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Sample records for pasaz ze zpravy

  1. The genus Alaolacon Candèze, a senior synonym of the genus Eumoeus Candèze (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae)

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Kôichi; Arimoto, Hisayuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alaolacon Candèze, 1865 is found to be a senior synonym of Eumoeus Candèze, 1874, Luzonicus Fleutiaux, 1916 and Tharopsides Fleutiaux, 1918. Alaolacon is represented by Alaolacon bakeri (Fleutiaux, 1916), comb. n., Alaolacon candezei Fleutiaux, 1928, Alaolacon cyanipennis Candèze, 1865, Alaolacon fujiokai sp. n., Alaolacon griseus Candèze, 1874, Alaolacon megalopus sp. n., Alaolacon murrayi (Candèze, 1874), comb. n., and Alaolacon philippinensis nom. n. This genus is redescribed based on the descriptions of three species, Alaolacon candezei, Alaolacon fujiokai, and Alaolacon megalopus as well as the examination of the holotypes of Alaolacon cyanipennis and Alaolacon murrayi comb. n. Males of the genus Alaolacon exhibit 12-segmented and biflabellate antennae, and the females exhibit 11-segmented and subpectinate antennae. A key to species is provided. PMID:28331403

  2. Corrosion Susceptibilities of Magnesium Alloys AZ91, EZ33 and ZE41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    34lw/i TECHNICAL REPORT ARSCD-TR-83007 CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF MAGNESIUFif ALLOYS AZ91 , EZ33 AND ZE41 ANTHONY GALLACCIO WILLIAM T. EBIHARA pI... AZ91 , EZ33 and ZE41 alloys Corrosion 20. ABsTrR ACT (Cotfmue a- reverisnel & /t nr-mw.e.• a idertifr by block number) An assessment was made of the...Discussion 3 Results AZ91 Panels 4 EZ33 Panels 4 ZE41 -Panels AZ91 :Housing 4 Discussion of Results 5 Conclusions 6 References 7 Distribution List 25

  3. CT dual-energy decomposition into x-ray signatures ρe and Ze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, Harry E.; Seetho, Issac M.; Champley, Kyle E.; Smith, Jerel A.; Azevedo, Stephen G.

    2016-05-01

    In a recent journal article [IEEE Trans. Nuc. Sci., 63(1), 341-350, 2016], we introduced a novel method that decomposes dual-energy X-ray CT (DECT) data into electron density (ρe) and a new effective-atomic-number called Ze in pursuit of system-independent characterization of materials. The Ze of a material, unlike the traditional Zeff, is defined relative to the actual X-ray absorption properties of the constituent atoms in the material, which are based on published X-ray cross sections. Our DECT method, called SIRZ (System-Independent ρe, Ze), uses a set of well-known reference materials and an understanding of the system spectral response to produce accurate and precise estimates of the X-ray-relevant basis variables (ρe, Ze) regardless of scanner or spectra in diagnostic energy ranges (30 to 200 keV). Potentially, SIRZ can account for and correct spectral changes in a scanner over time and, because the system spectral response is included in the technique, additional beam-hardening correction is not needed. Results show accuracy (<3%) and precision (<2%) values that are much better than prior methods on a wide range of spectra. In this paper, we will describe how to convert DECT system output into (ρe, Ze) features and we present our latest SIRZ results compared with ground truth for a set of materials.

  4. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  5. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  6. [Jean Chièze (1898-1975), medical engraver and illustrator].

    PubMed

    Bouday, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    As an imaginative and sensitive woodcutter Jean Chièze illustrated more than 130 books and realised many draws, paintings and lithographs and about 2000 engravings. He took part in some editions about Rabelais, Hippocrates, Galen and Ambroise Paré.

  7. Biotransformation of trans-1,1,1,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze)

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Paul; Bertermann, Ruediger; Rusch, George M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2009-09-15

    trans-1,1,1,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze) is a non-ozone-depleting fluorocarbon replacement with a low global warming potential and is developed as foam blowing agent. The biotransformation of HFO-1234ze was investigated after inhalation exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to air containing 2000; 10,000; or 50,000 ppm (n = 5/concentration) HFO-1234ze. Male B6C3F1 mice were only exposed to 50,000 ppm HFO-1234ze. All inhalation exposures were conducted for 6 h in a dynamic exposure chamber. After the end of the exposures, animals were individually housed in metabolic cages and urines were collected at 6 or 12 h intervals for 48 h. For metabolite identification, urine samples were analyzed by {sup 1}H-coupled and {sup 1}H-decoupled {sup 19}F-NMR and by LC/MS-MS or GC/MS. Metabolites were identified by {sup 19}F-NMR chemical shifts, signal multiplicity, {sup 1}H-{sup 19}F coupling constants and by comparison with synthetic reference compounds. In urine samples of rats exposed to 50,000 ppm HFO-1234ze, the predominant metabolite was S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-mercaptolactic acid and accounted for 66% of all integrated {sup 19}F-NMR signals in urines. No {sup 19}F-NMR signals were found in spectra of rat urine samples collected after inhalation exposure to 2000 or 10,000 ppm HFO-1234ze likely due to insufficient sensitivity. S-(3,3,3-Trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine and 3,3,3-trifluoropropionic acid were also present as metabolites in urine samples of rats and mice. A presumed amino acid conjugate of 3,3,3-trifluoropropionic acid was the major metabolite of HFO-1234ze in urine samples of mice exposed to 50,000 ppm and related to 18% of total integrated {sup 19}F-NMR signals. Quantification of three metabolites in urines of rats and mice was performed, using LC/MS-MS and GC/MS. The quantified amounts of the metabolites excreted with urine in both mice and rats, suggest only a low extent

  8. A novel ZePoC encoder for sinusoidal signals with a predictable accuracy for an AC power standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennemann, T.; Frye, T.; Liu, Z.; Kahmann, M.; Mathis, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present an analytical formulation of a Zero Position Coding (ZePoC) encoder for an AC power standard based on class-D topologies. For controlling a class-D power stage a binary signal with special spectral characteristics will be generated by this ZePoC encoder for sinusoidal signals. These spectral characteristics have a predictable accuracy within a separated baseband to keep the noise floor below a specified level. Simulation results will validate the accuracy of this novel ZePoC encoder. For a real-time implementation of the encoder on a DSP/FPGA hardware architecture a trade-off between accuracy and speed of the ZePoC algorithm has to be made. Therefore the numerical effects of different floating point formats will be analyzed.

  9. Astrophysical ZeV acceleration in the relativistic jet from an accreting supermassive blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Tajima, Toshiki

    2014-04-01

    An accreting supermassive blackhole, the central engine of active galactic nucleus (AGN), is capable of exciting extreme amplitude Alfven waves whose wavelength (wave packet) size is characterized by its clumpiness. The pondermotive force and wakefield are driven by these Alfven waves propagating in the AGN (blazar) jet, and accelerate protons/nuclei to extreme energies beyond Zetta-electron volt (ZeV=1021 eV). Such acceleration is prompt, localized, and does not suffer from the multiple scattering/bending enveloped in the Fermi acceleration that causes excessive synchrotron radiation loss beyond 1019 eV. The production rate of ZeV cosmic rays is found to be consistent with the observed gamma-ray luminosity function of blazars and their time variabilities.

  10. Reversible Z-E isomerism and pharmaceutical implications for SU5416.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Anand; Shenoy, Narmada

    2005-12-01

    SU5416 (Z-isomer), the first in its class of angiogenesis inhibitors, in solution converts to the E-isomer following light exposure and reverts to the Z-isomer in the dark. Kinetics of this Z-E isomerism in pharmaceutical media is reported. Analytical solutions need light protection at 5 degrees C to maintain integrity. While E-isomer in light-exposed product increased to 0.9% in 24 hours, light-protected product showed no change (25 degrees C, 18 months). Infusate studies indicated that < 1.9% E-isomer will be dosed to patients and would likely convert to the Z-isomer, following administration. This report implies Z-E isomerism in SU5416 is controllable with no limitations towards ensuring pharmaceutical product quality.

  11. CloudSat 2C‐ICE product update with a new Ze parameterization in lidar‐only region

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Gerald. G.; Wang, Zhien; Berry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CloudSat 2C‐ICE data product is derived from a synergetic ice cloud retrieval algorithm that takes as input a combination of CloudSat radar reflectivity (Ze) and Cloud‐Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation lidar attenuated backscatter profiles. The algorithm uses a variational method for retrieving profiles of visible extinction coefficient, ice water content, and ice particle effective radius in ice or mixed‐phase clouds. Because of the nature of the measurements and to maintain consistency in the algorithm numerics, we choose to parameterize (with appropriately large specification of uncertainty) Ze and lidar attenuated backscatter in the regions of a cirrus layer where only the lidar provides data and where only the radar provides data, respectively. To improve the Ze parameterization in the lidar‐only region, the relations among Ze, extinction, and temperature have been more thoroughly investigated using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement long‐term millimeter cloud radar and Raman lidar measurements. This Ze parameterization provides a first‐order estimation of Ze as a function extinction and temperature in the lidar‐only regions of cirrus layers. The effects of this new parameterization have been evaluated for consistency using radiation closure methods where the radiative fluxes derived from retrieved cirrus profiles compare favorably with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. Results will be made publicly available for the entire CloudSat record (since 2006) in the most recent product release known as R05. PMID:27867781

  12. CloudSat 2C-ICE product update with a new Ze parameterization in lidar-only region.

    PubMed

    Deng, Min; Mace, Gerald G; Wang, Zhien; Berry, Elizabeth

    2015-12-16

    The CloudSat 2C-ICE data product is derived from a synergetic ice cloud retrieval algorithm that takes as input a combination of CloudSat radar reflectivity (Ze ) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation lidar attenuated backscatter profiles. The algorithm uses a variational method for retrieving profiles of visible extinction coefficient, ice water content, and ice particle effective radius in ice or mixed-phase clouds. Because of the nature of the measurements and to maintain consistency in the algorithm numerics, we choose to parameterize (with appropriately large specification of uncertainty) Ze and lidar attenuated backscatter in the regions of a cirrus layer where only the lidar provides data and where only the radar provides data, respectively. To improve the Ze parameterization in the lidar-only region, the relations among Ze , extinction, and temperature have been more thoroughly investigated using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement long-term millimeter cloud radar and Raman lidar measurements. This Ze parameterization provides a first-order estimation of Ze as a function extinction and temperature in the lidar-only regions of cirrus layers. The effects of this new parameterization have been evaluated for consistency using radiation closure methods where the radiative fluxes derived from retrieved cirrus profiles compare favorably with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. Results will be made publicly available for the entire CloudSat record (since 2006) in the most recent product release known as R05.

  13. Development Program for Improving Foundry and Repair Welding Techniques for ZE41-type Magnesium Alloy Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    48,49,50 XI Tensile properties of test bars machined from areas of test plate containing flow-line tjrpe of segregation 51 XII Summary...TEST PLATES Melting and Pouring; The metal was prepared from alloyed EZ33 or ZE41 ingots , foundry returns (gates, risers and scrap castings) and...No back-up material, mild-steel back-up and carbon back-up. Carbon back-up gave best results. Sequence of welding: The sequence of welding eight

  14. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  15. Understanding solvation in the low global warming hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234ze propellant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2014-09-11

    Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), with zero ozone-depleting effect and very low global warming potential, are considered to be the next-generation high-pressure working fluids. They have industrial relevance in areas including refrigeration and medical aerosols. One major challenge expected in the replacement of existing working fluids with HFOs is the solubility and solvation of additives in such hydrophobic and oleophobic low dielectric semifluorinated solvents. The study of the solvation of chemistries that represent those additives by HFOs is, therefore, of great relevance. In this work, we systematically investigate how the polarity and structure of fragments (the tail, t) that represent those additives affect their binding energy (Eb) with HFO-1234ze (1,1,1,3-tetrafluoropropene) (the solvent, s; Eb(st)). We also compare and contrast those results with those for the working fluids that are most widely used in the industry, the hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) HFA-134a and HFA-227. Three main chemistries were investigated: alkanes, ethers, and esters. It was found that HFO-1234ze interacts quite favorably with ethers and esters, as indicated by their Eb(st), while Eb(st) with alkanes was much lower. While ether and ester groups showed little difference in Eb(st), the much lower self-interaction energy between ether tail-tail fragments (Eb(tt)) is expected to result in improved solubility/solvation of those groups in HFO-1234ze when compared with the more polar ester groups. The ratio Eb(st)/Eb(tt) is defined as the enhancement factor (Eenh) and is expected to be a better predictor of solubility/solvation of the tail fragments. The branching of the tail groups upon the addition of pendant CH3 groups did not significantly affect the solvation by the propellant. At low branching density (one CH3 pendant group), it did not affect tail-tail self-interaction either. However, at high enough branching (two CH3 groups), steric hindrance caused a significant decrease in Eb(tt) and

  16. Design of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment - FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; McLean, H. S.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Schmidt, A.; Claveau, E. L.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD, a new experiment FuZE is designed to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a new collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results that have informed the design and development of the FuZE apparatus are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  17. A new technique for the observation of EeV and ZeV cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieda, D. B.

    1995-12-01

    We describe a new technique tor the detection of EeV (10 18 eV) and ZeV (10 21 eV) cosmic rays in the atmosphere. The technique uses the fact that the Čerenkov light emitted by atmospheric extensive showers generated by primaries in this energy range is brighter than the fluctuations in the ambient light of the night sky, even with a full moon present. The Cerenkov light is also brighter than fluctuations in the twilight sky, and can even be of similar size as fluctuations in direct sunlight. For the highest energy cosmic rays ( E > 1 ZeV), this may allow optical detection with on-time efficiency limited only by the weather. The energy, angular, and Xmax resolution of the technique is examined as a function of the background day and night sky conditions. Using a "shadowing" method for determining the direction of the original cosmic ray primary, angular resolution between 0.3° to - 3 ° is possible, depending upon the zenith angle and energy of the primary, and the amount of background light. This resolution is equal to or better than the expected angular resolution obtained through the usual timing techniques. The technique gives an energy resolution 3% < ΔE/E < 40%, and X max resolution 18 g cm -2 < δ X max < 70 g cm -2, dependent upon primary energy, zenith angle, and sky conditions.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of Ramariolides A and C through Bimetallic Cascade Cyclization and Z-E Isomerization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pratik; Nanda, Samik

    2017-03-03

    A short and flexible asymmetric synthesis of ramariolides A and C was accomplished. A bimetallic catalytic system consisting of Pd-Cu-mediated cascade cyclization, unprecedented Z-E isomerization by a Ru-based metathesis catalyst, and late-stage stereoselective epoxidation are the key steps involved in the synthesis.

  19. Highly stereoselective synthesis of (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters via rearrangement of Fischer chromium chloro-carbenes using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kashinath, Dhurke; Mioskowski, Charles; Falck, J R; Goli, Mohan; Meunier, Stéphane; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain

    2009-05-07

    Functionalized (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters are synthesized in a highly stereoselective manner via CrCl2-mediated rearrangement of allylic trihalomethylcarbinol esters induced by microwave irradiation.

  20. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  1. UPLC TOF MS for sensitive quantification of naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Petasites hybridus extract (Ze 339).

    PubMed

    Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements.

  2. The neurocognitive effects of Hypericum perforatum Special Extract (Ze 117) during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Camfield, D A; Scholey, A B; Pipingas, A; Silberstein, R B; Kure, C; Zangara, A; Kras, M; Stough, C

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of current treatments for smoking cessation are relatively poor. More research is required to address the biological mechanisms underpinning nicotine withdrawal and drug treatments for smoking cessation. We assessed the neurocognitive effects of Remotiv® (Hypericum perforatum Special Extract - Ze 117), Nicabate CQ Nicotine Replacement therapy (NRT) and combined NRT/HP during conditions of smoking abstinence in 20 regular smokers aged between 18 and 60 years over a period of 10 weeks during smoking cessation. A Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task was completed at baseline, 4 weeks prior to quitting, as well as at the completion of the study, following the 10 weeks of treatment. Brain activity was recorded during the completion of the SWM task using Steady-State Probe Topography. Reaction time and accuracy on the SWM task were not found to be significantly different between treatment groups at retest. Differences in SSVEP treatment profiles at retest are discussed, including stronger SSVEP Amplitude increase in posterior-parietal regions for the HP and NRT groups and greater fronto-central SSVEP Phase Advance in the HP group.

  3. Antenna morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of Tetrigus lewisi Candèze (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-Li; Wu, Ying; Shi, Juan; Zhang, Lu; Luo, You-Qing

    2014-05-01

    We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the typology, morphology, distributions, and ultrastructures of the antennal sensilla of Tetrigus lewisi Candèze, a predatory click beetle that feeds on longhorned beetles, such as, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We observed eight types of sensilla on the antennae, including sensilla chaetica (with three subtypes: ch.1, ch.2, ch.3), sensilla basiconica (subtypes: ba.1, ba.2, ba.3), sensilla trichodea (subtypes: tr.1, tr.2), as well as sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla styloconica and Böhm's bristles. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in the antenna morphology, as well as in the density of type 2 sensilla trichodea and type 1 sensilla basiconica. We observed thick cuticular walls on sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia; clear pore structures on sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica; and double walls with spoke-channels on sensilla coeloconica. The chemoreception, mechanoreception and thermo-/hygro-reception functions were deduced from fine structures on the cuticular walls and the dendrites of the different sensilla types. We suggest that all these sensilla have important roles in the host location, mating and predatory behavior of T. lewisi.

  4. Molecular driving forces for Z/E isomerization mediated by heteroatoms: the example hemithioindigo.

    PubMed

    Nenov, Artur; Cordes, Thorben; Herzog, Teja T; Zinth, Wolfgang; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2010-12-23

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of photoinduced Z/E isomerizations is presented. Unsubstituted Hemithioindigo is selected as a representative minimal model to unravel the reaction mechanism in the presence of heteroatoms on an atomic level. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals multiexponential reaction dynamics on the few picoseconds time scale, which are interpreted by quantum chemical calculations at the CASSCF/CASPT2 level of theory. Detailed insight into the processes governing the ultrafast decay from the first excited state, mediated by a number of conical intersections, is provided. Charge separation and charge balance recovery on the reaction pathway play the leading role and are controlled by the electron-donating or -withdrawing character of the heteroatoms. The electronic and geometric structures of the individual minimum energy conical intersections governing the reaction are rationalized, and an extended energetically low lying conical intersection seam is extracted. Comparison to the experimental results permits linking the observed time constants to molecular intermediates and pathways. An explanation is provided for the pronounced differences of Z → E and the E → Z photoreactions upon excitation to the first excited singlet state.

  5. Experimental Performance of R-1234yf and R-1234ze as Drop-in Replacements for R-134a in Domestic Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Karber, Kyle M; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about anthropogenic climate change have generated an interest in low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and have spawned policies and regulations that encourage the transition to low GWP refrigerants. Recent research has largely focused on hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), including R-1234yf (GWP = 4) as a replacement for R-134a (GWP = 1430) in automotive air-conditioning applications. While R-1234yf and R-1234ze (GWP = 6) have been investigated theoretically as a replacements for R-134a in domestic refrigeration, there is a lack of experimental evidence. This paper gives experimental performance data for R-1234yf and R-1234ze as drop-in replacements for R134a in two household refrigerators one baseline and one advanced technology. An experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of R-134a to R-1234yf and R-1234ze, using AHAM standard HRF-1 to evaluate energy consumption. These refrigerants were tested as drop-in replacements, with no performance enhancing modifications to the refrigerators. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234yf had 2.7% and 1.3% higher energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. This indicates that R-1234yf is a suitable drop-in replacement for R-134a in domestic refrigeration applications. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234ze had 16% and 5.4% lower energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. In order to replace R-134a with R-1234ze in domestic refrigerators the lower capacity would need to be addressed, thus R-1234ze might not be suitable for drop-in replacement.

  6. St. John's wort extract Ze 117 (Hypericum perforatum) inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin uptake into rat brain slices and reduces 3-adrenoceptor numbers on cultured rat brain cells.

    PubMed

    Kientsch, U; Bürgi, S; Ruedeberg, C; Probst, S; Honegger, U E

    2001-07-01

    Despite almost forty years of widespread use, the mode of action of antidepressant drugs is still largely unknown. There is agreement that these drugs interact with central neurotransmission. Common findings are acute inhibitory actions on reuptake mechanisms for norepinephrine (NE) and for serotonin (5-HT) at presynaptic axons and chronic adaptive effects on neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic membranes. In particular, beta-adrenoceptor downregulation has been observed after chronic treatment with most antidepressants in vivo and in cell culture systems. We studied the effectiveness of Ze 117 (St. John's wort) extract (Hypericum perforatum) on NE- and 5-HT-uptake into rat brain slices. Potency and efficacy of the Ze 117 extract were compared with those of tricyclic (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-type antidepressants. A dose-dependent inhibition was seen on NE and 5-HT uptake into brain slices. The Ze 117 extract was more selective for the uptake of NE than for that of 5-HT. The maximal extent of uptake inhibition by Ze 117 extract was comparable to that of imipramine (IMI), desipramine (DMI) or fluvoxamine for 5-HT, but lower for NE transport, than that of the synthetic antidepressants. Chronic exposure (8 days) of confluent C6-cell cultures to Ze 117 extract resulted in a dose-dependent beta-adrenoceptor downregulation equal to that induced by DMI, a potent TCA. None of these effects could be achieved with either hypericin or hyperforin alone in a relevant dose range. Our results indicate that the St. John's wort extract Ze 117 contains active, but as yet unknown antidepressant principles with effects comparable to those of TCAs.

  7. Initial results of Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment, FuZE, and magnetic field topology analysis through data driven modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claveau, E. L.; Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Weber, T. R.; McLean, H.

    2016-10-01

    The FuZE project is a sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch experiment that investigates scaling the SFS Z-pinch to fusion conditions. FuZE will generate a 1 mm radius Z-pinch with a 300 kA plasma current. An array of 94 surface-mounted magnetic field probes that are embedded in the outer copper electrode provide the primary measure of the time-dependent magnetic topology of the pinch plasma. Azimuthal field measurement provide instantaneous information about the magnitude and position of the plasma current. The initial results obtained in the form of magnetic field topology are compared to previous ZaP experimental results, an experiment that investigated shear flow stabilization of Z-pinch at lower current. The magnetic field topology evolution is investigated through data-driven modeling of the characteristic dynamics. The modeling provides time evolution of large-scale structures and dynamics quantified over multiple plasma pulses. These properties can give insight about spatial and temporal propagation of fluctuations to better characterize the plasma evolution. This work funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program.

  8. Measurements and Correlations of cis-1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (R1234ze(Z)) Saturation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Laura; Di Nicola, Giovanni; Brown, J. Steven; Bobbo, Sergio; Zilio, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    cis-1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (R1234ze(Z)) is being investigated as a working fluid possessing a low global warming potential (GWP) for high-temperature heat pumping applications, organic Rankine cycles, and air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, and as a potential solvent, propellant, and foam blowing agent. Its GWP is less than one. The open literature contains a total of 79 vapor-pressure data from three sources and the critical state properties from a single source. The current paper provides 64 vapor-pressure data from two different laboratories over the temperature range from 238.13 K to 372.61 K. These data are regressed using Wagner and extended Antoine vapor-pressure correlations and then compared to the existing open literature data and correlations. The normal-boiling-point temperature and acentric factor for R1234ze(Z) are estimated to be 282.73 K and 0.3257, respectively.

  9. Unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi reforms in China: interplay of agricultural reform and population control policy.

    PubMed

    Yen, W; Carter, L F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the discussion of unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi policy reforms in China is to show how isolating problems and developing solutions in isolation can lead to serious consequences. The Ze Ren Zhi reforms in 1978 were intended to increase agricultural productivity by changing from the collective system to an individual responsibility system, but the unintended and undesirable consequences were a growth in family size and discouragement of some environmentally sound land use practices. The prior system gave an equal share of collective income for an equal number of days worked. Under the new reform, "Baochan Daohu," each household had responsibility for a contracted quantity of grain production. Within 2-4 years, economic conditions improved considerably. A discussion is provided of the transition from rights and duties of the collectives to the new responsibility system and the experimentation with different systems. Specific attention is directed to land reforms, mutual aid teams, cooperatives, communes, variations of Ze Ren Zhi, contracting output to individual laborers, contracting jobs to households, and contracting output quotas to households. During the reforms, beginning in the 1950s and lasting until 1978, other changes were taking place. Death rates were declining and birth rates were increasing, such that in 1971 a campaign was established to promote the Late, Sparse, and Few policy for marrying and giving birth later, increasing birth intervals, and having fewer children. This voluntary program eventually took on a more universally mandatory nature. The 1950 Marriage Law stipulated 20 years as the legal age for marriage (18 years for females), and family planning (FP) workers during the 1970s were encouraging even later marriage, and by 1980 a system of rewards and penalties was established to reinforce small family size. After 1978 and a period of birth declines, the crude birth rate increased to 3.06 in 1983. The new responsibility

  10. Analysis of early processes in wound-induced vascular regeneration using TED3 and ZeHB3 as molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Chikako; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2002-01-01

    Interruption of the vascular bundles of Zinnia internodes induced transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements (TEs) or sieve elements (SEs) within 4 d of wounding. The early stage of the regeneration processes was analyzed using two molecular marker genes, TED3 and ZeHB3, which are expressed specifically in TE precursor cells and immature phloem cells, respectively. An increase in the numbers of TED3 and ZeHB3 mRNA-expressing cells always preceded an increase in the numbers of TEs and SEs formed. The earliest sign of vascular differentiation was the appearance 24 h after wounding of a layer(s) of TED3 mRNA-expressing cells in the inter- and intrafascicular cambial-like regions along the severed vascular bundles. In contrast, the number of ZeHB3 mRNA-expressing cells decreased dramatically along the severed bundles 24 h after wounding, and increased again 36 h after wounding. These results clearly indicate that xylem and phloem differentiation are not synchronized during vascular regeneration. Treatment with 10(-3) M colchicine abolished the expression of ZeHB3 mRNA in pith parenchyma, but not TED3 mRNA; this suggests that cell division is a prerequisite for the transdifferentiation of pith parenchymal cells into immature phloem cells expressing ZeHB3. In contrast, transdifferentiation of pith parenchymal cells to TE precursor cells does not require preceding cell division. However, the inhibition of cell division prevented the formation of both radial files of TEs and the cambial-like layer(s) of TED3 mRNA-expressing cells, and, ultimately, vascular regeneration altogether. These results imply that wound-induced cambial-like activity in and between severed vascular bundles is essential for vascular regeneration.

