and 16/1000 for women seeking family-planning services. Intravenous drug use and country of origin are major risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in women, which may explain differences in seroprevalence rates in various racial or ethnic groups. Hospital-specific data on human immunodeficiency virus infection may be useful for monitoring the epidemic and allocating resources for education, counseling, testing, and prevention.

  16. Resting Energy Expenditure in Patients with Stroke during the Subacute Phases - Relationships with Stroke Types, Location, Severity of Paresis, and Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Michiyuki; Liu, Meigen; Wada, Ayako; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi; Nishimura, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    The energy demands in patients with stroke during the subacute phases are unclear. However, this information is essential for appropriate clinical and nutritional management. The aims of this study were to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) during the subacute phases, examine its relationships with stroke types, location, severity of hemiparesis, and activities of daily living (ADL), and evaluate whether estimation of REE from the Harris-Benedict equation (HB) requires the addition of a 'stress factor' to capture possible additional REE imposed by stroke. We measured REE in 95 patients with subacute stroke (53.5 ± 16.6 days post-stroke) with indirect calorimetry, and compared it with predicted values of energy expenditure estimated from the HB (expressed as percentage). Patients were admitted for rehabilitation of their first ischemic or nonsurgical hemorrhagic stroke. The severity of hemiparesis was assessed with the motor items of the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS). The ADL was assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). We compared REE and %HB of the two groups divided by hemiparesis severity and ADL limitation using the Student's t-test, and those of the five groups divided by stroke location. The correlations between REE and the motor items of the SIAS and the FIM score were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation test. A multiple regression analysis for REE was conducted. The average body weight (BW) was 57.1 ± 11.3 kg. The average body mass index (BMI) was 22.5 ± 4.0. The mean REE (%HB) was 1,271 ± 284 kcal/day (106.0 ± 17.3%). REE and %HB of the low ADL group was less than that of the high ADL group (p < 0.05). The REE had a positive correlation with the FIM score (rs = 0.51, p < 0.01). The motor items of the SIAS were not significantly correlated with REE. BW, FIM, and stroke location were independent predictors of REE. Analysis of energy expenditure suggests that stroke patients are not hypermetabolic during the subacute phase. The 'stress factor' in stroke patients during the subacute phase was 1.0-1.1. This finding provides important information for improving nutritional management during the subacute phase in patients with stroke. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Specific features of the clinical picture and difficulties of diagnostics of laryngeal paresis and paralysis in the newborn babies, during breast feeding and early infancy].

    PubMed

    Vasina, A A; Radtsig, E Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare different methods for the endoscopic examination of the larynx in the newborn babies, during the period of breast feeding and early infancy. Special attention was given to differential diagnostics and the cases of the asymptomatic clinical curse of the disease. Case reports are presented, and the relevant literature data are analysed.

  18. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-07-20

    The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39,727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation.

  19. Using copper oxide wire particles or sericea lespedeza to prevent a peri-parturient rise of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to plague the small ruminant industry, especially parts of the world with warm, humid climates. Alternatives to chemicals are needed for GIN control because of anthelmintic resistance of GIN and a desire to reduce chemical residues in meat products. A stud...

  20. Successful Delivery by a Cesarean Section in a Parturient with Severe Dilated Cardiomyopathy, an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, and a Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Alnabti, Abdulrahman; Al-Ani, Fuad; Dabdoob, Wafer; Abdullatef, Waleed Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Repaired congenital heart disease has become more prevalent in women of childbearing age. We report an unusual case of a 24-year-old multigravida with a repaired tetralogy of Fallot, severe dilated cardiomyopathy, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement who was managed successfully by a cesarean section three times. This case underscores the impact of such events on maternal and fetal safety and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of pregnant patients with complex congenital and medical problems. PMID:21731806

  1. Role of acid-base physiology on the pathogenesis of parturient hypocalcaemia (milk fever)--the DCAD theory in principal and practice.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    2003-01-01

    The hypocalcemia associated with the clinical disease known as milk fever is due to a failure of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms in the cow to restore normal blood calcium concentration in a timely manner at the onset of lactation. The defect in calcium homeostasis appears to reside in the sensitivity of bone and kidney tissues to parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation. Evidence suggests the acid-base status of the cow dictates the sensitivity of the tissues to PTH stimulation, and that metabolic alkalosis is responsible for blunting tissue PTH responsiveness. Hypomagnesemia can also reduce tissue PTH responsiveness but hypomagnesemia can be corrected in most rations. Excessive dietary potassium is very common and is the most important factor causing metabolic alkalosis in dairy cows. Formulation of rations to reduce metabolic alkalosis and/or induce a compensated metabolic acidosis in the pre-partal cow has proved a useful strategy for prevention of milk fever. The concept of dietary cation-anion difference manipulation and the physiologic effects this can have in the cow are presented, with special emphasis on the Strong Ion Difference theory of acid-base physiology.

  2. The Use of Intermittent Auscultation in Parturients of Varying BMI Categories: Experience From a Mid-Sized Tertiary Care Obstetrical Unit.

    PubMed

    Sheth Thakkar, Sheila; Lammers, Stephanie; Hahn, Philip M; Waddington, Ashley

    2015-04-01

    Objectifs : Ce projet d’assurance de la qualité avait pour but de déterminer le nombre des patientes répondant aux critères nécessaires à la mise en œuvre d’une auscultation intermittente (AI) pendant le travail qui ont bel et bien fait l’objet d’un tel monitorage. Son objectif secondaire était de déterminer si le taux d’utilisation de l’AI dépend de l’IMC maternel. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une analyse de dossiers rétrospective auprès d’un échantillon de femmes ayant reçu des soins obstétricaux au Kingston General Hospital sur une période d’un an à partir du 31 juillet 2012. L’admissibilité a été déterminée au moyen des critères d’inclusion et d’exclusion décrits par les lignes directrices de l’hôpital sur l’auscultation intermittente. Résultats : Deux cent sept des 244 dossiers analysés dans le cadre de cette analyse ont répondu aux critères nécessaires à la mise en œuvre d’une AI. L’âge moyen des femmes étudiées était de 29,3 ans (plage : de 17 à 41 ans). Leur âge gestationnel moyen était de 39,6 semaines (plage : de 37 à 42 semaines). Cinquante-six pour cent (116/207) des femmes admissibles ont bel et bien fait l’objet d’une AI. Quarante-sept pour cent des femmes obèses admissibles (47/100) ont fait l’objet d’une AI, par comparaison avec 64,4 % des femmes présentant une surcharge pondérale (58/90). Cette différence (17,4 %) était significative sur le plan statistique (P = 0,019, test exact de Fisher). Conclusion : Cinquante-six pour cent (116/207) des femmes qui connaissaient une grossesse exposée à de faibles risques et que l’on estimait être admissibles à la mise en œuvre d’une AI plutôt qu’à celle d’un monitorage fœtal électronique ont bel et bien fait l’objet d’une AI. Les femmes obèses étaient moins susceptibles de faire l’objet d’une AI que les femmes présentant une surcharge pondérale. La tenue d’un plus grand nombre de recherches s’avère requise au sujet des obstacles à l’utilisation de l’AI chez les femmes admissibles, tant au sein de notre établissement qu’ailleurs.

  3. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective study. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Summary of Background Data: Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. Methods: This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Results: Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. Discussion: The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. Conclusions: A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy. PMID:26147699

  4. Effect of anionic salt and highly fermentable carbohydrate supplementations on urine pH and on experimentally induced hypocalcaemia in cows.

    PubMed

    Mellau, L S B; Jørgensen, R J; Bartlett, P C; Enemark, J M D; Hansen, A K

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of dietary grain on calcium homeostasis. Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows with 3 or more previous lactations and no history of parturient paresis were randomly assigned to a sequence of diets in a crossover study with 4 periods of 10 days each. Dietary treatments were: A control ration consisting of wrap grass silage alone (1), the control ration supplemented with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate salt solution (2), control ration following a period with supplementation (3) and control ration supplemented with increasing amounts of barley from 4 to 10 kg/cow per day, expected to produce subclinical rumen acidosis (4). Daily intake of the diets was adjusted to 14 kg DM/cow per day. On day 11, the calcium-regulating mechanisms in cows were challenged until recumbency by a standardized intravenous EDTA infusion and cows were left to recover spontaneously. Anion supplementation and the feeding of highly fermentable carbohydrate lowered urine pH below 7.0 due to subclinical acidosis. During spontaneous recovery from EDTA induced hypocalcaemia, the cows more quickly regained a whole blood free calcium concentration of 1.00 mmol/L if they had most recently been supplemented with either anionic salts or with increasing amounts of barley, as compared to the basic ration. It is concluded that so-called slug-feeding or 'steaming up' with highly fermentable carbohydrates before parturition in milk fever susceptible cows enhanced calcium homeostasis similar to the effect seen in cows on anionic diets.

  5. Effect of a metabolically created systemic acidosis on calcium homeostasis and the diurnal variation in urine pH in the non-lactating pregnant dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Dalley, Dawn E; O'Mara, Frank P

    2007-02-01

    Reducing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been shown to be an effective means of preventing parturient paresis in confinement systems where cows are offered a total mixed ration containing DCAD-reducing mineral compounds (anionic salts). Such a supplementation strategy is not possible in cows being group fed forages precalving, and little is known about the effect of supplementing these cows with large amounts of anionic salts twice daily. Eight non-lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were allocated to two levels of DCAD (-20 and +18 meq/100 g DM) for 24 d, with an intensive Ca balance undertaken in metabolism stalls following a 2-week acclimatization to diet. The basal diet was 3 kg DM of crushed barley and 7 kg DM of pasture-hay. Urine and faeces were collected separately, weighed daily for 5 d and analysed for Ca content. Urinary Ca, creatinine and hydroxyproline concentration and plasma Ca concentration were determined during the period of the balance study. The diurnal pattern in urine and rumen pH was determined over 2 d. Decreasing DCAD reduced (P<0.001) the pH of urine, and increased (P<0.05) Ca absorption. Plasma Ca concentration was not affected by DCAD, and DCAD did not affect the output of urinary hydroxyproline, a marker of bone resorption. Twice-daily supplementation of anionic salts was sufficient to reduce the pH of blood and increase gastrointestinal Ca absorption. There was no diurnal variation in the pH of urine, suggesting that time of sampling to determine efficacy of DCAD in reducing systemic pH was not important.

  6. Effect of Anionic Salt and Highly Fermentable Carbohydrate Supplementations on Urine pH and on Experimentally Induced Hypocalcaemia in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mellau, LSB; Jørgensen, RJ; Bartlett, PC; Enemark, JMD; Hansen, AK

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of dietary grain on calcium homeostasis. Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows with 3 or more previous lactations and no history of parturient paresis were randomly assigned to a sequence of diets in a crossover study with 4 periods of 10 days each. Dietary treatments were: A control ration consisting of wrap grass silage alone (1), the control ration supplemented with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate salt solution (2), control ration following a period with supplementation (3) and control ration supplemented with increasing amounts of barley from 4 to 10 kg/cow per day, expected to produce subclinical rumen acidosis (4). Daily intake of the diets was adjusted to 14 kg DM/cow per day. On day 11, the calcium-regulating mechanisms in cows were challenged until recumbency by a standardized intravenous EDTA infusion and cows were left to recover spontaneously. Anion supplementation and the feeding of highly fermentable carbohydrate lowered urine pH below 7.0 due to subclinical acidosis. During spontaneous recovery from EDTA induced hypocalcaemia, the cows more quickly regained a whole blood free calcium concentration of 1.00 mmol/L if they had most recently been supplemented with either anionic salts or with increasing amounts of barley, as compared to the basic ration. It is concluded that so-called slug-feeding or 'steaming up' with highly fermentable carbohydrates before parturition in milk fever susceptible cows enhanced calcium homeostasis similar to the effect seen in cows on anionic diets. PMID:15663074

  7. Neurosyphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting syphilis. People with general paresis can have personality or mood changes. Tabes dorsalis is characterized by ... getting syphilis. People with general paresis can have personality or mood changes. Tabes dorsalis is characterized by ...

  8. Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation.

  9. [Factors influencing first-colostrum calcium concentration in Holstein-Friesian cows and the relationship to postpartum calcium concentration].

    PubMed

    Karl, Maria; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2017-09-05

    variation. However, there was a possible influence through milk production and back-fat thickness, but this would not be beneficial with regard to prophylaxis of parturient paresis.

  10. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    PubMed

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  11. Anesthetic Management Guided by Transthoracic Echocardiography During Cesarean Delivery Complicated by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Jaclyn M; McKeen, Dolores Madeline; Warren, Andrew; Allen, Victoria M; George, Ronald B; Kells, Catherine; Shukla, Romesh

    2016-03-15

    We describe the management of a parturient woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed a symptomatic accelerated idioventricular rhythm who required an urgent cesarean delivery at 32 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography helped guide anesthetic management, including epidural dosing, fluid management, and phenylephrine infusion rates. This case demonstrates the application of transthoracic echocardiography to guide anesthetic management in a parturient woman at risk for cardiovascular compromise.

  12. Premature births in California sea lions: association with high organochlorine pollutant residue levels.

    PubMed

    DeLong, R; Gilmartin, W G; Simpson, J G

    1973-09-21

    Premature pupping in California sea lions has been noted on the breeding islands since 1968. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues were two to eight times higher in tissues of premature parturient females and pups than in similar tissues of full-term parturient females and pups collected on San Miguel Island in 1970.

  13. Obstetric Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Thistlewood, John M.

    1988-01-01

    This article deals with current knowledge about labour pain; the effects of labour pain on the parturient, the fetus, and uterine activity; the benefits and risks of the various labour-pain options; and the parturient's right to exercise informed choice of analgesia options. PMID:21253234

  14. Isolated Shoulder Weakness due to a Small Cortical Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Hyeon-Uk; Park, Hee Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Small cortical infarctions can produce isolated motor paresis in the upper extremities. Several cases of isolated hand or finger paresis have been reported, but isolated shoulder weakness is extremely rare. We report here a patient who developed isolated shoulder weakness due to a small cortical infarction in the medial precentral gyrus. PMID:20396510

  15. A comparison of upper airway parameters in postpartum patients: vaginal delivery vs. caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianying; Huang, Shaoqiang; Tian, Fubo; Sun, Shen; Li, Ning; Xie, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Mallampati class has been shown to increase during labour. The influence of delivery mode on this change is not known yet. The aim of our study is to investigate the changes of upper airway parameters in parturients after caesarean section and vaginal delivery. Ninety parturients undergoing elective caesarean section and ninety parturients with vaginal delivery were enrolled. The parameters of Modified Mallampati test (MMT), inter-incisor distance, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, neck circumference were measured before labour (T0) and 1 h (T1), 6 h (T6) and 24 h (T24) after delivery. Overall, 39 parturients (45.3%) with increases in MMT class in the vaginal delivery group within 24 h After childbirth, were more than that in the caesarean section group [24 parturients (26.7%), P=0.01]. In the vaginal delivery group, the incidence of the increases in MMT class at T1 and T6 were similar, which were higher than that at T24 (P=0.015). In the caesarean section group, the incidence of MMT class increases at T6 was significantly higher than that at T1 (P=0.015) and T24 (P=0.015). Our findings indicate that increase in Mallamapti class may be more significant and may take place earlier in parturients undergoing vaginal delivery than in those undergoing elective caesarean section. PMID:25664060

  16. [Vocal cord paralysis--analysis of a cohort of 400 patients].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Pickhard, A; Smith, E; Hansch, K; Weber, T; Hoffmann, T K; Brosch, S

    2015-02-01

    Vocal cord paralysis has diverse etiologies. In the present study, vocal chord paralysis caused by surgery/trauma was present in more than two thirds of the cases, followed by primary malignancy-associated paralysis. Thyroidectomy was the most common cause in bilateral paresis, especially if performed in recurrent or malignant disease. Voice therapy was promising in pa-tients with unilateral paresis and hoarseness as main symptom. Persistent dysphonia due to insufficiency of the glottic closure led to an operative glottis restricting procedure in only 6% of cases. In almost half the patients with dyspnea as the main symp-tom of bilateral vocal cord paresis, temporary tracheotomy or surgical glottis widening procedures had to be performed. The group of idiopathic and traumatic paresis patients showed the best spontaneous recovery within the first 12 months in comparison to primary malignancy-associated paralysis, which showed no recovery of the recurrens nerve.

  17. [A man with a crooked smile].

    PubMed

    Bechan, M A H Afzal; van Dortmont, Laura M C; Claes, J Franka H M

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man had a paresis of the right side of the lower lip after carotic endarterectomy. The diagnosis was 'pressure neuropathy of the right ramus marginalis mandibulae' caused by the operation. This neuropathy is self limiting.

  18. Neurological Principles and Rehabilitation of Action Disorders: Common Clinical Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Sathian, K.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Krakauer, John W.; Lang, Catherine E.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Fitzpatrick, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use the CAP principles to consider the impact of common clinical problems on action. We focus on three major syndromes: paresis, apraxia and ataxia. We also review mechanisms that could account for spontaneous recovery, using what is known about the best studied clinical dysfunction, paresis, and also ataxia. Together, this and the previous paper lay the groundwork for the third paper in this series, which reviews the relevant rehabilitative interventions. PMID:21613535

  19. Relation between symptoms and pathophysiology in inflammatory neuropathies: Controversies and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Hessel

    2015-06-02

    This review attempts to explain the symptoms experienced by patients with inflammatory neuropathies by pathophysiological events. The emphasis is not on the primary events that may cause a particular illness but on downstream events taking place in peripheral nerves or muscles. Symptoms that will be discussed include sensory predominance, motor predominance, activity-induced weakness, heat paresis, and cold paresis. Each symptom is associated with, but not limited to, particular neuropathies.

  20. [Hemiparesis and facial palsy caused by methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Rueda Arenas, E; García Corzo, J; Franco Ospina, L

    2013-12-01

    Methotrexate used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, can cause neurotoxicity, including a rare presentation with hemiparesis. We describe two teenagers, who during the implementation of the M phase of the protocol, suffered hemiparesis, facial paresis and dysarthria which quickly reversed. Leukemia involvement of the central nervous system and stroke, were ruled out. We briefly review the pathophysiology of methotrexate neurotoxicity, the characteristics of the focal paresis presentation and magnetic resonance image findings.

  1. Isolated pyocele of anterior clinoid process presenting as a cavernous sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Thomas J; Michael, L Madison; Laster, Robert; Fleming, James C

    2013-05-01

    A 37-year-old man presented with fever, decreased vision in the left eye, a partial left cranial nerve III paresis, and a left cranial nerve VI paresis. Neuro-imaging showed an opacification of a left pneumatised anterior clinoid process. After failing a course of intravenous antibiotics, a craniotomy was performed with exenteration of the cavity and resolution of symptoms. Although rare, a pyocele of a pneumatised anterior clinoid process may cause ocular morbidity and require surgical intervention.

  2. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  3. Effects of ankle foot orthoses on body functions and activities in people with floppy paretic ankle muscles: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Wilk, Dymphy; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Hijmans, Juha Markus

    2015-12-01

    People with floppy ankle muscles paresis use ankle foot orthoses to improve their walking ability. Ankle foot orthoses also limit ankle range of motion thereby introducing additional problems. Insight in effects of ankle foot orthoses on body functions and activities in people with floppy paretic ankle muscles aids in clinical decision making and may improve adherence. Studies published before October 27th, 2014, were searched in Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane Library. Studies evaluating effects of ankle foot orthoses on body functions and/or activities in people with floppy paretic ankle muscles were included. Studies solely focusing on people with spastic paretic ankle muscles were excluded. Study quality was assessed using a custom-made scale. Body functions and activities were defined according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Twenty-four studies were included, evaluating 394 participants. Participants were grouped according to paresis type (i) dorsiflexor paresis, (ii) plantar flexor paresis, (iii) both dorsiflexor and plantar flexor paresis. Dorsal, circular, and elastic ankle foot orthoses increased dorsiflexion during swing (by 4-6°, group i). Physical comfort with dorsal ankle foot orthoses was lower than that with circular ankle foot orthoses (groups i and iii). Dorsal ankle foot orthoses increased push-off moment (by 0.2-0.5 Nm/kg), increased walking efficiency, and decreased ankle range of motion (by 12-30°, groups ii and iii). People with dorsiflexor paresis benefit more from circular and elastic ankle foot orthoses while people with plantar flexor paresis (and dorsiflexor paresis) benefit more from dorsal ankle foot orthoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Managing anesthesia for cesarean section in obese patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lamon, Agnes M; Habib, Ashraf S

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It is associated with increased comorbidities and increased maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. The risk of cesarean delivery is also increased in obese parturients. Anesthetic management of the obese parturient is challenging and requires adequate planning. Therefore, those patients should be referred to antenatal anesthetic consultation. Anesthesia-related complications and maternal mortality are increased in this patient population. The risk of difficult intubation is increased in obese patients. Neuraxial techniques are the preferred anesthetic techniques for cesarean delivery in obese parturients but can be technically challenging. An existing labor epidural catheter can be topped up for cesarean delivery. In patients who do not have a well-functioning labor epidural, a combined spinal epidural technique might be preferred over a single-shot spinal technique since it is technically easier in obese parturients and allows for extending the duration of the block as required. A continuous spinal technique can also be considered. Studies suggest that there is no need to reduce the dose of spinal bupivacaine in the obese parturient, but there is little data about spinal dosing in super obese parturients. Intraoperatively, patients should be placed in a ramped position, with close monitoring of ventilation and hemodynamic status. Adequate postoperative analgesia is crucial to allow for early mobilization. This can be achieved using a multimodal regimen incorporating neuraxial morphine (with appropriate observations) with scheduled nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Thromboprophylaxis is also important in this patient population due to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications. These patients should be monitored carefully in the postoperative period, since there is increased risk of postoperative complications in the morbidly obese parturients. PMID:27574464

  5. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Wesam Farid; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi; Mostafa, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5%) and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration. PMID:22412775

  6. Rising fecal glucocorticoid concentrations track reproductive activity in the female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2011-09-01

    To better understand the adaptive significance of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) variation in the giant panda, we assessed patterns of fecal GC excretion over time as well as during estrus, parturient and non-parturient luteal phases, lactation and acyclicity in 17 adult females. Fecal estrogen and GC patterns were positively correlated (P<0.05) in four of five periestrual females (r = 0.57-0.92). Among all reproductive states, fecal GC was highest (P<0.05) during periestrus (non-parturient, 495.9 ± 100.7 ng/g [mean ± SE]; parturient, 654.1 ± 10 6.5 ng/g; P>0.05). Concentrations of GC metabolites were lower (P<0.05) during the later stage of the luteal phase in non-parturient (334.8 ± 24.8 ng/g) compared to parturient (470.4 ± 54.0 ng/g) females. Although fecal GC concentrations in cyclic, non-parturient females did not differ (P>0.05) across all seasons, there were seasonal variations (P<0.05) in females that were acyclic and non-lactational. However, the overall lack of difference (P>0.05) in GC values between reproductively cyclic and acyclic females did not support the hypothesis that ovarian acyclicity is due to increased adrenal activity (related or unrelated to physiological stress). Furthermore, GCs may play an important role in the normal endocrine milieu associated with sexual receptivity and late pregnancy. These data demonstrate that both reproductive status and seasonal factors are important modulators of adrenal function in this endangered species.