  11. Use of 2D-video disdrometer to derive mean density-size and Ze-SR relations: Four snow cases from the light precipitation validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Bringi, V. N.; Moisseev, Dmitri; Petersen, W. A.; Bliven, L.; Hudak, David

    2015-02-01

    The application of the 2D-video disdrometer to measure fall speed and snow size distribution and to derive liquid equivalent snow rate, mean density-size and reflectivity-snow rate power law is described. Inversion of the methodology proposed by Böhm provides the pathway to use measured fall speed, area ratio and '3D' size measurement to estimate the mass of each particle. Four snow cases from the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment are analyzed with supporting data from other instruments such as the Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS), Snow Video Imager (SVI), a network of seven snow gauges and three scanning C-band radars. The radar-based snow accumulations using the 2DVD-derived Ze-SR relation are in good agreement with a network of seven snow gauges and outperform the accumulations derived from a climatological Ze-SR relation used by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The normalized bias between radar-derived and gauge accumulation is reduced from 96% when using the fixed FMI relation to 28% when using the Ze-SR relations based on 2DVD data. The normalized standard error is also reduced significantly from 66% to 31%. For two of the days with widely different coefficients of the Ze-SR power law, the reflectivity structure showed significant differences in spatial variability. Liquid water path estimates from radiometric data also showed significant differences between the two cases. Examination of SVI particle images at the measurement site corroborated these differences in terms of unrimed versus rimed snow particles. The findings reported herein support the application of Böhm's methodology for deriving the mean density-size and Ze-SR power laws using data from 2D-video disdrometer.

  12. Use of 2d-video Disdrometer to Derive Mean Density-size and Ze-SR Relations: Four Snow Cases from the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Bringi, V. N.; Moisseev, Dmitri; Petersen, Walter A.; Bliven, Francis L.; Hudak, David

    2014-01-01

    The application of the 2D-video disdrometer to measure fall speed and snow size distribution and to derive liquid equivalent snow rate, mean density-size and reflectivity-snow rate power law is described. Inversion of the methodology proposed by Böhm provides the pathway to use measured fall speed, area ratio and '3D' size measurement to estimate the mass of each particle. Four snow cases from the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment are analyzed with supporting data from other instruments such as Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS), Snow Video Imager (SVI), a network of seven snow gauges and three scanning C9 band radars. The radar-based snow accumulations using the 2DVD-derived Ze-SR relation are in good agreement with a network of seven snow gauges and outperform the accumulations derived from a climatological Ze-SR relation used by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The normalized bias between radar-derived and gauge accumulation is reduced from 96% when using the fixed FMI relation to 28% when using the Ze-SR relations based on 2DVD data. The normalized standard error is also reduced significantly from 66% to 31%. For two of the days with widely different coefficients of the Ze-SR power law, the reflectivity structure showed significant differences in spatial variability. Liquid water path estimates from radiometric data also showed significant differences between the two cases. Examination of SVI particle images at the measurement site corroborated these differences in terms of unrimed versus rimed snow particles. The findings reported herein support the application of Böhm's methodology for deriving the mean density-size and Ze-SR power laws using data from 2D-video disdrometer.

  13. Advanced characterization study of commercial conversion and electrocoating structures on magnesium alloys AZ31B and ZE10A

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Michael P.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; ...

    2016-03-31

    The local metal-coating interface microstructure and chemistry formed on commercial magnesium alloys Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B) and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A, ZEK100 type) were analyzed as-chemical conversion coated with a commercial hexafluoro-titanate/zirconate type + organic polymer based treatment (Bonderite® 5200) and a commercial hexafluoro-zirconate type + trivalent chromium Cr3 + type treatment (Surtec® 650), and after the same conversion coatings followed by electrocoating with an epoxy based coating, Cathoguard® 525. Characterization techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Corrosion behavior was assessed in room temperature saturated aqueous Mg(OH)2 solution with 1 wt.% NaCl. Themore » goal of the effort was to assess the degree to which substrate alloy additions become enriched in the conversion coating, and how the conversion coating was impacted by subsequent electrocoating. Key findings included the enrichment of Al from AZ31B and Zr from ZE10A, respectively, into the conversion coating, with moderate corrosion resistance benefits for AZ31B when Al was incorporated. Varying degrees of increased porosity and modification of the initial conversion coating chemistry at the metal-coating interface were observed after electrocoating. These changes were postulated to result in degraded electrocoating protectiveness. As a result, these observations highlight the challenges of coating Mg, and the need to tailor electrocoating in light of potential degradation of the initial as-conversion coated Mg alloy surface.« less

  14. Advanced characterization study of commercial conversion and electrocoating structures on magnesium alloys AZ31B and ZE10A

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Song, Guang -Ling; Kitchen, Kris; Davis, Bruce; Thompson, J. K.; Unocic, K. A.; Elsentriecy, H. H.

    2016-03-31

    The local metal-coating interface microstructure and chemistry formed on commercial magnesium alloys Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B) and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A, ZEK100 type) were analyzed as-chemical conversion coated with a commercial hexafluoro-titanate/zirconate type + organic polymer based treatment (Bonderite® 5200) and a commercial hexafluoro-zirconate type + trivalent chromium Cr3 + type treatment (Surtec® 650), and after the same conversion coatings followed by electrocoating with an epoxy based coating, Cathoguard® 525. Characterization techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Corrosion behavior was assessed in room temperature saturated aqueous Mg(OH)2 solution with 1 wt.% NaCl. The goal of the effort was to assess the degree to which substrate alloy additions become enriched in the conversion coating, and how the conversion coating was impacted by subsequent electrocoating. Key findings included the enrichment of Al from AZ31B and Zr from ZE10A, respectively, into the conversion coating, with moderate corrosion resistance benefits for AZ31B when Al was incorporated. Varying degrees of increased porosity and modification of the initial conversion coating chemistry at the metal-coating interface were observed after electrocoating. These changes were postulated to result in degraded electrocoating protectiveness. As a result, these observations highlight the challenges of coating Mg, and the need to tailor electrocoating in light of potential degradation of the initial as-conversion coated Mg alloy surface.

  15. Production and release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal by sex pheromone glands of females ofPlodia interpunctella (lepidoptera: pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Heath, R R; Dueben, B D; Coffelt, J A; Vick, K W

    1995-06-01

    Extracts of sex pheromone glands obtained from females ofPloida interpunctella contained detectable amounts of (Z,E,)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (Z9,E12-14:Ac) and (Z,E.)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol (Z9,E12-14:OH) 4 hr prior to the first scotophase after adult emergence. The amount of pheromone increased during the first 4 hr of the scotophase and then declined to low levels during the subsequent photophase. Decapitation of females immediately after emergence, prior to expansion of the wings, inhibited production of pheromone during the subsequent 48 hr. Injection of extracts of the heads of 1-day-old females ofP. interpunctella of partially purified extracts of the cephalic ganglia of females of the corn earworm moth into decapitated females stimulated production of bothZ9,E12-14:Ac andZ9,E12-14:OH as well as production of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal (Z9,E12-14:Al). This aldehyde was subsequently identified from extracts of pheromone glands obtained from naturally calling females as well as from volatiles emitted by calling females. Studies on the terminal steps in biosynthesis of the pheromone showed thatZ9,E12-14:OH was produced from the corresponding acetate and thatZ9,E12-14:Al was produced from the alcohol via the action of an oxidase(s).

  16. Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of trans-1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene [R-1234ze(E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thol, Monika; Lemmon, Eric W.

    2016-03-01

    An equation of state for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the hydrofluoroolefin refrigerant R-1234ze(E) is presented. The equation of state (EOS) is expressed in terms of the Helmholtz energy as a function of temperature and density. The formulation can be used for the calculation of all thermodynamic properties through the use of derivatives of the Helmholtz energy. Comparisons to experimental data are given to establish the uncertainty of the EOS. The equation of state is valid from the triple point (169 K) to 420 K, with pressures to 100 MPa. The uncertainty in density in the liquid and vapor phases is 0.1 % from 200 K to 420 K at all pressures. The uncertainty increases outside of this temperature region and in the critical region. In the gaseous phase, speeds of sound can be calculated with an uncertainty of 0.05 %. In the liquid phase, the uncertainty in speed of sound increases to 0.1 %. The estimated uncertainty for liquid heat capacities is 5 %. The uncertainty in vapor pressure is 0.1 %.

  17. Scaling of the Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch: The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment ``FuZE''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch ZaP experiment was constructed based on calculations [1] showing stabilization of kink and sausage instabilities. ZaP experimentally demonstrated production and sustainment of an SFS Z-pinch for a wide range of plasma parameters, with densities up to n =1023 m-3 and a pinch radius of a = 1 cm. [2-4] The SFS Z-pinch is resistant to the instabilities of conventional Z-pinches, yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling, making it an energy-efficient way to achieve fusion-relevant conditions. The ZaP-HD (high density) experiment has demonstrated scaling of the SFS Z-pinch to 2-3 × smaller a and 10 × higher n. [5] Supported by ZaP and ZaP-HD, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE) project investigates scaling plasma parameters toward fusion conditions by decreasing a 2-3 × to 1 mm, and increasing n 10 × to 1025 m-3. The approach combines improved gas injection and flexible power supplies with the successful ZaP SFS Z-pinch formation. Detailed fluid and kinetic simulations complement the experimental studies to gain scientific insight into the plasma behavior and predict scaling to higher performance. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  18. First observations of the fourth generation synthetic halocarbons HFC-1234yf, HFC-1234ze(E), and HCFC-1233zd(E) in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Martin K; Reimann, Stefan; Hill, Matthias; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-03-03

    Halogenated alkenes are a class of anthropogenic substances, which replace ozone-depleting substances and long-lived greenhouse gases in the foam-blowing, refrigeration, and solvent sectors. We report the first multiyear atmospheric measurements of the hydrofluorocarbons HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene, CF3CF═CH2), and HFC-1234ze(E) (E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHF), and the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-1233zd(E) (E-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHCl) from the high altitude observatory at Jungfraujoch and from urban Dubendorf (Switzerland). When observations started in 2011 HFC-1234yf was undetectable at Jungfraujoch (mole fractions <0.003 ppt, parts-per-trillion, 10(-12)) but since then the percentage of measurements with detectable mole fractions has steadily increased to 4.5% in 2014. By contrast, in 2014 HFC-1234ze(E) was detectable in half of our samples at Jungfraujoch and in all samples at Dubendorf demonstrating the wide use of this compound within the air mass footprints of the stations. Our back trajectory analysis for the Jungfraujoch observations suggests high emission strength of HFC-1234ze(E) in the Belgium/Netherlands region. HCFC-1233zd(E) is present at very low mole fractions (typically <0.03 ppt) at both stations, and features pronounced seasonality and a general absence of pollution events during our 2013-2014 measurements. This is indicative of the presence of significant emissions from source locations outside the footprints of the two stations. Based on a simple one-box model calculation we estimate globally increasing HCFC-1233zd(E) emissions from 0.2 Gg yr(-1) in 2013 to 0.5 Gg yr(-1) for 2014.

  19. Tracer Film Growth Study of the Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys AZ31B and ZE10A in 0.01% NaCl Solution

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Fayek, M.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2017-05-25

    We conducted a sequential isotopic tracer study of corrosion film growth for Mg-3Al-1Zn-0.25Mn (AZ31B) and Mg-1.2Zn-0.25Zr-<0.5Nd (ZE10A) by 4 h immersion in H218O or D216O, followed by a 20 h immersion in a 0.01 wt% NaCl H218O or D216O solution. Sputter depth profiles were obtained for 16O, 18O, H, and D using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). When compared to the previous tracer study for these alloys in salt-free water, the addition of 0.01 wt% NaCl resulted in a transition from oxygen inward-dominated film growth to a component of mixed inward/outward film growth for both alloys. The hydrogen tracer behaviormore » remained inward growing for AZ31B, and short-circuit, inward growing for ZE10A, in both pure water and in 0.01 wt% NaCl solution, with extensive penetration of D beyond the film and into the underlying alloy also observed for ZE10A. Our analysis of the films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) indicated intermixed Mg(OH)2 and MgO, with the relative fraction of Mg(OH)2 peaking near the center of the film. These findings suggest a decoupled film growth mechanism, with initial formation of oxide followed by NaCl-accelerated conversion to hydroxide, likely by both solid-state and dissolution-precipitation processes.« less

  20. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jörg; Schrader, Ewald; Brattström, Axel; Schellenberg, Rüdiger; Saller, Reinhard

    2009-09-01

    Herbal drugs are often used in patients with somatoform disorders yet, the available evidence is limited. The aim of the present short-term study was to evaluate in a pharmaco-clinical trial the additional benefit of butterbur in a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185 = 4-combination versus 3-combination without butterbur and placebo) in patients with somatoform disorders.For a 2-week treatment in patients with somatization disorder (F45.0) and undifferentiated somatoform disorder (F45.1), 182 patients were randomized for a 3-arm trial (butterbur root, valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus valerian root, passionflower herb, lemon balm leaf versus placebo). Anxiety (visual analogue scale - VAS) and depression (Beck's Depression Inventory - BDI) served as primary parameters, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was a secondary parameter.The 4-combination was significantly superior to the 3-combination and placebo (4-combination > 3-combination > placebo) in all the primary and secondary parameters (PP-population). Analysis of the ITT population confirmed these results. As to safety, no serious adverse events occurred. In total 9 non-serious adverse events were documented but the distribution did not differ significantly between the treatment groups.This herbal preparation (Ze185) showed to be an efficacious and safe short-term treatment in patients with somatoform disorders.

  1. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of (Z/E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienamide and Its 6,7-Epoxy Analogues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingyan; Dong, Hongbo; Jiang, Jiazhen; Wang, Mingan

    2015-11-25

    In order to find new lead compounds with high fungicidal activity, (Z/E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acids were synthesized via selective two-step oxidation using the commercially available geraniol/nerol as raw materials. Twenty-eight different (Z/E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienamide derivatives were prepared by reactions of (Z/E)-carboxylic acid with various aromatic and aliphatic amines, followed by oxidation of peroxyacetic acid to afford their 6,7-epoxy analogues. All of the compounds were characterized by HR-ESI-MS and ¹H-NMR spectral data. The preliminary bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. For example, 5C, 5I and 6b had 94.0%, 93.4% and 91.5% inhibition rates against R. solani, respectively. Compound 5f displayed EC50 values of 4.3 and 9.7 µM against Fusahum graminearum and R. Solani, respectively.

  2. A fasciclin-domain containing gene, ZeFLA11, is expressed exclusively in xylem elements that have reticulate wall thickenings in the stem vascular system of Zinnia elegans cv Envy.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Preeti; Findlay, Kim; Roberts, Keith; McCann, Maureen C

    2006-05-01

    The vascular cylinder of the mature stem of Zinnia elegans cv Envy contains two anatomically distinct sets of vascular bundles, stem bundles and leaf-trace bundles. We isolated a full-length cDNA of ZeFLA11, a fasciclin-domain-containing gene, from a zinnia cDNA library derived from in vitro cultures of mesophyll cells induced to form tracheary elements. Using RNA in situ hybridization, we show that ZeFLA11 is expressed in the differentiating xylem vessels with reticulate type wall thickenings and adjacent parenchyma cells of zinnia stem bundles, but not in the leaf-trace bundles that deposit spiral thickenings. Our results suggest a function for this cell-surface GPI-anchored glycoprotein in secondary wall deposition during differentiation of metaxylem tissue with reticulate vessels.

  3. The Sénèze maar (French Massif-Central): Hypothesis regarding a catastrophe occurring about 1.5 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couthures, Jean

    1989-11-01

    A reconstruction, based on direct observations in the form of borings and paleontological digs, indicates repetitive catastrophes in the palaeo-lake of the Sénèze depression long after formation of the maar. This event is correlated with extensive slumping associated with erosion of the crater rim induced by a critical ring fault. K-Ar dating gives a lower limit of around 2.48 million years for the initial formation, but not the lapse of time between eruption and filling. According to drilling, sedimentology, and palynological analysis, the lake was functional between 2.3 and 1.3 million years ago, i.e., throughout the Tiglian and at the beginning of the Eburonian. The destruction of all animal life could only have been due to asphyxia, but probably resulted from a CO 2 release. All classes of animals, mainly mammals, were affected and subsequently died. They are found in the same levels in several fossiliferous beds, at the top of the lacustrine deposits and also in reworked debris from the crater rim.

  4. Electrical resistivity and Seismic Refraction Tomography to Detect Heavy Metals Pathways in the Tailings of the Abandoned Mine of Zeïda, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekayir, A.; Lachhab, A.; Rouai, M.; Benyassine, E. M.; Boujamaoui, M.; Parisot, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The abandoned mine Zeïda (Pb) located at the center of the High Moulouya watershed is believed to have produced a total of 640,000 tons of concentrated Pb within 14 years of activities (1972-1985). Today, the mine has been abandoned with one of the largest tailings pits in Morocco without supervision and concern of environmental impacts. Several studies have shown the existence of high levels of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd and Ni) in samples (water and soil) taken from and around the tailings (Laghlimi et al, 2014, Benyassine et al, 2013, Iavarzzo, 2012, Makhoukh et al, 2011, Baghdad et al, 2008, Bouabdli et al, 2005). In this study, several electrical and seismic tomography profiles were taken to explore the thickness of the tailings and the potential pathways of contaminants to the aquifer. Because heavy metals were found in the surrounding areas of the tailings, there are concerns about their seepage into the groundwater aquifer. A total of 6 electric resistivity profiles together with another 16 seismic refraction profiles were completed over the 3 major mining waste piles to study this contamination. Analysis of both electric and seismic tomography profiles showed: 1) the thickness of tailings range from few cm to above 20m depending on where the survey was performed, 2) the contamination pathways of heavy metal pollutants occur predominantly right above the thickest areas of sandstone formation, and 3) water ponds at the surface of the tailing piles forms directly above the thickest part of the sandstone layer

  5. Assessment of heavy metals and arsenic contamination in the sediments of the Moulouya River and the Hassan II Dam downstream of the abandoned mine Zeïda (High Moulouya, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Azhari, Abdellah; Rhoujjati, Ali; EL Hachimi, Moulay Laârabi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sediment contamination level near the abandoned (PbZn) mine Zeïda, heavy metal concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the Moulouya River, the Ansegmir tributary and the Hassan II Dam located downstream of the abandoned mine. These samples were analysed for their geochemical properties: mineralogy by XRD, carbonate content, pH, particle size and the total concentrations of Pb, Zn, As and Cu elements by ICP-AES. The assessment of the sediment pollution extent was performed by using the multiple pollution indices: contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The Highest CF values (>6) of Pb that have been observed downstream of the tailings promote a high Pb contamination in that specific area. The PLIs results showed that all stations, except for those upstream of the tailings and on the Hassan II Dam, have been found moderately to highly contaminated. The Igeo results confirmed the Pb high contamination but also the extreme As contamination. The potential ecological risk factor results and the comparison with the sediment quality guidelines revealed that the Pb and As levels are potentially toxic to the sediment-dwelling organisms. Based on the multivariate statistical analysis results and the spatial distribution of the sediment contamination level, the pollution of Pb and As have different sources. Pb contamination is located exclusively near and downstream of the tailings. These latter's may be considered as an important point source of Pb into the Moulouya River. The As contamination is derived from a larger scale input sources which can be related to anthropogenic and/or lithogenic effects.

  6. Mikro-Dialoge. ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Micro-dialog. ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    Discusses contextless drills, pattern exercises in dialog form, exercises with indicated situation, micro-dialogs. The latter three are useful for impressing the material on the memory and for developing competence in dialog. A warning is given against limiting the drill period to pattern practice alone. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Properties of Waste from Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Reactors in the Aspect of Their Use in Mining Technology / Właściwości odpadów ze zgazowania węgla w reaktorach dyspersyjnych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w technologiach górniczych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomykała, Radosław

    2013-06-01

    Most of the coal gasification plants based of one of the three main types of reactors: fixed bed, fluidized bed or entrained flow. In recent years, the last ones, which works as "slagging" reactors (due to the form of generated waste), are very popular among commercial installations. The article discusses the characteristics of the waste from coal gasification in entrained flow reactors, obtained from three foreign installations. The studies was conducted in terms of the possibilities of use these wastes in mining technologies, characteristic for Polish underground coal mines. The results were compared with the requirements of Polish Standards for the materials used in hydraulic backfill as well as suspension technology: solidification backfill and mixtures for gob caulking. Większość przemysłowych instalacji zgazowania węgla pracuje w oparciu o jeden z trzech głównych typów reaktorów: ze złożem stałym, dyspersyjny lub fluidalny. W zależności od rodzaju reaktora oraz szczegółowych rozwiązań instalacji, powstające uboczne produkty zgazowania mogą mieć różną postać. Zależy ona w dużej mierze od stosunku temperatury pracy reaktora do temperatury topnienia części mineralnych zawartych w paliwie, czyli do temperatury mięknienia i topnienia popiołu. W ostatnich latach bardzo dużą popularność wśród instalacji komercyjnych zdobywają reaktory dyspersyjne "żużlujące". W takich instalacjach żużel jest wychwytywany i studzony po wypłynięciu z reaktora. W niektórych przypadkach oprócz żużla powstaje jeszcze popiół lotny, wychwytywany w systemach odprowadzania spalin. Może być on pozyskiwany oddzielnie lub też zawracany do komory reaktora, gdzie ulega stopieniu. Wszystkie z analizowanych odpadów - trzy żużle oraz popiół pochodzą właśnie z tego typu instalacji. Tylko z jednej z nich pozyskano zarówno żużel jak i popiół, z pozostałych dwóch jedynie żużel. Odpady te powstały, jako uboczny produkt zgazowania w

  8. Der Koch und seine Rezepte. ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (The Cook and his Recipes. ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Shows, with examples of application, how pattern drills can be varied to fit various levels of difficulty. Variations in exercise technique according to the difficulty level can be realized quantitatively by changes in the stimulus and/or response, and qualitatively by variation of material (vocabulary and structures). (Text is in German.)…

  9. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. A Structured Approach to the Production of Teacher Education Materials: The ZeSTT Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the production philosophy that lay behind the Zimbabwe Science Teacher Training Project and that guided the approach adopted to the design, filming, editing, and distribution of the materials produced. (Author)

  11. Design and photochemical characterization of a biomimetic light-driven Z/E switcher.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Diego; Migani, Annapaola; Pepi, Alessandra; Busi, Elena; Basosi, Riccardo; Latterini, Loredana; Elisei, Fausto; Fusi, Stefania; Ponticelli, Fabio; Zanirato, Vinicio; Olivucci, Massimo

    2004-08-04

    Protonated Schiff bases (PSBs) of polyenals constitute a class of light-driven switchers selected by biological evolution that provide model compounds for the development of artificial light-driven molecular devices or motors. In the present paper, our primary target is to show, through combined computational and experimental studies, that it is possible to approach the design of artificial PSBs suitable for such applications. Below, we use the methods of computational photochemistry to design and characterize the prototype biomimetic molecular switchers 4-cyclopenten-2'-enylidene-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolinium and its 5,5'-dimethyl derivative both containing the penta-2,4-dieniminium chromophore. To find support for the predicted behavior, we also report the photochemical reaction path of the synthetically accessible compound 4-benzylidene-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolinium. We show that the preparation and photochemical characterization of this compound (together with three different N-methyl derivatives) provide both support for the predicted photoisomerization mechanism and information on its sensitivity to the molecular environment.

  12. Modeling, preparation, and characterization of a dipole moment switch driven by Z/E photoisomerization.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Alfonso; Rossi Paccani, Riccardo; Donati, Donato; Zanirato, Vinicio; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Parisi, Maria Laura; Martin, Elena; Ryazantsev, Mikhail; Ding, Wan Jian; Frutos, Luis Manuel; Basosi, Riccardo; Fusi, Stefania; Latterini, Loredana; Ferré, Nicolas; Olivucci, Massimo

    2010-07-14

    We report the results of a multidisciplinary research effort where the methods of computational photochemistry and retrosynthetic analysis/synthesis have contributed to the preparation of a novel N-alkylated indanylidene-pyrroline Schiff base featuring an exocyclic double bond and a permanent zwitterionic head. We show that, due to its large dipole moment and efficient photoisomerization, such a system may constitute the prototype of a novel generation of electrostatic switches achieving a reversible light-induced dipole moment change on the order of 30 D. The modeling of a peptide fragment incorporating the zwitterionic head into a conformationally rigid side chain shows that the switch can effectively modulate the fluorescence of a tryptophan probe.

  13. Transgressive Local Act: Tackling Domestic Violence with Forum and Popular Theatre in "Sisterhood Bound as Yuan Ze Flowers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a community theatre project in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan that aimed to tackle domestic violence through a collaboration between local community female elders and the facilitator. The paper investigates how an outside facilitator could unfix the assumed community identities which tend to exclude outsiders or sub-groups, in this…

  14. Gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis--results from NiZeMi, clinostat and sounding rocket flights.