  7. Effect of epidural analgesia on change in Mallampati class during labour.

    PubMed

    Guru, R; Carere, M D; Diwan, S; Morau, E L; Saunders, J; Shorten, G D

    2013-07-01

    Mallampati class has been shown to increase during labour. Epidural analgesia might influence this change. The aim of our study was to compare the change in Mallampati class during labour in parturients who did and did not receive epidural analgesia and study the association of these changes with pre-defined clinical characteristics. We performed a prospective observational study of 190 parturients. Using standard methodology, photographs of the upper airway were taken with a digital camera during early labour and within 90 min of delivery. Two to three consultant anaesthetists, blinded to the origin of the photographs, evaluated the images obtained and assigned a Mallampati class to each. Overall, Mallampati class increased in 61 (32.1%), decreased in 18 (9.5%) and did not change in 111 (58.4%) parturients (p<0.001). The proportions of parturients in the epidural and non-epidural groups who demonstrated an increase, decrease and no change in Mallampati class were similar. Of the relationships between change in Mallampati class and the other factors studied, only the total dose of epidural levobupivacaine during labour demonstrated a weak positive correlation 0.17 (p=0.039) with Mallampati class. This study confirms that labour is associated with an increase in the Mallampati class in approximately one third of parturients. Our findings indicate that having an epidural does not influence the likelihood of a change in Mallampati class during labour. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. [Labor analgesia by one anesthesiologist in a small obstetric clinic].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    In Japan, about 40% of all the parturients give birth in small obstetrician's clinics. There is no anesthesiologist in most clinics. The labor analgesia is not performed or is performed by the obstetrician in many facilities. In this paper the author reports labor analgesia by one anesthetist in a small obstetric clinic in Japan. The management of labor analgesia of this hospital is as follows; 1) The anesthesiologist explains the method and risks of labor analgesia to the patient in the outpatient clinic. The induced labor is recommended to the parturients who request labor analgesia. 2) The combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) is provided for labor analgesia with a local anesthetic of low concentration and fentanyl. 3) CSEA is usually administered upon the request of a parturient and continued till the end of the delivery. Adequate pain relief and high satisfaction were ascertained by the questionnaire to the parturients who had received labor analgesia in this hospital. The number of parturients who request labor analgesia is increasing. However, it is difficult or almost impossible to provide labor analgesia by one anesthetist for 24 hours and 365 days.

  9. Epidural anesthesia for cesarean section for pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Liangcheng; Chen, Wenhua

    2016-07-01

    Pregnancy increases stress on the circulation of parturient with mitral stenosis secondary to rheumatic heart disease and increases the risk of peripartum heart failure, especially during delivery. This study investigated the epidural anesthesia management for cesarean section in pregnant women with rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis. 48 parturients with rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis that had cesarean section deliveries with epidural anesthesia in the Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University (Fuzhou, China) from Jan 2002 to Dec 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), fluid intake volume and fluid output volume (blood loss + urine volume) were analyzed. Medication included digitalis drugs for heart failure or potential heart failure, digoxin and furosemide for chronic congestive heart failure and beta blockers for arrhythmia. Frequent premature ventricular contractions were treated with lidocaine and propafenone. Dexamethasone was administered when heart failure occurred during less than 37 weeks gestation. HR, SAP, DAP, MAP and CVP were significantly increased at the time of delivery. The fluid intake volume was more elevated in the NYHA III-IV group of parturients than the NYHA I-II group, while fluid output volume was less. All parturients survived. Epidural anesthesia was applied successfully for cesarean sections for parturients with rheumatic heart disease and mitral stenosis.

  10. [Erysipel at the lower leg combined with a peripheral peroneus nerve palsy--an unusual occurrence].

    PubMed

    Röllinghoff, M; Delank, K-S; Haupt, W F; Eysel, P

    2006-01-01

    We present the clinical case of a fifty-year-old man who presented two times with a foot elevator paresis and an erysipel first on the right and after two months on the left side. Afterwards, we carried out a thorough case history with the help of clinical, radiological and magnetic resonance imaging. Even so the clinical pathology of the foot elevator paresis could not be manifested. A compartment syndrome could be discounted. In the context of the second stay during a neurology examination on both legs electromyography was performed and the nerve speed was tested. A peripheral peroneus paresis of unknown level and of unknown aetiology was demonstrated. The erysipel regressed rapidly under intravenous ampicillin antibiotics while the peroneus paresis was unchanged. The patent was released with a peroneus splint on both sides. With this case report we would like to point out the causes of peripheral peroneus paresis with regard to an additional erysipel. This case report is discussed regarding the possible aetiopathology and the current literature.

  11. Complete heart block in pregnancy: case report, analysis, and review of anesthetic management.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Lalitha; Hochman Cohn, Jennifer; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-09-01

    Maternal complete heart block can pose significant challenges for the anesthesiologist in the antepartum, peripartum, and postpartum periods. Some patients may present for the first time in the puerperium with dizziness, weakness, syncope, or congestive heart failure as a result of the additional hemodynamic burden that accompanies pregnancy. Although there is an increase in permanent pacemaker placement in young symptomatic patients before pregnancy, prophylactic placement of pacemakers in asymptomatic parturients is not always indicated. The need for temporary or permanent pacemakers in asymptomatic women should be assessed on a case-by-case basis; many of these patients may be safely managed during labor and delivery without pacing. The parturient with complete heart block must be followed vigilantly during pregnancy and post delivery, as the need for pacemaker insertion can also arise in the postpartum period. We present a case of third-degree heart block in a 26-year-old parturient.

  12. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Intrathecal injection of morphine for obstetric analgesia.

    PubMed

    Baraka, A; Noueihid, R; Hajj, S

    1981-02-01

    Intrathecal injection of morphine was used to provide obstetric analgesia in 20 primiparous women in labor. When the cervix was at least 3 cm dilated, morphine, 1 or 2 mg, was injected intrathecally. In all parturients, labor pains were completely relieved after 15-60 min and analgesia lasted as long as eight to 11 hours. The analgesia was not associated with any alteration of pin-prick sensation or motor power, and there was no change in the arterial blood pressure or heart rate. All infants were delivered vaginally by use of episiotomy annd a low forceps, except two infants of mothers in the 2 mg of morphine group who needed cesarean section. During the second stage of labor, analgesia was supplemented by lidocaine, 2 per cent, using local perineal infiltration in 14 parturients and pudendal block in two parturients, and by epidural block in four parturients. Nineteen of the 20 newborns cried immediately at birth, and had Apgar scores o 7-9 at 1 min and 8-10 at 5 min. During the first 24 hours of life, the neurobehavioral responses of all newborns were scored as normal. Systemic maternal side effects such as somnolence, nausea, vomiting, and itching occurred in a high proportion of the parturients. However, in the majority of cases, these side effects were mild. Only two parturients of the 2 mg morphine group complained of marked somnolence, itching, and vomiting, which persisted post partum; these were effectively reversed by the specific antagonist naloxone. The analgesic effect of intrathecal morphine can be attributed to its action on the opiate receptors in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. However, supraspinal effects of morphine cannot be excluded. The low lipid solubility of morphine can explain its slow onset and prolonged duration of action. Also, this will result in minimal systemic absorption of morphine, which protects the fetus and results in selective maternal analgesia.

  14. Delivering elsewhere between the first and second deliveries is a risk marker for obstetric complications in the second delivery.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Orna; Gal, Michael; Nezer, Meirav; Shen, Ori; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Farkash, Rivka; Samueloff, Arnon

    2016-11-01

    We speculate that parturients who deliver elsewhere between the first and second deliveries compose a unique clinical group, characterized by higher rates of cesarean section (CS) both in the first and second deliveries, compared with parturients who deliver both deliveries at the same hospital. A retrospective study conducted at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in a tertiary university-affiliated hospital. The cohort included all women in the second delivery, aged ≤24 years with a singleton pregnancy who delivered their second child in our medical center during 2010-2012. Parturients who delivered both the first and second children in our medical center ("stayers") were compared with parturients who delivered their first child in a different hospital ("switchers"). Groups were compared in regard to history of CS in the first delivery and obstetric complications in the second delivery, including CS, instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD), preterm delivery (PTD), and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Logistic regressions were constructed to study if delivering elsewhere between the first and second deliveries was a risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, followed by multivariate analysis controlling for confounders. In all, 4166 parturients were included: "stayers" = 3163 and "switchers" = 1003. History of CS in the first delivery was approximately twice as prevalent in "switchers" (12 versus 6.3 %, p < 0.000). "Switchers" experienced higher rates of CS: OR = 1.8 (95 % CI 1.2-2.3); IVD: OR = 1.3 (95 % CI 0.8-2.1); and PTD (<37(w)): OR = 1.4 (95 % CI 1.0-1.9). Parturients who deliver elsewhere between the first and second childbirth are at increased risk for CS and PTD in the second delivery; hence, the decision to deliver elsewhere after the first delivery should be considered as a risk marker for obstetric complication.

  15. Thoracic interfascial nerve block for breast surgery in a pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Hwa; Kim, Bum June; Song, Seunghyun; Yoon, Yeomyung

    2017-01-01

    Regional anesthesia for non-obstetric surgery in parturients is a method to decrease patient and fetal risk during general anesthesia. Thoracic interfascial nerve block can be used as an analgesic technique for surgical procedures of the thorax. The Pecs II block is an interfascial block that targets not only the medial and lateral pectoral nerves, but also the lateral cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. Pecto-intercostal fascial block (PIFB) targets the anterior cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. The authors successfully performed a modified Pecs II block and PIFB without complications in a parturient who refused general anesthesia for breast surgery. PMID:28367293

  16. Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Pregnant Patient with Type II Diabetes Mellitus Presenting for Emergent Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cardonell, Bradford L; Marks, Barry A; Entrup, Michael H

    2016-04-15

    The development of acute abdominal pain in a laboring parturient after a previous cesarean delivery is of concern and may be the result of a potentially life-threatening condition such as uterine rupture. We present a case of a parturient with type II diabetes mellitus, who had undergone 2 previous cesarean deliveries and now presented in labor with increasing abdominal pain. An emergency cesarean delivery was performed for probable uterine rupture. Intraoperatively, the patient was noted to be severely hypocarbic with significant metabolic acidosis, and the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis was established.

  17. Abdominal girth and vertebral column length aid in predicting intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine dose for elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chang-Na; Zhou, Qing-He; Wang, Li-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is no consensus on how to determine the optimal dose of intrathecal bupivacaine for an individual undergoing an elective cesarean section. In this study, we developed a regression equation between intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and abdominal girth and vertebral column length, to determine a suitable block level (T5) for elective cesarean section patients. In phase I, we analyzed 374 parturients undergoing an elective cesarean section that received a suitable dose of intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine after a combined spinal-epidural (CSE) was performed at the L3/4 interspace. Parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick were selected for establishing the regression equation between 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and vertebral column length and abdominal girth. Six parturient and neonatal variables, intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume, and spinal anesthesia spread were recorded. Bivariate line correlation analyses, multiple line regression analyses, and 2-tailed t tests or chi-square test were performed, as appropriate. In phase II, another 200 parturients with CSE for elective cesarean section were enrolled to verify the accuracy of the regression equation. In phase I, a total of 143 parturients were selected to establish the following regression equation: YT5 = 0.074X1 − 0.022X2 − 0.017 (YT5 = 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume for T5 block level; X1 = vertebral column length; and X2 = abdominal girth). In phase II, a total of 189 participants were enrolled in the study to verify the accuracy of the regression equation, and 155 parturients with T5 blockade were deemed eligible, which accounted for 82.01% of all participants. This study evaluated parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick after a CSE for elective cesarean section to establish a regression equation between parturient vertebral column length and abdominal girth and 0.5% hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine volume. This equation

  18. The use of narcotics and street drugs during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Michael K; Burnett, Erin

    2013-03-01

    All prenatal care providers should offer routine voluntary substance use screening to all patients. Parturients who screen positive for illicit substances require a multidisciplinary team approach to drug rehabilitation and prenatal care. This review will examine the pharmacological properties and the neonatal consequences of the use of opioids and amphetamines. Substance-abusing parturients typically abuse multiple substances simultaneously and have other comorbidities including psychosocial instability and mental illness. These comorbidities must be effectively addressed to achieve optimal health outcomes for both mother and infant.

  19. Chest ultrasonography in emergency Cesarean delivery in multi-valvular heart disease with pulmonary edema during spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Ghatak, Tanmoy; Grover, V K

    2014-05-01

    Valvular heart disease in a parturient presenting for Cesarean section is challenging. A 25 year old primigravida parturient with severe mitral stenosis, mild mitral regurgitation, mild aortic regurgitation, and mild pulmonary arterial hypertension required Cesarean delivery after developing pulmonary edema. Low-dose spinal with hyperbaric bupivacine 0.5% 1.8 mL plus 25 μg of fentanyl was used for anesthesia. Chest ultrasonography (US) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were used for monitoring purposes. Spinal-induced preload reduction improved the pulmonary edema, as evidenced by chest US. Chest US and TTE helped in fluid management.

  20. Zika virus: review and obstetric anesthetic clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cesar; Pan, Aileen; Geller, Andrew; Zakowski, Mark I

    2016-12-01

    To review the clinical and basic science literature regarding Zika viral illness and highlight relevant findings for obstetric anesthesiologists. This review provides a global review of Zika viral illness, transmission patterns, pathophysiology of disease, and anesthetic management of the parturient with Zika viral illness and associated comorbidities. Systematic review. Large academic hospital. None. None. None. None. With the rapid spread of Zika virus and expected increase of spread in the summer of 2016, this review provides anesthesiologists with current recommendations, physiologic alterations, and anesthetic considerations in regard to the parturient with Zika viral illness and associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Disorders of muscle tonus and their treatment with sirdalud in patients in the early recovery period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Gekht, A B; Burd, G S; Selikhova, M V; Iaish, F; Beliakov, V V

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the results of clinical and neurophysiologic study of muscular tonus in 94 patients aged 42-70 years in early recovery after ischemic stroke. Selective role of spasticity was estimated in clinical pattern of motor disorders in groups of the patients with different disorders of muscular tonus with the same degree of paresis. Efficiency of antispastic preparation sirdalud was analyzed in 28 patients from this group. Sirdalud in daily dose of 6-12 mg in patients with prevalence of a spasticity in a clinical picture of the paresis and with either moderate or manifested degree of paresis of the extremities has significant antispastic effect without any decrease of muscular strength, which, in turn, increases the degree of restoration of motor functions.

  2. Herpetic Brachial Plexopathy: Application of Brachial Plexus Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Chung, Sun G

    2016-05-01

    Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is an infectious viral disease characterized by painful, unilateral skin blisters occurring in specific sensory dermatomes. Motor paresis is reported in 0.5% to 5% of patients. Although the mechanism of zoster paresis is still unclear, the virus can spread from the dorsal root ganglia to the anterior horn cell or anterior spinal nerve roots. It rarely involves the brachial plexus. We report a case of brachial plexitis following herpes zoster infection in which pathological lesions were diagnosed using brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging and treated with ultrasound-guided perineural corticosteroid injection.

  3. Ophthalmoplegia in tiger snake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Ferdinands, Mervyn; Seneviratne, Janaka; O'Brien, Terry; White, Owen

    2006-04-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 67-year-old grazier who was bitten by a tiger snake and developed coagulopathy and respiratory distress. The patient required intubation and ventilation in intensive care. There was delayed detection of snake envenomation and administration of antivenom. On extubation several days later, gross external ocular paresis was noted. Clinical testing indicated that the ocular pathology was secondary to neurotoxin-mediated presynaptic blockade. The paresis was partially resolved by the time of discharge one week later. The present case report discusses the possible mechanisms for the delayed development of ophthalmoplegia.

  4. Air as the caloric stimulus.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, G O

    1978-05-01

    The use of air as the caloric medium was investigated and compared to that of water. The ability of air and water to generate surface temperatures close to the fluid outlet temperature was studied by irrigation onto a thermocouple. Results of caloric tests performed with air and water are compared by calculating the average nystagmus response for the hot and cold stimuli for two groups of sixty patients. Also, the number of canal paresis, directional preponderance, mixed, bi-lateral canal paresis and normal responses are compared for each group. Finally, the effect of performing a bi-thermal air caloric on a patient having a unilateral drum perforation is discussed.

  5. [The head-up-orthosis - a good solution for ambulant patients with Dropped-head-syndrome].

    PubMed

    Czell, D; Weber, M

    2012-11-14

    Severe paresis of the neck muscles, dystonia or an increased activation of the head flexor can lead to dropped-head syndrome. It can be based on various neurological diseases. We present a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with severe paresis of the head extensor muscles, which led to a dropped-head syndrome. Usual advices did not permit an adequate swallowing and breathing. The new developed device (head-up) can be adjusted on the individual needs which lead to a marked improvement in quality of life of the patient. Especially for ambulatory patients with Dropped-head syndrome is the «head-up» a very good solution.

  6. Hormonal control of birth behavior in the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii.

    PubMed

    Rose, R W; Bell, L; Shaw, G

    2006-09-01

    In a number of marsupial species, females exhibit characteristic, stereotyped parturient behavior that facilitates the passage of the neonates to the pouch. In macropodids, this parturient behavior can be induced in non-pregnant females and males by treatment with either prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) or oxytocin (OT). This study investigated the effects of PGF2alpha and OT on behavior of Tasmanian devils. Animals tended to sit or lie down quickly, with little vocalization, after treatment with PGF2alpha or OT, while after saline, the animals remained alert, seldom sat, and frequently vocalized. Hormone treatment caused increased respiration. Urogenital and pouch grooming, a characteristic element of parturient behavior in macropodids, was seen in only one devil after hormone treatment. However, no pouch or urogenital grooming was seen in videotape of a devil giving birth, so this may not be a feature of parturient behavior in this species. Overall behavior of males and females was very similar suggesting that the behavioral effects observed may be due to direct neural action of PGF2alpha or OT, rather than an indirect response to uterine or vaginal contractions caused by the hormones. This study is the first to demonstrate that OT results in PGF2alpha secretion as PGFM levels rose after OT injection.

  7. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  8. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  9. PubMed Central

    Cécyre, A.; Baril, J.; Morin, M.

    1979-01-01

    Postparturient hemoglobinuria in a Quebec dairy herd A case of post parturient hemoglobinuria which occurred in a Quebec dairy herd is reported. Anemia and hypophosphoremia were present in many animals without any clinical signs, while others were showing severe signs of hemoglobinuria. History, diagnostic techniques and treatment are discussed. PMID:509383

  10. [Obstetric analgesia using nitralgin inhalation and lumbal peridural anesthesia (a model for obstetric analgesia)].

    PubMed

    Hardonyi, A; Sándor, C; Barkai, L; Koltai, M

    1990-06-10

    Authors report the systems of anesthesia used at their ward for delivery in the last eight years. Nitralgin inhalation is used since 1981, lumbar peridural anesthesia is used since 1983. Of 13,458 deliveries in case of 3893 parturiants Nitralgin analgesia was used, while LEDA was used for 2300 parturients. By means of Nitralgin inhalation system it could be assured in the delivery room to apply the pain relief gas mixture (Nitralgin) simultaneously for several parturients. With direction of anesthesiologists employed for the ward the LEDA was attained by gynecologists knowing the use and application of general anesthesia. Thus the continuous application of both procedures can be ensured in 24 hours a day. In our study the frequency of vacuum extraction (0.26 p. c.) and that of Cesarean section (12.81 p. c.) did not increase. With application of these methods it could be achieved that 60 p. c. of vaginal deliveries are performed with anesthesia. Authors propose their system for wider application since in the same ward more and more parturients can be applied anesthesia for pain relief at vaginal delivery.

  11. Side effects of spiramycin masquerading as local anesthetic toxicity during labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Julliac, B; Théophile, H; Begorre, M; Richez, B; Haramburu, F

    2010-07-01

    Significant fetal bradycardia occurred when a parturient receiving labor epidural analgesia experienced generalized numbness and tingling, a metallic taste and hot flushes. An emergent cesarean delivery under general anesthesia was performed with favorable outcomes for the mother and baby. The most likely source of the maternal symptoms was spiramycin, which was being administered for treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  12. A Method for Naturalistic Observation of the Childbirth Environment: With Application to Theory Building and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joanne; Standley, Kay

    An instrument for naturalistic observation in the childbirth environment is presented. Observable features of the parturient woman's physical state, stimulus contact she experiences, and themes of conversations with the woman are recorded using a system of categories to time-sample in cycles of 30 seconds for observing followed by 30 seconds for…

  13. Changes in rumen bacterial communities and rumen chemistry in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to study the changes in: 1) rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) and fermentation as influenced by feeding regimen and period; and 2) pH and VFA profiles among selected cows with minimum (stable) and maximum variation (unstable) between pre- and post-parturie...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1010 - Furosemide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... For treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures. (iii...) Indications for use—(A) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema. (B) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1010 - Furosemide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... For treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures. (iii...) Indications for use—(A) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema. (B) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion,...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1010 - Furosemide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... For treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures. (iii...) Indications for use—(A) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema. (B) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion,...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1010 - Furosemide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... For treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures. (iii...) Indications for use—(A) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema. (B) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion,...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1010 - Furosemide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... For treatment of physiological parturient edema of the mammary gland and associated structures. (iii...) Indications for use—(A) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion, ascites) associated with cardiac insufficiency and acute noninflammatory tissue edema. (B) For treatment of edema (pulmonary congestion,...

  19. Informed consent for labor epidurals: a survey of Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology anesthesiologists from the United States.

    PubMed

    Saunders, T A; Stein, D J; Dilger, J P

    2006-04-01

    Ethicists agree that informed consent is a process rather than just simply the signing of a form. It should provide the patient with needed information and understanding to authorize a procedure. Essential elements of informed consent for women requesting labor epidurals include a description of the procedure, the risks and benefits, and alternative treatments for analgesia including the associated risks and benefits. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine practices and opinions of obstetric anesthesiologists regarding informed consent for parturients. Questionnaires were sent to 885 anesthesiologists who were members of the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology based in United States institutions in 2002. Of the 885 questionnaires sent, 448 (51%) were returned with 47% from academic and 47% from private practice institutions. Forty-six percent worked as part of an obstetric anesthesia team; 51% worked in centers where there were >3000 deliveries/year. Sixty-eight percent suggested that "parturients in active labor are able to give informed consent for labor epidural analgesia." Thirteen percent recommend antenatal anesthesia consults for parturients inquiring about labor epidurals and 41% participated in childbirth classes. Responses did not differ significantly between physicians in academic vs. private practice. More obstetric team practices than non-team practices participated in childbirth education (54% vs. 30%, P < 0.0001). Despite the painful, stressful circumstances confronted by parturients, many respondents (76% in academic, 64% in private practice) thought that women in active labor are able to give informed consent.