    PubMed

    Häder, D P

    1994-05-01

    Many motile microorganisms including flagellates such as the green Euglena gracilis move up and down within the water column and use a number of external clues for their orientation, the most important of which may be light and gravity. The cells use positive phototaxis and negative gravitaxis to move closer to the surface of the water column which for energetic reasons is vital for their survival. However, most phytoplankton organisms cannot tolerate the bright irradiance of unfiltered solar radiation at the surface which also bleaches the photosynthetic pigments, disables the photosynthetic apparatus and impairs phototaxis, gravitaxis and motility in Euglena. Thus, it is not surprising that at higher irradiances negative phototaxis operates antagonistically to the responses described above to guide the cells into deeper water where they are protected from excessive radiation. Phototaxis and gravitaxis are not independent from one another: in a vertically positioned cuvette negative gravitaxis can be "titrated" by light impinging from above and is compensated at about 30 W m-2. While the photoreceptor for phototaxis has been identified in Euglena gracilis biochemically and spectroscopically, the gravireceptor is not yet known. Young cultures of Euglena gracilis show a positive gravitaxis, the ecological signficance of which is not yet understood while older cultures show negative gravitaxis. One hypothesis concerning the nature of graviperception is based on a passive physical process such as an asymmetric distribution of the mass within the cell. However, the observation that short term UV irradiation decreases the precision of negative gravitaxis rather indicates the involvement of an active physiological gravireceptor. Furthermore, some heavy metal ions have been found to change the direction of movement from positive to negative gravitaxis in young cells.

  15. Transgressive Local Act: Tackling Domestic Violence with Forum and Popular Theatre in "Sisterhood Bound as Yuan Ze Flowers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a community theatre project in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan that aimed to tackle domestic violence through a collaboration between local community female elders and the facilitator. The paper investigates how an outside facilitator could unfix the assumed community identities which tend to exclude outsiders or sub-groups, in this…

  16. Regioselective Synthesis of a Stereodefined Heterocyclic Push-Pull Alkene (Super 1)H NMR Studies and Two-Dimensional TLC Illustrating Z/E Isomerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Rade; Baranac, Marija; Jovanovic, Vesna; Dzambaski, Zdravko

    2004-01-01

    The experiment describes the regioselective synthesis of a stereodefined push-pull alkene from inexpensive chemicals. Important concepts in organic chemistry, such as resonance theory and role of solvent polarity on formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which affect the configuration of the double bond in predictable way are…

  17. Regioselective Synthesis of a Stereodefined Heterocyclic Push-Pull Alkene (Super 1)H NMR Studies and Two-Dimensional TLC Illustrating Z/E Isomerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Rade; Baranac, Marija; Jovanovic, Vesna; Dzambaski, Zdravko

    2004-01-01

    The experiment describes the regioselective synthesis of a stereodefined push-pull alkene from inexpensive chemicals. Important concepts in organic chemistry, such as resonance theory and role of solvent polarity on formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which affect the configuration of the double bond in predictable way are…

  18. A simple HPLC method for the comprehensive analysis of cis/trans (Z/E) geometrical isomers of carotenoids for nutritional studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geometrical isomers of carotenoids behave differently in aspects like stability towards oxidants, bioavailability, vitamin A activity and specificity for enzymes. The availability of HPLC methods for their detailed profiling is therefore advisable to expand our knowledge on their metabolism and biol...

  19. Influence of the chloride ion concentration on the corrosion of high-purity Mg, ZE41 and AZ91 in buffered Hank's solution.

    PubMed

    Taltavull, C; Shi, Z; Torres, B; Rams, J; Atrens, A

    2014-02-01

    This research studied the influence of the chloride ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of high-purity magnesium (Mg) and two Mg alloys in Hank's solution, using hydrogen evolution and weight loss. A buffer based on CO2 and NaHCO3 was used to maintain the pH constant. The corrosion behaviour was governed by a partially protective surface film, and film breakdown by the chloride ions. The carbonated calcium phosphate layer that formed in Hank's solution was important in determining the protective properties of the surface film.

  20. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for analysis of interconvertible Z/E isomers of the novel anticancer agent, Bp4eT.

    PubMed

    Stariat, Ján; Kovaříková, Petra; Klimeš, Jiří; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2010-05-01

    This study was focused on a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method development for quantification of a novel potential anticancer agent, 2-benzoylpyridine 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4eT), in aqueous media. Solid Bp4eT was found to consist predominantly of the Z isomer, while in aqueous media, both isomers coexist. Sufficient separation of both isomers was achieved on a Synergi 4u Polar RP column with a mobile phase composed of 2 mM ammonium formate, acetonitrile, and methanol (30:63:7; v/v/v). The photo diode array analysis of both isomers demonstrated different absorption spectra which hindered UV-based quantification. However, an equal and reproducible response was found for both isomers using an MS detector, which enables the determination of the total content of Bp4eT (i.e., both E- and Z- isomeric forms) by summation of the peak areas of both isomers. 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT) was selected as the internal standard. Quantification was performed in selective reaction monitoring using the main fragments of [M+H](+) (240 m/z for Bp4eT and 229 m/z for N4mT). The method was validated over 20-600 ng/ml. This procedure was applied to a preformulation study to determine the proper vehicle for parenteral administration. It was found that Bp4eT was poorly soluble in aqueous media. However, the solubility can be effectively improved using pharmaceutical cosolvents. In fact, a 1:1 mixture of PEG 300/0.14 M saline markedly increased solubility and may be a useful drug formulation for intravenous administration. This investigation further accelerates development of novel anticancer thiosemicarbazones. The described methods will be useful for analogs currently under development and suffering the same analytical issue.

  1. Noncovalent DNA binding drives DNA alkylation by leinamycin: evidence that the Z,E-5-(thiazol-4-yl)-penta-2,4-dienone moiety of the natural product serves as an atypical DNA intercalator.

    PubMed

    Fekry, Mostafa I; Szekely, Jozsef; Dutta, Sanjay; Breydo, Leonid; Zang, Hong; Gates, Kent S

    2011-11-09

    Molecular recognition and chemical modification of DNA are important in medicinal chemistry, toxicology, and biotechnology. Historically, natural products have revealed many interesting and unexpected mechanisms for noncovalent DNA binding and covalent DNA modification. The studies reported here characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficient alkylation of duplex DNA by the Streptomyces-derived natural product leinamycin. Previous studies suggested that alkylation of duplex DNA by activated leinamycin (2) is driven by noncovalent association of the natural product with the double helix. This is striking because leinamycin does not contain a classical noncovalent DNA-binding motif, such as an intercalating unit, a groove binder, or a polycation. The experiments described here provide evidence that leinamycin is an atypical DNA-intercalating agent. A competition binding assay involving daunomycin-mediated inhibition of DNA alkylation by leinamycin provided evidence that activated leinamycin binds to duplex DNA with an apparent binding constant of approximately 4.3 ± 0.4 × 10(3) M(-1). Activated leinamycin caused duplex unwinding and hydrodynamic changes in DNA-containing solutions that are indicative of DNA intercalation. Characterization of the reaction of activated leinamycin with palindromic duplexes containing 5'-CG and 5'-GC target sites, bulge-containing duplexes, and 5-methylcytosine-containing duplexes provided evidence regarding the orientation of leinamycin with respect to target guanine residues. The data allow construction of a model for the leinamycin-DNA complex suggesting how a modest DNA-binding constant combines with proper positioning of the natural product to drive efficient alkylation of guanine residues in the major groove of duplex DNA.

  2. Co-regulation of brassinosteroid biosynthesis-related genes during xylem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Fujioka, Shozo; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Demura, Taku; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    To understand the regulatory mechanisms of brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis in specific plant developmental processes, we first investigated the accumulation profiles of BRs and sterols in xylem differentiation in a Zinnia culture. The amounts of many substances in the late C28 sterol biosynthetic pathway to campesterol (CR), such as episterol and 24-methylenecholesterol, as well as those in the BR-specific biosynthetic pathway from CR to brassinolide (BL), were elevated in close association with tracheary element differentiation. Among them, 6-deoxotyphasterol (6-deoxoTY) accumulated to unusually high levels within cells cultured in tracheary element-inductive medium, while castasterone (CS) was not elevated either within or outside cells. To identify the molecular basis of this co-up-regulation of BRs and C28 sterols, we isolated Zinnia genes for the key enzymes of BR biosynthesis, ZeSTE1, ZeDIM, ZeDWF4, ZeCPD1 and ZeCPD2. RNA gel blot analysis of these genes indicated a coordinated increase in transcripts for ZeSTE1, ZeDIM, ZeDWF4 and ZeCPD1, and a tracheary element differentiation-specific increase in transcripts for ZeDWF4 and ZeCPD1. In situ hybridization experiments of ZeDWF4 and ZeCPD1 mRNAs revealed their preferential accumulation in procambium cells, immature xylem cells and xylem parenchyma cells. These results suggest that BR biosynthesis during tracheary element differentiation may be regulated by the coordinated regulation of broad sterol biosynthesis and specific regulation of BR biosynthesis, which occurs in part by elevated transcript levels of genes encoding BR biosynthetic enzymes, specifically ZeDWF4 and ZeCPD1. These data provide new insights into the regulation of BR biosynthesis and BR signaling during plant development.

  3. Class III homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Kubo, Minoru; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2005-10-01

    Although it has been suggested that class III homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins (HD-Zip III) are involved in vascular development, details of the function of individual HD-Zip III proteins in vascular differentiation have not been resolved. To understand the function of each HD-Zip III protein in vascular differentiation precisely, we analyzed the in vitro transcriptional activity and in vivo function of Zinnia HD-Zip III genes, ZeHB-10, ZeHB-11 and ZeHB-12, which show xylem-related expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-driven ZeHB-10 and ZeHB-12 with a mutation in the START domain (mtZeHB-10, mtZeHB-12) showed a higher production of tracheary elements (TEs) and xylem precursor cells, respectively. A systematic analysis with Genechip arrays revealed that overexpression of mtZeHB-12 rapidly induced various genes, including brassinosteroid-signaling pathway-related genes and genes for transcription factors that are expressed specifically in vascular tissues in situ. Furthermore, mtZeHB-12 overexpression did not induce TE-specific genes, including genes related to programmed cell death and lignin polymerization, but did induce lignin monomer synthesis-related genes, which are expressed in xylem parenchyma cells. These results suggest that ZeHB-12 is involved in the differentiation of xylem parenchyma cells, but not of TEs.

  4. 77 FR 8863 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...) benzothiazole, Preservative. Methylene bis (thiocyanate). 065092-00001 ZE LIN Chen Chalk Tralomethrin. 074965...-Fast Insecticide Chalk Tralomethrin. 080697-00009 Chlorpyrifos Technical..... Chlorpyrifos. CA010009...

  5. 76 FR 72405 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Preservative. 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole Methylene bis (thiocyanate). 065092-00001 ZE LIN Chen Chalk.... 075015-00001 Dead-Fast Insecticide Chalk Tralomethrin. 080697-00009 Chlorpyrifos Technical...

  6. On emission from a hydrogen-like atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    A solution of the Dirac equation for an electron in the field of a point nucleus ( Ze) has been obtained as an eigenfunction of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian and the spin projection operator Σ3. With the use of this solution, the probability W (ν) of the emission of a neutrino per unit time from a hydrogen-like atom, (Ze)* to (Ze) + ν bar ν, has been calculated for the first time in the first order of the parameter Ze ≪ 1. The probability W (ν) appears to be rather small, and the corresponding lifetime τ(ν) = [ W (ν)]-1 is much larger than the age of the Universe; correspondingly, this process cannot affect the balance of low-energy neutrinos. The smallness of W (ν) is due not only to the presence of the obvious "weak" factor ( Gm p 2 )2( m/ mp)4 in the expression for W (ν), but also primarily to the "electromagnetic" factor ( Zα)12, which can be revealed only in a particular calculation. It has been argued within quantum electrodynamics with the mentioned wavefunctions that photon emission, ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + γ, can be absent (analysis of photon emission requires the further development of the method), whereas axion emission, ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + a, can occur, although the last two effects have not been considered in detail.

  7. Martin Buber's Myth of Zion: National Education or Counter-Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslauer, S. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If national education is, as Ilan Gur-Ze'ev thinks, inevitably a matter of agents for and victims of a national system, only a "counter-education" can correct it. Martin Buber shared many of Gur-Ze'ev's concerns, but advocated a more positive view of national education. This essay examines Buber's development of his pedagogical theory in…

  8. Cold Spray Technology for Repair of Magnesium Rotorcraft Components (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Hardened steel landing structures (Boeing) - Iron brake components (Delphi) 2. Corrosion protection and restoration of magnesium -Repair ZE41& AZ91 ...41A magnesium substrate) Hardness: 57 Brinell Hardness Yield Strength: 22ksi comparable to ZE41A-T6 and AZ91E -T6 magnesium Density: >99% with oxide

  9. The Eros of Counter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  10. Martin Buber's Myth of Zion: National Education or Counter-Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslauer, S. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If national education is, as Ilan Gur-Ze'ev thinks, inevitably a matter of agents for and victims of a national system, only a "counter-education" can correct it. Martin Buber shared many of Gur-Ze'ev's concerns, but advocated a more positive view of national education. This essay examines Buber's development of his pedagogical theory in…

  11. Preaccentual Pitch and Speaker Attitude in Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Esther; Gussenhoven, Carlos; Haan, Judith; Marsi, Erwin; Post, Brecht Je

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the communicative significance of the pitch of the initial unstressed syllables in Dutch intonation contours, as may be heard, for instance, on unstressed utterance-initial function words like "Ze zijn" in "Ze zijn klaar (they are ready), or the initial unstressed syllables of utterance-initial polysyllabic words, like…

  12. The Eros of Counter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  13. Solvent influence on the infrared spectra of beta-alkoxyvinyl methyl ketones II. Stretching vibrations and integrated intensities of carbonyl and vinyl bands of (3Z,E)-4-ethoxy-1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethylhex-3-en-2-one.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Sergey I; Gerus, Igor I; Kukhar, Valery P

    2009-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopy studies of beta-alkoxyvinyl trifluoromethyl ketone, with structure C(2)H(5)O-C(C(CH(3))(3))CH-COCF(3) (1), in twenty three different pure organic solvents were undertaken to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and to correlate solvent properties such as Reichard's parameter and solvatochromic parameters of Kamlet, Abbot, and Taft with carbonyl and vinyl stretching vibrations and their integrated intensities of existing spatial forms. It was shown that conjugation in CC-CO system of the (E-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer is higher than that in this system of the (Z-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer. From derived correlations of the v (CO) and v (CC) wavenumbers with solvatochromic parameters of Kamlet, Abbot, and Taft it is followed that the solvent polarity influences on the v (CO) and v (CC) wavenumbers more intense than the solvent HBD acidity, and, at the same time, the influence of these solvent properties is greater for the (E-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer. Analysis of derived KAT multiple regressions showed that the increase of the solvent polarity/polarizability (pi*) increased the conjugation in both stereoisomers, whereas the increase of the solvent HBD acidity (alpha) had opposite effect on conjugation in the (Z-s-Z-o-Z) and (E-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer. In the former case conjugation was weakened, whereas in the latter it was enhanced. These discrepancies were the consequence of different structure of H-bonded complexes between enone 1 and HBD solvents. The influence of the solvent HBA basicity (beta) also had peculiarity. The increase of the solvent HBA basicity disturbs the CC-CO conjugation in the (Z-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer due to carbonyl rotation, whereas in the (E-s-Z-o-Z) stereoisomer such increase enhanced this conjugation and, hence, increased the v (CO) and v (C==C) coupling.

  14. The Relevance of the Rotational Speed of Roadheader Cutting Heads According to the Energy Consumption of the Cutting Process / Znaczenie prędkości obrotowej głowic urabiających kombajnu chodnikowego ze względu na energochłonność procesu urabiania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolipski, Marian; Cheluszka, Piotr; Sobota, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    The article presents the outcomes of extensive computer investigations the purpose of which was to identify the impact of cutting heads' rotational speed on the load applied on the cutting heads drive as well as on the efficiency and energy consumption of the cutting process. The investigations were performed based on a simulation of the rock cutting process within a wide range of rocks' compressive strength with a roadheader transverse head equipped with 80 conical picks. Variations were taken into consideration in the rotational speed of the cutting heads and variations in the factors connected with the properties of the drives driving the cutting heads on the load condition of the cutting system and on the energy consumption of the cutting process. The computer simulations carried out indicate that a reduction is possible in the energy consumption of cutting the rocks with low workability by decreasing the cutting heads' rotational speed thus preventing also the excessive load on the cutting heads drive. Possibilities are presented along with a concept of the heads` automatic speed adjustment according to the power utilised in the cutting process.

  15. Fabrication and evaluation of physical properties and cytotoxicity of zein-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Du, Xinshen; Li, Yinping; Liu, Xing; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Zhao, Yanteng; Chang, Peter R; Chen, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Polyurethane prepolymer (PUP) was first synthesized from polycaprolactone diol and isophorone diisocyanate; and then a series of zein-based polyurethane (ZEPU) sheets was fabricated from PUP and zein (ZE) using a hot press and moulding process without addition of other additives. Effects of ZE content (WZE) on the structure and properties of the resultant ZEPU sheets were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and dissolubility testing in alcohol. The results indicated that cross-linking and grafting reactions occurred between ZE and PUP to form new polyurethane showing a higher thermal stability, flexibility, and alcohol-resistance than the neat ZE sheets. For example, the elongation at break of ZEPU with 50 % WZE was 211.2 %, which was 47 times higher than that of neat ZE sheet. ZE molecules acted as both cross-linkers and polymer fillers in ZEPU sheets. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of ZEPU sheets were evaluated by cell culture in vitro. The ZEPU sheets showed non- or low-cytotoxicity, and L929 cells grew and expanded well on the surfaces of the sheets with WZE over 50 %. Undoubtedly, the fabrication of ZE-based polyurethanes without toxic additives such as catalysts, cross-linkers and chain extenders improved the physical properties and cytocompatibility of zein, thus widening the possible range of applications for zein-based biomaterials.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Glass lonomer Cement Incorporated with Chlorhexidine-Loaded Zeolite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-02-01

    A functional dental restorative system with antimicrobial properties was developed using zeolite (ZE) nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery carrier. ZE NPs loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) were prepared using the ionic immobilization method. The resulting CHX-loaded ZE NPs were then incorporated into commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). The average size of the CHX-loaded ZE NPs was about 100 to 200 nm, and the NPs were dispersed homogeneously in the GIC. The in vitro release profile of encapsulated GIC containing CHX showed an early release burst of approximately 30% of the total CHX by day 7, whereas GIC containing CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a sustained release of CHX without the early release burst in a 4-week immersion study. The agar diffusion test results showed that the GIC incorporated with CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a larger growth inhibition zone of Streptococcus mutans than GIC alone, indicating that this innovative delivery platform potently imparted antimicrobial activity to the GIC. Moreover, these findings suggest that a range of antimicrobial drugs that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria can be incorporated efficiently into dental GIC using CHX-loaded ZE NPs.

  17. Multifunctional Fuel Additives for Reduced Jet Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    en ol z (mm) 2 0 4 6 4 0 8 12 0% 10% 5% 20 0 20 Fenol Benzene (b) Phenol Ph en ol f B en ze ne x 1 04 f F en ol f B en ze ne x 1 04 f F...5 0 10 15 5% 5% 0 5% CO2 CO soot (a) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 5% 0% B en ze ne x 1 04 f F en ol x 1 05 z (mm) 1 0 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 6 Fenol

  18. Dagelijks tenue marechaussee -- Resultaten draagproef (Military Police Daily Dress -- Results of Trial)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    stropdas met clip en de stropdas niet meer te gaan gebruiken. Als de antwoorden worden uitgesplitst naar mannen en vrouwen, blijkt dat de vraag verschillend...is beantwoord door mannen en vrouwen. Vooral de mannen geven aan dat ze de stropdas met clip niet meer gaan gebruiken (bijna eenderde van de mannen...Van de 10 vrouwen geven er 6 aan dat ze bet dasje en de handtassen (A4-model en enveloppe- model) niet meer gaan gebruiken en geven er 5 aan dat ze

  19. New species of Anchastus LeConte, 1853 from South America (Elateridae, Elaterinae, Ampedini, Physorhinina).

    PubMed

    Casari, Sônia A

    2015-07-15

    Seven new species of Anchastus LeConte, 1853 are described: A. brunneifinibus sp. nov. (Bolivia), A. cuiabanus sp. nov. (Brazil), A. flavonigrothoracicum sp. nov. (Bolivia), A. rubrithoracicum sp. nov. (Brazil, Bolivia), A. thoracoferrugineus sp. nov. (Bolivia), A. transverseplagiatus sp. nov. (Bolivia) and A. uniplagipennis sp. nov. (Bolivia). The female genitalia of A. boulardi Chassain, 2010 is described and three species are redescribed: A. moratus (Candèze, 1863) (Mexico, Guyana, Brazil, Bolivia), A. quadrimaculatus Candèze, 1889 (Guyana, Brazil, Bolivia) and A. unitinctus Candèze, 1889 (Brazil). New records for A. touroulti Chassain, 2010 are presented. A provisional identification key for South American species is provided.

  20. Modified Thomson Parabola Ion Spectrometers for Use in Laser Generated Plasma Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-29

    applied on the ion). The ion velocity components in the x and y directions are given by : =zeBX . = eBL(16a) XAm P zeE £ (16b) 4 AmV (16b p When the ion...A = 0 (19) where !A ZeE 12 A = Am (L + 1 )1 (20a) P . 6-6 -- 7 & 7.7 A 2 Z eE (L + 1) x (20b) p = ) - g - - L +- + ) (20c) 2 B2, Am2 p A3 = 2- (20d...will be presented. The equation of motion for an ion of charge z and a mass Amp is given by Am x = -ZezB (21a)P Am py = ZeE (21b) dp Am z= ZekB (21c) p

  1. USING ZERO-VALENT METAL NANOPARTICLES TO REMEDIATE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport of organic contaminants down the soil profile constitutes a serious threat to the quality of ground water. Zero-valent metals are considered innocuous abiotic agents capable of mediating decontamination processes in terrestrial systems. In this investigation, ze...

  2. 78 FR 70497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... days after it is published in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5...-1234ze) was added to the list of negligibly reactive compounds excluded from the definition of ``Volatile...

  3. Bronchiectasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Topics Atelectasis Cough Cystic Fibrosis Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to ... fibrosis and primary ciliary (SIL-e-ar-e) dyskinesia (dis-kih-NE-ze-ah), or PCD . Bronchiectasis ...

  4. The occurrence of ice production in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds as observed by ground-based remote sensors at the ARM NSA site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Luo, Tao; Yin, Yan; Flynn, Connor

    2017-03-01

    Ice particle formation in slightly supercooled stratiform clouds is not well documented or understood. In this study, 4 years of combined lidar depolarization and radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements are analyzed to distinguish between cold drizzle and ice crystal formations in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska Utqiaġvik ("Barrow") site. Ice particles are detected and statistically shown to be responsible for the strong precipitation in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds at cloud top temperatures as high as -4°C. For ice precipitating Arctic stratiform clouds, the lidar particulate linear depolarization ratio (δpar_lin) correlates well with radar Ze at each temperature range, but the δpar_lin-Ze relationship varies with temperature ranges. In addition, lidar depolarization and radar Ze observations of ice generation characteristics in Arctic stratiform clouds are consistent with laboratory-measured temperature-dependent ice growth habits.

  5. USING ZERO-VALENT METAL NANOPARTICLES TO REMEDIATE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport of organic contaminants down the soil profile constitutes a serious threat to the quality of ground water. Zero-valent metals are considered innocuous abiotic agents capable of mediating decontamination processes in terrestrial systems. In this investigation, ze...

  6. Getting ready for the next millenium

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, L.T.

    1997-07-01

    Traditional pollution control firms need to get ready for the next generation of environmental management - industrial ecology with the tools of pollution prevention, waste minimization, and new designs. One tool offering substantial business opportunities is zero emissions (ZE), particularly the conversion processes needed to change wastes from one industry into viable material inputs for other industries. This article discusses ZE, its future, and the steps needed to use it.

  7. Assessing depth-integrated phytoplankton biomass in the East China Sea using a unique empirical protocol to estimate euphotic depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Higashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toru; Nishiuchi, Kou; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Kawachi, Masanobu; Kiyomoto, Yoko; Takayanagi, Kazufumi; Kohata, Kunio; Murakami, Shogo

    2015-02-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River plume has a direct impact on phytoplankton biomass in the East China Sea (ECS). The present study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of depth-integrated chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations from the surface to the euphotic depth (Ze; ∑ ChlZe) using samples collected at 50 stations in the ECS during a cruise in June 2007. However, spatial coverage was limited because the Ze, obtained from radiometric measurement of the vertical diffuse attenuation of solar irradiance, was only available at the 20 daytime stations. To address this limitation, it was determined that Ze could be expressed empirically using the vertical means of Chl-a concentration, turbidity, and salinity in the euphotic zone. Using this relationship, the potential value of Ze at night-time or low-light stations was calculated, and a dataset of (∑ ChlZe) for the entire research area was obtained. A low salinity surface water mass (LSSW) was identified on the eastern continental shelf (125.0°-126.5°E, 30.0°-31.0°N), probably part of the Yellow Sea Mixed Water, but clearly influenced by Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) extending from the west. The Taiwan Current Warm Water mass (TCWW) was located to the south of the LSSW. Other oceanic water masses, including Kuroshio Surface Water, were located to the east of the LSSW. The means of the Ze and ∑ ChlZe in the LSSW were significantly shallower and higher, respectively, compared with the TCWW and other oceanic water masses (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that the extension of the Changjiang River plume beyond the CDW affects the phytoplankton biomass on the eastern continental shelf of the ECS, more than 300 km from the river mouth.

  8. Study on the vertical distribution of precipitation amount within the water clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    This work studied the behavior of radar reflectivity (Ze) of Cloud Profiling Radar on board CloudSat with variation in the properties of low-level water clouds, such as the effective droplet radius (re), geometrical thickness (Dcld), and liquid water path (LWP), over the northwest Pacific and China. The changes in the distribution of maxZe (the largest Ze within a cloud layer) were examined in terms of variation in the cloud parameters such as small, mid and large categories, while maxZe had monomodal distributions regarding variation in re and Dcld, that appeared bimodal in the small category of LWP. It was confirmed that the small category of LWP contained both non-precipitating clouds in the incipient stage and raining clouds in the dissipating stage. Next, optically measured particle size was combined with LWP derived from the microwave measurement to classify the precipitation type. Applying maxZe and Dcld to the analysis of classified precipitation types corroborated the importance of Dcld for examining the occurrence of precipitation. Finally, the position of maxZe relative to the cloud top was investigated using a measure of the probability of precipitation (POP) according to variation in re in order to get better understanding of the vertical distribution of precipitation amount. The results showed that the Pacific and China had 'bow' and 'funnel' shapes, respectively. The emergence of these shapes according to the variation in re was interpreted as the enhancement of Ze due to droplet collisional growth and the attenuation of Ze by the presence of large particles. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of smaller particles (nearly10 μm in radius) reinforced the idea of rapid, efficient particle growth in the lower part of the cloud. Detailed results will be given in the presentation.

  9. [MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: Evaluation of the preanalytical phase for identification of molds].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ivana; García Ramírez, Dolores; Striebeck, Pablo; Lafage, Marcelo; Fernández Canigia, Liliana

    In order to optimize the identification of molds with MALDI-TOF MS, three protein extraction-methodologies were evaluated against 44 isolates: water extraction (WE), zirconium extraction (ZE) and the provider's recommended method (PRM). Two data bases were compared, Bruker (BK) and Bruker+National Institutes of Health. Considering both databases, results were respectively as follows: correct identification (CI) at gender level, 10 and 16 by WE; 27 and 32 by ZE and 18 and 23 by PRM; CI at species level, 5 and 7 by WE; 17 and 20 by ZE and 11 and 14 by PRM; non-reliable identification, 18 and 12 by WE; 9 and 4 by ZE and by PRM. No peaks were observed in 16 by WE, 8 by ZE and 17 by PRM. ZE showed the best perfomance (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotypic differences in zinc efficiency of Chinese maize evaluated in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Tian, Di; Chen, Fan-Jun; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Zou, Chun-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency, a major problem limiting crop production worldwide, is common on calcareous soils of China. Using such a Zn-deficient soil supplied adequately with plant mineral nutrients, with or without Zn, 30 Chinese maize genotypes were grown for 30 days in a greenhouse pot experiment and assessed for Zn efficiency (ZE), measured as relative biomass under Zn-limiting compared with non-limiting conditions. Substantial variation in tolerance to low Zn nutritional status was observed within the maize genotypes. Tolerant genotypes did not show Zn deficiency symptoms at the studied early seedling growth, and there was a well-defined relationship between shoot dry matter and the ZE trait. ZE values ranged on average from 45 to 100% for shoot dry weight. Under low available soil Zn conditions, shoot and root dry weights, shoot Zn concentration and content, leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, leaf area and plant height were all correlated with ZE. Shoot Zn and phosphorus (P) concentrations were negatively correlated. Three genotypes (L55 × 178, L114 × 178 and Zhongnong 99) were identified as highly Zn-efficient and three (L53 × 178, L105 × 178 and L99 × 178) as very low in ZE. This selection allows further work to evaluate ZE based on grain yield and grain Zn concentration, including field experiments likely to benefit farmers producing maize on Chinese soils low in available Zn. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in-vitro condition

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Mahboobeh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Arouiee, Hossein; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Neamati, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). Materials and Methods: In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique. ZEO-SLNs contained 0.03% ZEO in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate-GMS and Precirol® ATO 5). Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 (2.5% w/v) were used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs and ZEO was compared under in vitro conditions. Results: The particle size of ZE-SLNs was around 255.5±3 nm with PDI of 0.369±0.05 and zeta potential was about -37.8±0.8 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of ZE-SLNs in crystalline form was 84±0.92%. The results showed that the ZEO and ZE-SLNs had 54 and 79% inhibition on the growth of fungal pathogens, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) under in vitro conditions for the ZEO on the fungal pathogens of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Rhizopus stolonifer was 300, 200, 300, 200, 200 and 200 ppm, respectively, for ZE-SLNs, it was 200, 200, 200, 100, 50 and 50 ppm. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs was significantly more than ZEO. Conclusion: Our results showed that the SLNs were suitable carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil in controlling the fungal pathogens and merits further investigation. PMID:27917280

  12. Zeolite-silver-zinc nanoparticles: Biocompatibility and their effect on the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Asl-Aminabadi, Naser; Divband, Baharak; Golparvar-Dashti, Yasamin

    2017-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of zeolite-silver-zinc (Ze-Ag-Zn) nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Biocompatibility was evaluated by an MTT assay on the pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells with 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/mL concentrations of Ze-Ag-Zn. For compressive strength test, four groups containing 15 stainless-steel cylinders with an internal diameter of 4 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) or MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn (groups 3 and 4) were placed in the cylinders. The compressive strength was evaluated using a universal testing machine 4 days after mixing in groups 1 and 3, and 21 days after mixing in groups 2 and 4. Results There was no significant difference between cytotoxicity of different concentrations. The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (19.57±5.76 MPa) compressive strength were observed in MTA group after 21 days and in MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn group after four days, respectively. The effect of time and 2% Ze-Ag-Zn on the compressive strength were significant (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with Ze-Ag-Zn significantly reduced and passage of time from day four to 21 significantly increased the compressive strength. Conclusions Mixing MTA with 2% Ze-Ag-Zn had an adverse effect on the compressive strength of MTA, but this combination had no cytotoxic effects. Key words:Compressive strength, Cytotoxicity, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Nanoparticle, Zeolite-Silver-Zinc. PMID:28298974

  13. Zeolite-silver-zinc nanoparticles: Biocompatibility and their effect on the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Samiei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Asl-Aminabadi, Naser; Divband, Baharak; Golparvar-Dashti, Yasamin; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of zeolite-silver-zinc (Ze-Ag-Zn) nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Biocompatibility was evaluated by an MTT assay on the pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells with 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/mL concentrations of Ze-Ag-Zn. For compressive strength test, four groups containing 15 stainless-steel cylinders with an internal diameter of 4 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) or MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn (groups 3 and 4) were placed in the cylinders. The compressive strength was evaluated using a universal testing machine 4 days after mixing in groups 1 and 3, and 21 days after mixing in groups 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between cytotoxicity of different concentrations. The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (19.57±5.76 MPa) compressive strength were observed in MTA group after 21 days and in MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn group after four days, respectively. The effect of time and 2% Ze-Ag-Zn on the compressive strength were significant (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with Ze-Ag-Zn significantly reduced and passage of time from day four to 21 significantly increased the compressive strength. Mixing MTA with 2% Ze-Ag-Zn had an adverse effect on the compressive strength of MTA, but this combination had no cytotoxic effects. Key words:Compressive strength, Cytotoxicity, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Nanoparticle, Zeolite-Silver-Zinc.

  14. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics Simulated using a Meso-Scale Model Coupled with a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme through Comparison with Observation Data by Ship-Borne Doppler and Space-Borne W-Band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, T.; Nakajima, T.; Khain, A. P.; Saito, K.; Takemura, T.; Okamoto, H.; Nishizawa, T.; Tao, W.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Equivalent radar reflectivity factors (Ze) measured by W-band radars are directly compared with the corresponding values calculated from a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic meso-scale model coupled with a spectral-bin-microphysical (SBM) scheme for cloud. Three case studies are the objects of this research: one targets a part of ship-borne observation using 95 GHz Doppler radar over the Pacific Ocean near Japan in May 2001; other two are aimed at two short segments of space-borne observation by the cloud profiling radar on CloudSat in November 2006. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations reproduce general features of vertical structures of Ze and Doppler velocity. A main problem in the reproducibility is an overestimation of Ze in ice cloud layers. A frequency analysis shows a strong correlation between ice water contents (IWC) and Ze in the simulation; this characteristic is similar to those shown in prior on-site studies. From comparing with the empirical correlations by the prior studies, the simulated Ze is overestimated than the corresponding values in the studies at the same IWC. Whereas the comparison of Doppler velocities suggests that large-size snowflakes are necessary for producing large velocities under the freezing level and hence rules out the possibility that an overestimation of snow size causes the overestimation of Ze. Based on the results of several sensitivity tests, we conclude that the source of the overestimation is a bias in the microphysical calculation of Ze or an overestimation of IWC. To identify the source of the problems needs further validation research with other follow-up observations.

  15. Characterization of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid binding site in U937 membranes using a novel radiolabeled agonist, 20-125i-14,15-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqi; Tuniki, Venugopal Raju; Anjaiah, Siddam; Falck, J R; Hillard, Cecilia J; Campbell, William B

    2008-03-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are important regulators of vascular tone and homeostasis. Whether they initiate signaling through membrane receptors is unclear. We developed 20-iodo-14,15-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (20-I-14,15-EE8ZE), a radiolabeled EET agonist, to characterize EET binding to membranes of U937 cells. 20-I-14,15-EE8ZE stimulated cAMP production in U937 cells with similar potency, but it decreased efficacy compared with 11,12-EET. Maximum cAMP production increased 4.2-fold, with an EC(50) value of 9 muM. Like 14,15-EET, 20-I-14,15-EE8ZE relaxed bovine coronary arteries, with a similar EC(50) value. Both 20-I-14,15-EE8ZE agonist activities were blocked by the EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)enoic acid (14,15-EE5ZE). Specific 20-(125)I-14,15-EE8ZE binding to U937 membranes reached equilibrium within 10 min and remained unchanged for 30 min at 4 degrees C. The binding was saturable, reversible, and exhibited K(D) and B(max) values of 11.8 +/- 1.1 nM and 5.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Pretreatment of the membranes with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate reduced the B(max) in a concentration-related manner. 20-(125)I-14,15-EE8ZE binding was inhibited by eicosanoids with potency order of 11,12-EET >14,15-EE5ZE approximately 14,15-EET > 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid > 14,15-EET-thiirane >14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. This order is in agreement with the efficacy and potency of cAMP production. In summary, 20-(125)I-14,15-EE8ZE is a radiolabeled EET agonist that is useful to study binding and metabolism. Using this radioligand, we have identified a specific high-affinity and high-abundance EET binding site in U937 cell membranes. This binding site could represent a specific EET receptor, which is probably a G protein-coupled receptor.

  16. Biliary and urinary excretion rates and serum concentration changes of four bilirubin photoproducts in Gunn rats during total darkness and low or high illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Ogino, T; Yokoyama, T; Isobe, K; Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    On cycled exposure of Gunn rats to total darkness and low and high illumination, biliary excretion rates of (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin increased up to approx. 10-fold from the mean basal values of 1.2 and 0.2 microgram/h to the mean maximum values of 25.2 and 4.2 micrograms/h respectively, and at the same time those of (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also increased, but at very much lower rates than those of the first-mentioned two. During the low illumination only (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin appeared in the urine; during the high illumination (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also appeared, showing a similar excretion pattern to that observed in the bile, but the total urinary excretion rates were lower than the total biliary excretion rates. The serum bilirubin concentrations fell gradually to lower values, accompanied by an increment in (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, but (EZ)-cyclobilirubin was not detected. It is concluded that during phototherapy the predominant pathway for the removal of bilirubin from the body in the Gunn rat is by biliary excretion of the geometric photoisomers (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, derived from Z----E isomerization, and the structural photoisomer (EZ)-cyclobilirubin, formed from intramolecular endo-vinyl cyclization. PMID:6477496

  17. Modeling of the Interplanetary Dust Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. S.; Pyo, J.; Ueno, M.; Kwon, S. M.; Ishiguro, M.; Usui, F.; Ootsubo, T.; Ishihara, D.; Mukai, T.

    2009-12-01

    We have used the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on AKARI, to conduct a year long survey of the zodiacal emission (ZE) in the S9W and L18W mid-infrared bands. In survey mode, AKARI’s viewing direction was fixed, with respect to the Sun, at elongation 90°, but it covered the entire ranges of ecliptic longitude and latitude, producing all-sky ZE maps of high sensitivity and fine resolution. This review presents AKARI’s the first-cut view of the mid-infrared ZE in general. From the seasonal brightness variation of the south and north ecliptic poles, we located the symmetry plane’s ascending node accurately. Through a specially designed program of pointing observations, we directly measured, in five IRC bands, the mean volume emissivity of the IPDs near the Earth’s orbit. Most of the three-dimensional models of the IPD cloud are based on the brightness integral of single component dusts; however, we have shown in this review that the all-sky ZE maps, the mean volume emissivity of local IPDs, and the spectral energy distribution of the ZE from near- to far-infrared all indicate needs to generalize the assumption of single dust component.

  18. A RING domain gene is expressed in different cell types of leaf trace, stem, and juvenile bundles in the stem vascular system of zinnia.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Preeti; Milioni, Dimitra; Wells, Brian; Stacey, Nicola; Roberts, Keith; McCann, Maureen C

    2005-07-01

    The in vitro zinnia (Zinnia elegans) mesophyll cell system, in which leaf mesophyll cells are induced to transdifferentiate into tracheary elements with high synchrony, has become an established model for studying xylogenesis. The architecture of the stem vascular system of zinnia cv Envy contains three anatomically distinct vascular bundles at different stages of development. Juvenile vascular strands of the subapical region develop into mature vascular strands with leaf trace segments and stem segments. Characteristic patterns of gene expression in juvenile, leaf trace, and stem bundles are revealed by a molecular marker, a RING domain-encoding gene, ZeRH2.1, originally isolated from a zinnia cDNA library derived from differentiating in vitro cultures. Using RNA in situ hybridization, we show that ZeRH2.1 is expressed preferentially in two specific cell types in mature zinnia stems. In leaf trace bundles, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in xylem parenchyma cells, while in stem bundles it is abundant in phloem companion cells. Both of these cell types show wall ingrowths characteristic of transfer cells. In addition, ZeRH2.1 transcript is abundant in some phloem cells of juvenile bundles and in leaf palisade parenchyma. The complex and developmentally regulated expression pattern of ZeRH2.1 reveals heterogeneity in the vascular anatomy of the zinnia stem. We discuss a potential function for this gene in intercellular transport processes.

  19. Graphical method for deriving an effective interaction with a new vertex function

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Okamoto, R.; Kumagai, H.; Fujii, S.

    2011-02-15

    Introducing a new vertex function, Z(E), of an energy variable E, we derive a new equation for the effective interaction. The equation is obtained by replacing the Q box in the Krenciglowa-Kuo (KK) method with Z(E). This new approach can be viewed as an extension of the KK method. We show that this equation can be solved both in iterative and noniterative ways. We observe that the iteration procedure with Z(E) brings about fast convergence compared to the usual KK method. It is shown that, as in the KK approach, the procedure of calculating the effective interaction can be reduced to determining the true eigenvalues of the original Hamiltonian H and they can be obtained as the positions of intersections of graphs generated from Z(E). We find that this graphical method yields always precise results and reproduces any of the true eigenvalues of H. The calculation in the present approach can be made regardless of overlaps with the model space and energy differences between unperturbed energies and the eigenvalues of H. We find also that Z(E) is a well-behaved function of E and has no singularity. These characteristics of the present approach ensure stability in actual calculations and would be helpful to resolve some difficulties due to the presence of poles in the Q box. Performing test calculations, we verify numerically theoretical predictions made in the present approach.

  20. Overexpression of zeaxanthin epoxidase gene enhances the sensitivity of tomato PSII photoinhibition to high light and chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Fang, Wei; Han, Han; Sui, Na; Li, Bin; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2008-03-01

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) zeaxanthin epoxidase gene (LeZE) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of LeZE showed high identities with zeaxanthin epoxidase in other plant species. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA accumulation of LeZE in the wild-type (WT) was not induced by light and temperature but regulated by the diurnal rhythm. The sense transgenic plants were obtained under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-CaMV). Northern and western blot analysis confirmed that sense LeZE was transferred into the tomato genome and overexpressed. The ratio of (A + Z)/(V + A + Z) and the values of non-photochemical quenching were lower in transgenic plants than in WT plants under high light and chilling stress with low irradiance. The O(2) evolution rate and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic plants decreased more quickly during both stresses and recovered slower than that in WT under optimal conditions. These results suggested that overexpression of LeZE impaired the function of the xanthophyll cycle and aggravated PSII photoinhibition in tomato under high light and chilling stress.

  1. Infrared emission features: probing the interstellar PAH population and circumstellar environment of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    2009-12-01

    AKs zijn alom vertegenwoordigd en bieden een uitstekend middel om de veelheid aan objecten verspreid over het heelal te bestuderen. Met name in gebieden waar zich sterren en planeten vormen, helpen ze bij het ontwarren van de grootschalige structuur. PAKs staat voor polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen en ze vormen een familie van grote kippengaasvormige moleculen opgebouwd uit koolstof en waterstof. Op aarde worden ze onderander aangetroffen in de verbrandingsproducten van fossiele brandstoffen. PAKs vormen het overgangsgebied van stofdeeltjes ter grote van een micron naar moleculair "gas". PAKs zijn uniek op twee manieren. Allereerst, PAKs fluoresceren na de absorptie van een enkel ultraviolet foton, waardoor ze te zien zijn in zeer koude gebieden, ver weg van de aanstralende bron. In de tweede plaats, gegeven de complexiteit van deze moleculen, kunnen ze een belangrijke rol hebben gespeeld in het ontstaan van leven. Met behulp van topklasse ruimte- en grond gestationeerde observatoria, zoals bijvoorbeeld Spitzer en de 10-meter klasse telescopen in Chili, is de PAK-emissie afkomstig van middelzware, zich vormende, sterren onderzocht. Door gebruik van zowel beeldvorming als spectroscopie, zijn morfologische en evolutionaire aspecten van de PAK-emissie vastgesteld. De NASA Ames PAK IR Spectroscopische Database is een verzameling van meer dan 600 berekend en ongeveer 200 experimenteel bepaalde spectra. Deze unieke database gaat eind 2009 publiek. Gebruikmakend van deze database is een systematische zoektocht gedaan naar kandidaten die verantwoordelijk kunnen worden gehouden voor de emissie in twee, tot op heden, niet goed bestudeerde regio's van het PAKs-spectra.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Semi-Analytical Models of Diffuse Attenuation of Downwelling Irradiance in Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Zande, D.; Blaas, M.; Nechad, B.

    2015-12-01

    A quantification of the available light in the water column is key to evaluate the water quality in lakes as it is one of the major factors determining primary production. The light environment in water is generally described in terms of the vertical attenuation coefficient (Kd) and euphotic depth (Ze) where the light is reduced to 1% of its (just below) surface value. Reliable models to estimate KdPAR (and Ze) from remote sensing measurements have been successfully demonstrated in marine applications using typical ocean colour missions such as MERIS-envisat (300m) and MODIS-AQUA (250-1000m). In this study, we present the adaptation of a semi-analytical model for Kd and Ze, developed for MERIS/MODIS, to the new and upcoming sensors bands for inland water cases.

  3. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  4. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  5. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by- product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  6. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  7. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  8. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  9. Theoretical and experimental separation dynamics in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Mosher, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical model of Bier et al. (1983) is used in a computer aided analysis of the conditions in capillary zone electrophoresis (ZE) under which sample zones migrate noninteractively with the carrier electrolyte. The monitoring of sample zones with a capillary analyzer that features both on-line conductivity and UV detection at the end of the separation trough is discussed. Data from a ZE analysis of a 5-component mixture are presented, and it is noted that all five components can be monitored via their conductivity change if enough sample is present. It is suggested from the results that the concentration ratio of background buffer to sample should be a minimum of 100:1 to effectively apply the plate concept to ZE.

  10. KSC-99pp1251

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  11. KSC-99pp1252

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept

  12. KSC-99pp1253

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept

  13. KSC-99pp1248

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  14. KSC-99pp1249

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  15. KSC-99pp1250

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-25

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product "exhaust" from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus passes a mock-up orbiter named Explorer on a trek through the KSC Visitor Complex. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  17. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC workers, with Center Director Roy Bridges (at right next to bus), head for the open door of the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus and a ride around the center. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available to employees for viewing and a ride, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  19. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC employees, along with Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left), view the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  20. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In front of the Headquarters Building at KSC, Center Director Roy Bridges (left) looks at the hydrogen-oxygen driven engine powering a Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by- product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  1. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus draws attention at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On view in front of the Headquarters Building, the Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus attracts an interested group of employees, including Center Director Roy Bridges (second from left in foreground). Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. Available for viewing by employees, the ZE bus is also being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex Oct. 26-27.

  2. Beamwidth effects on Z-R relations and area-integrated rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Atlas, David; Wolff, David B.; Amitai, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    The effective radar reflectivity Ze measured by a radar is the convolution of the actual distribution of reflectivity with the beam radiation pattern. Because of the nonlinearity between Z and rain rate R, Ze gives a biased estimator of R whenever the reflectivity field is nonuniform. In the presence of sharp horizontal reflectivity gradients, the measured pattern of Ze extends beyond the actual precipitation boundaries to produce false precipitation echoes. When integrated across the radar image of the storm, the false echo areas contribute to the sum to produce overestimates of the areal rainfall. As the range or beamwidth increases, the ratio of measured to actual rainfall increases. Beyond some range, the normal decrease of reflectivity with height dominates and the measured rainfall underestimates the actual amount.

  3. Vertical structure of precipitating shallow echoes observed from TRMM during Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores the properties of precipitating shallow echoes (PSEs) over the tropical areas (30°S-30°N) during Indian summer monsoon season using attenuated corrected radar reflectivity factor (Ze) measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Radar echoes observed in study are less than the freezing height, so they belong to warm precipitation. Radar echoes with at least 0.75 km wide are considered for finding the shallow echoes climatology. Western Ghats and adjoining ocean (Arabian sea) have the highest PSEs followed by Myanmar and Burma coast, whereas the overall west coast of Latin America consists of the lowest PSEs. Tropical oceanic areas contain fewer PSEs compared to coastal areas. Average vertical profiles show nearly similar Ze characteristics which peaks between 1.5 and 2 km altitude with model value 32-34 dBZ. Slope of Ze is higher for intense PSEs as radar reflectivity decreases more rapidly in intense PSEs.

  4. Looking for Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Joaquín; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Monolignol polymerization into lignin is catalyzed by peroxidases or laccases. Recently, a Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx) that is considered responsible for monolignol polymerization in this plant has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Nevertheless, Arabidopsis thaliana has become an alternative model plant for studies of lignification, filling the gaps that may occur with Z. elegans. The arabidopsis genome offers the possibility of performing bioinformatic analyses and data mining that are not yet feasible with other plant species, in order to obtain preliminary evidence on the role of genes and proteins. In our search for arabidopsis homologs to the ZePrx, we performed an exhaustive in silico characterization of everything from the protein to the transcript of Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases (AtPrxs) homologous to ZePrx, with the aim of identifying one or more peroxidases that may be involved in monolignol polymerization. Nine peroxidases (AtPrx 4, 5, 52, 68, 67, 36, 14, 49 and 72) with an E-value greater than 1e-80 with ZePrx were selected for this study. The results demonstrate that a high level of 1D, 2D and 3D homology between these AtPrxs and ZePrx are not always accompanied by the presence of the same electrostatic and mRNA properties that indicate a peroxidase is involved in lignin biosynthesis. In summary, we can confirm that the peroxidases involved in lignification are among AtPrx 4, 52, 49 and 72. Their structural and mRNA features indicate that exert their action in the cell wall similar to ZePrx.

  5. Zygotic and somatic embryos of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) substantially differ in their levels of abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Gawronska; Burza1; Bolesta1; Malepszy1

    2000-08-08

    In this work we studied the changes in the level of abscisic acid (ABA) in the somatic embryos (SE) and in the diploid and triploid zygotic embryos (ZE) of the same cucumber line during embryogenesis and seed maturation. Different stages of seed development were selected according to days after pollination (DAP): 21, 24, 28, 35, 42 and 42 plus 14 days of storage for diploid ZE and 35 and 42 plus 14 days of storage for triploid ZE. SE were collected at five growth stages from globular to late cotyledonary. Quantitative analysis of ABA was performed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Both types of embryos - somatic and zygotic - essentially differed in their levels of ABA, always being the highest for 2n ZE and lowest for SE. Although the concentration of ABA in ZE of the triploid line was higher when compared with the same DAP, when the comparison was based on embryo development, both the concentration and content of ABA was higher in the diploid line. The pattern of developmental changes in the level of ABA in the diploid ZE was consistent with that known for other species. An increase was observed during embryo development with a peak (51.1 µg g(-1) FW or 0.95 µg per embryo) at the final stage of embryo formation between 21 and 24 DAP. A sharp decrease in the ABA level then took place (more than 3-fold within 4 days) and was followed by a further reduction as the seed matured. The maximal and minimal values for ABA concentration differed about 35-fold. SE differed substantially from their zygotic counterparts not only in that the concentration of ABA was extremely low (0.005-0.011 µg g(-1) FW) but also that no significant changes occurred during embryo development and no peak of ABA concentration was observed. Other tissues of the ovule and ovary also contained ABA and could be a source of ABA for the embryo.