  20. [PERIOPERATIVE ANALGESIA INFLUENCE ON MOTHER REHABILITATION PERIOD AFTER CESAREAN SECTION].

    PubMed

    Sedykh, S V

    2015-01-01

    Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.

  1. Labor support: an overlooked maternal health need in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dim, Cyril C; Ikeme, Arthur C; Ezegwui, Hyginus U; Nwagha, Uchenna I

    2011-03-01

    The current call for continuous support by women for women during labor takes for granted that women prefer to be supported by other women rather than their husbands. This study aimed at identifying the experiences and preferences of parturients as regards support in labor. Questionnaires were administered to 395 parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria from January to August 2006. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. None of the respondents' husband, relations or friends was allowed into the labor room. Ninety-five (24.1%) parturients did not wish to be supported in labor by their husbands. Sixty-five (68.4%) of this group preferred to be supported in labor by medical/midwifery staff only, while the remaining 30 (31.6%) would have preferred a relation. Three hundred (75.9%) parturients, if permitted, would have preferred labor support by their husbands. The preference for labor support by husband was significantly associated with maternal educational status (p=0.003), parity groups (p=0.022), and age category (p=0.037). Labor support by a non-medical employee of health institutions is not practiced in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. Most women would prefer to be supported by their husbands during labor. There is a strong desire by mothers for a policy change as regards labor support by family and friends.

  2. HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in childbearing women: La Romana, Dominican Republic, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Román-Poueriet, José; Fernandez, Aracelis D; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M; García Szabó, René; Mercedes, Fermin; Duke, William; Martinez, Anny; Nicholas, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    To strengthen prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) program implementation in La Romana (LR) province, by estimating HIV prevalence and identifying characteristics associated with HIV infection in parturients. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at seven obstetrical sites where over 95% of LR's deliveries occur during four phases (pilot, expanded pilot, full study, and pMTCT program monitoring) from 2 August 2002 to 30 September 2006. Results were linked to data abstracted from delivery records. HIV seroprevalence was 2.6% (263/10 040 overall; 114/4 452, full-study phase (95% confidence interval = 2.1%-3.1%)). Most HIV-infected parturients were Dominican (68.9%) and urban (64.0%). However, prevalence was higher among Haitians (3.7%) than Dominicans (2.3% (p < 0.001)), especially those aged 21-25 years (5.2% vs. 2.3% (p < 0.001)), and among rural, batey, and peri-urban (vs. urban) parturients (3.4% vs. 2.3%, (p = 0.003)). HIV prevalence was associated with commercial sex work (reported by only 0.4%), and prior pregnancy. In logistic regression analysis, commercial sex work, Haitian nationality, and prior pregnancy were independently associated with HIV infection. Caesarean deliveries were more frequent, and rose in the last years of the study, among HIV seropositives; however, most deliveries among seropositives (57.5%) were vaginal. HIV prevalence among LR parturients was higher than the estimated prevalence in the Dominican Republic (0.8%-1.0%) and, in contrast to past studies, predominantly affected urban Dominicans. HIV prevalence among LR Haitian parturients was higher than among Dominican counterparts and prenatal clinic attendees in Haiti (who had a rate of 3.1%). Consistently implemented, targeted pMTCT interventions are needed.

  3. [Investigating into whether systematic fetal weight estimation by ultrasound in the delivery room increases the risk of cesarean delivery].

    PubMed

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Ajroudi, Meryam; Saidi, Olfa; Salem, Safa; Robbana, Monia; Triki, Amel; Gara, Mohammed Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is a valuable tool commonly used in the delivery room. It has multiple applications. The objective of this study was to investigate whether systematic fetal weight estimation by ultrasound in the delivery room increases the risk of cesarean delivery. Monocentric cohort study. All parturients with singleton pregnancies who gave birth full-term at = 39 weeks were enrolled in the study. We excluded all patients with a contraindication to vaginal birth as well as those in whom fetal weight estimation (FWE) by ultrasound on day of delivery was deemed necessary in making obstetric decision. Parturients enrolled in the study were divided into two groups: - G1: parturients who systematically underwent FWE - G2: parturients who never underwent FWE. We compared cesarean delivery rate with adjustment for potentially confounding factors according to logistic regression. 838 parturients were enrolled in the study. Prematurity, FWE and weight at birth were risk factors for cesarean delivery. After adjustment for confounding factors, FWE by ultrasound systematically performed in G1 proved to be an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery with OR = 3.8 (CI 95% = [2.67 to 5.48]). This risk increased significantly with estimated fetal weight (EFW): OR=2,27(CI 95;1,15-4,47; p=0.018) for 3500 < EFW < 4000g and OR = 10.64 (CI 95; 4.28 to 26.41; p < 0.001 ) for EFW > 4000 g. FWE by ultrasound systematically performed in the delivery room represents an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for cesarean delivery.

  4. Epidural labor analgesia is associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Wang, Dong-Xin; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Zhu, Sai-Nan

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum depression is a common psychiatric disorder in parturients after delivery. The etiology remains unclear, and multiple factors may be involved. In this study, we investigated whether epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression development. Two hundred fourteen parturients who were preparing for a vaginal delivery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Epidural labor analgesia was performed in 107 of 214 patients on their request. Parturients' mental status was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery. A score of 10 or higher on the scale at 6 weeks was used as an indication of postpartum depression. Parturients' characteristics together with perinatal variables were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess an association between the use of epidural analgesia and the occurrence of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression occurred in 14.0% (15 of 107) of parturients who received epidural labor analgesia and in 34.6% (37 of 107) of those who did not (P < 0.001). Use of epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.82, P = 0.018). Attendance at childbirth classes during pregnancy (OR 0.30, 95% CI, 0.12-0.79, P = 0.015) and continued breast-feeding after delivery (OR 0.02, 95% CI, 0.00-0.07, P < 0.001) were also associated with decreased risks of postpartum depression. A high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score at 3 days postpartum was associated with an increased risk of postpartum depression (OR 1.20, 95% CI, 1.05-1.37, P = 0.009). Epidural labor analgesia was associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression. Further study with a large sample size is needed to evaluate the impact of epidural analgesia on the occurrence of postpartum depression.

  5. Analgesic efficacy using loss of resistance to air vs. saline in combined spinal epidural technique for labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Leo, S; Lim, Y; Sia, A T H

    2008-09-01

    Identification of the epidural space is often performed using the loss of resistance technique to either air or saline. We sought to investigate if the medium used affected the quality of analgesia obtained by parturients who received labour epidurals. We conducted a retrospective audit of labour epidurals performed on nulliparous parturients in our institution from May 2003 to March 2005. All epidural catheters were inserted by senior obstetric anaesthetists using a combined spinal epidural technique. The following information was recorded: parturients' demographic data, loss of resistance technique used, type and amount of local anaesthetic solution administered, complications encountered during procedure, pre-block and post-block pain scores, incidence of breakthrough pain requiring supplemental medication and post-block side-effects. Data from 2848 patients were collected and analysed; 56% of patients made up the saline group and 44% the air group. Patients in both groups had similar demographic profiles and similar incidences of complications and post-block side-effects. However patients in the air group had a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain P = 0.023). We also identified three other factors that were associated with an increased incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain; administration of pre-block oxytocin, sitting position of the parturient during the procedure and the use of intrathecal bupivacaine for induction of analgesia. Our findings suggest that a loss of resistance to air is associated with a higher incidence of recurrent breakthrough pain among parturients who received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labour than a loss of resistance to saline.

  6. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  7. Mutism following left hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S; Bone, I

    1984-01-01

    A case of mutism due to left hemisphere infarction is described. Recovery revealed mild motor dysphasia. Review of the literature showed that the case resembles aphemia but is unique by virtue of its duration, and the absence of associated apraxia and paresis. Images PMID:6210346

  8. Comparative imaging of spinal extradural lymphoma in a Bordeaux dog.

    PubMed

    Veraa, Stefanie; Dijkman, Reinie; Meij, Björn P; Voorhout, George

    2010-05-01

    A lumbar extradural lymphoma compressing the spinal cord was identified on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in a 4-year-old Bordeaux dog presented with posterior paresis. A significant paravertebral extension was only clearly defined on contrast MRI images; therefore, MRI was more useful than CT in imaging of spinal extradural lymphoma in this dog.

  9. [Arguments against the pharmacotherapy of Bells' palsy].

    PubMed

    Portegies, P

    2005-06-25

    Bell's palsy is the most frequent type of peripheral facial paresis. Its cause is unknown. The prognosis is good in 85% of patients. Based on theories about its pathogenesis, antivirals and corticosteroids have been tried. In 6 studies with antivirals and 9 with corticosteroids (most ofthe studies were methodologically flawed), the efficacy of these treatments was not demonstrated.

  10. Retroperitoneal abscesses in two western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Alicia; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Raines, Jan

    2014-03-01

    This report describes two cases of retroperitoneal abscesses in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Clinical symptoms included perivulvar discharge, lameness, hindlimb paresis, and general malaise. Retroperitoneal abscesses should be considered as part of a complete differential list in female gorillas with similar clinical signs.

  11. Tick paralysis in a red wolf.

    PubMed

    Beyer, A B; Grossman, M

    1997-10-01

    A free-ranging male red wolf (Canis rufus) in North Carolina (USA), exhibiting paresis, anorexia and heavy tick infection was diagnosed with tick paralysis. The wolf recovered completely following the removal of all ticks. This is the first record of tick paralysis in the red wolf.

  12. Horner’s syndrome with an ipsilateral X nerve palsy following presumed shingles

    PubMed Central

    Sedehizadeh, Saam; Bowen, John

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common clinical problem but its complications, apart from post-herpetic neuralgia, are comparatively rare. We describe a case of Horner’s syndrome and ipsilateral vagal paresis following likely herpes zoster of the third and fourth cervical roots. This unusual combination has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. PMID:22736602

  13. Identifying Concussion / Mild TBI in Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    paresis/plegia, sensory loss, aphasia , etc.) that may or may not be transient o Intracranial lesion DoD Definition of TBI 8  External forces may...mild TBI including: o Evidence-based recommendations o ICD-9 coding guidance o Clinical recommendations for cognitive rehabilitation o Clinical

  14. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions. PMID:24155490

  15. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  16. Motor-evoked potentials (MEP) during brainstem surgery to preserve corticospinal function.

    PubMed

    Sarnthein, Johannes; Bozinov, Oliver; Melone, Angelina Graziella; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Brainstem surgery bears a risk of damage to the corticospinal tract (CST). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are used intraoperatively to monitor CST function in order to detect CST damage at a reversible stage and thus impede permanent neurological deficits. While the method of MEP is generally accepted, warning criteria in the context of brainstem surgery still have to be agreed on. We analyzed 104 consecutive patients who underwent microsurgical resection of lesions affecting the brainstem. Motor grade was documented prior to surgery, early postoperatively and at discharge. A baseline MEP stimulation intensity threshold was defined and intraoperative testing aimed to keep MEP response amplitude constant. MEPs were considered deteriorated and the surgical team was notified whenever the threshold was elevated by ≥20 mA or MEP response fell under 50%. On the first postoperative day, 18 patients experienced new paresis that resolved by discharge in 11. MEPs deteriorated in 39 patients, and 16 of these showed new postoperative paresis, indicating a 41% risk of new paresis. In the remaining 2/18 patients, intraoperative MEPs were stable, although new paresis appeared postoperatively. In one of these patients, intraoperative hemorrhage caused postoperative swelling, and the new motor deficit persisted until discharge. Of all 104 patients, 7 deteriorated in motor grade at discharge, 92 remained unchanged, and 5 patients have improved. Adjustment of surgical strategy contributed to good motor outcome in 33/39 patients. MEP monitoring may help significantly to prevent motor deficits during demanding neurosurgical procedures on the brainstem.

  17. Periorbital scleroderma associated with heterochromia iridis.

    PubMed

    Stone, R A; Scheie, H G

    1980-12-01

    Two patients had biopsy-proven linear scleroderma, associated with a pigmentary abnormality of the anterior segment of the eye. One patient had heterochromia iridis, atrophy of the upper eyelid, a typical coup de sabre lesion, and a markedly asymmetric pigmentary glaucoma. The second patient had bilateral scalp involvement, paresis of the extraocular muscles, blepharoptosis, and heterochromia iridis.

  18. The effects of mirror therapy on arm and hand function in subacute stroke in patients.

    PubMed

    Radajewska, Alina; Opara, Józef A; Kucio, Cezary; Błaszczyszyn, Monika; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jarosław

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mirror therapy on arm and hand function in subacute stroke in patients. The study included 60 hemiparetic right-handed patients after ischemic stroke 8-10 weeks after onset. They underwent stationary comprehensive rehabilitation in the rehabilitation centre. They were divided into two randomly assigned groups: mirror (n=30) and control (n=30). For both groups, two subgroups were created: one that included patients with right arm paresis (n=15) and the other that included patients with left arm paresis (n=15). The mirror group received an additional intervention: training with a mirror for 5 days/week, 2 sessions/day, for 21 days. Each single session lasted for 15 min. The control group (n=30) underwent a conventional rehabilitation program without mirror therapy. To evaluate self-care in performing activities of daily living, the Functional Index 'Repty' was used. To evaluate hand and arm function, the Frenchay Arm Test and the Motor Status Score were used. Measurements were performed twice: before and after 21 days of applied rehabilitation. No significant improvement in hand and arm function in both subgroups in Frenchay Arm Test and Motor Status Score scales was observed. However, there was a significant improvement in self-care of activities of daily living in the right arm paresis subgroup in the mirror group measured using the Functional Index 'Repty'. Mirror therapy improves self-care of activities of daily living for patients with right arm paresis after stroke.

  19. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L

    2013-09-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions.

  20. Impairment-oriented training (IOT)--scientific concept and evidence-based treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Platz, T

    2004-01-01

    Everyday activities can be affected by many different body dysfunctions (impairments). A multi-modal analysis of electric brain activity revealed that movement-related brain activity is differentially altered in patients with different impairments, i.e. paresis, somatosensory deficits, and apraxia. Each body dysfunction has its own characteristics in terms of the resulting sensorimotor control deficits. The Impairment-oriented Training concept intends to characterise the resulting sensorimotor control deficits for each impairment. Based on such analyses two specific training techniques have been developed for stroke patients with mild and severe arm paresis: (1.) The Arm Ability training for mild arm paresis trains different sensorimotor abilities such as dexterity, speed of isolated hand and finger movements, steadiness, aiming, or tracking under visual guidance. Improvement of these motor abilities leads to improved motor performance in every day life circumstances. (2.) The Arm BASI S training for severe arm paresis intends to restore more basic motor control, i.e. the full range of active non-segmented motion of all limb segments, both postural activities and dynamic motion control, interjoint-coordination, and adequate motor control when external forces are applied. Clinical trials with representative study populations supported both techniques' clinical efficacy.

  1. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  2. Perceived health in a population based sample of victims of the 1956 polio epidemic in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Nollet, F; Ivanyi, B; Beelen, A; de Haan, R J; Lankhorst, G; de Visser, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate perceived health and its relation to residual paresis from polio, late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis (LSP), and sex, in a population based sample of polio survivors. Methods: 350 subjects traced from the notification records of the Dutch 1956 polio epidemic received a mailed questionnaire on residual polio paresis and new neuromuscular symptoms. Perceived health was measured using the Nottingham health profile. Respondents with new muscle weakness and new neuromuscular symptoms were considered as cases with LSP. Results: Health problems were perceived by 151 of the 260 respondents. Respondents with residual paresis had significantly more health problems than clinically recovered respondents for the Nottingham health profile category of physical mobility. The perceived health of respondents with LSP (45.5%) was significantly worse than that of respondents without LSP for all the health profile categories. Among the respondents with LSP, health status did not differ between those with residual paresis and those who had recovered, except for physical mobility. Female respondents with LSP reported worse health status than male respondents with regard to physical mobility and social isolation. Conclusions: In this population based sample, health problems were frequently reported. They were mainly related to late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis, which were perceived by a substantial proportion of all polio survivors—not only subjects with polio residuals but also individuals who (subjectively) had recovered from polio. PMID:12438472

  3. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  4. Dysphonia and dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Hanna; Niemelä, Mika; Lauri, Eija-Riitta; Back, Leif; Juvas, Anja; Räsänen, Pirjo; Roine, Risto P; Sintonen, Harri; Salmi, Tapani; Vilkman, S Erkki; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the effects of anterior cervical decompression (ACD) on swallowing and vocal function. The study comprised 114 patients who underwent ACD. The early group (50 patients) was examined immediately pre- and postoperatively, and the late group (64 patients) was examined at only 3 to 9 months postoperatively. Fifty age- and sex-matched patients from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery who had not been intubated in the previous 5 years were used as a control group. All patients in the early and control groups were examined by a laryngologist; patients in the late group were examined by a laryngologist and a neurosurgeon. Videolaryngostroboscopy was performed in all members of the patient and control groups, and the function of the ninth through 12th cranial nerves were clinically evaluated. Data were collected concerning swallowing, voice quality, surgery results, and health-related quality of life. Patients with persistent dysphonia were referred for phoniatric evaluation and laryngeal electromyography (EMG). Those with persistent dysphagia underwent transoral endoscopic evaluation of swallowing function and videofluorography. Sixty percent of patients in the early group reported dysphonia and 69% reported dysphagia at the immediate postoperative visit. Unilateral vocal fold paresis occurred in 12%. The prevalence of both dysphonia and dysphagia decreased in both groups 3 to 9 months postoperatively. All six patients with vocal fold paresis in the early group recovered, and in the late group there were two cases of vocal fold paresis. The results of laryngeal EMG were abnormal in 14 of 16 patients with persistent dysphonia. Neither intraoperative factors nor age or sex had any effect on the occurrence of dysphonia, dysphagia, or vocal fold paresis. Most patients were satisfied with the surgical outcome. Dysphonia, dysphagia, and vocal fold paresis are common but usually transient complications of ACD

  5. Oxytocin and catechol-O-methyltransferase receptor genotype predict the length of the first stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Terkawi, Abdullah S; Jackson, William M; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Tabassum, Rabeena; Flood, Pamela

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to identify genetic factors that influence the rate of the first stage of labor. We prospectively enrolled 233 laboring nulliparous parturients. Demographic, clinical, and genetic data were collected. We evaluated the influence of population and individual variability using a nonlinear mixed effects model. Parturients who were homozygous for "G" at oxytocin receptor gene rs53576 transitioned to active labor later and thus had slower labor. Catechol-O-methyltransferase rs4633 genotype TT was associated with slower latent phase labor. Labor induction with prostaglandin was associated with faster labor, and request for meperidine was associated with slower labor. Birthweight was related inversely to the rate of the active phase. There are demographic, clinical, and genetic factors that influence an individual's rate of labor progress. This information could be used in automated form to improve the prediction of the length of the first stage of labor. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Health education: repercussions in the neuropsychomotor growth and development of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Marcacine, Karla Oliveira; Orati, Priscila Lopes; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena

    2012-01-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by great physical and emotional changes, when parturients and families experience ambivalent and conflicting feelings and emotions, especially with the arrival of the baby, requiring the need of professional orientation and support. Having it in mind, it was searched the available literature evidence about health education, coming from a nursing team and directed to parturients and families, dealing with the newly born care and regarding its appropriate neuropsychomotor growth and development. It is clear the need of motivating the mother and the family to participate in the development of child care, increasing the success of health action results, once it provides autonomy and trust to this nucleus towards its acts, especially to the maternal role.

  7. Ambulatory labor analgesia: what does an obstetrician need to know?

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M

    2004-05-01

    A simple statement that describes the degree of the patient's satisfaction with the pain relief from her labor epidural analgesia has often assessed the quality of labor analgesia as perceived by the patient. Many laboring parturients, midwives, obstetricians and anesthesiologists are increasingly concerned by the limitations of traditional epidural labor analgesia. In general, women dislike the inability to void, the often-dense motor block, the feeling of numbness of the lower body, the total lack of the urge to bear down, and the complete perineal anesthesia. Continuous search for balanced labor analgesia that provides relief from pain, while preserving motor function, has led to the development of an ambulatory labor analgesia technique. This article assesses the validity of various strongly advocated opinions as to whether parturients benefit from ambulation in labor and also reviews the current trends in ambulatory labor analgesia.

  8. Intact Survival After Obstetric Hemorrhage and 55 Minutes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Anast, Nicholas; Kwok, Joseph; Carvalho, Brendan; Lipman, Steven; Flood, Pamela

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac arrest occurs in approximately 1:12,000 parturients. Among nonpregnant patients who have in-hospital cardiac arrest, those whose spontaneous circulation does not return within 15 to 20 minutes have a high risk of death and disability, so life support efforts are generally stopped after this period. However, among parturients, witnessed in-hospital arrest is often reversible and has a better prognosis. We describe a successful clinical outcome after maternal cardiac arrest and 55 minutes of advanced cardiac life support. This case underscores the importance of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and raises questions about the appropriate duration of resuscitation efforts in otherwise healthy young mothers with a potentially reversible cause of arrest.

  9. Modified patient-controlled remifentanil bolus delivery regimen for labour pain*.

    PubMed

    Jost, A; Ban, B; Kamenik, M

    2013-03-01

    To improve the analgesic efficiency and to simplify the administration of remifentanil for systemic analgesia in labour, we contrived a modified delivery regimen with a specific infusion profile and variable dosing and conducted a single-blind randomised crossover study to compare it with the previous 'classical' regimen. Parturients received both regimens in interchangeable sets, each with five contractions. We compared pain and satisfaction scores, maternal and fetal vital parameters, side-effects and other events. Twenty-three parturients completed the study. No differences in observed parameters were noticed except for slightly lower blood pressure with the modified regimen. Pain estimates were lower in women starting with the modified regimen (p = 0.005), and there were fewer requests for analgesia within the lockout period (31 vs 69, p = 0.041) and bolus adjustments (0 vs 25, p < 0.001) with the modified regimen. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Sequential drug verification errors resulting in wrong drug administration during caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Calderbank, S; Uncles, D R; Burns, N; Kariyawasam, H K C D; Allan, G D L

    2011-01-01

    An intravenous bolus of phentolamine was inadvertently given to a parturient during an emergency caesarean section following delivery of her infant when the intention had been to give an intravenous bolus of 5 IU Syntocinon. Root cause analysis identified a series of errors originating in the hospital pharmacy when one drug package was mistakenly issued in place of another. Subsequent checks failed to detect the original mistake. The final and most important check immediately before intravenous administration was also at fault. This case highlights a systems failure that permitted issue, transportation and administration of the wrong drug to a parturient. Robust measures to ensure avoidance of drug administration errors should be evaluated and introduced where possible.