  6. Improved Filed Evaluation of NAPL Dissolution and Source Longevity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    02B MWN-04B MWN-05B MWN-03B Eq ui lib riu m B en ze ne C on ce nt ra tio n (m g/ L) Simulated Observed 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8...2.0 2.2 MWN-06B MWN-02B MWN-04B MWN-05B MWN-03B Eq ui lib riu m B en ze ne C on ce nt ra tio n (m g/ L) Simulated (kNAPL = 0.5/d) Observed Simulated

  7. 3000-HP Roller Gear Transmission Development Program. Volume 3. Roller Gear Manufacture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    of the roller gear program was the use of ZE41A magnesium alloy for the main housing instead of the more convent- ional AZ91 alloy. The use of the...Roller Gear Components .... 28 2 AMS 6260/6265 Composition 31 3 AMS 6260/6265 Normalized Properties 33 4 Input Bevel Set Summary 36 5 Tail... Properties of ZE41A and AZ91C Magnesium Alloys 126 B-l Major Roller Gear Transmission Components .... 165 ; 11 INTRODUCTION With the advent of

  8. Estimation and Control of Nonlinear and Hybrid Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-14

    by measure, M, is defined as (zE- A)-’ = :- -21) = E ’ ’ +ll +b j(1)" where p > 1 is the index of nilpotency of the matrix pencil (zE- A). The...case [ 11. The focus is ,. exclusively on discrete-time or descriptor systems. Motivated where i 1 is the index of nilpotency of the matrix pencil by...continuous state model with Markov chain input whose transition matrix depends on the state of the systems. Exact filtering schemes cannot be derived

  9. An annotated checklist of click-beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-07-11

    The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.

  10. Tracer study of oxygen and hydrogen uptake by Mg alloys in air with water vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Fayek, M.; Meyer, H. M.; ...

    2015-05-15

    We studied the pure oxidation of Mg, Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B), and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A) at 85 °C in humid air using sequential exposures with H218O and D216O for water vapor. Incorporation of 18O in the hydroxide/oxide films indicated that oxygen from water vapor participated in the reaction. Moreover, penetration of hydrogen into the underlying metal was observed, particularly for the Zr- and Nd-containing ZE10A. Isotopic tracer profiles suggested a complex mixed inward/outward film growth mechanism.

  11. Bragg Multiple Quantum Wells: Tunable Cavities for Optoelectronics Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-10

    Vr(r) (Xe=hIVehIXeXh), (5) Ve,h(Ze,h) = (OXheVehIVXh,,). (6) The angle brackets indicate the integration over two of three independent variables. As it...hX=,h) The calculated eigenfunctions X,,h(Ze,h) are then substituted into integral (5) in order to find -(0) Vr (r), a zero approximation for Vr(r...choice of 0 can be made square integrable . This example illustrates the main idea of the complex scaling: with an appropriate choice of the

  12. Nearly Optimal Singular Controls for Wideband Noise Driven Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    4) bounded variation on each bounded time interval. [We need not assume that X4 (t) C- [0,B] in this theorem.] Proof. Since the mean variations of...the Yf(.) are bounded, they are obviously quasimartingales with uniformly (in e) bounded variation on each interval [O,t]. Thus, we need only work with...show that the function defined by fI(t) = ZE(t) + ZE(t) is a quasimartingale with uniformly (in e) bounded variation on each interval [0,T]. The

  13. Electrochemistry of Main-Group Phthalocyanines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-30

    to follow a linear relationship with the function r/(ze) (radius/charge). This reltionshlp may be used to facilitate the design of photocatalysts with...ze) and a function of central metal ion has been published. We have recently completed a study of the electrochemistry of main- us n i. Figure I for...SiV 54 0.074 -540 CIA 111 67.5 0.044 915 -655 1570Experimental Secfio* CiGat el 76 0.040 865 -735 1600Clintl! 94 0.032 830 -715 1545The r.-:m grUp

  14. Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Peng, Ze [DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    Ze Peng from DOE JGI presents "Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  15. Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Dust aerosols have been regarded as effective ice nuclei (IN), but large uncertainties regarding their efficiencies remain. Here, four years of collocated CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements are used to quantify the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds (MSSCs) over the ‘dust belt’. The results show that the dusty MSSCs have an up to 20% higher mixed-phase cloud occurrence, up to 8 dBZ higher mean maximum Ze (Ze_max), and up to 11.5 g/m2 higher ice water path (IWP) than similar MSSCs under background aerosol conditions. Assuming similar ice growth and fallout history in similar MSSCs, the significant differences in Ze_max between dusty and non-dusty MSSCs reflect ice particle number concentration differences. Therefore, observed Ze_max differences indicate that dust could enhance ice particle concentration in MSSCs by a factor of 2 to 6 at temperatures colder than -12°C. The enhancements are strongly dependent on the cloud top temperature, large dust particle concentration and chemical compositions. These results imply an important role of dust particles in modifying mixed-phase cloud properties globally.

  16. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-15

    protozoa in Toledo district, southern Beli ze . . . 18 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris Lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...selected by the forward stepwise methods. . . 20 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...are listed) .................•................. 47 Summary of risk factors for being positive for Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Data from contingency

  17. Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jia-chi; Kung, Shieh-shiuh; Sun, Yi-ming

    2009-01-01

    Yuan Ze University targeted Biomaterials Science and developed a curriculum related to Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering, and Biomaterials for engineering students to cultivate talents for both engineering and biotechnology. After several years of operation, recruiting students has succeeded, and students are satisfied with the course design…

  18. Engaging Undergraduates in an Interdisciplinary Program: Developing a Biomaterial Technology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jia-chi; Kung, Shieh-shiuh; Sun, Yi-ming

    2009-01-01

    Yuan Ze University targeted Biomaterials Science and developed a curriculum related to Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering, and Biomaterials for engineering students to cultivate talents for both engineering and biotechnology. After several years of operation, recruiting students has succeeded, and students are satisfied with the course design…

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxy 1990: Proceedings of the International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (6th) Held in La Jolla, California on 27-31 August 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Zn small, or practically zero. The luminescence from Se wells thicker than 3 ML shows a sharp peak whose Fig. 5 Schematic depicting ZnZe grouth on...IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-30 (1983) 877. The authors have achieved a selective CoSt2 - 131 R.D. Rathman. N.P. Economou , D.J. Silversmith. R.W. MBE

  20. Radome Depolarization Effects on Monopulse Receiver Tracking Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    n’ -7-7- 7:.i. ’I- celr .n ~ MUSZ be gen ral in qature reflecting i d itendancc or, -etcrcnce im , polar Ztii ote The following equations summ.4 .ze...assumed that sin(a) = 0. Eqs (A.9) thru (A.13) summarize the results of matking this assumption. The goal is to establish a set of conditions, which

  1. [Home automation for elderly people in the process of losing their autonomy].

    PubMed

    Muller, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The safety of elderly people, particularly dependent at night, is a major factor in preventingthem from remaining in their own home. An experiment in Corrèze using domotics and advanced remote assistance services and involving around one hundred elderly people living at home, took place from summer 2009 to autumn 2010.

  2. Management Principles to be Considered for Implementing a Data Base Management System Aboard U.S. (United States) Naval Ships under the Shipboard Non-Tactical ADP (Automated Data Processing) Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    tnin and _ administrative requirements imposed on the Fleet. Data base management systems (DBMSs) aZe more adequa -ely suited to meet the c~allenge of...How Users Rate tha Importanca of DBMS Disadvantages (oa a scala of I to 5) Figura 4 �: 113] 49 Disadvantage Increase Operational

  3. Experimental Observations of Geomagnetic Micropulsations: Land and Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Each sensina =oil is i clatinioisly wound coil arn*=naa * made up of approximately 3460 turns of 18 gaug=e zopps = wizs. Te average sz-n s--,- are-a o f...19825 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST No. Copies 1. Defer.se Technical Information Ze.,ter 2 Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 2. Lib a, Code

  4. A New Click Beetle Genus from Southern Chile: Llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini)

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Elizabeth T.

    2008-01-01

    Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

  5. Evaluation of gallic acid loaded zein sub-micron electrospun fibre mats as novel active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yun Ping; Swift, Simon; Ray, Sudip; Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija; Jin, Jianyong; Perera, Conrad O

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of gallic acid loaded zein (Ze-GA) electrospun fibre mats towards potential active food packaging material was evaluated. The surface chemistry of the electrospun fibre mats was determined using X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The electrospun fibre mats showed low water activity and whitish colour. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the stability of the fibre mats over time. The Ze-GA fibre mats displayed similar rapid release profiles, with Ze-GA 20% exhibiting the fastest release rate in water as compared to the others. Gallic acid diffuses from the electrospun fibres in a Fickian diffusion manner and the data obtained exhibited a better fit to Higuchi model. L929 fibroblast cells were cultured on the electrospun fibres to demonstrate the absence of cytotoxicity. Overall, the Ze-GA fibre mats demonstrated antibacterial activity and properties consistent with those considered desirable for active packaging material in the food industry.

  6. Beslisbevoegdheden van de Uitgestegen Soldaat. Deel B: Verbetering van Situational Awareness Met Behulp van de Soldier Digital Assistant in een Gesimuleerde Omgeving (Authority and Responsbility of the Dismounted Soldier. Part B. Improving the Situational Awareness using the Soldier Digital Assistant in a Simulated Environment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    omn een bepaalde handeling of een scenario te simuleren. Het voordeel van virtuele omngevingen is dat ze minder tijd en geld kosten om op te zetten...Met name door bet gebruik van bestaande middelen kon veel tijd en geld bespaard worden. Zo is de omngeving ontwikkeld in de bestaande ’Unreal’ game

  7. Single Platform Geolocation of Radio Frequency Emitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Xe-axis points towards the intersection of the equator and the prime meridian (0◦ latitude 0◦ longitude), the Ze-axis points towards the 3 North East...angle measured counterclockwise from the prime meridian in the equatorial plane and ranges from −180◦ to 180◦. Altitude is the height above the

  8. General probability-matched relations between radar reflectivity and rain rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wolff, David B.; Atlas, David

    1993-01-01

    An improved method for transforming radar-observed reflectivities Ze into rain rate R is presented. The method is based on a formulation of a Ze-R function constrained such that (1) the radar-retrieved pdf of R and all of its moments are identical to those determined from the gauges over a sufficiently large domain, and (2) the fraction of the time that it is raining above a low but still has an accurately measurable rain intensity is identical for both the radar and for simultaneous measurements of collocated gauges on average. Data measured by a 1.65-deg beamwidth C-band radar and 22 gauges located in the vicinity of Darwin, Australia, are used. The resultant Ze-R functions show a strong range dependence, especially for the rain regimes characterized by strong reflectivity gradients and substantial attenuation. The application of these novel Ze-R functions to the radar data produces excellent matches to the gauge measurements without any systematic bias.

  9. Removal of indoor pollutants under UV irradiation by a composite TiO2-zeolite sheet prepared using a papermaking technique.

    PubMed

    Ichiura, H; Kitaoka, T; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    Toluene and formaldehyde are malodorous and cause indoor pollution. These materials have received much attention as hazardous and malodorous substances. It is well known that long-term exposure to even fairly low levels of toluene and formaldehyde brings about the risk of asthma and eczema. In this study, a composite TiO2-zeolite (ZE) sheet prepared using a papermaking technique was applied to remove toluene and formaldehyde under UV irradiation. The optimum composition of the TiO2 (Ti)-ZE sheet was studied in detail with regard to the effective removal of various indoor pollutants. Gaseous toluene and formaldehyde were removed by a composite TiO2-ZE sheet with different efficiencies depending upon the ratio of Ti/ZE in the composite sheet. The composite sheets could decompose formaldehyde and toluene repeatedly after being recharged. It was shown that the sheets are potentially applicable as highly functional materials to be placed on walls and ceilings of houses for the removal of various indoor pollutants.

  10. Pyemotes tritici (Acari: Pyemotidae): a parasitoid of Agrilus auroguttatus and Agrilus coxalis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the southwestern United States of America and southern Mexico

    Treesearch

    Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Mark S. Hoddle; Laurel J. Haavik; John C. Moser; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici Lagrèze-Fossat andMontané (Acari: Pyemotidae), was discovered parasitising the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive exotic species to California, United States of America, and the Mexican goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera:...

  11. Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze

    2012-06-01

    Ze Peng from DOE JGI presents "Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  12. A man of universal interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharov, Andrei

    1988-02-01

    The death of Ya. B. Zel'dovich robs physics of one of its guiding lights of the twentieth century. Here Andrei Sakharov reflects on his life and his science, while on p. 673 appears a report of two meetings written by ZeVdovich, in collaboration with A. A. Starobinskii, shortly before his death.

  13. NMR studies of electronic structure in crystalline and amorphous Zr2PdH/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Johnson, W. L.; Maeland, A. J.; Rhim, W.-K.

    1983-01-01

    The proton Knight shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured in crystalline and amorphous Ze2PdH(x). Core polarization from the Zr d-band dominates the proton hyperfine interactions. The density of Fermi level d-electron states is reduced in the amorphous phase relative to the electron density in crystalline Zr2PdH(x).

  14. TP89 - SIRZ Decomposition Spectral Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Seetho, Isacc M.; Azevedo, Steve; Smith, Jerel; Brown, William D.; Martz, Jr., Harry E.

    2016-12-08

    The primary objective of this test plan is to provide X-ray CT measurements of known materials for the purposes of generating and testing MicroCT and EDS spectral estimates. These estimates are to be used in subsequent Ze/RhoE decomposition analyses of acquired data.

  15. Optimal Bodies for Minimum Total Drag at Supersonic Speeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Technical Pubi. Div. L iii ABSTRACT Two now methods were developed for predicting projectile shape which yield minimum total drag at supersoiic speeds. Ihe...rJ 2 .1] (14) noting dr (15) dr v, and F F(r,r’). (16) 7 T.he type of body z-eing optimized to of the general coufiguration shown in figura 2. It

  16. NMR studies of electronic structure in crystalline and amorphous Zr2PdH/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Johnson, W. L.; Maeland, A. J.; Rhim, W.-K.

    1983-01-01

    The proton Knight shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured in crystalline and amorphous Ze2PdH(x). Core polarization from the Zr d-band dominates the proton hyperfine interactions. The density of Fermi level d-electron states is reduced in the amorphous phase relative to the electron density in crystalline Zr2PdH(x).

  17. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  18. Two-Photon Emission of a Hydrogenlike Atom with Photon Polarization and Electron Spin States Taken into Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The process of two-photon emission ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + 2 γ of a hydrogenlike atom is considered with spin states of the electron and polarization of the photons taken into account, which had not been done before. A general expression for the probability of the process per unit time has been obtained for different polarization states of the photons with a formulation of hard and soft selection rules for the quantum numbers m and l. It is shown that by virtue of the established specifics of the properties of the two-photon emission process (absence of a Zeeman effect and dependence of the probability on the polarization states of the photons), it can in principle be identified against the background of single-photon emission ( Ze)* → ( Ze) + γ, despite the presence of additional small factors: 1) α = e 2/ ћc ≈ 1/137 of the perturbation theory in e, and 2) the square of the atomic expansion parameter ( Zα)2 in the expression for the probability.

  19. Identification of bioactive constituents of Ziziphus jujube fruit extracts exerting antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Vizza, Donatella; Fazio, Alessia; Rovito, Daniela; Giordano, Cinzia; Barone, Ines; Catalano, Stefania; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-03-27

    Ziziphus extracts have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of cancer. In the present study we have investigated the effects of Ziziphus jujube extracts (ZEs) on breast cancer. We evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of ZEs on ERα positive MCF-7 and ERα negative SKBR3 breast cancer cell proliferation using MTT assays. Apoptosis was analyzed by evaluating the involvement of some pro-apoptotic proteins, including Bax, Bad, Bid and PARP cleavage by immunoblotting analysis. Moreover, the effects of ZEs treatment on apoptosis were tested by both DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. By using chromatographic techniques, we identified the constituents of the effective extracts. ZE1, ZE2, and ZE4 exerted significant antiproliferative effects on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive MCF-7 (IC(50) values of 14.42, 7.64, 1.69μg/mL) and ERα negative SKBR3 (IC(50) values of 14.06, 6.21, 3.70μg/mL) human breast cancer cells. Remarkably, ZEs did not affect cell viability of both normal human fibroblasts BJ1-hTERT and nonmalignant breast epithelial MCF-10A cells. Treatment with ZEs induced cell death by apoptosis in both malignant breast cells. We found that the most effective extracts ZE2 and ZE4 shared a number of triterpenic acids, already known for their anticancer activities. Our data provide a rational base for the use of Ziziphus extracts in the treatment of breast cancer in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. More rare males in Ostrinia: response of Asian corn borer moths to the sex pheromone of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Linn, Charles E; Musto, Callie J; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2007-01-01

    A previous flight tunnel study showed that 3-5% of European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis (Z/E11-14:OAc), could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc). In this study, we show that rare males (3-4%) are also present in South Korean ACB that respond to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB UZ (97:3 Z/E11-14:OAc) and BE (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromone races. We also show that the upwind flight response of a significant proportion of male ACB was antagonized by the addition of 1% Z9-14:OAc to the ACB blend, a compound that also antagonizes the upwind flight of ECB males. Male ACB flight behavior was not, however, affected by adding either of the ECB blends to the ACB blend, or by the addition of 50% 14:OAc, a compound identified from female pheromone glands of ACB and a number of other Ostrinia species. Additional flight tunnel tests with ACB to study the comparative aspects of ECB and ACB pheromone response specificity showed that male ACB exhibited maximal levels of upwind flight and source contact with doses of pheromone (30 and 100 microg on rubber septum sources) that also elicited maximal levels in the two ECB pheromone races. The maximal level of source contact for ACB (66%) was lower than observed with the UZ race of ECB to its pheromone blend (>95%), but comparable to those for the BE race of ECB (65-70%). Male ACB also flew upwind in high proportions to a broader range of ratios of Z/E12-14:OAc (80:20 to 20:80) than was previously observed for either of the ECB races.

  1. Search for the matter clumps in scales Z approximately 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, V. F.; Holzmann, F. M.; Taibin, B. S.; Smirnov, A. V.; Grebenkina, E. T.; Baryshnikov, V. N.; Orlov, V. V.; Anosova, J. P.; Polyakova, G. D.

    1994-05-01

    The diagram V - log(1 + Ze) as function of (alpha, delta) is considered for quasars. Here V is the apparent visual magnitude, Ze is the emission line redshift, alpha and delta are the equatorial coordinates. Two opposite extreme 'spots' NE and SE are observed on the sky, where the inclination of the straight line fitting the dependence V - log(1+ Ze) is maximum and minimum. The coordinates of the centers of these extreme spots are (alphaNE, deltaNE) equal to (282 deg, +42 deg) and (alphaSE, deltaSE) equal to (70 deg, -38 deg) with errors 5 deg. A hypothesis of the Super-attractor (SA) is proposed to explain such an effect. Two independent tests of this hypothesis are realized. First, the dependence or the frequency a of the absorbers in QSO spectra on (alpha, delta) is investigated. A region of the larger a is found. The coordinates of its center are (alpha, delta) equal to (82 deg, -10 deg) with error 5 deg. Second, the cases of Za greater than Ze are plotted in the Mercatorial projection (alpha, delta). The most of the cases Za - Ze greater than 0.02 are concentrated within the circle with radius R equal to 34 deg and center (alpha, delta) equal to 50 deg, -15 deg). The both anomalous regions overlap the Southern extreme spot around SE. The SA direction is (alpha, delta) equal to (67 deg, -21 deg) with errors about 12 deg. The redshift of SA is ZSA equal to 1.7 +/- 0.3 that corresponds to the distance rSA equal to (3100 plus or minus 300)h-1 Mpc for the Hubble constant H0 = 75h km per sec Mpc. The SA mass is MSA approximately 10SA approximately 1018 - 1020 solar masses. The orientation of the normal to the quasiperiodical large-scale sheet structure on the sky occurs near SA.

  2. Shigaraki middle and upper atmosphere radar meteor-head-echo database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, J.; Nakamura, T.; Szasz, C.; Kastinen, D.; Watanabe, J.; Yamamoto, M.; Fujiwara, Y.; Abo, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Abe, S.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Mass infux from space into the terrestrial atmosphere is mainly caused by meteors. Meteors deliver various elements into the atmosphere and the meteoric dust particles are of great importance in the terrestrial atmosphere. For example, they act as nucleus for condensation and clouds and affect various atmospheric phenomena both in physical and chemical aspects. Thus, to investigate the meteor flux, orbits and their interactions in the upper atmosphere is very important but at the same time the method of investigation is limited, especially for precise measurements. High-power large-aperture (HPLA) radar observation is a recent technique to provide useful information on meteor infux and orbits, as well as interactions with the atmosphere. Since 2009 orbital data of about 120,000 meteors [2] have been collected using a novel head-echo analysis algorithm for the lower VHF band [1]. The data was collected using the middle and upper atmosphere radar (MU radar) of Kyoto University at Shigaraki (34.9N, 136.1S). The MU radar is a large atmospheric VHF radar with 46.5 MHz frequency, 1 MW output transmission power and 8330 m^2 aperture array antenna. An open database (MU radar meteor head echo database: MURMHED) for research and education is now being created. Database: The database currently holds 53 different parameters for each event and a number of associated time series consisting of range, height, radar cross section, signal to noise ratio, radial velocity and meteorid velocity. The database parameters are MJD, Year [UT], Month [UT], Day [UT], Hour [UT], Minute [UT], Second [UT], Duration [s], RA [deg], Dec [deg], Az [deg], Ze [deg], Az uncorr [deg], Ze uncorr [deg], Ze correction [deg], Obs initial vel [km/s], Geocentric vel [km/s], RCS [dBsm], SNR [dB], Start hgt [km], End hgt [km], Az of start point [deg], Ze of start point [deg], Az of end point [deg], Ze of end point [deg], Semimajor axis [au], Eccentricity, Perihelion dist [au], Lon of asc node [deg

  3. Improving Satellite-Based Snowfall Estimation: A New Method for Classifying Precipitation Phase and Estimating Snowfall Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Elizabeth M.

    In order to study the impact of climate change on the Earth's hydrologic cycle, global information about snowfall is needed. To achieve global measurements of snowfall over both land and ocean, satellites are necessary. While satellites provide the best option for making measurements on a global scale, the task of estimating snowfall rate from these measurements is a complex problem. Satellite-based radar, for example, measures effective radar reflectivity, Ze, which can be converted to snowfall rate, S, via a Ze-S relation. Choosing the appropriate Ze-S relation to apply is a complicated problem, however, because quantities such as particle shape, size distribution, and terminal velocity are often unknown, and these quantities directly affect the Ze-S relation. Additionally, it is important to correctly classify the phase of precipitation. A misclassification can result in order-of-magnitude errors in the estimated precipitation rate. Using global ground-based observations over multiple years, the influence of different geophysical parameters on precipitation phase is investigated, with the goal of obtaining an improved method for determining precipitation phase. The parameters studied are near-surface air temperature, atmospheric moisture, low-level vertical temperature lapse rate, surface skin temperature, surface pressure, and land cover type. To combine the effects of temperature and moisture, wet-bulb temperature, instead of air temperature, is used as a key parameter for separating solid and liquid precipitation. Results show that in addition to wet-bulb temperature, vertical temperature lapse rate also affects the precipitation phase. For example, at a near-surface wet-bulb temperature of 0°C, a lapse rate of 6°C km-1 results in an 86 percent conditional probability of solid precipitation, while a lapse rate of -2°C km-1 results in a 45 percent probability. For near-surface wet-bulb temperatures less than 0°C, skin temperature affects precipitation

  4. "That matter which ought not to be heard of": homophobic slurs in Renaissance cultural politics.

    PubMed

    Schleiner, W

    1994-01-01

    Starting with a poem for which the Reformed theologian Théodore de Bèze was attacked as a sodomite, this essay studies the nature of homophobic slurs leveled by Catholics against Protestants and by Protestants against Catholics in the period following the Reformation. More than just incidental attacks, slurs by such writers as Henri Estienne, John Bale, and John Jewel are found to be an integral part of a mythology that validated Protestantism in general and the English church in particular. But occasionally they are also used by Catholics as, for instance, by Jérôme Bolsec against Bèze and Gaspar Schoppe against King James I. Largely ignored by church historians, such slurs are shown to be part of an archaeology of homophobia.

  5. World reclassification of the Cardiophorinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae), based on phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prior genus-level classification of Cardiophorinae had never been assessed phylogenetically, and not revised since 1906. A phylogeny for Cardiophorinae and Negastriinae is inferred by Bayesian analyses of 163 adult morphological characters to revise the generic classification. Parsimony analysis is also performed to assess the sensitivity of the Bayesian results to the choice of optimality criterion. Bayesian hypothesis testing rejected monophyly for: Negastriinae; Cardiophorinae (but monophyletic after addition of four taxa); Cardiophorini; cardiophorine genera Aphricus LeConte, 1853; Aptopus Eschscholtz, 1829; Cardiophorus Eschscholtz, 1829; Cardiotarsus Eschscholtz, 1836; Paracardiophorus Schwarz, 1895; Phorocardius Fleutiaux, 1931; Dicronychus sensu Platia, 1994; Dicronychus sensu Méquignon, 1931; Craspedostethus sensu Schwarz, 1906 (i.e., including Tropidiplus Fleutiaux, 1903); Paracardiophorus sensu Cobos, 1970, although well-supported alternative classifications were available for only some. Based on taxonomic interpretation of phylogenetic results: Nyctorini is syn. n. of Cardiophorini; Globothorax Fleutiaux, 1891 (Physodactylinae), Margogastrius Schwarz, 1903 (Physodactylinae), and Pachyelater Lesne, 1897 (Dendrometrinae) are transferred to Cardiophorinae. The following changes are proposed for cardiophorine genera: Aptopus Eschscholtz, 1829 is redefined to exclude Horistonotus-like species; Coptostethus Wollaston, 1854 is subgenus of Cardiophorus; Dicronychus Brullé, 1832 and Diocarphus Fleutiaux, 1947, Metacardiophorus Gurjeva, 1966, Platynychus Motschulsky, 1858, and Zygocardiophorus Iablokoff-Khnzorian and Mardjanian, 1981 are placed at genus rank; Paracardiophorus Schwarz, 1895 is redefined based on North American and Eurasian species only; Horistonotus Candèze, 1860 redefined to include species with multiple apices on each side of their tarsal claws; Patriciella Van Zwaluwenburg, 1953 is syn. n. of Aphricus LeConte, 1853; Teslasena

  6. Tracer study of oxygen and hydrogen uptake by Mg alloys in air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M. P.; Fayek, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Leonard, D. N.; Elsentriecy, H. H.; Unocic, K. A.; Anovitz, L. M.; Cakmak, E.; Keiser, J. R.; Song, G. L.; Davis, B.