  11. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    ITOH, Megumi; SAKURAI, Yoshie; NAKAJIMA, Yasuhiro; KAWAMOTO, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval0.5) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (P<0.001). The 95% prediction interval indicated that cows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of <0.9 mmol/l or <7.5 mg/dl, respectively). These findings indicate that hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  12. A comparison of the analgesic effects of methoxyflurane-nitrous oxide and nitrous oxide alone during labour related to the Eysenck personality inventory test.

    PubMed

    Arozenius, S; Dahlgren, B E; Lindwall, L; Akerlind, I

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-three paturients who had received either methoxyflurane-nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide analgesia with or without pudendal block, underwent the Eysenck Personality Inventory Test on the second postpartum day and evaluated their memory of the pain (Subjectively Evaluated Pain Suffering Scores) during labor. Parturients who had received methoxyflurance-nitrous oxide analgesia reported significantly lower pain suffering than parturients who had had nitrous oxide analgesia. Subdivision according to Personality Inventory factors showed that at the introvert end of the Extroversion-Introversion scale, methoxyflurance-nitrous oxide analgesia with or without additional pudendal block resulted in significantly lower pain suffering than did not nitrous oxide analgesia. On the other hand, nitrous oxide analgesia without additional pudendal block gave significantly lower pain suffering at the extrovert end of the scale. Among the extroverts there was a tendency, though not statistically significant, towards non-approval of the pudendal block.

  13. Subarachnoid block for caesarean section in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sujata; Salhotra, Rashmi

    2011-04-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations and it complicates about 6-8% of pregnancies. Severe preeclampsia poses a dilemma for the anesthesiologist especially in emergency situations where caesarean deliveries are planned for uninvestigated or partially investigated parturients. This article is aimed to review the literature with regards to the type of anesthesia for such situations. A thorough search of literature was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Google to retrieve the articles. Studies on parturients with severe preeclampsia, undergoing caesarean section, were included in this article. There is growing evidence to support the use of subarachnoid block in such situations when the platelet counts are >80,000 mm(-3). Better hemodynamic stability with the use of low-dose local anesthetic along with additives and better neonatal outcomes has been found with the use of subarachnoid block when compared to general anesthesia.

  14. Placentophagia in Weanling Female Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548

  15. Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis after repeat epidural blood patch.

    PubMed

    Carlswärd, C; Darvish, B; Tunelli, J; Irestedt, L

    2015-08-01

    Epidural blood patching is an effective treatment for postdural puncture headache but has potential risks. Arachnoiditis is a very rare disabling condition and few cases have been described following an epidural blood patch. We present a case of chronic adhesive arachnoiditis in a parturient treated with a repeat epidural blood patch. A healthy 29-year-old woman had an accidental dural puncture following epidural insertion during labour. Initial treatment of postdural puncture headache with an epidural blood patch was ineffective and was therefore repeated. She gradually developed severe neurological symptoms consistent with arachnoiditis confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Despite intensive multimodal treatment with analgesics and physiotherapy, her neurological condition remains unresolved two years later. This serious but rare complication should encourage caution when treating parturients with postdural puncture headache with a repeat epidural blood patch.

  16. Update for nurse anesthetists evidence-based anesthesia: The use of preprocedural ultrasonography during labor to facilitate placement of an epidural catheter.

    PubMed

    Spence, Dennis; Nations, Ryan; Rivera, Orlando; Bowdoin, Shawn; Hazen, Bradley; Orgill, Robert; Maye, John

    2012-06-01

    Placement of an epidural catheter in parturients can be challenging because the anatomic changes of pregnancy may make it difficult to palpate an ideal insertion point or detect loss of resistance. Preprocedural ultrasonography (U/S-P) is reported to facilitate placement of epidural catheters in parturients. U/S-P provides information on the ideal insertion point, angle of needle insertion, and estimated depth to the epidural space. The purposes of this course are to describe the technique, systematically review the literature, and discuss techniques for integrating U/S-P into practice. It provides evidence demonstrating that U/S-P is a useful adjunct for placement of epidural catheters in obstetrical patients, especially patients with presumed "difficult backs" or obesity.

  17. Severe preeclampsia, pulmonary edema, and peripartum cardiomyopathy in a primigravida patient.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Curt; Rivera, Jesse; Spence, Dennis

    2011-06-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare form of heart failure of unknown etiology that is associated with late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although the complete pathogenesis of PPCM is not completely understood, the signs and symptoms are identical to those of left ventricular heart failure. The diagnosis of PPCM is made in a parturient only after other causes of heart failure are ruled out. Management of PPCM is similar to that of congestive heart failure with a few exceptions, such as avoiding the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors during pregnancy. This report describes the presentation and anesthetic management of a parturient who was admitted with a diagnosis of severe preeclampsia in whom pulmonary edema and heart failure developed, necessitating emergency cesarean delivery under general anesthesia. The patient was subsequently given a diagnosis of PPCM.

  18. Carcinoid tumor and intravenous octreotide infusion during labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Le, B T; Bharadwaj, S; Malinow, A M

    2009-04-01

    There are limited numbers of reports concerning the management of pregnancy complicated by carcinoid tumors. Octreotide, the synthetic analogue of somatostatin, has been found to be beneficial in preventing the perioperative exacerbation of carcinoid syndrome. We present a case of the successful use of neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia for labor and vaginal delivery in a symptomatic parturient afflicted with carcinoid syndrome, who received an intravenous infusion of octreotide throughout labor and vaginal delivery.

  19. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene associated with peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jaryal, Ajay; Raina, Sujeet; Thakur, Surender; Sontakke, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare clinical entity. It was first described in late 19th century and since then has been reported with array of medical conditions mainly those complicated with shock, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Here in, we describe a parturient with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and SPG. Clinicians should be aware of this entity as early recognition can help in reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:23984243

  20. Anesthetic management in a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mikkiliineni, Venkata Rama Rao; Panidapu, Nagarjuna; Parasa, Mrunalini; Shaik, Mastan Saheb

    2015-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome is one of the most common thrombocytophilias but, unfortunately, goes unrecognized most often. It is an auto-immune disorder in which thrombotic events and a recurrent fetal loss occur in the presence of antibodies to phospholipids. It is the most common acquired hyper-coagulable state. There is a limited literature on peroperative management of patients with this syndrome. We report a case of APLA syndrome in a parturient due to its rarity and complexity.

  1. Possible Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Acquired Postpartum from Maternal Oral HSV Reactivation after Neuraxial Morphine.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, M Cecilia; Chawla, Rupesh; Duttchen, Kaylene

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we describe a case of a neonatal oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection possibly acquired from a mother who had oral HSV reactivation in association with neuraxial morphine. Neuraxial morphine is commonly administered for postpartum analgesia after cesarean delivery. While there is evidence that neuraxial morphine increases the risks of oral HSV reactivation in parturients, there has been no report of neonatal HSV infection directly acquired from a mother who had HSV recurrence from neuraxial morphine.

  2. Summer Resource Selection and Identification of Important Habitat Prior to Industrial Development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in Northern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Prichard, Alexander K.; Parrett, Lincoln S.; Person, Brian T.; Carroll, Geoffry M.; Smith, Melanie A.; Rea, Caryn L.; Yokel, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004–2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd’s range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  3. Summer resource selection and identification of important habitat prior to industrial development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan R; Prichard, Alexander K; Parrett, Lincoln S; Person, Brian T; Carroll, Geoffry M; Smith, Melanie A; Rea, Caryn L; Yokel, David A

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004-2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd's range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  4. Altered gravity effects on mothers and offspring: the importance of maternal behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I review and discuss recent studies of pregnant, parturient and lactating rat mothers and neonates exposed to hypo- and hypergravity. These studies are revealing new insights into how deviations form Earth-normal gravity may affect fundamental reproductive and ontogenetic processes in mammals. By way of background, I will first briefly summarize the spaceflights that have carried mammalian mothers and their offspring into space.

  5. [Anesthesia for cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Eldor, J; Guedj, P; Lavie, A

    1992-11-15

    Of 684 parturients who underwent cesarean section between July 1985-August 1990, 371 (54.2%) were given epidural anesthesia; 50 (7.3%) required general anesthesia after a failed attempt at epidural anesthesia; and 5 (0.7%) underwent inadvertent spinal anesthesia because of dural penetration by the epidural needle. In 258 (37.7%) general anesthesia was decided on before operation. The intentional avoidance of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in this university hospital is criticized.

  6. Perfusion index derived from a pulse oximeter can predict the incidence of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Toyama, S; Kakumoto, M; Morioka, M; Matsuoka, K; Omatsu, H; Tagaito, Y; Numai, T; Shimoyama, M

    2013-08-01

    Hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery is a result of decreased vascular resistance due to sympathetic blockade and decreased cardiac output due to blood pooling in blocked areas of the body. Change in baseline peripheral vascular tone due to pregnancy may affect the degree of such hypotension. The perfusion index (PI) derived from a pulse oximeter has been used for assessing peripheral perfusion dynamics due to changes in peripheral vascular tone. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline PI could predict the incidence of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery. Parturients undergoing elective Caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg and fentanyl 20 μg were enrolled in this prospective study. The correlation between baseline PI and the degree of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia and also the predictability of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery by PI were investigated. Baseline PI correlated with the degree of decreases in systolic and mean arterial pressure (r=0.664, P<0.0001 and r=0.491, P=0.0029, respectively). The cut-off PI value of 3.5 identified parturients at risk for spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 86% (P<0.001). The change of PI in parturients with baseline PI ≤ 3.5 was not significant during the observational period, while PI in parturients with baseline PI>3.5 demonstrated marked decreases after spinal injection. We demonstrated that higher baseline PI was associated with profound hypotension and that baseline PI could predict the incidence of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery.

  7. Role of cerebral oxygenation for prediction of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shen; Liu, Nai-He; Huang, Shao-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) for prediction of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section. Forty-five parturients undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anesthesia were selected. Blood pressure, heart rate and pulse oxygen saturation before and after anesthesia were recorded, and the association between changes in ScO2 before and after anesthesia with hypotension after spinal anesthesia was explored. Hypotension occurred in 32 parturients after spinal anesthesia. The decrease in ScO2 after spinal anesthesia in parturients with hypotension was larger than in parturients without hypotension (P < 0.05). The duration from the intrathecal injection to 5 % decrease in ScO2 was shorter than that from the intrathecal injection to the occurrence of hypotension (P < 0.05). The mean time from 5 % decrease in ScO2 to hypotension was 38 s. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.83 for decrease in ScO2 for prediction of hypotension (P < 0.05), and the optimal threshold value was 4.5 %. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 4.5 % decrease in ScO2 for prediction of hypotension were 0.75, 0.78, 0.92 and 0.47, respectively. The decrease in ScO2 after spinal anesthesia is associated with hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, and may be a clinically useful predictor.

  8. Preoperative measurement of maternal abdominal circumference relates the initial sensory block level of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Kuok, Chi-Hang; Huang, Chung-Hsin; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Ko, Yuan-Pi; Lee, Wei-Shih; Hsu, Yung-Wei; Hung, Fang-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid volume is decreased as the enlarging uterus compresses the inferior vena cava during pregnancy. A subsequent greater cephalad spread of sensory blockade is observed. Gravid uterus plays a crucial role in affecting the spinal anesthesia level. We hypothesized that maternal abdominal circumference can reflect compressive effect of the uterus and investigated the relationship between abdominal circumference and the level of sensory blockade, and incidence of hypotension following spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine in term parturients. Forty-two term parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were studied. Abdominal circumference was measured before spinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (2 mL, 2.2 mL, or 2.4 mL) was injected in to the subarachnoid space at the L3-L4 intervertebral level according to the parturient's height. The level of sensory blockade was assessed using an ice cube 1 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes after the spinal injection. The level of sensory blockade at the 15(th) minute was defined as the level of maximum sensory blockade. Statistical correlation coefficients were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation coefficient between the abdominal circumference and spinal level measured by cold sensation loss at 5 minutes after spinal anesthesia was significantly positive (right side ρ=0.43, p=0.005; left side ρ=0.46, p=0.003). No significant correlation was found between abdominal circumference and the level of maximum sensory blockade, the incidence of hypotension, ephedrine dosage, nausea, and vomiting after spinal anesthesia. Parturients with greater abdominal circumference value have a higher level of sensory blockade at 5 minutes after spinal anesthesia. Abdominal circumference cannot predict the maximum sensory blockade level and the incidence of hypotension. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Altered gravity effects on mothers and offspring: the importance of maternal behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I review and discuss recent studies of pregnant, parturient and lactating rat mothers and neonates exposed to hypo- and hypergravity. These studies are revealing new insights into how deviations form Earth-normal gravity may affect fundamental reproductive and ontogenetic processes in mammals. By way of background, I will first briefly summarize the spaceflights that have carried mammalian mothers and their offspring into space.

  10. Cervical balloon for dysfunctional labor following amniotomy.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Rabinerson, D; Feinstein, M; Mamet, Y

    1998-01-01

    The conventional treatment for arrest of protracted active phase dilatation is amniotomy and oxitocin. This kind of labor dystocia is associated with an increased incidence in Cesarean delivery. We describe the use of cervical balloon after amniotomy for protracted active phase dilatation. We have used this approach in five parturients. All five patients had a spontaneous vaginal delivery. Intrapartum cervical balloon in patients with dysfunctional labor may reduce the need for Cesarean delivery.

  11. Altered gravity effects on mothers and offspring: the importance of maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Ronca, A E

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, I review and discuss recent studies of pregnant, parturient and lactating rat mothers and neonates exposed to hypo- and hypergravity. These studies are revealing new insights into how deviations form Earth-normal gravity may affect fundamental reproductive and ontogenetic processes in mammals. By way of background, I will first briefly summarize the spaceflights that have carried mammalian mothers and their offspring into space.

  12. Oxytocin discontinuation after the active phase of labor is established.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Dimitrios-Efthymios G; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Trompoukis, Stamoulis; Vlachos, Georgios D

    2015-08-01

    Despite the widespread usage of oxytocin, there is still no consensus on its mode of administration. The scope of the present meta-analysis was to assess the effect of oxytocin discontinuation after the active phase of labor is established on maternal fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched Medline, Scopus, Popline, ClinicalTrials.gov and Google Scholar databases. Eight studies were finally retrieved, which involved 1232 parturient. We observed significantly decreased rates of cesarean sections among parturient that discontinued oxytocin (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35, 0.74) as well as decreased rates of uterine hyperstimulation (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19, 0.58). Similarly, cases of non-reassuring fetal heart rates were fewer among women that did not receive oxytocin after the establishment of the active phase of labor (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41, 0.97). Keeping in mind the aforementioned maternal and neonatal adverse effects that seem to result from infusion of oxytocin until delivery, future practice should aim towards its discontinuation after the establishment of the active phase of labor, as it does not seem to influence the total duration of labor. Future studies should aim towards specific populations of parturient in order to clarify whether different approaches are needed.

  13. Habitat use by female caribou: Tradeoffs associated with parturition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barten, Neil L.; Bowyer, R.T.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    We compared habitat use, forage characteristics, and group size among preparturient, parturient, and nonparturient female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) during and after the birthing season to test hypotheses involving acquisition of forage and risk of predation. We monitored 39 radiocollared females from the Mentasta caribou herd, Alaska, in 1994 and 40 animals in 1995. Group size of females giving birth at higher elevations was smaller (P 0.5). During peak parturition, females with young used sites with fewer predators (P < 0.05), a lower abundance of forage (P < 0.05), but with variable forage quality compared with those sites used by females without young. We hypothesized that parturient females used birth sites that lowered risk of predation, and traded-off forage abundance for increased safety. Nonetheless, few differences existed between parturient and nonparturient females in composition of diet or in indices of diet quality; we could not demonstrate a nutritional cost to maternal females from our analyses. We suggest that increasing population density might intensify intraspecific competition among females for birth sites, and thereby increase nutritional costs of using high-elevation areas with less forage but fewer predators.

  14. Peripartum anesthetic management of patients with Factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Alon; Orbach-Zinger, Sharon; Eidelman, Leonid A; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ioscovich, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Factor XI deficiency is predominantly found in the Ashkenazi Jewish population with a prevalence of 9%, but also seen in other ethnicities. Little information is available on obstetric anesthesia management in women with Factor XI deficiency. Therefore, we undertook a study to evaluate obstetric, anesthetic and perinatal outcomes in parturients with Factor XI deficiency. A retrospective study was conducted with chart reviews from 1996 to 2011 resulted in 74 women with Factor XI level deficiency. We compared anesthetic and obstetric management in parturients with low (≤30%) level of Factor XI to those with higher levels. Ninety-one pregnancy outcomes were reviewed in these 74 women with Factor XI deficiency. Forty-three women had levels ≤30% in 46 labors while 31 women had levels >30% in 45 labors. Women with low levels of Factor XI were significantly more likely to receive FFP and less likely to receive neuroaxial anesthesia. There were no anesthetic complications and no difference in mode of delivery or neonatal outcomes. This study is the first step in building a national database for anesthetic cases and outcomes of parturients with Factor XI deficiency. Further efforts must be made to provide safe analgesia for these women.

  15. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N'guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d'Ivoire. It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery.

  16. Increase of immunity to rubella and interruption of rubella transmission in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain) after an enhanced vaccination programme.

    PubMed Central

    Cilla, G.; Dorronsoro, M.; Sáenz-Domínguez, J. R.; Serrano, E.; Pérez-Trallero, E.

    2004-01-01

    In Spain, vaccination against rubella was initiated in schoolgirls in the mid-1970s. In Gipuzkoa, subsequent extensions to the vaccination schedule culminated in 1992 with the introduction of the two-dose measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in children and adolescents of both sexes. Moreover, in 1985 a programme for the identification and vaccination of non-immune parturient women was implemented in the region's main hospital. The prevalence of rubella-susceptible parturient women decreased from 3.7 % at the beginning of the study to < 1.5 % by 1992. Despite this overall decrease, 4.8 % of adolescent parturients were susceptible to rubella during 2001--2002. From 1984, the number of reported cases of rubella (children and adults) progressively decreased until 1997, after which there have been no cases of indigenous rubella. There have been no cases of reported congenital rubella since 1984. These results indicate that the vaccine policy carried out in this geographical area has been effective in achieving considerable progress towards rubella elimination. PMID:15310170

  17. A randomised comparison of variable-frequency automated mandatory boluses with a basal infusion for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Sia, A T; Leo, S; Ocampo, C E

    2013-03-01

    This trial was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of administering variable-frequency automated boluses at a rate proportional to the patient's needs with fixed continuous basal infusion in patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) during labour and delivery. We recruited a total of 102 parturients in labour who were randomly assigned to receive either a novel PCEA with automated mandatory boluses of 5 ml administered once, twice, three or four times per hour depending on the history of the parturient's analgesic demands over the past hour (Automated bolus group), or a conventional PCEA with a basal infusion of 5 ml.h(-1) (Infusion group). The incidence of breakthrough pain requiring supplementation by an anaesthetist was significantly lower in the Automated bolus group, three out of 51 (5.9%) compared with the Infusion group, 12 out of 51 (23.5%, p = 0.023). The time-weighted mean (SD) hourly consumption of ropivacaine was similar in both groups, 10.0 (3.0) mg in the Automated bolus group vs 11.1 (3.2) mg in the Infusion group (p = 0.06). Parturients from the Automated bolus group reported higher satisfaction scores compared with those in the Infusion group, 96.5 (5.0) vs 89.2 (9.4), respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of maternal side-effects and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Women's needs and expectations during normal labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Mina; Zarean, Elahe; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Bahrami, Masod

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy and birth are unique processes for women. Women and families hold different expectation during childbearing based on their knowledge, experiences, belief systems, culture, and social and family backgrounds. These differences should be understood and respected, and care is adapted and organized to meet the individualized needs of women and families. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian parturient needs, values and preferences during normal labor and delivery. An exploratory qualitative study was used. Twenty-four parturient women from three governmental medical training centers in Isfahan, Iran were recruited using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited to low-risk women after they had given birth, but before they were discharged from hospital. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews, informal observations and field notes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the conventional content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman approach. Women's needs and expectations fell into seven main categories: Physiological, psychological, informational, social and relational, esteem, security and medical needs. All of the key needs in these data relates to a fundamental need, named "sense of control and empowerment in childbirth." Knowing a woman's needs, values, preferences and expectations during normal labor and delivery assists healthcare professionals especially midwives in providing high-quality care to parturient women.