    2015-05-15

    We studied the pure oxidation of Mg, Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B), and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A) at 85 °C in humid air using sequential exposures with H218O and D216O for water vapor. Incorporation of 18O in the hydroxide/oxide films indicated that oxygen from water vapor participated in the reaction. Moreover, penetration of hydrogen into the underlying metal was observed, particularly for the Zr- and Nd-containing ZE10A. Isotopic tracer profiles suggested a complex mixed inward/outward film growth mechanism.

  7. Ultrafast deactivation of bilirubin: dark intermediates and two-photon isomerization.

    PubMed

    Carreira-Blanco, Carlos; Singer, Patrick; Diller, Rolf; Luis Pérez Lustres, J

    2016-03-14

    Bilirubin is a neurotoxic product responsible for neonatal jaundice, which is generally treated by phototherapy. The photoreaction involves ultrafast internal conversion via an elusive intermediate and Z-E isomerization with minor yield (less than 3% in solution). The structure of the intermediate remains unclear. Here, the combination of UV-vis and mid-IR ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reports a comprehensive picture of the mechanism and provides essential structural information about the intermediate species. Thus, spectral dynamics during the earliest ps unveils a wavepacket travelling from the Franck-Condon region to the crossing point with a dark state. The latter shows a tighter molecular skeleton than the ground state and decays with 15 ps time constant. Remarkably, the relative contribution of a non-decaying component increases linearly with pump energy, suggesting that Z-E isomerization could also be triggered by two-photon excitation. Implications for the photochemistry of protein-bound open tetrapyrroles are discussed.

  8. Palladium-Zeolite nanofiber as an effective recyclable catalyst membrane for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungsu; Chan, Sophia; Yip, Garriott; Joo, Hyunjong; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank K

    2016-09-15

    Zeolite is an exciting natural material due to its unique capability of ammonium nitrogen (NH3N) adsorption in water. In this study, multifunctional hybrid composites of zeolite/palladium (Ze/Pd) on polymer nanofiber membranes were fabricated and explored for sustainable contaminant removal. SEM and XRD demonstrated that zeolite and palladium nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and deposited on the nanofibers. NH3N recovery rate was increased from 23 to 92% when palladium coated zeolite was embedded on the nanofiber. Multifunctional nanofibers of Ze/Pd membranes were able to adsorb NH3N on the zeolites placed on the surface of fibers and palladium catalysts were capable of selective oxidation of NH3N to N2 gas. The cycling of NH3N adsorption-oxidation, high flux, hydrophilicity, and flexibility of the membrane makes it a strong candidate for water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probability matched Z-R relations for hurricanes from aircraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Atlas, David; Willis, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are developed to establish the relationship between the equivalent reflectivity factor, Z(e) and rain rate, R, for an airborne radar in a hurricane environment. The PDFs of Z(e) as measured by the radar are matched to those of R as measured by a Knollenberg probe on the same aircraft. The resulting Z(e)-R relation does not depend on an absolute calibration of the radar; it implicitly incorporates all the effects resulting from the way in which the beam averages the 3D reflectivity distribution, and also includes the effects of attenuation on average. Good estimates of the rainfall over a suitable space-time domain can thus be made. The techniques developed apply to any type of storm provided the data are stratified by storm type.

  10. Eco-friendly gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers based on tetrafluoropropene and Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Benussi, L.; Piccolo, D.; Bianco, S.; Ferrini, M.; Muhammad, S.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the recent restrictions deriving from the application of the Kyoto protocol, the main components of the gas mixtures presently used in the Resistive Plate Chambers systems of the LHC experiments will be most probably phased out of production in the coming years. Identifying possible replacements with the adequate characteristics requires an intense R&D activity, which was recently started, in collaborations with various experiments. Possible new gases have been proposed and are thoroughly investigated. Some tests on one of the most promising candidate—HFO-1234ze, an allotropic form of tetrafluoropropane—have already been reported. Here an innovative approach, based on the use of Helium, to solve the problem related to the high operating voltage needed to operate the chambers with HFO-1234ze based gas mixtures, is discussed and the first results are shown.

  11. Tagnite PEO Process for Gearbox Overhaul

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Type I) on magnesium alloy ZE41 after 168 hours in salt spray Only Tagnite Provides Inherent Corrosion Resistance TAGNITE® HAE DOW 17 Superior...Overhaul? Because You Can’t Anodize in Presence of Ferrous Metal Inserts. Chromate Conversion Coatings are Compatible with Ferrous Metal...Inserts. Successfully Anodized After Masking: 6 Steel Bearing Liners 42 Helicoils 52 Studs The Solution is to Mask The Ferrous Metal Inserts

  12. Mid-Atlantic Microbial Pathogenesis Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    F. Smith, Jr1,2., Joanna B. Goldberg1 Departments of Microbiology1 and Digestive Health Center of Excellence2, The University of Virginia Health...Presence of Helicobacter pylori Infection Song-Ze Ding1, Michael F. Smith, Jr1,2., Joanna B. Goldberg1 Departments of Microbiology1 and Digestive ...of condemnation of broilers at the time of slaughter. The high stocking density and large numbers of poultry found in the modern broiler industry

  13. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    UNORMAL STREAM N. J. FLOODWAY DESIGN FLOOD (NJFDF) I PROFILES in the Flod Pain /nformation Report~shw elevoti-~o A c W0 0 forthe entire study area TO...INFORMATION TOMS RIVER OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. FLOODED AREAS JUNE 1972 L E j ",’.PLATE6 ui DOVEI zA XC RV! crCN.J. FL 0ESIG M+II MILI ZE CRC GROI G.S. TOW 1

  14. Role of IRS1 and IRS2 in Modulating ErbB-induced Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    effectors. IRSs m odulate and coordinate multiple signaling cascades involved in norm al growth, metabolism and survival suggesting that they may...signaling from upstream activators to multiple do wnstream e ffectors to m odulate norm al growth, m etabolism, survival, and differentiation. IRSs can...To more completely characteri ze the role of IR S2 in m odulating ErbB2 based upon our results from Specific Aim 4 (a nd this was commented on in

  15. Investigation of the Spatially Isotropic Component of the Laterally Averaged Molecular Hydrogen/Ag(111) Physisorption Potential.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Best fit Lennard-Jones, Morse, variable exponent , and exponential-3 ’ potentials having well depths %32 meV are derived from the data. These measure- 1...variable exponent , and exponential-3 poten- tials having well depths ot-2 V are derived from the data. These measurements are supported by...the well depth and X the range parameter. The potential minimum is given by ze = 31/6- z iii) Variable exponent potential (VEP) [52] vo0 (z) = D{ [I

  16. The United States Coast Artillery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Foropcr Roat Defense, Training Bulletin 3:10, 194 UF664.4ZE5 5. __________________________ *The- rmoiovment of Seacoast Artillery, in Pirp Cantro’ a~rd...1944. LL F 564.-AE::- __________________________’ Traininq FiT-1i nstructior Guide; Contro7 led Su"-.7-- r’e 𔃺i1nes , 7ra ini ny bu 1leti n 3 : IL

  17. BKCASE (trademark): Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Systems Engineering competency models, certification programs,  textbooks,  graduate   programs , and related workforce Vision development initiatives...recogn ze   y  e   commun y  as the authoritative guidance for  graduate   programs  in SE. 3. Facilitate the global alignment of related workforce development

  18. Model Based Design and Verification of a Rapid Dive Controller for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    S,NS,0.O5): YHA’r=FILP(SD,U,XO): / OBIAS IS ADDED TO RESPONSE OF PITCH RATE OF MAGNITUDE DELTA QBIAS=DELTAO*ONES(250,1); ZB1AS=DELTAZ*ONES(250,1); YHAT...BB;CC DD]; V=EIG(AA); SD=DISCRETlZE(S,NSO0.OS); YHAT=FILP(SD,U,XO); // QBIAS IS ADDED TO RESPONSE OF PITCH RATE //OF MAGNITUDE DELTA OBIAS =DELTAQ*ONES

  19. Improved silver mirror coating for ground and space-based astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, David A.

    2016-07-01

    A durable, UV-enhanced, silver mirror coating has been developed by ZeCoat Corporation. The coating is highly reflective from 350-nm through the long IR, and durable in warm-humid environments on earth, as well as, high radiation environments in space. This paper presents polarized-angular reflectance data, as well as, average reflectance data before and after simulated space radiation exposure.

  20. Blood-feeding requirements of the mosquito: geographical variation in Aedes taeniorhynchus.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, G F; Evans, D G

    1973-06-22

    Wild poplulations of Aedes taeniorhynchus were polymorphic for the diets required for ovarian development. In Aedes taeniorhynchus populations from mangrove swamps, most females possessed the capacity to produce eggs on a blood-free diet. But where the grassy salt marsh was the mosquito's principal habitat,most females lacked this capacity. Both kinds of females could utiliZe a blood meal for egg production.

  1. Vapor Deposition of Polyimide and Polyimide Precursors on Copper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    ERC)O)UCZ= A7 GC V" R4NN_ zePEN AD- A225 729 REPORT DOCUMENTA-MON PAGE 1b. RESTRICTIVE ’ARKING3 Unclassified N/11_L I -a. SiCURIT" CLASSICTION .UORIIY...comoarison the carbonyl carbon 02 acpears to increase as ;micizaticn :rcgresses. Much of this initial increase can be attributed to 1he -rocecure ’ cr

  2. Literature Survey, biology in the Tongue of the Ocean and Exuma Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-06-01

    Information In the literature or% the marine biology of the Tongue of the Ocean and Exuma Sound., and to summar~ze~ present knowledge of the oceanography...CONCLUSIONS . .. * 4 * ** * . . . . . . . . . . 3 B 811OLN RAPOYU.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0 1. Touet oftheocea a . Exuma Sound . .... 2 1...Orghroiods InteTnuifteOen TT)....... 2 2 Possible Organisms In the Tongue of the Ocean (TOTO) "and Exuma Sound .......... 28 I PEDXE LITiMRTORE SUJRVEY BIO.CWG

  3. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  4. Numerical Solution of the Extended Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    is Gaussian . We repeated our “quintic- weighted ” analyses with various values of non-ze 5.6.1 Example with Positive Chirp A simple test of... Gaussian pulse as it propagates in air to a large distance (several meters). With diffraction disabled, a pulse quickly collapses to a single...a target plane at an optimal distance (roughly 2.5 meters), the energy pattern appears as a bright ring – indicating that the initial Gaussian pulse

  5. Low Frequency Plasma Turbulence as a Source of Clutter in Surveillance and Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    shear, whereas interchange or flute type oscillations in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density...density irregularities are excited by plasma flows with velocity shear, whereas interchange or flute type oscillations in magnetized plasma are...equations will be used to describe low-frequency interchange modes ( ,i   where  is the frequency of the flute mode and 0zi i ZeB m c  is the

  6. M-QAM Modem Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    objc.t.6, intettigene~e da~ta cottection and handt~ng, in~o~matio.-on Ay6yem technotogy, kono,6pheA.Ze pt’opagat4on, .6otd sta~te. scenc ~e., rfl4c~4omave phy4.6ia and etect’wniLc %etiabit%, rnaAntainabitity and compa~tibZLZty.

  7. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Bulk Grown Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    expression y x zE v B , where yE , referred to as the Hall field, balances the Lorentz force once the system reaches equilibrium. This equation can be...samples emitted radiation in infrared spectral bands subject to atmospheric absorption. To overcome this absorption, the path from the sample to...laser lines while others were non- lasing infrared plasma lines from the argon ion laser. In most cases these emissions were easily distinguishable

  8. Genetic Analysis of the Electrophysiological Response to Salicin, a Bitter Substance, in a Polyphagous Strain of the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+pph) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose–response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF1 progeny between F1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537

  9. Observations of Kuroshio Flow Variations in the East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-10

    ZHe , Y. R., D. R. Watts, and K. L. Tracey (1998), Determining geostrophic V, (x, z) = V0 exp(z/Ze) exp L velocity shear profiles with lESs, J. Geophys...moored transport observations from the WOCE PCM-I Teague, W. J., G. A. Jacobs, D. S. Ko, T. Y. Tang , K.-l. Chang, and M.-S. Suk array, J. Phys. Oceanogr

  10. Ultrasound of selected pathologies of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2013-06-01

    Jelita, a zwłaszcza jelito cienkie, rzadko są przedmiotem badań ultrasonograficznych, głównie ze względu na zawartość gazów i treści pokarmowej. Celem pracy była analiza obrazu ultrasonograficznego wybranych chorób jelita cienkiego u osób dorosłych, w tym pod kątem ich diagnostyki różnicowej.

  11. Photoresponsive Cyanostilbene Bent-Core Liquid Crystals as New Materials with Light-Driven Modulated Polarization.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadía, Marta; Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Giménez, Raquel; Ros, Maria Blanca

    2016-08-01

    Two isomeric cyanostilbene photoswitchable bent-core mesogens with polar liquid crystal phases in which macroscopic polarization and luminescence can be light-modulated are introduced. Z/E isomerization or [2+2] cycloaddition photochemical processes occur depending on the chemical structure, which make the compounds very innovative multifunctional advanced materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Novel stilbene-based Fischer base analog of leuco-TAM - (2E,2'Z)-{2-(4-(E)-styrylphenyl)propane-1,3-diylidene}bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) - derivatives: synthesis and structural consideration by 1D NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Lim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of novel stilbene-based (St) Fischer base analogs of leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes by treating Fischer base with (E)-4-styrylbenzaldehyde derivatives. All St-LTAM molecules examined herein are characterized by 1D and 2D NMR. They were found to exhibit ZE configuration and isomerize to their diastereomers EE and ZZ in 2-3 h. They exhibit type I behavior of diastereomeric isomerization.

  13. Genetic analysis of the electrophysiological response to salicin, a bitter substance, in a polyphagous strain of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+(pph)) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose-response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F(1) generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF(1) progeny between F(1) females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF(1) progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus.

  14. Upper error bounds on calculated outputs of interest for linear and nonlinear structural problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladevèze, Pierre

    2006-07-01

    This Note introduces new strict upper error bounds on outputs of interest for linear as well as time-dependent nonlinear structural problems calculated by the finite element method. Small-displacement problems without softening, such as (visco)plasticity problems, are included through the standard thermodynamics framework involving internal state variables. To cite this article: P. Ladevèze, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  15. Sex pheromone of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) its chemical transformations in sunlight and heat.

    PubMed

    Ideses, R; Shani, A; Klug, J T

    1982-06-01

    Photo- and radical isomerization of (E, Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (DDA) leads to an equilibrium mixture of all four possible geometric isomers of 7,9-DDA in the ratio ofE,E, 69-76%;Z,E, 11-13%;E, Z, 12-15%; andZ, Z, 1-3%. Iodine catalysis of the isomerization takes place even in dark at room temperature and is probably a radical reaction.

  16. Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2013 1367 Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain Ze...density of 2×1012cm−2. Index Terms— Antimonide semiconductors, metal source/drain (S/D), Ni-GaSb, p-channel MOSFET . I. INTRODUCTION ANTIMONIDE-based...channel MOSFETs [3], [4], performance of III–V p- MOSFETs traditionally lagged behind. Recently, high-performance antimonide p- MOSFETs have been

  17. Determination dans les Installations au Sol des Parametres Aerodynamiques de Stabilite des Aeronefs (Determination in Ground Facilities of Aerodynamic Stability Parameters of Aircraft),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    de frottement ze aitue au-dessous de tout seuil mesurable. Des montages 2L un, deux et trois degr~s de libert6 sont en service. -Ceux de la seconde...super- soniques et hypersoniques de 1’A.E.D.C. h TULIAHOMA. Lea axes de rotation sent matdrialis~s par des paliers; h gaz dent la valeur du coefficient

  18. Long-length, long-lived flow-shear stabilized Z-pinches: Background and Experimental plans for scaling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP experiment produces long-lived sheared-flow-stabilized Z-pinch plasmas up to 126 cm in length for several flow-through times, and up to thousands of Alfvén times. Experimental measurements of the magnetic structure along the full length of the plasma column show an axially uniform Z-pinch plasma during the observed quiescent period. Interferometry, fast-framing images, and Rogowskii coils corroborate the existence of a pinched plasma during this quiescent period of time. Detailed two-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations have been performed showing the formation and assembly of long-length, long-lived Z-pinches. Experimentally-observed plasma lifetimes and velocity-shear profiles are shown to be consistent with calculations of viscous-damping timescales based on the measured plasma parameters. A newly-funded ARPA-E ALPHA project, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment ``FuZE'' is being constructed at the University of Washington, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. FuZE will study scaling and stability of the successful ZaP experiment to higher pinch currents. The FuZE experimental design, goals, and plans, based on ZaP experimental results, will be presented.

  19. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of 3-(Benzylidene)indolin-2-one Derivatives as Ligands for α-Synuclein Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Gaba, Vrinda; Liu, Jialu; Li, Shihong; Peng, Xin; Xu, Jinbin; Dhavale, Dhruva; Bagchi, Devika P.; d’Avignon, André; Shakerdge, Naomi B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Tu, Zhude; Kotzbauer, Paul T.; Mach, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    A series of 3-(benzilidine)indolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro binding to alpha synuclein (α-syn), beta amyloid (Aβ), and tau fibrils. Compounds with a single double bond in the 3-position had only a modest affinity for α-syn and no selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ or tau fibrils. Homologation to the corresponding diene analogs yielded a mixture of Z,E and E,E isomers; substitution of the indoline nitrogen with an N-benzyl group resulted in increased binding to α-syn and reasonable selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ and tau. Introduction of a para-nitro group into the benzene ring of the diene enabled separation of the Z,E and E,E isomers and led to the identification of the Z,E configuration as the more active regioisomer. The data described here provide key structural information in the design of probes which bind preferentially to α-syn versus Aβ or tau fibrils. PMID:26177091

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of 3-(Benzylidene)indolin-2-one Derivatives as Ligands for α-Synuclein Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Gaba, Vrinda; Liu, Jialu; Li, Shihong; Peng, Xin; Xu, Jinbin; Dhavale, Dhruva; Bagchi, Devika P; d'Avignon, André; Shakerdge, Naomi B; Bacskai, Brian J; Tu, Zhude; Kotzbauer, Paul T; Mach, Robert H

    2015-08-13

    A series of 3-(benzylidine)indolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro binding to alpha synuclein (α-syn), beta amyloid (Aβ), and tau fibrils. Compounds with a single double bond in the 3-position had only a modest affinity for α-syn and no selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ or tau fibrils. Homologation to the corresponding diene analogues yielded a mixture of Z,E and E,E isomers; substitution of the indoline nitrogen with an N-benzyl group resulted in increased binding to α-syn and reasonable selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ and tau. Introduction of a para-nitro group into the benzene ring of the diene enabled separation of the Z,E and E,E isomers and led to the identification of the Z,E configuration as the more active regioisomer. The data described here provide key structural information in the design of probes which bind preferentially to α-syn versus Aβ or tau fibrils.

  1. The generation of concentration gradients using electroosmotic flow in micro reactors allowing stereoselective chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Skelton, V; Greenway, G M; Haswell, S J; Styring, P; Morgan, D O; Warrington, B H; Wong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The stereoselective control of chemical reactions has been achieved by applying electrical fields in a micro reactor generating controlled concentration gradients of the reagent streams. The chemistry based upon well-established Wittig synthesis was carried out in a micro reactor device fabricated in borosilicate glass using photolithographic and wet etching techniques. The selectivity of the cis (Z) to trans (E) isomeric ratio in the product synthesised was controlled by varying the applied voltages to the reagent reservoirs within the micro reactor. This subsequently altered the relative reagent concentrations within the device resulting in Z/E ratios in the range 0.57-5.21. By comparison, a traditional batch method based on the same reaction length, concentration, solvent and stoichiometry (i.e., 1.0:1.5:1.0 reagent ratios) gave a Z/E in the range 2.8-3.0. However, when the stoichiometric ratios were varied up to ten times as much, the Z/E ratios varied in accordance to the micro reactor i.e., when the aldehyde is in excess, the Z isomer predominates whereas when the aldehyde is in low concentrations, the E isomer is the more favourable form. Thus indicating that localised concentration gradients generated by careful flow control due to the diffusion limited non-turbulent mixing regime within a micro reactor, leads to the observed stereo selectivity for the cis and trans isomers.

  2. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  3. Toll ligand Spätzle3 controls melanization in the stripe pattern formation in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    KonDo, Yûsuke; Yoda, Shinichi; Mizoguchi, Takayuki; Ando, Toshiya; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Banno, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    A stripe pattern is an aposematic or camouflage coloration often observed among various caterpillars. However, how this ecologically important pattern is formed is largely unknown. The silkworm dominant mutant Zebra (Ze) has a black stripe in the anterior margin of each dorsal segment. Here, fine linkage mapping of 3,135 larvae revealed a 63-kbp region responsible for the Ze locus, which contained three candidate genes, including the Toll ligand gene spätzle3 (spz-3). Both electroporation-mediated ectopic expression and RNAi analyses showed that, among candidate genes, only processed spz-3 induced melanin pigmentation and that Toll-8 was the candidate receptor gene of spz-3 This Toll ligand/receptor set is also involved in melanization of other mutant Striped (p(S) ), which has broader stripes. Additional knockdown of 5 other spz family and 10 Toll-related genes caused no drastic change in the pigmentation of either mutant, suggesting that only spz-3/Toll-8 is mainly involved in the melanization process rather than pattern formation. The downstream pigmentation gene yellow was specifically up-regulated in the striped region of the Ze mutant, but spz-3 showed no such region-specific expression. Toll signaling pathways are known to be involved in innate immunity, dorsoventral axis formation, and neurotrophic functions. This study provides direct evidence that a Toll signaling pathway is co-opted to control the melanization process and adaptive striped pattern formation in caterpillars.

  4. Brightness Map of the Zodiacal Emission from the AKARI IRC All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Ueno, Munetaka; Minn Kwon, Suk; Hong, Seung Soo; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ishiguro, Masateru; Usui, Fumihiko; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Mukai, Tadashi

    The Japanese infrared space mission AKARI successfully scanned the whole sky with its two main instruments, Infrared Camera (IRC) and Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS). The AKARI All-Sky Survey provides us with an invaluable opportunity to examine the zodiacal emission (ZE) over the entire sky in both leading and trailing directions of the Earth's motion. We describe our efforts to reduce the ZE brightness map from AKARI's survey in the 9 µm waveband. The map is compared with the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud model of Kelsall et al. (1998). From the comparison, we derived the emissivity modification factors at 9 µm for the smooth cloud, the dust bands, and the resonance ring components. The result requires to increase the contribution of the ring component to the ZE brightness by about 20%. The map of residual brightness after subtracting the model from the observation reveals three dust bands and the leading resonance blob, which are not implemented in the model. We paid special attention to the north and south ecliptic pole brightnesses. The symmetry plane's inclination and longitude of ascending node for the smooth cloud are modified from those in Kelsall et al. (1998) to make the best fit to the observed pole brightness difference. The analysis result indicates possible warping of the symmetry plane. We found that the average of the two pole brightnesses does not become the maximum at the Earth's perihelion, which is a probable evidence of the cloud's off-centering.

  5. Preference of Ruthenium-Based Metathesis Catalysts toward Z- and E-Alkenes as a Guide for Selective Reactions to Alkene Stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihong; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Ok Suk; Choi, Tae-Lim; Lee, Hee-Seung; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Sohn, Jeong-Hun

    2016-09-02

    As a guide for selective reactions toward either Z- or E-alkene in a metathesis reaction, the relative preference of metathesis Ru catalysts for each stereoisomer was determined by a method using time-dependent fluorescence quenching. We found that Ru-1 prefers the Z-isomer over the E-isomer, whereas Ru-2 prefers the E-isomer over the Z-isomer. The Z/E-alkene preference of the catalysts precisely predicted the Z/E isomeric selectivity in the metathesis reactions of diene substrates possessing combinations of Z/E-alkenes. For the diene substrates, the rate order of the reactions using Ru-1 was Z,Z-1,6-diene > Z,E-1,6-diene > E,E-1,6-diene, while the completely opposite order of E,E-1,6-diene > Z,E-1,6-diene > Z,Z-1,6-diene was exhibited in the case of Ru-2.

  6. Metal biogeochemistry in constructed wetlands based on fluviatile sand and zeolite- and clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-How; Paul, Sonja; Mayer, Silke; Moradpour, Eloise; Hasselbach, Ralf; Gieré, Reto; Alewell, Christine

    2017-06-07

    For the first time, speciation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb was determined along the profiles of 8 constructed wetlands (CWs) consisting of fluviatile sand (Fluv), clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand (Cl-LS) and zeolite-dominated lava sand (Ze-LS), aiming at quantifying metal behaviour in CWs and the impact caused by different filter materials. With the exception of Mn, which underwent reductive dissolution, CWs were sinks for the studied metals. Metal accumulation rates differed in the following order: Ze-LS ≥ Cl-LS > Fluv CWs, reflecting the highest metal adsorption capacity and the lowest hydraulic conductivity of Ze-LS. Sequential extraction data indicated the highest metal mobility (readily mobilised and adsorbed fractions summing up to ~60%) in Fluv CWs, implying a higher risk of metal release into adjacent environments if Fluv from CWs will be improperly disposed after usage. Zinc and Ni were transported into the deeper CW layers to a larger extent than Cu and Pb, reflecting adsorption affinity to all filter materials in the order of Pb > Cu > Zn > Ni. Therefore, understanding metal speciation and mobility in such materials is crucial when they are considered for application as filters in CWs.

  7. Long-term effects of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment: a 1-year safety study in mild to moderate depression.