  19. The use of pain relief during labor among migrant obstetric populations.

    PubMed

    Husarova, Viera; Macdarby, Laura; Dicker, Patrick; Malone, Fergal D; McCaul, Conan L

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns in intrapartum analgesia use in the migrant obstetric population. A retrospective analysis included all deliveries with neonates above 500g in weight at a university hospital in Dublin, Ireland between 2009 and 2013. Analgesia was classified as neuraxial or non-neuraxial. Parturients were excluded owing to missing data, elective cesarean deliveries, and the use of analgesia during treatment for obstetric complications. There were 36 689 deliveries included in the present study. Increased odds of not using neuraxial analgesia during delivery were observed among migrant parturients from North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Far East, India, and Eastern Europe compared with western Europe (all P<0.05). Increased odds of not receiving any analgesia during delivery were demonstrated among parturients from North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Far East, North America, Eastern Europe, and India compared with western Europe (all P<0.05). Disparities exist in the use of intrapartum analgesia between migrant and western European populations in Ireland. Migrants from Africa were the least likely to use any analgesia. The reasons for this are speculative but could be influenced by expectations of care in the region of origin. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective review of the labor analgesia programme in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Indranil; Singh, Shivinder; Setlur, Rangraj; Mohan, C.V.R.; Datta, Rashmi; Patrikar, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The structured labor analgesia programme in our tertiary care hospital has been in place for the past few years. We undertook this study to analyze the programme and to draw conclusions to further improve the outcomes. Methods A prospective analysis of the data pertaining to 200 patients participating in an ongoing labor analgesia programme in a tertiary care hospital from Nov 2008 to Aug 2009 was performed. Results Mean visual analog score (VAS) before epidural block was 8.34 ± 0.79. Post procedure the average VAS score was 2.20 ± 0.79. One hundred and fifty six (78%) parturients delivered vaginally, 18 (9%) required instrumentation with vacuum including 1 forceps delivery in a multiparous parturient. In 17parturients (8.7%) fetal distress led to a decision to perform LSCS for delivery. Multiparous patients were significantly more satisfied as compared to nulliparous patients (p = 0.010). Conclusion The study demonstrated excellent pain relief and patient satisfaction with minimal complications. The safety and efficacy of epidural bupivacaine in concentrations less than 0.625% combined with 25 mcg of fentanyl demonstrated in our study should be considered are commendation for the widespread adoption of the procedure in tertiary care hospitals. PMID:24600144

  1. Progress in analgesia for labor: focus on neuraxial blocks

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, J Sudharma; Birnbach, David J

    2010-01-01

    Neuraxial analgesia is widely accepted as the most effective and the least depressant method of providing pain relief in labor. Over the last several decades neuraxial labor analgesia techniques and medications have progressed to the point now where they provide high quality pain relief with minimal side effects to both the mother and the fetus while maximizing the maternal autonomy possible for the parturient receiving neuraxial analgesia. The introduction of the combined spinal epidural technique for labor has allowed for the rapid onset of analgesia with minimal motor blockade, therefore allowing the comfortable parturient to ambulate. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia techniques have evolved to allow for more flexible analgesia that is tailored to the individual needs of the parturient and effective throughout the different phases of labor. Computer integrated systems have been studied to provide seamless analgesia from induction of neuraxial block to delivery. New adjuvant drugs that improve the effectiveness of neuraxial labor analgesia while decreasing the side effects that may occur due to high dose of a single drug are likely to be added to future labor analgesia practice. Bupivacaine still remains a popular choice of local anesthetic for labor analgesia. New local anesthetics with less cardiotoxicity have been introduced, but their cost effectiveness in the current labor analgesia practice has been questioned. PMID:21072273

  2. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in term pregnancy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chun, R; Baghirzada, L; Tiruta, C; Kirkpatrick, A W

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of measuring intra-abdominal pressure in term parturients under spinal anesthesia. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in 20 term parturients after spinal anesthesia for elective caesarean section. Pressure was measured in the supine and 10° left lateral tilt positions with a constant reference point throughout. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement was feasible and safe to perform. Pressure was significantly lower in the left lateral tilt position than supine (10.9 mmHg ± 4.67 vs. 8.9 mmHg ± 4.87, P=0.0004). The range of intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy was wide, from 2 to 20 mmHg, with >25% of patients resting with pressures above 12 mmHg in both positions. Under spinal anesthesia, intra-abdominal pressure in >25% of healthy term parturients was > 12 mmHg, which has conventionally been defined as intra-abdominal hypertension. The intra-abdominal pressure in term pregnancy should be performed in the left lateral tilt position to avoid falsely elevated pressure measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase of immunity to rubella and interruption of rubella transmission in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain) after an enhanced vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Cilla, G; Dorronsoro, M; Sáenz-Domínguez, J R; Serrano, E; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2004-08-01

    In Spain, vaccination against rubella was initiated in schoolgirls in the mid-1970s. In Gipuzkoa, subsequent extensions to the vaccination schedule culminated in 1992 with the introduction of the two-dose measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in children and adolescents of both sexes. Moreover, in 1985 a programme for the identification and vaccination of non-immune parturient women was implemented in the region's main hospital. The prevalence of rubella-susceptible parturient women decreased from 3.7 % at the beginning of the study to < 1.5 % by 1992. Despite this overall decrease, 4.8 % of adolescent parturients were susceptible to rubella during 2001--2002. From 1984, the number of reported cases of rubella (children and adults) progressively decreased until 1997, after which there have been no cases of indigenous rubella. There have been no cases of reported congenital rubella since 1984. These results indicate that the vaccine policy carried out in this geographical area has been effective in achieving considerable progress towards rubella elimination.

  4. Women's needs and expectations during normal labor and delivery

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Mina; Zarean, Elahe; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Bahrami, Masod

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy and birth are unique processes for women. Women and families hold different expectation during childbearing based on their knowledge, experiences, belief systems, culture, and social and family backgrounds. These differences should be understood and respected, and care is adapted and organized to meet the individualized needs of women and families. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian parturient needs, values and preferences during normal labor and delivery. Materials and Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was used. Twenty-four parturient women from three governmental medical training centers in Isfahan, Iran were recruited using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited to low-risk women after they had given birth, but before they were discharged from hospital. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews, informal observations and field notes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the conventional content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman approach. Results: Women's needs and expectations fell into seven main categories: Physiological, psychological, informational, social and relational, esteem, security and medical needs. All of the key needs in these data relates to a fundamental need, named “sense of control and empowerment in childbirth.” Conclusion: Knowing a woman's needs, values, preferences and expectations during normal labor and delivery assists healthcare professionals especially midwives in providing high-quality care to parturient women. PMID:25767817

  5. Anaesthetic and obstetric challenges of morbid obesity in caesarean deliveries--a study in South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, U V; Efetie, E R; Nwoke, O; Okezie, O; Umeh, U

    2012-03-01

    Morbid obesity of parturient has become very important in perinatal medicine because of a worldwide obesity epidemic. Morbid obesity of parturient is reportedly associated with severely increased anaesthetic and obstetric risk. To determine the prevalence rate, anaesthetic and obstetric complications in morbidly obese parturient that had caesarean delivery in a Nigerian tertiary care centre. The obstetric theatre records and case files were reviewed for caesarean deliveries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from May 2008 to December 2010. A sample size of 250 patients, calculated based on a prevalence rate of 19%, confidence interval of 95% , a power of 80% and a finite population of zero was used to determine the prevalence rate of morbid obesity (Body Mass Index of greater than or equal to 35 kg/m(2)). There were thirty-one patients with morbid obesity (12.4%). The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 38.3 kg/m(2)(SD ± 2.99). Other findings included macrosomia (7 or 25.8%), gestational diabetes (13%) and pregnancy induced hypertension (7 or 22.5%).There were two neonatal deaths but no maternal deaths. The prevalence rate of morbid obesity is about 10% in Nigerian women of child bearing age. This mirrors a World Health Organisation report published in the World Health Organisation Global Information Base.

  6. Effect of Anaesthesia Method on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Elective Caesarean Section Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Akildiz, Mahmut; Aksoy, Yakup; Kaydu, Ayhan; Kaçar, Cem Kıvılcım; Şahin, Ömer Fatih; Yıldırım, Zeynep Baysal

    2017-01-01

    Objective In this study, the effect of the anaesthesia method on preoperative anxiety in parturients scheduled to undergo elective caesarean surgery was investigated. Methods After Dicle University Ethics Committee approval, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II parturients, aged between 18 and 45 years, were included in this study from 2011 to 2012 at the Dicle University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anaesthesiology. The parturients were divided into two groups, with 50 patients in each group: general anaesthesia (GA) and spinal anaesthesia (SA). Patients were evaluated during the preoperative visit. Demographic data and STAI TX-1 form to measure preoperative anxiety were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in maternal age, gestational age, level of education and number of children (p>0.05). The average anxiety score was significantly higher in the SA group than in the GA group (p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, spinal anaesthesia is associated with a higher preoperative anxiety level than general anaesthesia in obstetric patients. Therefore, it is necessary to take prevention against preoperative anxiety for the patients undergoing caesarean section surgeries under spinal anaesthesia. PMID:28377838

  7. Cutaneous and neurologic disease associated with HTLV-I infection.

    PubMed

    Sharata, H H; Colvin, J H; Fujiwara, K; Goldman, B; Hashimoto, K

    1997-05-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paresis (TSP), and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL has been associated with HTLV-I in the southeastern United States. However, to our knowledge, no case reports of HAM/TSP in association with ATLL occurring in the United States have been described. We describe a 40-year-old black woman with a 10-year history of recalcitrant psoriasiform eruption and erythrodermic flares. Medical history is additionally significant for a 2-year history of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and lower extremity spastic paresis. Polymerase chain reaction with Southern blot analysis was used to detect HTLV-I proviral genome from frozen skin biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  8. [Neuromuscular electric stimulation therapy in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Kühn, D; Jungheim, M; Schwemmle, C; Ptok, M

    2014-02-01

    Animal experiments have shown that after specific nerve traumatization, neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) can promote nerve regeneration and reduce synkinesia without negatively interfering with normal regeneration processes. NMES is used routinely in physical rehabilitation medicine. This systematic literature search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the DAHTA database, the Health Technology Assessment Database and MEDLINE or PubMed considered studies on the use of NMES in otorhinolaryngology that have been published in German or English. The search identified 180 studies. These were evaluated and relevant studies were included in the further evaluation. In the fields of otorhinolaryngology and phoniatry/paediatric audiology, clinical studies investigating the effects of NMES on facial and laryngeal paresis, as well as dysphonia and dysphagia have been carried out. The evidence collected to date is encouraging; particularly for the treatment of certain forms of dysphagia and laryngeal paresis.

  9. Surgery for a giant arteriovenous malformation without motor deterioration: preoperative transcranial magnetic stimulation in a non-cooperative patient.

    PubMed

    Kronenburg, Annick; van Doormaal, Tristan; van Eijsden, Pieter; van der Zwan, Albert; Leijten, Frans; Han, Kuo Sen

    2014-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive activation method that is increasingly used for motor mapping. Preoperative functional mapping in vascular surgery is not routinely performed; however, in cases of high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), it could play a role in preoperative decision making. A 16-year-old male was suffering from a giant, right-sided insular, Spetzler-Martin Grade V AVM. This patient's history included 3 hemorrhagic strokes in the past 3 years, resulting in Medical Research Council Grade 2-3 (proximal) and 2-4 (distal) paresis of the left side of the body and hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Preoperative TMS showed absent contralateral innervation of the remaining left-sided motor functions. Subsequently, the AVM was completely resected without any postoperative increase of the left-sided paresis. This case shows that TMS can support decision making in AVM treatment by mapping motor functions.

  10. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clark A; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E; Young, VyVy N; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-08-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis.

  11. Unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-08-01

    Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare.

  12. A pilot study of robotic-assisted exercise for hand weakness after stroke.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joel; Bishop, Joel; Gillen, Glen; Helbok, Raimund

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb paresis is a major source of disability in stroke survivors, and robotic aided exercise therapy is a promising approach to enhance motor abilities. Few devices have been available to provide robotic therapy to the fingers and hand. We report an open-label pilot study of 12 individuals with chronic moderate hemiparesis after stroke who underwent a six-week training program using a hand robotic device. Participants received a total of 18 hours of robotic therapy. Improvements were found in multiple measures of motor performance, including the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer, the Motor Activity Log, the Manual Ability Measure-36, and the Jebsen Hand Function Test. All subjects tolerated the treatment well and no complications were observed. We conclude that robotic therapy for hand paresis after stroke is safe and feasible, and that further studies of efficacy are justified by these preliminary results. © 2011 IEEE

  13. [Post-polio syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Żanna; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Post-polio syndrome occurs 30-40 years after polio virus infection. The main symptoms of PPS are slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia. In 90% of patients the main symptom is fatigue that leads to physical and mental activity deterioration. The cause of disease remains unknown. Probably it is an effect of motoneurons damage during acute virus polio infection, their overloading and degeneration of remaining ones. In this study we described a case of man who developed PPS 36 years after Heine-Medin disease. The main symptom was intensification of right limb paresis and muscle atrophy. In electromyography there were damage features of muscle clinically affected and unaffected. Changes in lifestyle made possible to continue occupational activity.

  14. [Evaluation of the vocal tract during Japanese vowel production in myasthenia gravis using magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Yasukouchi, Hideoki; Tsuru, Eichi; Tanaka, Ryuji; Matsushima, Yasuyuki

    2004-10-01

    We report a 65-year-old Japanese female whose primary symptom of myasthenia gravis was related to rhinolalia aperta. The vocal tract during vowel production was evaluated using two-dimensional fast advanced spin echo (2D-FASE) MR images on supine and prone position. Before treatment, MRI on prone position demonstrated anterior shift of the palatine uvula and the tongue during Japanese "a", "u" and "o" production following the gravity, the former suggested the paresis of the sphenosalpingostaphylinus and elevator veli palatini muscle and the latter the paresis of the styloglossal and hypoglossal muscles. After treatment of steroid pulse and immune absorption, 2D-FASE images on prone position revealed the normalized configuration of the tongue and the soft palate during the Japanese five-vowel production. Kinetic MRI may be useful for evaluation of dynamics of the tongue and the soft palate.

  15. Jugular foramen meningiomas: review of the major surgical series.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.

  16. Paroxysmal hemipareses in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, J; Havlová, M; Nevsímalová, S

    1979-12-01

    The authors report three patients suffering since infancy from transient attacks of paresis. The flaccid pareses most frequently affect the extremities in a hemiplegic fashion, but occasionally there is monoparesis or quadriparesis. The laterality and degree of the paresis are variable. Conciousness is always preserved, and in two cases attacks were preceded by ocular motor disturbances (skew deviation, nystagmoid jerks and conjugate deviations). Exceptionally, the transient hemiparesis may be preceded by a grand mal epileptic fit, though they are more likely to appear sporadically and independently of the paretic changes. In the interparoxysmal periods the children showed pronounced hypotonia, hyperkinetic extrapyramidal features and oligophrenia. Neuroradiological procedures have excluded brain anomalies of vascular or other aetiology and simple biochemical analyses were negative. EMG during paretic periods have revealed central motor neuron lesions, while EEG demonstrated non-specific paroxysmal features. A brain-stem dysfunction in the aetiology is postulated.

  17. Pituitary adenoma apoplexy with initial presentation mimicking bacterial meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chen, Hsien-Chih

    2009-05-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but life-threatening disorder. Clinical presentation of this condition includes severe headache, impaired consciousness, fever, visual disturbance, and variable ocular paresis. Signs of meningeal irritation are very rare. However, if present and associated with headache, fever, and pleocytosis, meningeal irritation may lead to misinterpretation as infectious meningoencephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, pituitary apoplexy with an initial presentation mimicking infectious meningoencephalitis had rarely been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 57-year-old man who had acute severe headache, high fever, neck stiffness, disturbance in consciousness, and left ocular paresis. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and neutrophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Because bacterial meningoencephalitis was suspected, empiric antibiotic therapy was administered but in vain. Further examinations indicated a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with apoplexy. After the immediate administration of intravenous corticosteroid supplement and surgical decompression, the patient recovered.

  18. [Advances in diagnosis of facial nerve paralysis: pathophysiology and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Czernicki, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Facial palsy is important clinical and social problem because of frequently appearance and to cause facial symmetry troubles which are visible for surroundings. Clinical picture of facial palsy, independently of its reason, contains a lot of symptoms depending on degree and place of nerve damage. The most visible and unpleasant for sick person unpleasant symptoms are abolition (in palsy) or considerably handicap (in paresis) function of facial countenance muscles which are hard to endure for patients. In special accidents patients demand psychology consultation and antidepression treatment to modify imagination about role of appearance in shape social relation. In place of damage nerve for particular attention deserve objective treatment the stapedius muscle reflex. It allows to objective estimation the facial nerve damage. Regress in paresis of this nerve decides on treatment. This treatment has a prognostic sense too--return of the stapedius muscle reflex announces return the function of damage nerve.

  19. Unruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Splitting the Oculomotor Nerve: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare. PMID:25083381

  20. "Fou rire prodromique" as the presentation of pontine ischaemia secondary to vertebrobasilar stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, F; Parks, B; Cruz-Flores, S

    2001-01-01

    "Fou rire prodromique" (prodrome of crazy laughter) is a rare form of pathological laughter of uncertain pathophysiology. A patient is presented with pathological laughter as the first manifestation of pontine ischaemia due to vertebrobasilar stenosis. A 65 year old man developed uncontrollable and unemotional laughter for almost an hour followed by transient right facial-brachial paresis. He had fluctuation of laughter, right facial brachial paresis, and occasional crying. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), and an angiogram showed small left pontine and cerebellar infarcts, left vertebral artery occlusion, and right vertebral and basilar artery stenosis. His condition deteriorated to bilateral brain stem infarction and he died. Necropsy confirmed the extensive brain stem infarction. Pathological laughter can be the very first presenting manifestation of ischaemia of the ventrotegmental junction of the upper pons. It is hypothesised that the pathological laughter in this patient was secondary to ischaemic ephaptic stimulation of the descending corticopontine/ bulbar pathways.

 PMID:11723208

  1. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrao, Joelle C.; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  3. Resection of Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positive Prerolandic Motor Areas Causes Permanent Impairment of Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Moser, Tobias; Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Conway, Neal; Wildschutz, Noémie; Sollmann, Nico; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-07-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) helps to determine the distribution of motor eloquent areas prior to brain surgery. Yet, the eloquence of primary motor areas frontal to the precentral gyrus identified via nTMS is unclear. To investigate the resection of nTMS-positive prerolandic motor areas and its correlation with postsurgical impairment of motor function. Forty-three patients with rolandic or prerolandic gliomas (WHO grade I-IV) underwent nTMS prior to surgery. Only patients without ischemia within the motor system in postoperative MRI diffusion sequences were enrolled. Based on the 3-dimensional fusion of preoperative nTMS motor mapping data with postsurgical MRI scans, we identified nTMS points that were resected in the infiltration zone of the tumor. We then classified the resected points according to the localization and latency of their motor evoked potentials. Surgery-related paresis was graded as transient (≤6 weeks) or permanent (>6 weeks). Out of 43, 31 patients (72%) showed nTMS-positive motor points in the prerolandic gyri. In general, 13 out of 43 patients (30%) underwent resection of nTMS points. Ten out of these patients showed postoperative paresis. There were 2 (15%) patients with a transient and 8 (62%) with a permanent surgery-related paresis. In 3 cases (23%), motor function remained unimpaired. After resection of nTMS-positive motor points, 62% of patients suffered from a new permanent paresis. Thus, even though they are located in the superior or middle frontal gyrus, these cortical areas must undergo intraoperative mapping.

  4. Burn Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    areas involving large areas of skin the patient is exposed to death first from shock . . .’’ [10]. In describing the pathophysiology leading to the shock...state seen in burns he postulated that various irritants , mental and physical, caused vasomotor paresis leading to accumulation of blood in the...resuscitation volumes. Subsequent studies suggested a decrease in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Oda et al., in 2006, published their experience

  5. Long-Term outcome of neonatal Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis treated with imipenem/meropenem and surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Straussberg, R; Harel, L; Amir, J

    2001-10-01

    Neonatal Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis is often complicated by the formation of brain abscesses and has a poor neurological outcome with seizures, mental retardation and paresis as sequelae in 50% of the cases. As there is emerging resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins, we attempted to treat this infection with carbapenems. Carbapenems in combination with cefotaxime and surgical drainage may play an important role in treating C. koseri meningitis.

  6. Monoparesis in association with feline pulmonary carcinoma: A literature review with 3 new cases

    PubMed Central

    van Stee, Lucinda; Boston, Sarah; Singh, Ameet; Park, Fiona; Richardson, Danielle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony; Vince, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We describe 3 cases of cats that were presented with a sudden onset of monoparesis as a result of arterial thromboembolism without evidence of cardiovascular disease that were subsequently diagnosed with a primary pulmonary carcinoma. Arterial tumor thromboemboli due to pulmonary carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of lameness or paresis in older cats. We theorize that large tumor emboli may obstruct peripheral arteries leading to acute monoparesis. PMID:25183892

  7. Dysphagia and dysphonia in a patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami; Mate, Andras; Lahav, Gil; Adi, Meital

    2009-09-01

    A patient with cancer undergoing chemotherapy via Portacath presented with severe progressive dysphagia and dysphonia. Unilateral paresis of the 9, 10, 11, and 12th cranial nerves was found (Collet-Sicard's syndrome or Villaret's syndrome), associated with ipsilateral jugular vein thrombosis identified by imaging. The use of central venous catheters is increasing, and even rare, hitherto unreported, complications need to be recognized. After catheter removal, the patient slowly improved with low-molecular weight heparin treatment and time.

  8. Control of robot assistant for rehabilitation of upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Miloš D; Popović, Mirjana B; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-01-01

    The assisted movement in humans with paresis of upper extremities is becoming popular for neurorehabilitation. We propose a novel method for trajectory selection and assistance control. This paper presents simulation of a planar two degrees of freedom robot that assists horizontal movement of the hand. The control assumes that during the exercise the hand needs to follow healthy alike trajectories. The robot is assumed to provide minimal assistance and operate as a teacher of the movement.

  9. Motor affliction of the L5 nerve root in lumbar nerve root compression syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, B; Strömqvist, B

    1995-09-15

    From a prospective and consecutive study on degenerative lumbar spine disorders containing 416 patients, all patients with a severely reduced or absent strength of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (n = 35) before surgery were identified. The incidence, diagnosis, and recovery after surgery of patients with L5 root compression syndromes and a severely reduced or absent power before surgery of the big toe extensor was evaluated. The L5 root is commonly involved in disc herniation and central and lateral spinal stenosis. Whether motor recovery occurs after root decompression is not fully known. All patients underwent a conventional radiologic evaluation before surgery including one or more myelography, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging. At examination before surgery, extensor hallucis longus-power was graded as normal, reduced, or severely reduced/absent, and the latter group is presented here. Surgical findings were registered. Clinical investigation was performed after 4, 12-, and 24-month follow-up periods. A pronounced extensor hallucis longus paresis was seen in disc herniation in 20 of 187 patients, in lateral spinal stenosis in 10 of 122 patients, and central spinal stenosis 5 of 107 patients. Improvement of the paresis after surgery was equally common in disc herniation (15 of 20 patients) and lateral spinal stenosis (7 of 10 patients). Complete restitution was more common in disc herniation. None of the five patients with central spinal stenosis improved concerning paresis at the follow-up period. Improvement was most common during the first 4 months after surgery. No correlation between age or preoperative symptom duration and recovery was noted in either group. The incidence of pronounced extensor hallucis longus paresis in lumbar nerve root compression varied between 5-11%. Recovery after surgery was common in disc herniation and lateral spinal stenosis but did not occur in central stenosis. Complete recovery was most common in

  10. Familial long thoracic nerve palsy: a manifestation of brachial plexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L H

    1986-09-01

    Long thoracic nerve palsy causes weakness of the serratus anterior muscle and winging of the scapula. It is usually traumatic in origin. Isolated long thoracic nerve palsy has not been recognized as the major manifestation of familial brachial plexus neuropathy, but I have studied the syndrome in four members of three generations of one family. One individual suffered an episode of facial paresis. The inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant.

  11. [Idiopathic facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wolf, S R

    1998-09-01

    Although acute idiopathic facial paresis is often labelled "Bell's palsy", historical studies show that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) from Würzburg was the first physician to describe the typical symptoms of the disorder in 1797, approximately 24 years prior to the paper published by Sir Charles Bell. Diagnostics has now improved to the extent that acute idiopathic facial palsy can more frequently be assigned to etiologies caused by inflammatory disorders. Herpes simplex virus type I and Borrelia burgdorferi are particularly relevant. Underestimation of the degree of paresis is, particularly in children, a drawback of the clinical examination. "Incomplete eyelid closure" is not a reliable indicator of remaining nerve function. For this reason complete electromyography (EMG) is recommended in all cases of severe facial paresis. Since electroneurography does not reliably reflect the degree of denervation present, needle EMG is preferred. The therapy of the facial palsy of unclear etiology is still not well defined. Nevertheless, we recommend that a combined treatment should be used early, at least in patients with disfiguring pareses. Combinations may consist of cortisone, virostatic agents and hemorrheologic substances and possibly antibiotics. Surgical decompression of the facial nerve remains controversial, since positive surgical results lack statistical support. Individual instructions for facial exercises, massage and muscle relaxation can support rehabilitation and possibly reduce the production of pathological synkinesia. Electrical stimulation should not be used. There are a number of possibilities available to reduce the effects of misdirected reinnervation, especially the use of botulinum-A-toxin. However, intensive diagnosis and therapy in the early phase of paresis are decisive in obtaining a favorable outcome. Further refinements in rehabilitation and comparative multicenter controlled studies are still required for future improvements in

  12. Design and development of a hand robotic rehabilitation device for post stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rashedi, E; Mirbagheri, A; Taheri, B; Farahmand, F; Vossoughi, G R; Parnianpour, M

    2009-01-01

    Robot-mediated rehabilitation is a rapidly advancing discipline that seeks to develop improved treatment procedures using new technologies, e.g., robotics, coupled with modern theories in neuroscience and rehabilitation. A robotic device was designed and developed for rehabilitation of upper limbs of post stroke patients. A novel force feedback bimanual working mode provided real-time dynamic sensation of the paretic hand. Results of the preliminary clinical tests revealed a quantitative evaluation of the patient's level of paresis and disability.

  13. Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula and Cecal Arteriovenous Malformation in a Boy

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Vimlesh; Vaidya, Pankaj C; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and cecal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are very rare. A 6-year old boy presented with lower limb paresis after trauma. On imaging work-up spinal dural AVF was found. It was managed with endovascular glue embolization. After two years, the boy presented with severe anemia and occult gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed. Cecal AVM was diagnosed and managed with embolization. PMID:28164000

  14. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  15. Facial palsy, an unusual presenting feature of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Shedthikere; Weinstock, Arie L; Smith, Sharon H; Duffner, Patricia K

    2002-07-01

    Facial paralysis is not a well-recognized presenting feature of leukemia in children. We present two infants and one older child in whom the initial manifestation of their leukemia was lower motor neuron facial paresis. Initial diagnosis in all the patients was Bell's palsy. The presence of Bell's palsy in young children requires a complete evaluation, including consideration of leptomeningeal disease. Leukemic children presenting with cranial neuropathy require intensive central nervous system therapy.

  16. Effect of auditory constraints on motor performance depends on stage of recovery post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Aluru, Viswanath; Lu, Ying; Leung, Alan; Verghese, Joe; Raghavan, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post-stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post-stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in 20 subjects with chronic hemiparesis. We used a bimanual wrist extension task, performed with a custom-made wrist trainer, to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: (1) without auditory cueing; (2) to non-musical happy sounds; (3) to self-selected music; and (4) to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each) were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics, and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups, which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post-stroke.

  17. [Brown syndrome. General considerations. Case report].

    PubMed

    Pop, Ana-Maria

    2011-01-01

    This is an overview of a few general aspects of Brown's syndrome followed by a case report of a three year old girl suffering from congenital Brown's syndrome, astigmatism and amblyopia, which was detected by an ophthalmological screening at her kindergarten. The main differential diagnosis is ipsilateral inferior oblique paresis/paralysis. Since this was a mild-degree syndrome, it didn't require surgery only optical treatement and follow-up.

  18. Domperidone induced galactorrhea: An unusual presentation of a common drug

    PubMed Central

    Poovathingal, Mary Anne; Bhat, Rama; Ramamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Domperidone is a prokinetic drug used for diabetic gastro paresis, hiccoughs, and vomiting. It is a peripheral D2 receptor antagonist with selective peripheral activity restricted to the upper gastro intestinal tract. It is not known to cross the blood brain barrier and hence, lacks neurological side effects. We would like to report a case of domperidone induced galactorrhea in a young female who presented with galactorrhea and other symptoms suggestive of prolactinoma. PMID:23833383

  19. Domperidone induced galactorrhea: an unusual presentation of a common drug.

    PubMed

    Poovathingal, Mary Anne; Bhat, Rama; Ramamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Domperidone is a prokinetic drug used for diabetic gastro paresis, hiccoughs, and vomiting. It is a peripheral D2 receptor antagonist with selective peripheral activity restricted to the upper gastro intestinal tract. It is not known to cross the blood brain barrier and hence, lacks neurological side effects. We would like to report a case of domperidone induced galactorrhea in a young female who presented with galactorrhea and other symptoms suggestive of prolactinoma.

  20. Effect of Auditory Constraints on Motor Performance Depends on Stage of Recovery Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aluru, Viswanath; Lu, Ying; Leung, Alan; Verghese, Joe; Raghavan, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post-stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post-stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in 20 subjects with chronic hemiparesis. We used a bimanual wrist extension task, performed with a custom-made wrist trainer, to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: (1) without auditory cueing; (2) to non-musical happy sounds; (3) to self-selected music; and (4) to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each) were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics, and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups, which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post-stroke. PMID

  1. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  2. Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Joelle C; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

    2014-07-01

    A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma.

  3. [Liquorice-induced hypertension and hypokalaemia].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Andersen, Inger

    2012-04-09

    Consumption of large amounts of liquorice can cause hypertension and hypokalaemia. Liquorice contains glycyrrhetinic acid, which inhibits the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and ultimately leads to an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. This case report describes a 50 year-old woman presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia-induced limb paresis due to chronic liquorice ingestion. The patient was treated with potassium supplementation and spironolactone. Her blood pressure and electrolyte status normalised within a month after cessation of liquorice intake.

  4. Design and performance characterization of a hand orthosis prototype to aid activities of daily living in a post-stroke population.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Benjamin W; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a hand orthosis prototype intended to assist persons with hand paresis, as a result of stroke, perform activities of daily living. Among its attributes, the orthosis is characterized by a low mass and small profile, while still offering the power assistance of a robotic exoskeleton. Experimental characterization of the orthosis is presented, including its mass, envelope dimensions, motion bandwidth, and joint torque characteristics.

  5. [Moyamoya disease as a cause of ischemic cerebral stroke in young people].

    PubMed

    Borowik, Helena; Pogorzelski, Robert; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    35-year old patient was admitted to the Department of Neurology, Medical University of Bialystok because of paresis of his left upper limb, progressing over last 10 months and right facial nerve paresis, which started a month ago. During neurological examination he presented with right facial and arm paresis, dysarthric speech, obesity and hypertension. The patient was previously hospitalized in regional hospital, where a lumbar puncture was done revealing normal composition of cerebrospinal fluid. His brain CT revealed bilateral hypodensive areas in frontal and parietal regions of vasogenic character. Doppler ultrasound showed significant slowing of blood flow velocity in both internal carotid arteries. Brain angiography presented with very weak contrast filling of intracranial branches of carotid and vertebral arteries and showed stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid arteries and at the proximal portion of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The patient had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, Holter ECG, lab tests (routine lab tests plus coagulation system evaluation with C protein resistance test, anticardiolipne antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anticytoplasmatic antibodies and thyroid hormones) checked--all tests were within normal range. Based on cerebral angiography and clinical symptoms, after excluding any other reasons of cerebral ischemia, the patient was diagnosed with moyamoya disease and arterial hypertension. The patient was treated pharmacologically with improvement--regression of face assymetry and dysarthria and diminishing of his right arm paresis. The authors of this paper pay attention to moyamoya disease as a rare reason of ischemic strokes in the young in our geographic region. They remind moyamoya disease diagnostic criteria, its etiology and treatment.

  6. Genetic Studies of Strabismus, Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (CCDDs), and Their Associated Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Congenital Fibrosis of Extraocular Muscles; Duane Retraction Syndrome; Duane Radial Ray Syndrome; Mobius Syndrome; Brown Syndrome; Marcus Gunn Syndrome; Strabismus Congenital; Horizontal Gaze Palsy; Horizontal Gaze Palsy With Progressive Scoliosis; Facial Palsy; Facial Paresis, Hereditary, Congenital; Third Nerve Palsy; Fourth Nerve Palsy; Sixth Nerve Palsy; Synkinesis; Ocular Motility Disorders; Levator-Medial Rectus Synkinesis; Athabaskan Brainstem Dysgenesis; Tongue Paralysis; Ninth Nerve Disorder; Fifth Nerve Palsy; Seventh Nerve Palsy; Eleventh Nerve Disorder; Twelfth Nerve Disorder; Vagus Nerve Paralysis; Moebius Sequence

  7. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  8. Hearing loss and vestibular function correlation in Menière's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Boleas-Aguirre, M S; Palomar-Asenjo, V; Sánchez-Ferrándiz, N; Pérez, N

    2008-01-01

    To analyse the correlation between vestibular dysfunction and hearing level of patients diagnosed with Menière's disease. Retrospective study on the correlation between hearing level and unilateral weakness in 100 Menière's disease patients. In order assess the effect of disease severity in such correlation, the study group included 50 patients who subsequently were treated with oral medication and 50 who later received intratympanic gentamicin to control their symptoms. Audiogram and caloric tests were performed before beginning both of the treatments. Patients were classified according to the AAO-HNS guidelines. Handicap was assessed with the Functional Level of the AAO-HNS and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. No correlation was found between pure tone average and canal paresis neither when patients were analysed as a whole nor when correlation was controlled for the treatment installed afterwards. Nevertheless, when they were grouped by hearing loss AAO-HNS stages, we found a greater canal paresis in those with a higher hearing loss (groups 3 and 4). No correlation was found between hearing loss and canal paresis of patients diagnosed with Menière's disease. However patients with a higher amount of hearing damage have a tendency to abnormal caloric results.

  9. Focal inhibitory seizure with prolonged deficit in adult Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aupy, Jerome; Bonnet, Charlotte; Arnould, Jean-Simon; Fernandez, Philippe; Marchal, Cecile; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder often related to varying degrees of motor impairment. The phenomenon of prolonged ictal paresis is a rare seizure sign that can be due to lesions affecting the centro-parietal lobe. Focal inhibitory motor seizures can be difficult to differentiate from other clinical entities such as stroke, migraine or postictal paresis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old patient suffering from Sturge-Weber syndrome, admitted due to prolonged right-sided hemiparesis following a usual seizure. Repeated EEGs during the prolonged deficit showed only intermittent left fronto-parietal sharp waves. (99m)Tc HMPAO-brain SPECT performed seven days after the last seizure showed a vast area of parieto-occipital hyperperfusion in the left hemisphere. Aggressive antiepileptic therapy dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and scintigraphic images, which corroborated the diagnosis of ictal paresis. This case highlights the role of SPECT in the evaluation of Sturge-Weber syndrome, not only to investigate progressive neurological deterioration, but also exacerbation of seizures or prolonged neurological deficits. In fact, it may be possible to document ongoing epileptic activity using SPECT, despite a non-contributory EEG, which may be of help in adapting a therapeutic strategy.

  10. Surgical approaches to pathological lesions of the middle cerebellar peduncle and the lateral part of the pons - clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, Henryk; Tymowski, Michał; Majchrzak, Krzysztof; Stepień, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Pathological lesions of the middle cerebellar peduncle include tumours, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous angiomas and spontaneous haematomas. Because of the very low incidence of these lesions, surgical approaches to the middle cerebellar peduncle are not commonly known. The authors decided to present their own experience based on five cases operated on at the authors' institution. Five patients were operated on, four with tumours and one with spontaneous haematoma of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In three patients the cerebellomedullary fissure approach was used, in one patient the paramedian supracerebellar approach, and in one patient the retrosigmoid approach. In all cases neoplastic lesions and haematoma were totally removed. In each case, balance disturbances and ataxia of extremities increased or occurred as a new sign. These disturbances diminished within several weeks after the procedure. In the case of location of the lesion also in the lateral part of the pons, the authors observed peripheral paresis of the seventh cranial nerve and paresis of the sixth cranial nerve, which tended to resolve. Pathological lesions of the middle cerebellar peduncle can be effectively treated surgically. The cerebellomedullary fissure approach has been found to be the best because it provides greater access to the dorsal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle and to the lateral part of the pons. The most frequent complications of the procedure were instability and ataxia as well as paresis of the sixth and seventh cranial nerve when the lesion was found in the lateral part of the pons.

  11. [A winged scapula].

    PubMed

    Faber, C G; Klaver, M M; Wokke, J H J

    2002-09-14

    Three patients, one woman aged 22 and two men aged 54 and 28, presented with scapular winging. In the first patient amyotrophic plexus neuralgia was diagnosed. The second patient most probably suffered from a stretch injury of the long thoracic nerve. The third patient had scapular winging due to an isolated paresis of the trapezius muscle, which was caused by an idiopathic lesion of the accessory nerve. In the first and second patient an improvement was noticeable after 9 months and 1.5 years respectively. There was no improvement in the third patient after 11 years. Paresis of the M. serratus anterior occurs due to paralysis of the N. thoracicus longus, as a result of direct compression, stump trauma, interventions such as thoracic operations, (repeated) stretch injuries or neuralgic brachial plexus amyotrophy; in these cases the scapular winging increases as the arm is lifted forwards. Paresis of the M. trapezius occurs due to the paralysis of the N. accessorius, due to trauma, interventions such as in the neck area, a space-occupying abnormality or an idiopathic abnormality; in these cases the scapular winging increases upon the arm being lifted sideways. Another possible cause of scapular winging is muscular dystrophy, especially fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Usually the prognosis for recovery from a neuropraxia and an idiopathic lesion of the N. thoracicus longus within a two-year period is good. The prognosis for an isolated lesion of the N. accessorius is much less favourable. An EMG is essential for establishing a diagnosis.

  12. Incidence and diagnosis of anosognosia for hemiparesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Baier, B; Karnath, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, the incidence of anosognosia for hemiparesis has varied between 17% and 58% in samples of brain damaged patients with hemiparesis. Objective: To determine whether this wide variation might be explained by the different criteria used for diagnosing anosognosia. Methods: 128 acute stroke patients with hemiparesis or hemiplegia were tested for anosognosia for hemiparesis using the anosognosia scale of Bisiach et al. Results: 94% of the patients who were rated as having "mild anosognosia"—that is, they did not acknowledge their hemiparesis spontaneously following a general question about their complaints—suffered from, and mentioned, other neurological deficits such as dysarthria, ptosis, or headache. However, they immediately acknowledged their paresis when they were asked about the strength of their limbs. Their other deficits clearly had a greater impact. These patients had significantly milder paresis than those who denied their disorder even when asked directly about their limbs. Conclusions: Patients who do not mention their paresis spontaneously but do so when questioned about it directly should not be diagnosed having "anosognosia." If this more conservative cut off criterion is applied to the data of the present as well as previous studies, a frequency of between 10% and 18% for anosognosia for hemiparesis is obtained in unselected samples of acute hemiparetic stroke patients. The incidence thus seems smaller than previously assumed. PMID:15716526

  13. Medialization thyroplasty in glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis and after laser cordectomies - preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-02-28

    Medialization thyroplasty (type I) is surgical procedure performed on the thyroid cartilage. The major indication for this surgery is significant glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paresis. However the proce¬dure is also performed after vocal fold resections during cordectomy. The evaluation of voice results in patients after medialisation throplasty. In Otolaryngology Department of Medical University of Warsaw there were performed so far 8 thyroplasty procedures under local anaesthesia with implantation of medical silicon protesis. 6 patients had unilat¬eral vocal fold paresis and the rest two underwent in the past laser cordectomy due to T1a vocal carcinoma. There were no complications during and post the surgery. The follow up examination in 1st , 3rd, 6th i 12th months postoperatively revealed for all patients significant improvement of glottal closure in laryngeal videostrobos¬copy. The voice quality improved both in perceptual evaluation (GRBAS scale) and acoustic analysis (F0, jitter, shim¬mer, NHR) in both patients groups. However the rate of improvement was much more significant in group with uni¬lateral vocal fold paresis. In all patients the maximum phonation time (MPT) increased. The self-evaluation of voice quality with Voice Handicap Index questionnaire confirmed also individual improvement. The speech rehabilitations is not successful in each patient with glottis insufficiency. The medialisation thyroplasty remains the standard procedure for permanent improvement of voice quality in those cases.

  14. Influence of Asymmetric Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation on Vibration, Acoustics, and Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Evaluate the influence of asymmetric recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation on the vibratory phase, acoustics and aerodynamics of phonation. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. Methods The RLNs were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight graded levels to test a range of vocal fold activation conditions from subtle paresis to paralysis. Vibratory phase, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure, and airflow were noted at phonation onset. The evaluations were repeated for three levels of symmetric superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) stimulation. Results Asymmetric laryngeal adductor activation from asymmetric left-right RLN stimulation led to a consistent pattern of vibratory phase asymmetry, with the more activated vocal fold leading in the opening phase of the glottal cycle and in mucosal wave amplitude. Vibratory amplitude asymmetry was also observed, with more lateral excursion of the glottis of the less activated side. Onset fundamental frequency was higher with asymmetric activation because the two RLNs were synergistic in decreasing F0, glottal width, and strain. Phonation onset pressure increased and airflow decreased with symmetric RLN activation. Conclusion Asymmetric laryngeal activation from RLN paresis and paralysis has consistent effects on vocal fold vibration, acoustics, and aerodynamics. This information may be useful in diagnosis and management of vocal fold paresis. PMID:24913182

  15. Effects of Asymmetric Superior Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation on Glottic Posture, Acoustics, Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Bergeron, Jennifer L.; Sofer, Elazar; Peng, Kevin A.; Jamal, Nausheen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on the vibratory phase, laryngeal posture, and acoustics. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. Methods The superior laryngeal nerves were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight activation levels to mimic laryngeal asymmetries representing various levels of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions. Glottal posture change, vocal fold speed, and vibration of these 64 distinct laryngeal activation conditions were evaluated by high speed video and concurrent acoustic and aerodynamic recordings. Assessments were made at phonation onset. Results Vibratory phase was symmetric in all symmetric activation conditions but consistent phase asymmetry towards the vocal fold with higher superior laryngeal nerve activation was observed. Superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions had reduced vocal fold strain and fundamental frequency. Superior laryngeal nerve activation increased vocal fold closure speed, but this effect was more pronounced for the ipsilateral vocal fold. Increasing asymmetry led to aperiodic and chaotic vibration. Conclusions This study directly links vocal fold tension asymmetry with vibratory phase asymmetry; in particular the side with greater tension leads in the opening phase. The clinical observations of vocal fold lag, reduced vocal range, and aperiodic voice in superior laryngeal paresis and paralysis is also supported. PMID:23712542

  16. Testing a Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic versus Placebo Shoulder Strapping as an Adjuvant Intervention Early after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Appel, Caroline; Perry, Lin; Jones, Fiona

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic versus placebo shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention early after stroke. Despite widespread use, there is little evidence of the efficacy or acceptability of shoulder strapping to improve arm function in patients with shoulder paresis following stroke. This study tested a protocol designed to trial shoulder strapping as an adjuvant therapy in patients with shoulder paresis after stroke and tested its acceptability for patients and clinical staff. A multiple-method design comprised one quantitative randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and two qualitative exploratory investigations entailing patient interviews and staff surveys. Seventeen sub-acute stroke patients with shoulder paresis were recruited in London stroke service settings between November 2007 and December 2009. Outcomes from a 4-week therapeutic strapping protocol were compared with those of placebo strapping as an adjunct to conventional rehabilitation. Minimal adverse events and greater improvement in arm function (Action Research Arm Test) were seen with therapeutic compared with placebo strapping (effect size 0.34). Patients and staff found the strapping acceptable with minimal adverse effects. This study provided data for sample size calculation and demonstrated a workable research protocol to investigate the efficacy of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention to routine rehabilitation for stroke patients. Small-scale findings continue to flag the importance of investigating this topic. The protocol is recommended for a definitive trial of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention.

  17. Train time as a quantitative electromyographic parameter for facial nerve function in patients undergoing surgery for vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Prell, Julian; Rampp, Stefan; Romstöck, Johann; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Strauss, Christian

    2007-05-01

    The authors describe a quantitative electromyographic (EMG) parameter for intraoperative monitoring of facial nerve function during vestibular schwannoma removal. This parameter is based on the automated detection of A trains, an EMG pattern that is known to be associated with postoperative facial nerve paresis. For this study, 40 patients were examined. During the entire operative procedure, free-running EMG signals were recorded in muscles targeted by the facial nerve. A software program specifically designed for this purpose was used to analyze these continuous recordings offline. By automatically adding up time intervals during which A trains occurred, a quantitative parameter was calculated, which was named "train time." A strong correlation between the length of train time (measured in seconds) and deterioration of postoperative facial nerve function was demonstrated. Certain consecutive safety thresholds at 0.5 and 10 seconds were defined. Their transgression reliably indicated postoperative facial nerve paresis. At less than a 10-second train time, discrete worsening, and at more than 10 seconds, profound deterioration of facial nerve function can be anticipated. Train time as a quantitative parameter was shown to be a reliable indicator of facial nerve paresis after surgery for vestibular schwannoma.

  18. [A case of brachial plexus neuropathy who presented with acute paralysis of the hand after sleep].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Makiko; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Ohizumi, Hideki; Fujishima, Kenji; Goto, Keigo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni

    2002-09-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute paresis of the right hand and arm. She was well until when she noted a paresis and dysesthesia in her right hand in the morning. Neurological examination revealed weakness in the muscles which were supplied by lower cervical segments, with increased deep tendon reflexes in the right arm. Allen's test and Wright's test were positive. The nerve conduction studies disclosed a reduced CMAPs more severely by right median than ulnar nerve stimulation. The frequency and amplitude of the F waves was also reduced. Needle electromyogram showed a mild neurogenic pattern in the right hand muscles. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a tapering of the subclavian artery when the right arm was abducted. She underwent decompression surgery. A remarkable improvement of the symptoms was observed after surgery. Our patient suggests that brachial plexus neuropathy should be considered in the acute paresis of the hand after sleep, and that surgical procedure would lead to a successful outcome.