    PubMed

    Brattström, Axel

    2009-04-01

    Long-term safety and the effects of a St. John's wort (SJW) extract Ze 117 (Hypericum perforatum) were evaluated in the treatment of patients with depression. An open multicentre safety study with 440 out-patients suffering from mild to moderate depression according to ICD-10 was conducted. Patients were treated for up to 1 year with 500 mg St. John's wort extract per day (Ze 117). Evaluation criteria were safety (adverse event frequency) and influence on depression (HAM-D, CGI). Two hundred and seventeen (49%) patients reported 504 adverse events, 30 (6%) of which were possibly or probably related to the treatment. Gastrointestinal and skin complaints were the most common events associated with treatment. No age-related difference in the safety of the applied medication was found. The long-term intake of up to 1 year of the study medication did not result in any changes in clinical chemistry and electrocardiogram recordings. Body mass index (BMI) did not change either. Mean HAM-D scores decreased steadily from 20.58 at baseline to 12.07 at week 26 and to 11.18 at week 52. Mean CGI scores decreased from 3.99 to 2.20 at week 26 and 2.19 at week 52. Therefore, St. John's wort extract ZE 117 is a safe and effective way to treat mild to moderate depression over long periods of time, and therefore seems especially suitable for a relapse prevention.

  8. Interaction between organic vapors and clinoptilolite-mordenite rich tuffs in parent, decationized, and lead exchanged forms.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, M P; Pérez-Cruz, M A

    2007-08-15

    Scientific interest in adsorption phenomena of organic vapors has concentrated on synthetic zeolites. Solid-vapor systems containing natural zeolites deserve special attention due to their abundance and environmental applications. Adsorption thermodynamic characteristics for benzene, toluene, n-hexane, and CCl(4) were measured on clinoptilolite-rich zeolitic tuffs from Mexico (ZE) and Hungary (ZH) on parent, decationized, dealuminated, and lead-exchanged samples. The clinoptilolite structure released Na(+) and Ca(2+) by acid treatment and this was accompanied by dealumination to a greater extent on ZE than on ZH. The exchange isotherm of Pb(2+) on ZE exhibited a concave type "a" form and accomplished 95% exchange and the tuff was selective at X(i(s))<0.25. The pattern of adsorption isotherms was the same on all tuffs: benzene>toluene>n-hexane>carbon tetrachloride. The -DeltaH values were higher for toluene than for the other adsorbates. Curves of q(isost) vs coverage decreased with the increment of the adsorbed amount in practically all studied systems. The contributions to the solid-vapor interaction potential were examined using inverse gas chromatography. The specific interaction energy G(sp) was primarily due to adsorbate-framework and adsorbate-cation interactions at low adsorbate pressures producing low surface coverage.

  9. Analysis and field evaluation of volatile blend emitted by calling virgin females of beet armyworm moth,Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Yu, H S

    1990-12-01

    The volatile blend emitted by calling virgin beet armyworm females was collected and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Five compounds were detected and identified in this blend: (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate. They were emitted in a ratio of 47.9 ∶4.0∶40.2 ∶6.5 ∶ 1.7, respectively. This five-component blend and several other blends with one or more components deleted were formulated on rubber septa to release the components in about the same ratios as the females. Field tests of these formulations in bucket traps indicated that a blend of (Z)-9 tetradecen-1-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate was most effective for trapping beet armyworm males and that (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate actually decreased trap captures. Blends that did not contain both (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were ineffective as trap baits.

  10. Prediction of condensation heat transfer of low GWP refrigerants inside smooth horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Anowar; Afroz, Hasan M. M.; Talukder, Shaon; Miyara, Akio

    2016-07-01

    The present research work observed the experimental and analytical results of two phase condensation heat transfer of the refrigerants R1234ze(E), R32, R410A, and R1234ze(E)/R32 mixtures inside a smooth horizontal tube. A water heated double tube horizontal heat exchanger with effective length of 3.6m and inner diameter of 4.35mm is used to take place the experiment. Mass flux and the saturation temperature are the design variables under which the experiment is carried out whose values varying from the range 160 to 400 Kg m-2s-1 and 30°C to 45°C, respectively. A new correlation for pure refrigerant has been proposed to predict the heat transfer inside a smooth horizontal tube by investigating the experimental data. The newly proposed correlation and some other existing correlations of condensation heat transfer for pure refrigerant have been used to predict the condensation heat transfer of R1234ze(E), R32, R410A and dimethyl ether (DME) and compared the results. The comparison allows that the proposed model of pure refrigerant offered a better performance for all the refrigerants. All the experimental data can be predicted within a 10.2% mean deviation by using the proposed correlation.

  11. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  12. Female Sex Pheromone of the Cone Moth, Dioryctria mendacella: Investigation of Synergism between Type I and Type II Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley; Domínguez, Juan C; Pajares, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in the sex pheromones of several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. Extracts of pheromone glands of adult females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), contain (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and at least ten times as much (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H). The former elicits a strong electroantennogram response from males while no response could be recorded to the latter. In field trapping tests, both compounds were individually unattractive to male D. mendacella moths, but blends of the two compounds containing at least a 10:1 ratio of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H : ZE9,11-14:Ac were highly attractive. The relatively involatile hydrocarbon was shown to be released from the dispensers used and no significant degradation could be detected. Furthermore, blends of ZE9,11-14:Ac and analogs of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H with fewer carbons and/or double bonds that might be expected to produce similar degradation products to ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H were unattractive. This indicated a specific response to the hydrocarbon itself, further substantiated by the observation that related hydrocarbons did not interfere with the activity of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H. Thus a three-step conversion of fish oil was used to produce a blend of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H as the major component, albeit only 30% of the total, and a blend of this material with ZE9,11-14:Ac was as attractive to male D. mendacella moths as blends with an equivalent amount of the purified material. This mixture of unsaturated hydrocarbons is much cheaper to produce than the pure pentaene, and may be useful in lures for other species

  13. The effect of river dynamics induced by the Messinian Salinity Crisis on karst landscape and caves: Example of the Lower Ardèche river (mid Rhône valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocochain, Ludovic; Audra, Philippe; Clauzon, Georges; Bellier, Olivier; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Parize, Olivier; Monteil, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    The karstic canyon of Lower Ardèche is located in the Middle Rhône valley, which is directly tributary to the Mediterranean Sea. The Rhône River is emblematic of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) impact on landscape morphology. Along the edge of the Saint-Remèze Plateau, the Rhône valley displays four benchmark levels generated by the MSC: the Pre-evaporitic abandonment surface (1), the Messinian erosional surface (2), the Marine/non-marine surface of the Pliocene ria (3) and the Pliocene abandonment surface (4). The study of these benchmark levels allows us to reconstruct the evolution of the regional base level over the last 6 Ma. We obtain a curve for base-level evolution that provides a geodynamic reference, which is used to investigate the morphogenesis of the Saint-Remèze karstic plateau. The Ardèche River downcuts the Saint-Remèze Plateau in a deep canyon, from Vallon-Pont-d'Arc to the West, to its confluence with the Rhône to the East. Several abandoned valleys are present along the western edge of the Saint-Remèze Plateau at the inlet of the Ardèche canyon. In these abandoned valleys, the fluvial deposits are related to several periods, from the Pliocene onwards. They provide important insights into the fluvial dynamics: a 160 m-thick aggradation sequence infilled the Ardèche canyon during the Pliocene. This aggrading river caused the first lateral shifting, as an aggradation epigenesis. This first infilling shows that the Ardèche canyon already existed before the Pliocene. Secondly, it has been demonstrated that the Ardèche Canyon is downcut into the Pre-evaporitic surface of the Saint-Remèze Plateau, dated to 5.45 Ma [Martini, J., 2005. Etude des paléokarsts des environs de Saint-Remèze (Ardèche, France): mise en évidence d'une rivière souterraine fossilisée durant la crise de salinité messinienne. Karstologia 45-46, 1-18]. Consequently, the canyon downcutting is entirely due to the MSC, and occurred during a time span of only 100

  14. Evaluating precipitation in a regional climate model using ground-based radar measurements in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, Irina; Maahn, Maximilan; Gallée, Hubert; Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Kneifel, Stefan; Crewell, Susanne; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Occasional very intense snowfall events over Dronning Maud Land (DML) region in East Antarctica, contributed significantly to the entire Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) during the last years. The meteorological-cloud-precipitation observatory running at the Princess Elisabeth station (PE) in the DML escarpment zone since 2009 (HYDRANT/AEROCLOUD projects), provides unique opportunity to estimate contribution of precipitation to the local snow accumulation and new data for evaluating precipitation in climate models. Our previous work using PE measurements showed that occasional intense precipitation events determine the total local yearly SMB and account for its large interannual variability. Here we use radar measurements to evaluate precipitation in a regional climate model with a special focus on intense precipitation events together with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics responsible for these events. The coupled snow-atmosphere regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) is used to simulate climate and SMB in DML at 5-km horizontal resolution during 2012 using initial and boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim re-analysis atmospheric and oceanic fields. Two evaluation approaches are used: observations-to-model and model-to-observations. In the first approach, snowfall rate (S) is derived from the MRR (vertically profiling 24-GHz precipitation radar) effective reflectivity factor (Ze) at 400 m agl using various Ze-S relationships for dry snow. The uncertainty in Ze-S relationships is constrained using snow particle size distribution from Snow Video Imager - Precipitation Imaging Package (SVI/PIP) and information about particle shapes. For the second approach we apply the Passive and Active Microwave radiative TRAnsfer model (PAMTRA), which allows direct comparison of the radar-measured and climate model-based vertical profiles of the radar Ze and Doppler velocity. In MAR

  15. Observed and modeled multi-year evaporation from three field-scale experiments using water balance and Penman-Monteith methods: Profound effect of material type and wind exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, H. E.; Fretz, N.; Bay, D.; Mayer, K. U.; Smith, L.; Beckie, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    2, and greatly overestimated observed evaporation for Pile 3. The depth of the soil layer which is susceptible to evaporation, Ze, was calibrated from the base-case value of Ze= 0.10 m to values of Ze= 0.27 m (Pile 1), Ze= 0.05 m (Pile 2), and Ze= 0.02 m (Pile 3) to provide a good fit with observed evaporation. It is hypothesized that the Pile 3 calibration of Ze = 0.02 m is less physically realistic than accounting for preferential flow directly. A possible approach would be to modify the FAO-PM formulation by including a coefficient of preferential flow, KPF, on days that exceed a specified threshold daily precipitation, Pi,TH. The results highlight the profound effect of material type on evaporation from waste rock. Fine-grained, relatively homogeneous materials tend to follow traditional evaporation patterns both on the crowns and slopes of waste rock piles. Coarser-grained and more heterogeneous waste rock can have higher or lower evaporation than expected.

  16. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Karla Kristine Dames; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may

  17. Self-accelerated development of salt karst during flash floods along the Dead Sea Coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Yoav; Lensky, Nadav; Dente, Elad; Shviro, Maayan; Arav, Reuma; Gavrieli, Ittai; Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Lutzky, Hallel; Filin, Sagi; Haviv, Itai; Baer, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    We document and analyze the rapid development of a real-time karst system within the subsurface salt layers of the Ze'elim Fan, Dead Sea, Israel by a multidisciplinary study that combines interferometric synthetic aperture radar and light detection and ranging measurements, sinkhole mapping, time-lapse camera monitoring, groundwater level measurements and chemical and isotopic analyses of surface runoff and groundwater. The >1 m/yr drop of Dead Sea water level and the subsequent change in the adjacent groundwater system since the 1960s resulted in flushing of the coastal aquifer by fresh groundwater, subsurface salt dissolution, gradual land subsidence and formation of sinkholes. Since 2010 this process accelerated dramatically as flash floods at the Ze'elim Fan were drained by newly formed sinkholes. During and immediately after these flood events the dissolution rates of the subsurface salt layer increased dramatically, the overlying ground surface subsided, a large number of sinkholes developed over short time periods (hours to days), and salt-saturated water resurged downstream. Groundwater flow velocities increased by more than 2 orders of magnitudes compared to previously measured velocities along the Dead Sea. The process is self-accelerating as salt dissolution enhances subsidence and sinkhole formation, which in turn increase the ponding areas of flood water and generate additional draining conduits to the subsurface. The rapid terrain response is predominantly due to the highly soluble salt. It is enhanced by the shallow depth of the salt layer, the low competence of the newly exposed unconsolidated overburden and the moderate topographic gradients of the Ze'elim Fan.

  18. Time Variable Associated Absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F. W.; Barlow, T. A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss dramatic changes in the z_a ~ z_e absorption system of the z_e = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (Q0150-203). The C IV lambda 1550 and N V lambda 1240 doublets at z_a = 2.1344 strengthened by a factor of ~ 3 between the observations of Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1988, ApJS, 68, 539; measured November 1981) and our earliest measurements (November and December 1990). During this time, C IV in the z_a = 2.0083 system may also have strengthened. The variability of other lines in these systems is unknown. Continued monitoring is in progress. We consider several models of the z_a ~ z_e absorption environment, and conclude that the absorbing clouds are close to the QSO and photoionized by the QSO continuum. The variability timescale (<~2.9 yrs rest) requires gas densities gap 4000 cm(-3) to allow changes in the ionization balance. This minimum density, and the high ionization needed to produce the Ne VIII lambda 774 and O VI lambda 1035 absorptions reported previously (E. M. Burbidge et al., 1993, BAAS, 24, 1135), requires clouds <~200 pc from the QSO. The full range of absorption line ionizations (including C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 989) implies that the clouds are segregated, spanning a factor of gap 10 in distance or gap 100 in density. Across these regions the H I fraction varies from ~ 10(-3) to ~ 10(-6) . The total hydrogen column ranges from a few times 10(18) cm(-2) in the low ionization gas to ~ 10(20) cm(-2) where the Ne VIII lines form. The Lyman continuum is expected to be optically thin throughout, consistent with the measured absence of a Lyman edge. The metal abundances are roughly solar or above. Implications of these results are discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-1630.

  19. Effects of hydrogen bonding on internal conversion of GFP-like chromophores. I. The para-amino systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhih; Cheng, Chi-Wen; Hsu, Hung-Yu; Prabhakar, Ch; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2013-03-07

    To understand the effects of solvent-solute hydrogen bonding (SSHB) on the excited-state dynamics of two GFP-like chromophores, p-ABDI and p-CFABDI, we have determined the quantum yields for fluorescence (Φf) and the isomerization Z → E (ΦZE) and the femtosecond fluorescence and transient infrared absorption in selected solvents. The behavior that ΦZE ≅ 0.50 in aprotic solvents, such as CH3CN, indicates that the E-Z photoisomerization adopts a one-bond-flip mechanism through the torsion of the exocyclic C═C bond (the τ torsion) to form a perpendicular species (τ ∼90°) in the singlet excited state followed by internal conversion (IC) to the ground state and partition to form the E and Z isomers with equal probabilities. The observed ΦZE decreased from 0.50 to 0.15-0.28 when CH3CN was replaced with the protic solvents CH3OH and CF3CH2OH. In conjunction with the solvent-independent rapid (<1 ps) kinetics for the fluorescence decay and the solvent-dependent slow (7-20 ps) kinetics for the ground-state recovery, we conclude that the SSHB modifies the potential energy surface for the τ torsion in a way that the IC occurs also for the twisted intermediates with a τ-torsion angle smaller than 90°, which favors the formation of the Z isomers. The possibility of IC induced by torsion of the exocyclic C-C bond (the φ torsion) is also considered but excluded.

  20. Analysis of pulsating spray flames propagating in lean two-phase mixtures with unity Lewis number

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, C.; Haldenwang, P.; Suard, S.

    2005-11-01

    Pulsating (or oscillatory) spray flames have recently been observed in experiments on two-phase combustion. Numerical studies have pointed out that such front oscillations can be obtained even with very simple models of homogeneous two-phase mixtures, including elementary vaporization schemes. The paper presents an analytical approach within the simple framework of the thermal-diffusive model, which is complemented by a vaporization rate independent of gas temperature, as soon as the latter reaches a certain thermal threshold ({theta}{sub v} in reduced form). The study involves the Damkoehler number (Da), the ratio of chemical reaction rate to vaporization rate, and the Zeldovich number (Ze) as essential parameters. We use the standard asymptotic method based on matched expansions in terms of 1/Ze. Linear analysis of two-phase flame stability is performed by studying, in the absence of differential diffusive effects (unity Lewis number), the linear growth rate of 2-D perturbations added to steady plane solutions and characterized by wavenumber k in the direction transverse to spreading. A domain of existence is found for the pulsating regime. It corresponds to mixture characteristics often met in air-fuel two-phase systems: low boiling temperature ({theta}{sub v} << 1), reaction rate not higher than vaporization rate (Da < 1, i.e., small droplets), and activation temperature assumed to be high compared with flame temperature (Ze {>=} 10). Satisfactory comparison with numerical simulations confirms the validity of the analytical approach; in particular, positive growth rates have been found for planar perturbations (k = 0) and for wrinkled fronts (k {ne} 0). Finally, comparison between predicted frequencies and experimental measurements is discussed.

  1. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 1: Consistency of in situ and remote-sensing observations with stratiform rain column simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.; Williams, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Occurrences of jet engine power loss and damage have been associated with flight through fully glaciated deep convection at -10 to -50 °C. Power loss events commonly occur during flight through radar reflectivity (Ze) less than 20-30 dBZ and no more than moderate turbulence, often overlying moderate to heavy rain near the surface. During 2010-2012, Airbus carried out flight tests seeking to characterize the highest ice water content (IWC) in such low-Ze regions of large, cold-topped storm systems in the vicinity of Cayenne, Darwin, and Santiago. Within the highest IWC regions encountered, at typical sampling elevations (circa 11 km), the measured ice size distributions exhibit a notably narrow concentration of mass over area-equivalent diameters of 100-500 μm. Given substantial and poorly quantified measurement uncertainties, here we evaluate the consistency of the Airbus in situ measurements with ground-based profiling radar observations obtained under quasi-steady, heavy stratiform rain conditions in one of the Airbus-sampled locations. We find that profiler-observed radar reflectivities and mean Doppler velocities at Airbus sampling temperatures are generally consistent with those calculated from in situ size-distribution measurements. We also find that column simulations using the in situ size distributions as an upper boundary condition are generally consistent with observed profiles of Ze, mean Doppler velocity (MDV), and retrieved rain rate. The results of these consistency checks motivate an examination of the microphysical pathways that could be responsible for the observed size-distribution features in Ackerman et al. (2015).

  2. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 1: Consistency of in situ and remote-sensing observations with stratiform rain column simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.; Williams, C. R.

    2015-06-01

    Occurrences of jet engine power loss and damage have been associated with flight through fully glaciated deep convection at -10 to -50 °C. Power loss events commonly occur during flight through radar reflectivity (Ze) less than 20-30 dBZ and no more than moderate turbulence, often overlying moderate to heavy rain near the surface. During 2010-2012 Airbus carried out flight tests seeking to characterize the highest ice water content (IWC) in such low-Ze regions of large, cold-topped storm systems in the vicinity of Cayenne, Darwin, and Santiago. Within the highest IWC regions encountered, at typical sampling elevations circa 11 km, the measured ice size distributions exhibit a notably narrow concentration of mass over area-equivalent diameters of 100-500 μm. Given substantial and poorly quantified measurement uncertainties, here we evaluate the consistency of the Airbus in situ measurements with ground-based profiling radar observations obtained under quasi-steady, heavy stratiform rain conditions in one of the Airbus-sampled locations. We find that profiler-observed radar reflectivities and mean Doppler velocities at Airbus sampling temperatures are generally consistent with those calculated from in situ size distribution measurements. We also find that column simulations using the in situ size distributions as an upper boundary condition are generally consistent with observed profiles of Ze, mean Doppler velocity, and retrieved rain rate. The results of these consistency checks motivate an examination of the microphysical pathways that could be responsible for the observed size distribution features in Part 2.

  3. A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 ± 1 GHz, 183.3 ± 3 GHz, and 183.3 ± 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of 5 March 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori database in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about ±5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Ze and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Ze-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Ze-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical

  4. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis: in silico promoter analysis and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Joaquín; Esteban Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Phytohormones such as auxins, cytokinins, and brassinosteroids, act by means of a signaling cascade of transcription factors of the families NAC, MYB, AP2 (APETALA2), MADS and class III HD (homeodomain) Zip, regulating secondary growth. When the hormonal regulation of Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx), an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis, was studied, it was found that this peroxidase is sensitive to a plethora of hormones which control xylem lignification. In a previous study we sought Arabidopsis thaliana homologues to ZePrx. Peroxidases 4, 52, 49 and 72 are the four peroxidases that fulfill the restrictive conditions that a peroxidase involved in lignification must have. In the present study, we focus our attention on hormonal regulation in order to establish the minimal structural and regulatory elements contained in the promoter region which an AtPrx involved in lignification must have. The results indicate that of the four peroxidases selected in our previous study, the one most likely to be homologous to ZePrx is AtPrx52. The results suggest that hormones such as auxins, cytokinins and BRs directly regulate AtPrx52, and that the AtPrx52 promoter may be the target of the set of transcription factors (NAC, MYB, AP2 and class I and III HD Zip) which are up-regulated by these hormones during secondary growth. In addition, the AtPrx52 promoter contains multiple copies of all the putative cis-elements (the ACGT box, the OCS box, the OPAQ box, the L1BX, the MYCL box and the W box) known to confer regulation by NO and H2O2.

  6. Bioinformatic and functional characterization of the basic peroxidase 72 from Arabidopsis thaliana involved in lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Joaquín; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Yebra, Tatiana; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Pomar, Federico; Pedreño, Ma Ángeles; Cuello, Juan; Guéra, Alfredo; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Lignins result from the oxidative polymerization of three hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl) alcohols in a reaction mediated by peroxidases. The most important of these is the cationic peroxidase from Zinnia elegans (ZePrx), an enzyme considered to be responsible for the last step of lignification in this plant. Bibliographical evidence indicates that the arabidopsis peroxidase 72 (AtPrx72), which is homolog to ZePrx, could have an important role in lignification. For this reason, we performed a bioinformatic, histochemical, photosynthetic, and phenotypical and lignin composition analysis of an arabidopsis knock-out mutant of AtPrx72 with the aim of characterizing the effects that occurred due to the absence of expression of this peroxidase from the aspects of plant physiology such as vascular development, lignification, and photosynthesis. In silico analyses indicated a high homology between AtPrx72 and ZePrx, cell wall localization and probably optimal levels of translation of AtPrx72. The histochemical study revealed a low content in syringyl units and a decrease in the amount of lignin in the atprx72 mutant plants compared to WT. The atprx72 mutant plants grew more slowly than WT plants, with both smaller rosette and principal stem, and with fewer branches and siliques than the WT plants. Lastly, chlorophyll a fluorescence revealed a significant decrease in ΦPSII and q L in atprx72 mutant plants that could be related to changes in carbon partitioning and/or utilization of redox equivalents in arabidopsis metabolism. The results suggest an important role of AtPrx72 in lignin biosynthesis. In addition, knock-out plants were able to respond and adapt to an insufficiency of lignification.

  7. Stereospecificity of (1) H, (13) C and (15) N shielding constants in the isomers of methylglyoxal bisdimethylhydrazone: problem with configurational assignment based on (1) H chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Afonin, Andrei V; Pavlov, Dmitry V; Ushakov, Igor A; Keiko, Natalia A

    2012-07-01

    In the (13) C NMR spectra of methylglyoxal bisdimethylhydrazone, the (13) C-5 signal is shifted to higher frequencies, while the (13) C-6 signal is shifted to lower frequencies on going from the EE to ZE isomer following the trend found previously. Surprisingly, the (1) H-6 chemical shift and (1) J(C-6,H-6) coupling constant are noticeably larger in the ZE isomer than in the EE isomer, although the configuration around the -CH═N- bond does not change. This paradox can be rationalized by the C-H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bond in the ZE isomer, which is found from the quantum-chemical calculations including Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules analysis. This hydrogen bond results in the increase of δ((1) H-6) and (1) J(C-6,H-6) parameters. The effect of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond on the (1) H shielding and one-bond (13) C-(1) H coupling complicates the configurational assignment of the considered compound because of these spectral parameters. The (1) H, (13) C and (15) N chemical shifts of the 2- and 8-(CH(3) )(2) N groups attached to the -C(CH(3) )═N- and -CH═N- moieties, respectively, reveal pronounced difference. The ab initio calculations show that the 8-(CH(3) )(2) N group conjugate effectively with the π-framework, and the 2-(CH(3) )(2) N group twisted out from the plane of the backbone and loses conjugation. As a result, the degree of charge transfer from the N-2- and N-8- nitrogen lone pairs to the π-framework varies, which affects the (1) H, (13) C and (15) N shieldings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 2-Pyridylnitrene and 3-pyridazylcarbene and their relationship via ring-expansion, ring-opening, ring-contraction, and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kvaskoff, David; Bednarek, Pawel; Wentrup, Curt

    2010-03-05

    Photolysis of triazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine 8 isolated in Ar matrix generates diazomethylpyridazines 9Z and 9E and diazopentenynes 11Z and 11E as detected by IR spectroscopy. ESR spectroscopy detected the 3-pydidazylcarbene 10 as well as pent-2-en-3-yn-1-ylidene 12 formed by loss of one and two molecules of N(2), respectively. Further photolysis caused rearrangement of the carbenes to 1,2-pentadien-4-yne 13 and 3-ethynylcyclopropene 14. Flash vacuum thermolysis (FVT) of 8 at 400-500 degrees C with Ar matrix isolation of the products yielded 13, 14, and 1,4-pentadiyne 15. At higher temperatures, glutacononitriles 27Z and 27E were formed as well together with minor amounts of 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles 28 and 29. Tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine/2-azidopyridine 22T/22A yields 2-pyridylnitrene 19 as well as the novel open-chain cyanodienylnitrene 23 and the ring-expanded 1,3-diazacyclohepta-1,2,4,6-tetraene 21 on short wavelength photolysis. Nitrenes 19 and 23 were detected by ESR spectroscopy, and cumulene 21 by IR and UV spectroscopy. FVT of 22T/22A also affords 2-pyridylnitrene 19 and diazacycloheptatetraene 21, as well as glutacononitriles 27Z,E and 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles 28 and 29. Photolysis of 21 above 300 nm yields the novel spiroazirene 25, identified by its matrix IR spectrum. The reaction pathways connecting the four carbenes (10Z,E and 12Z,E) and three nitrenes (19, 23EZ, and 23ZZ) in their open-shell singlet and triplet states are elucidated with the aid of theoretical calculations at DFT, CASSCF, and CASPT2 levels. Three possible mechanisms of ring-contraction in arylnitrenes are identified: (i) via ring-opening to dienylnitrenes, (ii) concerted ring-contraction, and (iii) via spiroazirenes 25, whereby (i) is the energetically most favorable.