  19. Influence of asymmetric recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation on vibration, acoustics, and aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2014-11-01

    Evaluate the influence of asymmetric recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation on the vibratory phase, acoustics and aerodynamics of phonation. Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. The RLNs were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight graded levels to test a range of vocal fold activation conditions from subtle paresis to paralysis. Vibratory phase, fundamental frequency (F0 ), subglottal pressure, and airflow were noted at phonation onset. The evaluations were repeated for three levels of symmetric superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) stimulation. Asymmetric laryngeal adductor activation from asymmetric left-right RLN stimulation led to a consistent pattern of vibratory phase asymmetry, with the more activated vocal fold leading in the opening phase of the glottal cycle and in mucosal wave amplitude. Vibratory amplitude asymmetry was also observed, with more lateral excursion of the glottis of the less activated side. Onset fundamental frequency was higher with asymmetric activation because the two RLNs were synergistic in decreasing F0 , glottal width, and strain. Phonation onset pressure increased and airflow decreased with symmetric RLN activation. Asymmetric laryngeal activation from RLN paresis and paralysis has consistent effects on vocal fold vibration, acoustics, and aerodynamics. This information may be useful in diagnosis and management of vocal fold paresis. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Toxicity and efficacy of ivermectin in chelonians.

    PubMed

    Teare, J A; Bush, M

    1983-12-01

    Five red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) treated for intestinal nematode parasitism with a single IM injection of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) were found in a state of extreme paresis or flaccid paralysis. One tortoise recovered normal motor function over the next 7 to 10 days. The remaining tortoises died within 3 days of receiving the ivermectin. The only consistent postmortem finding was a marked fatty change in the liver. Studies in the red-footed tortoise showed that some paresis will occur with dosages as low as 0.05 mg/kg. At least 3 other species of chelonians were found to be susceptible to ivermectin toxicosis at similar dosages (0.1 mg/kg or less). The leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) appeared to be the most susceptible of the species tested, consistently developing mild paresis with a dosage of 0.025 mg/kg. Death occurred with dosages as low as 0.3 mg/kg. A dosage of 0.05 mg/kg was found to be safe in red-footed tortoises, provided that treatment was not repeated at intervals of less than 7 days. Shedding of nematode larvae and eggs in the feces of parasitized red-footed tortoises was prevented with 2 to 6 weekly IM injections of ivermectin at a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg, but limited necropsy findings indicated that elimination of adult nematodes from the intestines was incomplete.

  1. Effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on glottic posture, acoustics, vibration.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Neubauer, Juergen; Bergeron, Jennifer L; Sofer, Elazar; Peng, Kevin A; Jamal, Nausheen

    2013-12-01

    Evaluate the effects of asymmetric superior laryngeal nerve stimulation on the vibratory phase, laryngeal posture, and acoustics. Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. The superior laryngeal nerves were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight activation levels to mimic laryngeal asymmetries representing various levels of superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions. Glottal posture change, vocal fold speed, and vibration of these 64 distinct laryngeal-activation conditions were evaluated by high speed video and concurrent acoustic and aerodynamic recordings. Assessments were made at phonation onset. Vibratory phase was symmetric in all symmetric activation conditions, but consistent phase asymmetry toward the vocal fold with higher superior laryngeal-nerve activation was observed. Superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis conditions had reduced vocal fold strain and fundamental frequency. Superior laryngeal nerve activation increased vocal fold closure speed, but this effect was more pronounced for the ipsilateral vocal fold. Increasing asymmetry led to aperiodic and chaotic vibration. This study directly links vocal-fold tension asymmetry with vibratory phase asymmetry, in particular the side with greater tension leads in the opening phase. The clinical observations of vocal fold lag, reduced vocal range, and aperiodic voice in superior laryngeal paresis and paralysis is also supported. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. [Rehabilitation of post stroke patients using a bioengineering system "brain-computer interface + exoskeleton"].

    PubMed

    Kotov, S V; Turbina, L G; Bobrov, P D; Frolov, A A; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaia, M E; Biriukova, E V

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the possibility of using a bioengineering system, which includes an electroencephalograph and a personal computer with a software for synchronous data transmission, recognition and classification of EEG signals, development of directions for intended actions in real time in the combination with the hand exoskeleton (the bioengineering system "brain-computer interface + exoskeleton"), in motor rehabilitation of post stroke patients with paresis of the upper extremity. Material and methods. Brain-computer interface is a promising field of neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation treatment, including 8-10 sessions, was conducted in 5 patients with paresis of the upper extremity. All patients had large MRI lesions in cortical/subcortical areas. Results. Positive changes in neurological status measured with the NIHSS, a significant increase in the volume and power of movements in the paretic hand, improvement of coordination and slight decrease in the level of spasticity were found after the treatment. There was an increase in daily activities measured with the Barthel index, mostly due to the improvement of fine motor skills. The level of disability assessed by the modified Rankin scale was changed significantly. Conclusion. The use of "brain-computer interface + exoskeleton" in the rehabilitation of post stroke patients with hand paresis provided positive results that would need to be verified in further studies.

  3. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland].

    PubMed

    Holz, F G; Tetz, M; Born, I A; Völcker, H E

    1992-07-01

    A 38-year-old female presented with a left-sided peripheral N. VI-paresis and negative neuroradiologic work-up. After one year she developed an incomplete N. III paresis, numbness of her face correlating to N. V1 and V2, reduced lacrimal secretion as well as a palpable mass at the lateral orbital rim. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an orbital tumor extending into the cavernous sinus. Biopsy disclosed an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with basaloid, cribriform and tubular pattern. Therefore, an exenteration with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Immunohistochemical findings included positive reactions for keratin (KL-1 and AE 1 + 3), Vimentin and Egp 34. By determination of Ki 67 the proliferative activity of the tumor was found to be 15%. Our case report demonstrates that even in absence of an exophthalmus or pain a malignant orbital tumor may be assumed as the underlying cause for a combined monolateral oculomotor and trigeminal paresis. Immunohistochemical results support the notion, that the adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland may arise from precursor cells of the terminal duct system.

  4. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Labour, Mode of Delivery and Neonatal Outcome in Nullipara of India, 2011-2014

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Bela; Arora, Manjeet; Haritwal, Arpana; Gurha, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ropivacaine epidural analgesia on duration and outcome of labour in nulliparous parturients of India with parturient not receiving any analgesia. Settings and Design: One hundred and twenty nulliparous parturient in established labour at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group (n=60), whereas those not enthusiastic to labour analgesia were allocated in the control group (n=60). Materials and Methods: Epidural analgesia was provided by a bolus injection of 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% and 50μg fentanyl and maintained by using a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2μl/ml at a 10ml/hour rate. The outcomes were duration of labour, incidence of cesarean sections and instrumental vaginal delivery and neonatal outcome. Statistical Analysis used: Statistical analysis was conducted using unpaired student t-test and chi-square test as required. All tests of significance were performed using two-tailed probability tests. Differences were considered significant when p-value was <0.05. Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of socio-demographic data. The mean duration of first stage of labour was shorter in epidural group (4.83 ± 1.59 h) compared with control group (5.48 ± 1.56 h) while the duration of second stage of labour was prolong in epidural group (33.13 ± 12.78 min) as compared to control (27.53 ± 11.73 min). Instrumental vaginal or caesarean delivery rate did not increase in the epidural group. The APGAR scores at 5 min were statistically similar in both groups. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by ropivacaine in Indian nulliparous resulted in shorter duration of first stage and prolongs duration of second stage of labour compared with parturients without analgesia; however, instrumental vaginal or caesarean delivery rate does not increase in the epidural group. PMID:25478409

  5. Secular trend of age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B surface and e antigenemia in pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chang, Ting-Chen; Hsu, Hong-Yuan; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2003-04-01

    To elucidate the impact of aging of hepatitis B carrier women on their viral replicative markers in a hepatitis B endemic area, all the parturients admitted to the Hospital were studied from 1985 to 2000. Serum hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were tested by radioimmunoassay. Mann-Whitney U and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. The results showed the yearly prevalence rate of HBsAg in pregnant women seemed stable with a mean of 12.0 +/- 1.1% during the period. The yearly positive rate of HBeAg among HBsAg-positive pregnant women varied between 30.4% and 42.6% from 1985 to 1992 and declined from 29.6% in 1993 to 18.1% in 2000. The mean ratio of HBeAg/HBsAg in carrier parturients was 24.7% [intraquantile range (IQR) 20.5-28.4] from 1993 to 2000, which was significantly lower than that of 32.4% (IQR 31.0-39.0) from 1985 to 1992 (P < 0.0001). The mean age of HBeAg-positive primiparas from 1993 to 2000 was 29.1 +/- 3.9 years and significantly higher than that of 28.0 +/- 3.7 years from 1985 to 1993 (P < 0.001), as well as in secundiparas 31.2 +/- 3.8 years vs. 30.1 +/- 3.4 years (P < 0.001) and in total parturients 30.3 +/- 4.2 years vs. 29.3 +/- 3.8 years (P < 0.001). Thus, no significant decrease of HBsAg carriage was observed in the past 16 years, whereas a decreased ratio of HBeAg/HBsAg was noted in carrier parturients in the past 8 years and the elderly HBeAg-positive parturients from 1993 to 2000 may be the cause. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Comparison of Epidural Butorphanol with Neostigmine and Epidural Sufentanyl with Neostigmine for First Stage of Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Manoj; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Chilkoti, Geetanjali T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidural administration of neostigmine appears to be safe in the obstetric population. Recently, few studies have concluded 10 μg sufentanil to be an effective adjuvant with epidural neostigmine in providing labor analgesia. However, no study has evaluated the analgesic effect of epidural butorphanol with neostigmine for the same. Materials and Methods: The parturients were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups - Group A (n = 30) received butorphanol 1 mg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group B (n = 30) received sufentanil 10 μg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group C (n = 30) received neostigmine 7 μg/kg and 0.9% normal saline. Maternal hemodynamic parameters and fetal heart rate (FHR) were continuously monitored. The level of sensory and motor block, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were recorded at designated time points. In addition, the total duration of analgesia, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and any maternal or fetal adverse effects were also recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's test was used to compare mean value among the three groups for age, height, weight, gestational age, and cervical dilatation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare mean difference among the time points and also the trend among the various time points for hemodynamic parameters, VAS pain score, and FHR. For inter-group comparison among the groups, post hoc Tukey test was used. Results: There was a statistically significant longer effect of analgesic drug in Group B with respect to Group A and C (P < 0.001); however, the parturient in Group C had minimum duration of analgesia. Epidural neostigmine combined with sufentanil produces effective analgesia in early labor (VAS <30 within 10 min in 63.3% of parturient and within 15 min in 83.3% parturient) with average duration of 111.67 ± 24.51 min without motor block or other side effect in mother and fetus. No significant effect was observed

  7. Comparison of Epidural Butorphanol with Neostigmine and Epidural Sufentanyl with Neostigmine for First Stage of Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Manoj; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Chilkoti, Geetanjali T

    2017-01-01

    Epidural administration of neostigmine appears to be safe in the obstetric population. Recently, few studies have concluded 10 μg sufentanil to be an effective adjuvant with epidural neostigmine in providing labor analgesia. However, no study has evaluated the analgesic effect of epidural butorphanol with neostigmine for the same. The parturients were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups - Group A (n = 30) received butorphanol 1 mg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group B (n = 30) received sufentanil 10 μg and neostigmine 7 μg/kg. Group C (n = 30) received neostigmine 7 μg/kg and 0.9% normal saline. Maternal hemodynamic parameters and fetal heart rate (FHR) were continuously monitored. The level of sensory and motor block, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were recorded at designated time points. In addition, the total duration of analgesia, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and any maternal or fetal adverse effects were also recorded. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's test was used to compare mean value among the three groups for age, height, weight, gestational age, and cervical dilatation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare mean difference among the time points and also the trend among the various time points for hemodynamic parameters, VAS pain score, and FHR. For inter-group comparison among the groups, post hoc Tukey test was used. There was a statistically significant longer effect of analgesic drug in Group B with respect to Group A and C (P < 0.001); however, the parturient in Group C had minimum duration of analgesia. Epidural neostigmine combined with sufentanil produces effective analgesia in early labor (VAS <30 within 10 min in 63.3% of parturient and within 15 min in 83.3% parturient) with average duration of 111.67 ± 24.51 min without motor block or other side effect in mother and fetus. No significant effect was observed in the duration of labor and mode of delivery in-between the two groups

  8. Extrafascial injection for interscalene brachial plexus block reduces respiratory complications compared with a conventional intrafascial injection: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Palhais, N; Brull, R; Kern, C; Jacot-Guillarmod, A; Charmoy, A; Farron, A; Albrecht, E

    2016-04-01

    Hemidiaphragmatic paresis after ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block is reported to occur in up to 100% of patients. We tested the hypothesis that an injection lateral to the brachial plexus sheath reduces the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis compared with a conventional intrafascial injection, while providing similar analgesia. Forty ASA I-III patients undergoing elective shoulder and clavicle surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block for analgesia, using 20 ml bupivacaine 0.5% with epinephrine 1:200 000 injected either between C5 and C6 within the interscalene groove (conventional intrafascial injection), or 4 mm lateral to the brachial plexus sheath (extrafascial injection). The primary outcome was incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis (diaphragmatic excursion reduction >75%), measured by M-mode ultrasonography, before and 30 min after the procedure. Secondary outcomes were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow. Additional outcomes included time to first opioid request and pain scores at 24 h postoperatively (numeric rating scale, 0-10). The incidences of hemidiaphragmatic paresis were 90% (95% CI: 68-99%) and 21% (95% CI: 6-46%) in the conventional and extrafascial injection groups, respectively (P<0.0001). Other respiratory outcomes were significantly better preserved in the extrafascial injection group. The mean time to first opioid request was similar between groups (conventional: 802 min [95% CI: 620-984 min]; extrafascial: 973 min [95% CI: 791-1155 min]; P=0.19) as were pain scores at 24 h postoperatively (conventional: 1.6 [95% CI: 0.9-2.2]; extrafascial: 1.6 [95% CI: 0.8-2.4]; P=0.97). Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block with an extrafascial injection reduces the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis and impact on respiratory function while providing similar analgesia, when compared with a

  9. Effect of Position During Spinal Anesthesia on Postdural Puncture Headache After Cesarean Section: A Prospective, Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Maryam; Tarbiat, Masoud; Ebadian, Mohammad Reza; Hajian, Puran

    2016-01-01

    Background The most common method of anesthesia for cesarean section is spinal anesthesia, and postdural puncture headache (PDPH) remains a major complication of this procedure. Nowadays, PDPH is a major cause of morbidity in parturients after spinal anesthesia. This headache is the third most popular reason for claims against anesthesiologists in obstetrics. The position after spinal anesthesia has been evaluated as a contributory factor in the occurrence of PDPH, but the position before spinal anesthesia has not yet been evaluated. Objectives This study was designed to compare the incidence of PDPH following spinal anesthesia in the sitting position and in the left lateral decubitus position in parturients who underwent elective caesarian section. Patients and Methods After institutional approval, 100 parturients who had been scheduled for elective caesarian section with spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Following patient preparation for the neuraxial blockade, spinal anesthesia was randomly performed in the sitting or in the left lateral decubitus position. Patients were interviewed for PDPH on either postoperative day one, two, or three. The incidence and intensity of PDPH were evaluated and compared using a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). Results A total of 94 patients were included in the data analysis. The overall incidence of PDPH was 12.7%. In the sitting group, ten patients (20.8%) had PDPH, compared with two patients (4.3%) in the lateral group (P = 0.017). Conclusions Spinal anesthesia in the sitting position is more associated with significant PHDH than that in the left lateral decubitus position for patients undergoing elective caesarian section. PMID:27843773

  10. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N’guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Results: Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. Conclusion: This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery. PMID:25659551

  11. A randomized comparison of automated intermittent mandatory boluses with a basal infusion in combination with patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Leo, S; Ocampo, C E; Lim, Y; Sia, A T

    2010-10-01

    Automated mandatory boluses (AMB), when used in place of a continuous basal infusion, have been shown to reduce overall local anesthetic consumption without compromising analgesic efficacy in patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). We hypothesized that our PCEA+AMB regimen could result in a reduction of breakthrough pain requiring epidural supplementation in comparison with PCEA with a basal infusion (PCEA+BI). We recruited sixty-two healthy ASA I nulliparous parturients in early labor. The parturients were randomized to receive 0.1% ropivacaine+fentanyl 2 μg/mL either via PCEA+BI (PCEA with basal continuous infusion of 5mL/h) or PCEA+AMB (PCEA with AMB of 5 mL every hour instead of a basal infusion) immediately following successful induction of combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia. Block characteristics, incidence of breakthrough pain requiring epidural supplementation, side effects, obstetric outcomes, Apgar scores and overall maternal satisfaction with analgesia were noted. The time-weighted hourly consumption of ropivacaine (PCEA and clinician supplementation for breakthrough pain) was significantly lower in the PCEA+AMB group (mean=7.6 mL, SD 3.2) compared to the PCEA+BI group (mean=9.3 mL, SD 2.5; P<0.001). The mean time to first PCEA self-bolus following CSE was significantly longer in the PCEA+AMB group compared to the PCEA+BI group (268 min vs. 104 min; P<0.001). Parturients in Group PCEA+AMB also gave higher satisfaction scores. The incidence of breakthrough pain was similar in both groups. PCEA+AMB, when compared to PCEA+BI, confers greater patient satisfaction and a longer duration of effective analgesia after CSE despite reduced analgesic consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of early versus conventional epidural analgesia during labor on cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Orbach-Zinger, Sharon; Bessler, Hanna; Arnovetzky, Rosana; Levin, Yivgenia; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Bardin, Ron; Peleg, Dan; Eidelman, Leonid

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effect of early epidural analgesia (EEA) vs. conventional epidural analgesia (CEA) on cytokine production in mother and neonate. Healthy parturients with uncomplicated term pregnancies were randomized into two groups: EEA - parturients who would receive epidural analgesia before onset of pain and the control group, CEA - parturients who would receive epidural analgesia after onset of pain. Cytokines were measured in maternal blood at randomization Visual Analog Scale (VAS) < 30], 24 h postpartum, and in cord blood. Forty-one women were studied. Epidural was performed in EEA when VAS was 23 ± 10 and in CEA when VAS was77 ± 10 (p < 0.0001). Background data were similar except for ruptured membranes at admission (EEA 15%, CEA 46.6%; p = 0.03), transient hypotension (EEA 20%, CEA 0%; p = 0.03), and meconium (EEA 25%, CEA 0%; p = 0.01). No significant differences were found in cytokine levels between groups at any time. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels changed significantly only in the control group (p = 0.046). There was significant correlation between baseline maternal IL-6 level and cord blood level in CEA (r = 0.59, p = 0.005), while no significant correlation existed in EEA (r = 0.33, p = 0.16). Although there was no significant difference in cytokine levels between the groups, EEA prevented the significant increase in IL-6 during labor and interrupted IL-6 fetal-maternal dependency.

  13. [Risk factors associated with maternal satisfaction during childbirth: a retrospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Gil-Wey, Béatrice; Savoldelli, Georges L; Kern, Christian; Haller, Guy

    2011-10-01

    Factors associated with maternal satisfaction of anesthetic management during labour and delivery are poorly known. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors. We performed a retrospective cohort study on parturients admitted between January 2004 and December 2008. Data on patients' demographics, comorbidities, procedures performed and various aspects of their anesthetic experience were retrieved from the anesthetic records. Maternal satisfaction was measured using a numerical scale from 0 to 10 (0 = not satisfied at all, 10 = very satisfied). A cutoff of ≤ 6 was taken as poor satisfaction. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify the different predictors of maternal satisfaction and more specifically those related to pain, overall experience with the technique, delays, and presence of anesthetic, obstetrical and neonatal complications. There were 15,386 parturients admitted during the study period. Of these, 10,034 had complete information in the chart and 761 (7.6%) parturients were dissatisfied with their anesthetic care. Factors decreasing patient satisfaction were high risk pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 (0.34-1.02)] and difficult delivery [OR (95% CI) 0.62 (0.52-0.74)]. Pain, a negative experience of the procedure, delays, poor coordination in management, and the presence of complications decreased patient satisfaction [OR (95% CI) 0.07 to 0.71]; P < 0.001. Maternal satisfaction with anesthesia care is largely determined by the effectiveness and correct performance of the procedure carried from the technical and human point of view. However, other factors such as a good coordination in patient management and the absence of complications also influence maternal satisfaction.

  14. Increasing body mass index predicts increasing difficulty, failure rate, and time to discovery of failure of epidural anesthesia in laboring patients.

    PubMed

    Kula, Ayse O; Riess, Matthias L; Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2017-02-01

    Obese parturients both greatly benefit from neuraxial techniques, and may represent a technical challenge to obstetric anesthesiologists. Several studies address the topic of obesity and neuraxial analgesia in general, but few offer well described definitions or rates of "difficulty" and "failure" of labor epidural analgesia. Providing those definitions, we hypothesized that increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative outcomes in both categories and increased time needed for epidural placement. Single center retrospective chart review. Labor and Delivery Unit of an inner city academic teaching hospital. 2485 parturients, ASA status 2 to 4, receiving labor epidural analgesia for anticipated vaginal delivery. None. We reviewed quality assurance and anesthesia records over a 12-month period. "Failure" was defined as either inadequate analgesia or a positive test dose, requiring replacement, and/or when the anesthesia record stated they failed. "Difficulty" was defined as six or more needle redirections or a note indicating difficulty in the anesthesia record. Overall epidural failure and difficulty rates were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Patients with a BMI of 30kg/m(2) or higher had a higher chance of both failure and difficulty with two and almost three fold increases, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that failure was best predicted by BMI and less provider training while difficulty was best predicted by BMI. Additionally, increased BMI was associated with increased time of discovery of epidural catheter failure. Obesity is associated with increasing technical difficulty and failure of neuraxial analgesia for labor. Practitioners should consider allotting extra time for obese parturients in order to manage potential problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcomes of labor epidural analgesia among women aged over 40: A single-institution retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Atsuko; Fukushima, Risa; Nagashima, Sayuri; Mazda, Yusuke; Tamura, Kazumi; Terui, Katsuo; Tanaka, Motoshi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) on maternal and neonatal outcomes among parturients aged 40 years or older. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all laboring, singleton and cephalic deliveries at ≥36 weeks' gestation at the Saitama Medical Center from April 2003 to September 2012. Women aged ≥40 years who received LEA (≥40 with LEA group) were compared with women aged ≥40 years who delivered without LEA (≥40 without LEA group) and women <40 years who received LEA (<40 with LEA group). Extracted outcomes included mode of delivery, oxytocin augmentation, duration of labor, amount of estimated blood loss, umbilical artery pH, Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. This study included 4441 women. There were 74 women in the ≥40 with LEA group, 369 in the ≥40 without LEA group, and 601 in the <40 with LEA group. The maternal outcomes of emergency cesarean delivery rate (9.5%, 12.5%, 9.0%), instrumental delivery rate (33.8%, 10.3%, 28.3%), duration of labor (521 min, 321 min, 565 min), and estimated blood loss (524 g, 351 g, 412 g) were reported for the ≥40 with LEA, ≥40 without LEA, and <40 with LEA groups, respectively. Neonatal outcomes were not different between these groups. LEA use was not associated with emergency cesarean delivery in the multivariable analysis. Our study showed that parturients aged ≥40 with LEA can expect similar LEA-associated labor outcomes to younger parturients with LEA. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Epidural Volume Extension During Combined Spinal-Epidural Labor Analgesia Does Not Increase Sensory Block.

    PubMed

    Zaphiratos, Valerie; George, Ronald B; Macaulay, Bruce; Bolleddula, Prasad; McKeen, Dolores M

    2016-09-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia is widely used for delivering labor analgesia. Epidural volume extension (EVE) involves the injection of fluid into the epidural space compressing the dural sac, causing cephalad shift of the cerebral spinal fluid. Our hypothesis was that EVE with 10 mL normal saline during CSE would increase the sensory block height at 15 minutes after intrathecal injection. We expected EVE to decrease pain scores, decrease analgesia onset time, and decrease motor block compared with performing CSE without EVE (NEVE). We randomly assigned 60 healthy term laboring nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation <5 cm to receive CSE either with EVE of 10 mL normal saline through the Tuohy needle before catheter insertion or CSE NEVE. Intrathecal analgesia consisted of 2 mg plain bupivacaine and 10 μg fentanyl (1 mL total). A blinded researcher assessed sensory dermatome level, analgesia, and motor blockade at regular intervals for 30 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the median peak sensory dermatome level at 15 minutes. Fifty-four parturients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in peak sensory dermatome levels at 15 minutes (median difference, 1 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval of median difference, 0 to 2; P = 0.22) and 30 minutes (median difference, 0 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval, -2 to 2; P = 0.76). There was no difference in the time to peak dermatome, minimum pain score, or the time to minimum pain score between groups. We found no significant difference between groups with regard to sensory dermatome level or pain scores when using EVE compared with NEVE. Our study demonstrates that addition of EVE does not offer superior analgesia when using a CSE technique for parturients requesting labor analgesia.

  17. Comparative Efficacy of Minimal Concentration of Racemic Bupivacaine (0.0625%) with Fentanyl and Ropivacaine (0.1%) with Fentanyl for Epidural Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chethanananda, T. N.; Shashank, M. R.; Madhu, N.; Achyutha, J.; Siva Kumar, Karna Venkata

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aims to compare the minimum effective concentration of local anesthetic (LA) bupivacaine and ropivacaine with highly lipid soluble opioids fentanyl for providing optimal labor epidural analgesia. Settings and Design: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of racemic bupivacaine 0.0625% and 0.1% of ropivacaine both mixed with 2 μg/ml of fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia in parturients with spontaneous labor and normal fetal heart rate tracing. Methodology: Sixty parturients requesting for labor analgesia were divided into two groups. Group B (n = 30) received racemic bupivacaine (0.0625%) and fentanyl 2 μg/ml of 10 ml and Group R (n = 30) received ropivacaine (0.1%) and fentanyl 2 μg/ml. In both groups, the drug was given in 5 ml fractionated doses at 5 min interval. Parturients not experiencing analgesia within 15 min of initial bolus were supplemented with additional 5 ml of the same concentration of the solution. Epidural analgesia was maintained by timed top ups at the end of 90 min with the dosage equal to the initial dose of the drug. Duration of labor analgesia, motor block, visual analog scale, maternal hemodynamic parameters, mode of delivery, and maternal satisfaction was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with odds variance, unpaired t-test, and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In our study, results indicate that both drugs were equally effective clinically. Maternal demographic characteristics were comparable. There were no statistically significant differences in visual analog pain score, highest sensory block, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery, total dose of LAs during labor and motor block at delivery between the groups. Conclusions: In our study, both the drugs produced equivalent analgesia for labor at low concentration when used with highly lipid soluble opioid such as fentanyl. PMID:28928552

  18. The maternal-infant center in the control of hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    González, L; Roses, A; Alomar, P; del Valle, J M; Garau, A; Ferrer, P; Maimó, M; Llinares, R; Blanco, I; Lardinois, R

    1988-01-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey of HBV infection was carried out in four population groups served by the Maternity Hospital of Majorca, an island in the Mediterranean. The prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc), determined by enzyme-immunoassay, reached 17.2% among 864 parturients, 17.2% in 783 hospital personnel, 2.7% and 19.2% among the 186 children and 73 husbands of parturients with no HBV markers, 22.8% and 43.8%, respectively, among the 44 children and 48 husbands of HBsAg chronic carrier parturients. The prevalences of HBsAg in the same groups reached 0.9%, 1.5%, 0% and 0%, 11.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The carrier state represents 50% of all infection cases among children and 4.8% among husbands of carrier women. The prevalence of markers, which was especially high among personnel working in maintenance services (39.1%), on surgical wards (35.3%), among midwives (27.6%) and in cleaning and laundry services (27.1%), and laboratories (21.4%), is used as an indicator in defining priorities for the vaccination of people at risk. Sixty-seven newborn babies of HBsAg carrier mothers were administered one dose of HBIG and three doses of hepatitis B vaccine; at 12 months of age, the seroconversion rate was 98.5%, whereas 1 child (1.5%) became a chronic carrier. Maternity hospitals represent the ideal centers in which to carry out the detection of HBsAg in pregnant women prior to parturition, to ensure that all newborns of chronic carrier women receive passive-active immunization, and to screen their family contacts and vaccinate those who are found susceptible to the infection.

  19. Responses to dural puncture during institution of combined spinal-epidural analgesia: a comparison of 27 gauge pencil-point and 27 gauge cutting-edge needles.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A A; Ghatge, S; Armendariz, G; Cornelius, D; Wang, S

    2011-03-01

    Pencil-point spinal needles are popular for combined spinal-epidural analgesia because they cause less dural puncture headache than cutting-edge spinal needles. However many parturients move, grimace, vocalise or experience paraesthesia or dysaesthesia during dural puncture when performing 'needle through needle' combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We compared dural puncture responses induced by pencil-point and cutting-edge needles (both 27 gauge). With institutional approval, 115 parturients presenting for elective caesarean section or labour analgesia were audited. After lignocaine infiltration, a Tuohy-type needle was inserted to loss of resistance to saline at a mid-lumbar interspace, and either a 27 gauge cutting-edge or 27 gauge pencil-point needle was inserted 'needle through needle' through the dura. During dural penetration, the occurrence of patient movement, grimacing or vocalisation was noted by a blinded observer, as was the patient's response to the question "Did you feel that?" asked by the anaesthetist. The audit comprised two similar groups of patients (caesarean section, n=30; labour analgesia, n=85). In both groups, grimacing and movement during thecal penetration occurred more frequently with pencil-point needles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively). Pooled data analysis revealed that pencil-point and cutting-edge needles induced grimacing and movement in 17 (22%) and 2 (5%), spontaneous vocalisation in 4 (5%) and 1 (3%) and was perceived by 13 (17%) and 3 (8%) parturients (P < 0.025, P=NS, P=NS), respectively. Overall, 34 and 6 objective and subjective patient responses (P < 0.005) occurred when inserting these needles, respectively. Dural puncture by a 27 gauge pencil-point needle inserted 'needle through needle' when instituting combined spinal-epidural analgesia induces more iatrogenic responses than a 27 gauge cutting-edge needle.

  20. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Wheezing Infants by Urine DNA and Serum IgG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhao-cheng; Chang, Qing; Sun, Zhi-wei; Song, Ming-mei; Jin, Xin-ling; Jiang, Shu-ya; Yang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CMV infection in wheezing infants and the association between CMV-DNA and immunoglobulins (Igs). Material/Methods A total of 243 wheezing infants and 3,000 parturients were enrolled in this study. The infants were randomly grouped to receive blood HCMV-DNA tests (n=46) or urine HCMV-DNA tests (n=197). Furthermore, all participants had serum CMV-specific IgM and IgG testing. Afterwards, 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants were randomly selected for simultaneous blood and urine HCMV-DNA tests, and 25 HCMV-IgG positive puerperants were randomly selected for urine HCMV-DNA tests. Results The detection rate of urine HCMV-DNA was significantly higher than that of blood HCMV-DNA (67.5% vs. 13.0%, p<0.001). Fifteen (6.2%) and 190 (80.0%) infants showed positive CMV-specific IgM and IgG results (p<0.001), respectively. Among the 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants tested further, only two infants had positive HCMV-DNA blood tests, while all of the 10 infants had positive HCMV-DNA urine tests. However, HCMV-DNA was not detected in the urine of the 25 randomly selected parturients positive for HCMV-IgG. Conclusions CMV infection may be one of the causes of wheezing in infants; CMV infection can be detected by urine-HCMV-DNA and serum HCMV-IgG testing. Infants were more susceptible to CMV infection than parturients. PMID:28283676

  1. Labor epidural analgesia and the incidence of instrumental assisted delivery.

    PubMed

    Rimaitis, Kęstutis; Klimenko, Olga; Rimaitis, Marius; Morkūnaitė, Asta; Macas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of labor epidural analgesia on the course of labor and to determine its association with instrumental assisted delivery rate. A retrospective case-control study was performed during 2007-2011 aiming to identify the relation between epidural analgesia (EA) and instrumental assisted delivery (IAD) rate. All patients in whom instrumental assistance for delivery was applied were allocated into either case (parturients who received EA and had IAD) or control (parturients who did not receive EA but had IAD) groups. Maternal demographic data, pregnancy and delivery characteristics as well as neonatal short-term outcome were studied. A total of 7675 vaginal deliveries occurred during the study period and 187 (2.43%) patients had IAD. Vacuum extraction was applied to 67 (2.16%) parturients who received EA, and to 120 (2.61%) who did not. The median duration of the first stage of labor was 510 min in the EA group as compared to 390 min in the control group (P=0.001). The median duration of the second stage of labor among cases and controls was 60 and 40 min, respectively (P<0.0005). Cases more often had their labor induced by oxytocin 80.3% as compared to 58.3% among controls (P=0.003). There was no significant association between the use of EA and increased IAD rate (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.60-1.09). Labor EA did not increase the incidence of IAD and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, but was associated with prolonged first and second stages of labor. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit; Yahya, Nurlia; Misiran, Karis; Masdar, Azlina; Nor, Nadia Md; Yee, Lee Choon

    2016-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n=55) or Non-CSE (n=55) group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%). The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group) was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5min was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome].

    PubMed

    Singh, Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit; Yahya, Nurlia; Misiran, Karis; Masdar, Azlina; Nor, Nadia Md; Yee, Lee Choon

    2016-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n=55) or Non-CSE (n=55) group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%). The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group) was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5min was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Beta-2- Adrenergic Receptor Genotype and Other Variables that Contribute to Labor Pain and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Reitman, Elena; Conell-Price, Jessamyn; Evansmilth, Jennifer; Olson, Luke; Drosinos, Sofia; Jasper, Nancy; Randolph, Paula; Smiley, Richard; Shafer, Steven; Flood, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Background Beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activity influences labor and its genotype affects the incidence of preterm delivery. We determined the effect of β2AR genotype on term labor progress and pain. Methods We prospectively enrolled 150 nulliparous parturients in the third trimester and obtained sensory thresholds, demographic information and DNA. Cervical dilation, pain scores and labor management data were extracted with associated times. The association of genetic and demographic factors with labor was tested with mixed effects models. Results Parturients who express Gln at the 27 position of the β2AR had slower labor (P<0.03). They progressedfrom 1–10cm dilation in approximately 21 hours compared to 14 hours in otherpatients. Asian ethnicity, previously associated with slower labor, is highly associated with this polymorphism (P<0.0001). Heavier and Black patients had slower latent labor (P<0.01, 0.01) and neuraxial analgesia was associated with slower labor progress (P<0.0001). It could take up to 36 hours for the heaviest and the Black parturients to transition from 1cm cervical dilation to active labor; however once the active phase began, labor rate was the same as other patients’. Conclusion We detected a strong association between β2AR genotype and slower labor. Asian ethnicity may be a proxy for β2AR genotype. Black and heavy women have slower latent labor. These results confirm many of the associations found when this mathematical model was applied to a large retrospectivecohort, further validating this approach to description and analysis of labor progress. PMID:21394004

  5. Use of an Intrathecal Catheter for Analgesia, Anesthesia, and Therapy in an Obstetric Patient with Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gragasin, Ferrante S; Chiarella, Angelo B

    2016-03-15

    Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is a rare disorder chiefly observed in obese women of childbearing age. We describe a case of a parturient with PTCS managed successfully with an intrathecal catheter, after inadvertent dural puncture, for labor analgesia, surgical anesthesia, and treatment of headache because of intracranial hypertension during the peripartum period. Prolonged placement of the intrathecal catheter (i.e., >24 hours) may have contributed to the absence of postdural puncture headache symptoms and an uneventful postpartum period. Intrathecal catheter placement may therefore be a viable option in patients with PTCS should inadvertent dural puncture occur.

  6. Epidural analgesia complicated by dural ectasia in the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Chelsea; Hofkamp, Michael P.; Noonan, Patrick T.; McAllister, Russell K.; Pilkinton, Kimberly A.; Diao, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the Marfan syndrome are considered to be high risk during pregnancy and warrant a complete multidisciplinary evaluation. One goal is to minimize hemodynamic fluctuations during labor since hypertensive episodes may result in aortic dissection or rupture. Although they may prevent these complications, neuraxial techniques may be complicated by dural ectasia. The case of a parturient with the Marfan syndrome and mild dural ectasia is presented. During attempted labor epidural placement, unintentional dural puncture occurred. A spinal catheter was used for adequate labor analgesia, and a resultant postdural puncture headache was alleviated by an epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:27695168

  7. Respiratory Considerations Including Airway and Ventilation Issues in Critical Care Obstetric Patients.

    PubMed

    Ende, Holly; Varelmann, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Critical care management of the obstetric patient can present unique challenges. Parturients who present with respiratory distress can suffer from a multitude of etiologies, and each diagnosis must be pursued as appropriate to the clinical picture. Normal physiologic changes of pregnancy may obscure the presentation and diagnosis, and irrelevant of the cause, pregnancy may complicate the management of hypoxic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in this patient population. In addition to these concerns, both anticipated and unanticipated difficult airway management, including difficulty ventilating and intubating, are more common during pregnancy and may be encountered during endotracheal tube placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa].

    PubMed

    García, I; Manrique, S; Muñoz, C; López-Gil, M V; Munar, F; Montferrer, N

    2009-11-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is inherited as a rare autosomal disorder which causes blisters to form in the skin. We describe the treatment of a 39-year-old parturient with this condition. She was scheduled for elective cesarean section at 37 weeks' gestation. The patient had widespread skin lesions, had lost fingers, and had esophageal stenosis. The cesarean was performed under spinal anesthesia without complications. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa requires adaptation of anesthetic technique that includes control over posture and careful handling of the skin. Material for attaching monitoring devices and inserting venous lines must be adapted to the particular deformities and skin lesions present.

  9. Use of laserotherapy in multimodality treatment and prevention of obstetric pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudchenko, Antonyna A.; Yuzko, Olexander M.; Marynchyna, Iryna M.; Rotar, Oksana M.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of our research was an analysis of the influence of laserotherapy in the process of treating late gestoses in gravidas, as well as preventing complications following cesarean section. An improvement of the state of the gravida and fetus was detected according to the findings of the disease pattern, coagulogram and cardiotachography. We want to demonstrate the positive effect of laserotherapy which was carried out with the purpose of prophylaxis on the course of the postoperative period in parturients. The results of observations is the following: pyo-septic complications reduced by 14.3%.

  10. [Living the humanized delivery: phenomenological study from the point of view of adolescents].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Zuleyce Maria Lessa Pacheco; Madeira, Anézia Moreira Faria

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to comprehend the meaning of the humanized childbirth experience for teenage parturients. Phenomenology was adopted as the way to achieve the essence of the phenomenon. Eight teenagers who were assisted at the Sofia Feldman Hospital--a philantropic and non-profit-making institution--Belo Horizonte/MG--Brazil--have taken part of this study. Field work and open interview were the proceedures used for data collection. The study made it possible to seize three categories of analysis: Prechildbirth/Chilbirth--the body is being controlled. Prechildbirth/Chilbirth--a combination of pain and pleasure; Humanized Childbirth--expected and desired care.

  11. Delivery of the Obese Gravida.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Allison M; Metz, Torri D

    2016-03-01

    Obesity in pregnancy confers morbidity to both the mother and neonate. Obese women are at increased risk of cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and failed trial of labor after cesarean delivery. In addition to impacting the mode of delivery, obesity is associated with hemorrhage, infection, and thromboembolic complications in the peripartum period. The risk of these complications increases with increasing maternal body mass index. In this chapter, we discuss evidence-based strategies to mitigate these risks and to manage complications that occur at the time of delivery in obese parturients.

  12. [Obstetric analgesia in patients with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome].

    PubMed

    Felten, M L; Mercier, F J; Bonnet, V; Benhamou, D

    2001-11-01

    We report three cases of delivery in two parturients with a Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. These patients have a rare hereditary disorder that results in three main features: haemangiomas, varicose veins, bone and soft tissue hypertrophy. In the absence of angiographic magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord and of perispinal tissues, arteriovenous malformations of the central nervous system could not been ruled out. Intravenous sufentanil and pudendal block were used for labour analgesia and vaginal delivery respectively; general anaesthesia was used for uterine revision and for caesarean section.

  13. [100 years ago: Oskar Kreis, a pioneer in spinal obstetric analgesia at the University Women's Clinic of Basel].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; Holzgreve, W

    2001-07-01

    In 1900, Oskar Kreis (1872-1958), a gynecologist and obstetrician who received his training at the Basle University Women's Hospital, pioneered the use of spinal anaesthesia in six parturients for labour pain relief. Cocaine was used as a local anaesthetic, which had previously been shown to be effective for spinal anaesthesia by August Bier in 1898. This important advance in anaesthetic care was not widely acknowledged for a long period of time and it has only been during the past few decades that spinal anaesthesia was rediscovered as an important technique available for obstetric anaesthesia.

  14. Obstetric analgesia and immunoreactive endorphin peptides in maternal plasma during labor.

    PubMed

    Riss, P A; Bieglmayer, C

    1984-01-01

    We studied the effect of obstetric analgesia on maternal plasma levels of immunoreactive endorphin peptides (ir-EP) during labor and the postpartum period in three groups of parturients: group I (n = 22) had no analgesia, group II (n = 20) received pethidine intramuscularly, and group III (n = 10) had continuous epidural analgesia. Initial levels of ir-EP were similar in all three groups. Patients without any medication and patients on pethidine showed a significant rise in ir-EP in late labor and at delivery. Epidural analgesia was characterized by constant levels of ir-EP during labor and an insignificant rise at delivery.

  15. Pregnancy with aortic dissection in Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Staged replacement of the total aorta (10-year follow-up).

    PubMed

    Babatasi, G; Massetti, M; Bhoyroo, S; Khayat, A

    1997-10-01

    Pregnancy complicated by aortic dissection in patients with hereditary disorder of connective tissue presents interesting considerations including management of caesarean section with the unexpected need for cardiac surgery in emergency. Generalizations can be made on management principles with long-term follow-up requiring an aggressive individualized approach by a multidisciplinary team. A 33-year-old parturient presenting an aortic dissection at 37 weeks gestation required prompt diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in combination with correct surgical therapy resulted in the survival of both the mother and infant. During the 10-year follow-up, multiple complex dissection required transverse aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aortic replacement.

  16. [Pregnancy and systemic lupus erythematosus: compatible?].

    PubMed

    Jason, M; von Frenckell, C; Emonts, P

    2012-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly occurs in women of childbearing age. The risk of obstetric complications in lupus parturients is significant. In addition, pregnancy may be associated with flares of the disease requiring immunosuppressive therapy. For these reasons, SLE pregnancies are considered high risk and involve careful collaboration of the obstetrician and rheumatologist. Through the latter and medical advances including a better and better understanding of the binomial mother-child, most pregnancies end in a success.

  17. Primary nonmedically indicated cesarean section ("section on request"): evidence based or modern vogue?

    PubMed

    Grisaru, Sorina; Samueloff, Arnon

    2004-09-01

    Cesarean section, initially described as an emergency operative procedure for delivering moribund parturients, is now advocated by many as a routine technique with major advantages over vagi-nal delivery. In fact, it has been suggested that labor and vaginal delivery are no longer the desired consequence of pregnancy, a conclusion that reflects perceived medical advantages and patient and physician convenience. This article systematically reviews the various medical implications to the mother and infant of this procedure in the hope of facilitating a more rational approach to this spreading and controversial phenomenon.

  18. Remifentanil-nitroglycerin combination as an anesthetic support for ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure.

    PubMed

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Shen, Ori; Sichel, Jean-Yves; Lajos, Yishay; Orkin, Dina; Bromiker, Reuven; Briskin, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    A 21 year old healthy parturient was diagnosed as having a fetus with micrognathia. She was scheduled for an ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. General anesthesia consisted of remifentanil, nitrous oxide, and midazolam. Intravenous nitroglycerin was used for uterine relaxation. This technique offered hemodynamic stability and provided uterine relaxation that may be rapidly terminated. For the fetus, it provided excellent transplacental anesthesia. Supplemental direct fetal anesthesia is recommended to prevent the rapid decline of analgesia/anesthesia that occurs after placental separation.

  19. Should Nitrous Oxide Be Used for Laboring Patients?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael G; Lopez, Brandon M; Baysinger, Curtis L

    2017-03-01

    Nitrous oxide, long used during labor in Europe, is gaining popularity in the United States. It offers many beneficial attributes, with few drawbacks. Cost, safety, and side effect profiles are favorable. Analgesic effectiveness is highly variable, yet maternal satisfaction is often high among the women who choose to use it. Despite being less effective in treating labor pain than neuraxial analgesic modalities, nitrous oxide serves the needs and preferences of a subset of laboring parturients. Nitrous oxide should, therefore, be considered for inclusion in the repertoire of modalities used to alleviate pain and facilitate effective coping during labor.

  20. Chronic kidney disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chinnappa, V; Ankichetty, S; Angle, P; Halpern, S H

    2013-07-01

    Parturients with renal insufficiency or failure present a significant challenge for the anesthesiologist. Impaired renal function compromises fertility and increases both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Close communication amongst medical specialists, including nephrologists, obstetricians, neonatologists and anesthesiologists is required to ensure the safety of mother and child. Pre-existing diseases should be optimized and close surveillance of maternal and fetal condition is required. Kidney function may deteriorate during pregnancy, necessitating early intervention. The goal is to maintain hemodynamic and physiologic stability while the demands of the pregnancy change. Drugs that may adversely affect the fetus, are nephrotoxic or are dependent on renal elimination should be avoided.