  9. Sex pheromone of the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-10-01

    The sex pheromone of female dogwood borers (DWB) Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was determined to be an 88:6:6 ternary blend of (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,Z-3,13-ODDA), (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-2,13-ODDA), and (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,E-3,13-ODDA) by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major sex pheromone component, Z,Z-3,13-ODDA, was attractive as a single component. A blend of Z,Z-3,13-ODDA with 1-3% of E,Z-2,13-ODDA (binary blend) was more attractive than the single component. A third component, Z,E-3,13-ODDA, was sometimes observed in GC-EAD analyses, and enhanced attraction to the binary blend in some field bioassays. Lures containing 1 mg of binary and ternary blends attracted 18 and 28 times more male DWB moths, respectively, than caged virgin females in field trials. Attraction was strongly antagonized by addition of as little as 0.5% of E,Z-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-3,13-ODDA). In a period of 12 wk in 2004, more than 60,000 males were captured in sticky traps baited with synthetic pheromone blends in six apple orchards in Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. Lure longevity trials showed that approximately 76% of the pheromone remained in rubber septum lures after 12 wk in the field.

  10. Synthesis and coordination behavior of planar-chiral ferrocene alkenylphosphines.

    PubMed

    Stepnicka, Petr; Císarova, Ivana

    2006-10-16

    A series of planar-chiral ferrocene alkenylphosphines, (S(p))-2-(diphenylphosphino)-1-vinylferrocene (2), (S(p))-2-(diphenylphosphino)-1-(prop-1-en-1-yl)ferrocene (3; as a mixture of Z and E isomers in ca. 5:1 ratio), and (E,S(p))-2-(diphenylphosphino)-1-(2-phenylethen-1-yl)ferrocene ((E)-4), was obtained by Wittig and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions from the common precursor, (S(p))-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxaldehyde (1). Coordination properties of these novel ferrocene donors were studied in their palladium(II) and tungsten(0)-carbonyl complexes. The reaction between 2 and [{Pd(mu-Cl)(L(NC))}2] (5, L(NC) = 2-{(dimethylamino)methyl-kappaN}phenyl-kappaC(1)) gave the bridge-cleavage product [PdCl(L(NC))(2-kappaP)] (6) while the reaction with [Pd(L(NC))(MeCN)2]ClO4 (7) yielded the cationic bis(chelate) [Pd(L(NC))(2-eta2:kappaP)]ClO4 (8). Chelate complexes of the type [W(CO)4(L-eta2:kappaP)] (9 with L = 2; (Z/E)-10 with L = (Z/E)-3) were obtained by reacting [W(CO)4(cod)] (cod = eta2:eta2-cycloocta-1,5-diene) with the appropriate phosphinoalkene in refluxing toluene while a similar reaction with (E)-4 yielded mixtures of [W(CO)5(4-kappaP)] ((E)-11) and [W(CO)4(4-eta2:kappaP)] ((E)-12). All compounds were characterized by spectral methods (multinuclear NMR, IR, MS, and CD), and the structures of 1, 2, 8, 9, (Z/E)-10, and (E)-11 were corroborated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Ligands 2 and (E)-4 as well as their complexes 6, 8, 9, (E)-11, and (E)-12 were further studied by electrochemical methods.

  11. FAA Lightning Protection Study: Lightning-Induced Transients on Buried Shielded Transmission Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    the use of the impedance transfer functions for a coaxial cable, as developed In Appendix B. As shown in the Appendix B, Ex PP’> Zee ext + Zel Int E x p...Laboratory. Kirtland AFB, New Mexico , May 1966. (9) Ref. 5, P. 33. 100) Sunde, E.D., Earth Conduction Effects In Transmission Systems, Dover Publications...Therefore, by superposition, E -PWP> Zee Iext+Z el Int (0.37) ExIP p< Zielx+Zii Iit (B.38) Notice that A rnA Therefore e - Ze Zei 60 For solid conductors (p

  12. Risk, Issues and Lessons Learned: Maximizing Risk Management in the DoD Ground Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    wn.r 1 Esb~ objecbves. budget 3nd sdled(je 411/2011 Coqllete 5 5 LGI3f 2 FNkZe 11:11e 3nd c.me. 4/29(2()11 Coqllete 4 4 c. Crawford 3 Seaa’e ~oc...Issue Info Sheet (cont): Issue Iss e IResolution Corrective Action(s) For the Functional Group pull down, a free form text field u ssue Issue Issue...This is a tab with more fields to define complex corrective actions vs a simple issue . resolution. This tab does not have to be

  13. Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Healy, Noel; Lagonigro, Laura; Sparks, Justin R; Boden, Stuart; Sazio, Pier J A; Badding, John V; Peacock, Anna C

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the surface roughness of polycrystalline silicon core optical fibers fabricated using a high-pressure chemical deposition technique. By measuring the optical transmission of two fibers with different core sizes, we will show that scattering from the core-cladding interface has a negligible effect on the losses. A Zemetrics ZeScope three-dimensional optical profiler has been used to directly measure the surface of the core material, confirming a roughness of only ~0.1 nm. The ability to fabricate low-loss polysilicon optical fibers with ultrasmooth cores scalable to submicrometer dimensions should establish their use in a range of nonlinear optical applications.

  14. The hydrological effects of varying vegetation characteristics in a temperate water-limited basin: Development of the dynamic Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (dBCP) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; McVicar, Tim R.; Yang, Zhifeng; Donohue, Randall J.; Liang, Liqiao; Yang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation patterns are affected by water availability, which, in turn, influences the hydrological partitioning and regional water balance, especially in water-limited regions. Considering the important role of vegetation in partitioning the catchment water yield, the recently developed Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (or BCP) model incorporated Porporato's model of key ecohydrological processes into Choudury's form of the Budyko hydroclimatic framework. Here we extend the steady state BCP model by incorporating dynamic ecohydrological processes into it and combining it with a typical bucket soil water balance model (resulting in the dynamic BCP, or dBCP, model). The dBCP model is used here to assess the impacts of vegetation on the water balance in a temperate water-limited basin (i.e., the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in north China), where growing season phenology is primarily constrained by low temperatures. The results show that: (i) the incorporation of dynamic growing season (fs) and dynamic effective rooting depth (Ze) conditions into the dBCP model improves results when compared to the original BCP model; (ii) dBCP model's results vary depending on time-step used (i.e., we tested mean-annual to monthly), which reflected the influence of catchment variables, e.g., catchment area, catchment-average air temperature, dryness index and Ze; and (iii) actual evapotranspiration (E) is more sensitive to changes in mean storm depth (α), followed by P, Ze, and Ep. When taking into account observed variability of each of four ecohydrological variables, changes in Ze cause the greatest variability in E, generally followed by variability in P and α, and then Ep. The dBCP results indicate that incorporating dynamic ecohydrological processes into the Budyko framework can improve the estimation of inter-annual variability of the regional water balance. This can help to understand the water requirement and to establish suitable water management strategies to adapt to climate

  15. Army Independent Risk Assessment Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    RFI - Request for Information...Cost Uncertainty S&T Community • Identify Technologies • Assess Readiness Levels PM •System Concepts •Program ScheduleIn p u ts to R is k A ss...es sm en t Develop Cost Estimate S u m m a ri ze R is k A s s e s s m e n ts In te rd e p e n d e n c ie s 14 o Assess the transition times

  16. [Yixue yuanshi (The Origin of Medicine) and Japanese translation work of anatomy: Chongding jieti xinshu (Revised New Book of Anatomy)].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ya-hua

    2009-09-01

    Yixue yuanshi (The Origin of Medicine) is the first traditional Chinese medical book including western medicine, which spread to Japan and was paid attention to by the well known specialist in Dutch culture and medical scientist - da gui xuan ze. When he revised Jieti xinshu (the New Book of Anatomy) translated by his teacher shan tian xuan bai, he consulted and quoted the contents of Yixue yuanshi (The Origin of Medicine) in the titular explanation and appendix of revised edition of Chongding jietixinshu (Revised New Book of Anatomy), in which can be seen the medical exchanges and interrelations between China, Europe and Japan from the 17th to 19th century.

  17. The Burden of Trafalgar: Decisive Battle and Naval Strategic Expectations on the Eve of the First World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    enemies’ motive power, capture, risk, destroy.,,6 But what exactly was a victorious bataille royaZe to decide? What were its aims, and how did one tell a...Empire (London: George Bell and Sons, 1 895) , p. 47 . 53 . Helmut Pemsel, A History of War at Sea, tra ns. Maj . D.G . Smith (Annapolis: Naval I...1 803- 1 4 (London : George Allen & Unwin Ltd. , 1 973) , p. 1 4 . The author’s data are taken from Edouard D esbriere’s Projects et Tentilles

  18. SIMTBED: A Graphical Test Bed for Analyzing and Reporting the Results of a Statistical Simulation Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Q O O N ’. 4 ft 4 t I fft4.Ir * ze . WWW*1 4~4 r-AO 0WI ft ~ Nif ~~D 77- f ~ ft~ftft - *,f, $4 - LAOI UJ . 0t 4. -s I *~f -tf ts,4- I I1Im I N 0) A...40. mma 1.4ŕMMOU-4 mo 2= oir 41 0. HW (.. ,= P.i 41 P41.. v~ u 4 Wm C6 " 0 ... * a u U 0m tni Irf tn~ 4 0 Ina u* Huq HI u- 04u uO ~ -4 ~ 4154- 0 .44 0

  19. Bound eigenstates for two truncated Coulomb potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David; Varshni, Y. P.; Dutt, Ranabir

    1985-07-01

    The eigenvalue problem for two particles interacting through the attractive truncated Coulomb potential, V(r)=-Ze2/(rp+βp)1/p, for p=1 and 2 is solved numerically. Energy eigenvalues accurate to within eight to six significant figures for the states 1s to 4f are calculated as a function of the truncation parameter β. It is found that the level ordering satisfies Enl>Enl' for l

  20. BKCASE (trademark): Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    and encouraged. BKCASE Vision and Objectives “Systems Engineering competency models, certification programs,  textbooks,  graduate   programs , and related...th SE it. rea e   an   ave    e g o a y recogn ze   y  e   commun y  as the authoritative guidance for  graduate   programs  in SE. 3. Facilitate the

  1. Natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in field samples from the 1992 Wisconsin corn crop.

    PubMed Central

    Park, J J; Smalley, E B; Chu, F S

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 98 moldy corn samples collected in Wisconsin between November 1992 and January 1993 for Fusarium toxins by various immunochemical assays revealed overall average mycotoxin concentrations of 305.6, 237.7, and 904.3 ng/g for type A trichothecenes (TCTCs), deoxynivalenol (DON)-related type B TCTCs (total DON), and zearalenone (ZE), respectively. A small portion (5.1%) of the samples was found to be contaminated with high levels ( > 1 microgram/g) of type A TCTCs and total DON during the whole survey. Over 40% of the samples had 100 to 1,000 ng of total DON per g, while 17% of the samples had the same levels of type A TCTCs. The analytical data were consistent with those from mycological examinations for the samples in which various toxic Fusarium spp., including F. sporotrichioides, F. poae, and F. graminearum, were found. The samples received in November 1992 had relatively low concentrations of toxin; the average levels of type A TCTCs and total DON were 9.9 and 79 ng/g, respectively. The toxin concentrations became progressively higher in the samples received in December. The average levels for the type A TCTCs and total DON increased to 920 and 335 ng/g, respectively. However, the levels of ZE were higher in the samples collected earlier. The average levels for samples collected in November and late December were 1,195 and 242 ng/g, respectively. Analysis of selected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography monitoring with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, and T-2 tetraol (T-2-4ol) were common in these samples. Statistical analysis revealed a weak correlation between the levels of total type A TCTCs and total DON in the samples (r = 0.18, P = 0.09), but a strong correlation between the levels of ZE and total type B TCTCs (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001) was found. The mycotoxin levels of total type A TCTCs, total DON-related type B TCTCs, and ZE in the cobs (5.2, 3.9, and 21

  2. Effect of Corrosion Resistant Coatings on the Fatigue Strength of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Composition of the Magnezium Castings ............... 8 II Tensile Properties of th4 Magnesium Castings ................ 8 If! R. R. Moore Rotating Beem...16 um) thick, were provided. The chemical compositions are given in table I. The heat treatment and merhAnical properties are given in table II...Table I Chemical Composition of the Magnesium Castings* Alloy/Element Al Zn Ce Zr Mg AZ91 8.75 0.81 - - Bal. ZE41 - 3.71 1.44 0.89 Bal. EZ33 - 2.57 2.94

  3. Stereo‐ and Regioselective Alkyne Hydrometallation with Gold(III) Hydrides

    PubMed Central

    Pintus, Anna; Rocchigiani, Luca; Fernandez‐Cestau, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hydroauration of internal and terminal alkynes by gold(III) hydride complexes [(C^N^C)AuH] was found to be mediated by radicals and proceeds by an unexpected binuclear outer‐sphere mechanism to cleanly form trans‐insertion products. Radical precursors such as azobisisobutyronitrile lead to a drastic rate enhancement. DFT calculations support the proposed radical mechanism, with very low activation barriers, and rule out mononuclear mechanistic alternatives. These alkyne hydroaurations are highly regio‐ and stereospecific for the formation of Z‐vinyl isomers, with Z/E ratios of >99:1 in most cases. PMID:27592697

  4. A Two-Stream Multilayer, Spectral Radiative Transfer Model for Sea Ice,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    lassified -c DECASS,. CA7:0ON DCWNGAD NG SCHEDJcE Approved for public releais(- Cist: Iitlol is_ unlimilted. ZE>\\ G RGA:Z O EOR NMEE~ S CON.;TOCNG CG...0N 6.1102 AT24 SS 05 Inckcoe Secur> CIassit’caofin. A Two-Stream, Multilaver, Spectral Radiative Transfer Model for Sea Ice 12 D2RSCNAL AUTHCO 1( S ...radiation fields is demonstrated., 20 DIST~i? BTION/AVAIABILITY OF ABSTRACT 2i ABSTRACT SEC dRJY : 4? S F N uNCLASSIFIED/ UNLIMITED [3 SAME AS RPT 0 DTIC

  5. Adaptation of Magnetic Bubble Memory in a Standard Microcomputer Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    that any single MBB-80 Bubbl-Board is a logically complete CP/M-86 disk. The board caM be removed from the INTELLEC DD MDS system chassis and moved tc...10000010B ;single-page read cad (82H) MBSreset$cud equ 01000000B ;reset te controller (40H) MB$SriteScad equ 10000100E ;single-page write cad (84H) i...hi byte 0 ov ES:P-gagesizere, paje ze;page size reg ;issue reset ?! mman t e c t o ier nov ALMB reset cad ;reset mask byte nov ES:P Eund r q,AL ;issue

  6. Encapsulation of Electronic Subassemblies with Thermosetting Resins. Part I,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-22

    c’ (4~io~e),’a iuet etc. -ach of th-ece oc,::coren-c -c2 ~n eltctrJ2o, J z-eaci es~ tc’~~~ ze.~ezften -~~~’~ do tecno z-i Ofz, C-n:er rec,- :ics ors...production scale, these arrangements range from simple ones such as manual control of dosimeters, injectors, supply pumps, guns, etc., to programmed automatic...Figure 10. A system for semi-automatic encapsulation of electronic subassemblies by pouring: 1 - resin; 2 - hardener; 3 - manual dosing; 4 - automatic

  7. Investigations of Rough Surface Effects on Friction Factors in Turbulent Pipe Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    24572 0.C22.S83 5 28.2 31 . 9 24S320 O. 22514 11 25. Zi.8 2•432 .0. 72 S 25 8 I5 ZE420 3.2C2523 12 26.’ 28.7 3348,3 S.2583 S 25.4 43.2 333823 3.CC2:7 12 25...8a. NAME OF FUNDING/ SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9 . PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if appica) F33615-84-K-3014...Procedure . . . 8 14. Uncertainties. .................................. 9 5. Test Rig Qualification .. ........................ 10 III UNIFORM ROUGHNESS

  8. Subsonic and Turbulent Reactive Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    NAVMATSYSCOMINSRDC ’September 30, 1982 t3 NUMBER OF PAGES 57 IA MONI1TORING AGENCY NAME & AGORESS~,tdilli.,ont IOR, Controlling Ofice~) IS SECURITY C"ASS rof this.’pn...are controlled b--y s-pecifying -the position and velocity of the first and 1ast cell interface. 9i -- ez nonlinear, ori.nary dferen-.ia... equa-.nn:s...is not clear wher 4 s*ho*4d4 be evaluated ’-n a tize-ze-sendent calvulaticn. eccnd, th-e uncert ain- -ies n -the vlues -of soe f the- difuso . coeffici

  9. Hydrazine Engine Plume Contamination Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    MAPPING inal r, 7. AUTHON(a) I. CONTR MBER(s) Z.E JChirivella P0 o4-2 9. PERFORMING ORCANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS AREA & WORKU. 5TASK Jet Propulsion...ized models used in the analysis is a required major step in the studies of those processes leading to the prediction of contamination as well as its...adhering to surfaces at temperatures higher than 80"K when in the presence of solar UV (due possibly to polymerization of ammonia by photon

  10. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Siela N; Florez, Sergio; Shen, Xiangling; Niemenak, Nicolas; Zhang, Yufan; Curtis, Wayne; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-07-16

    Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation. These differences in gene

  11. Dependence of Z-R Relations on the Rain Type Classification Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amitai, Eyal

    1999-01-01

    The TRMM Global Validation Program is giving us a unique opportunity to compare radar datasets from different sites since they are analyzed in a relatively uniform procedure. Monthly Ze-R relations for four different sites (i.e, Melbourne Florida, Houston Texas, Darwin Australia and Kwajalein Atoll) were derived. The relations were obtained using the Window Probability Matching Method (WPMM). This version of the PMM relies on matching unconditional probabilities of rain rates, R, and radar reflectivity, Ze, using rain gauge and radar data, respectively. This procedure was done separately for convective and stratiform rain type using the Steiner classification procedure. The radar and gauge data from all sites were quality controlled using the same algorithms, which include also an automatic procedure to filter unreliable rain gauge data upon comparison to radar data. An adjusted power law Z-R for each rain type was also derived by comparing the radar-gauge coincident pairs in order to adjust the total monthly rainfall to match the gauges. The obtained PMM based Ze-R relations are found to be curved lines in log-log space rather than any straight line power law. While the PMM based Ze-R curves were always distinctly different between the convective and stratiform rain, the power law based Z-R, in few cases, was found to be the same for both types. In general, a given reflectivity was matched to a much lower rain intensity in the convective rainfall as compared to that in stratiform rainfall. These findings are inherently contradictory to previous findings based on disdrometer data and suggest some precaution for using the latter Z-R relations on radar data when the partition of stratiform and convective rainfall amount is in concern. The inverse trends in the relations might be caused by effects such as partial beam fillings, the use of different classification schemes, as well as having a distinct difference in the Z-R relations between the initial convective and

  12. An Investigation of Flame Stability in a Coaxial Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    appreciation to Dr, Harold E. Wright, Chairman of iry advisory conuittee, for his initial suggestion that I should enter the Doctoral program at AFIT...OF FLAME STABILITY IN A COAXIAL DUMP COMBUSTOR ZE by Edward T. Curran, Ph.D. Dr. Harold E. Wright, Advisor S 4 An experimental investigation of the...lenoth of the RZ zone and Urelas TU r - rl Urel is the relative flow velocity. Thus UreI = Um + U where Um is the downstream velocity of the flow

  13. Review of Winograd and Flores’ Understanding Computers and Cognition: A Favorable Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    5000 8a. NAME OF FUNDING i SPONSORING 8b OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable) N00014-85K-0305 8c...basis for the analisis of failure in knowledge engineering. Indirectly it tells us how to anal ze domains What are the recUrreilt dialogues? What...the Navy ’alo Alto, CA 94304 Texas Instruments AI Lab Washington, DC 20150-1000 P.O. Box 660245 hief of Naval Education Dallas, TX 75266 and Training

  14. Scintillation Has Minimal Impact On Far Field Quantum Key Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-24

    linear polarization bases, 0°/90° and ’f45°, which we will denote + and x, respectively. Having chosen a basis, she sends a random bit value, 0 or 1...dependent fad ing a nd l11ultipath spread , and , because atmospheric t urbulence is non- depolarizing , we then have that attenuat ion by the capture...will reali ze 5 a deterministic fractional power transfer given by [101 (6) where Dc and Ds are the diameters of the circular exit/entrance ground

  15. Natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in field samples from the 1992 Wisconsin corn crop.

    PubMed

    Park, J J; Smalley, E B; Chu, F S

    1996-05-01

    Analysis of 98 moldy corn samples collected in Wisconsin between November 1992 and January 1993 for Fusarium toxins by various immunochemical assays revealed overall average mycotoxin concentrations of 305.6, 237.7, and 904.3 ng/g for type A trichothecenes (TCTCs), deoxynivalenol (DON)-related type B TCTCs (total DON), and zearalenone (ZE), respectively. A small portion (5.1%) of the samples was found to be contaminated with high levels ( > 1 microgram/g) of type A TCTCs and total DON during the whole survey. Over 40% of the samples had 100 to 1,000 ng of total DON per g, while 17% of the samples had the same levels of type A TCTCs. The analytical data were consistent with those from mycological examinations for the samples in which various toxic Fusarium spp., including F. sporotrichioides, F. poae, and F. graminearum, were found. The samples received in November 1992 had relatively low concentrations of toxin; the average levels of type A TCTCs and total DON were 9.9 and 79 ng/g, respectively. The toxin concentrations became progressively higher in the samples received in December. The average levels for the type A TCTCs and total DON increased to 920 and 335 ng/g, respectively. However, the levels of ZE were higher in the samples collected earlier. The average levels for samples collected in November and late December were 1,195 and 242 ng/g, respectively. Analysis of selected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography monitoring with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, and T-2 tetraol (T-2-4ol) were common in these samples. Statistical analysis revealed a weak correlation between the levels of total type A TCTCs and total DON in the samples (r = 0.18, P = 0.09), but a strong correlation between the levels of ZE and total type B TCTCs (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001) was found. The mycotoxin levels of total type A TCTCs, total DON-related type B TCTCs, and ZE in the cobs (5.2, 3.9, and 21

  16. Concerning the Effect of Sea Currents on Free Internal Gravitational Waves (K Voprosu o Vliyanii Morskikh Techeniy na Svobodnyye Vnutrenniye Gravitatsionnyye Volny),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    9), we obtain ~ S!fl ~JZ ± {i — ( c ) (I, — m ~ ~c — 0 COS ~~~ ÷ (7 fl~~(c — ,, )2 X x [ IV~ — &(c -- u~~ ± ~~~ ‘ ( c — zs 0) / - (p 0 ~~ -) ] s...in ~z = 0. ( I t ) We will consider the levels z z*j for which cos Oz = 0 , i .e . , = Hn~~ (j ++) . Since we are interested only In z*.E (0 , ~1...zemnoy atmosfery ) , Gidrometeoizdat Publishing House, Leningrad , 1969. 3. Studies of Tidal Phenomena in an Inhomogeneous Sea (Issledovaniya prilivnykh

  17. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. Results The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Conclusions Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation

  18. Control of BaZrO3 Nanorod Alignment in YBa2Cu3O7-x Thin Films by Microstructural Modulation (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    J. R. Thompson, D. K. Christen, S . J. Pennycook, and F. A. List, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18, 1533 2005. 4C . V. Varanasi, P. N. Barnes, J. Burke, L...POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR( S ) F.J. Baca, R.L.S. Emergo, and J.Z. Wu...UNIT NUMBER 314532ZE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION University of Kansas Department of Physics and

  19. Evaluations of PVE Lubricants for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning system with the Low GWP Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoya; Kaneko, Masato; Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2017-08-01

    For the prevention of global warming, various low GWP refrigerants (R1234yf, R1234ze, R448A, R449A, R452A, R452B, R454B etc.) are proposed as the alternative of R410A and R404A for refrigeration and air conditioning system. PVE lubricants were developed for refrigeration and air-conditioning system with low GWP refrigerants. In this report, the combinations of the low GWP refrigerants and lubricant were evaluated. The evaluation items are physical properties (miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and electric insulation), thermal stability and lubricity.

  20. Application of Thermochemical Modeling to Aircraft Interior Polymeric Materials. II. Multilayered Seat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    6p: I?,( I) =-rS(J M T IOfI) *PA (I)*ktlI)*C Pt I) (9FCIII - TAUC *YICfI ) 76& OO)UTf) :-FCIJ)* TID1I ) R DF I I) *F HC 91 * CP I) 72. 333 CCN71NUF...ZE AT ENO Tr"PS or’, I’d. 65’ *K’’INETIC REGIHES’, /9 llx, 5649’Z)9 i) 66’ DC 200 I=lITOTAL 67’ WFITE (6,951) .9 ANAMET~ loI .)# ANAlE~t(J,2) 68. NTR

  1. Expressive Threat Detection Validation Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    iv ity N oi se , C...8 Dataset Name G ro up C on ne ct iv ity N oi se , C lu tte r D at as et S iz e Po pu la tio n Si ze Pa tte rn C om pl ex ity O bs er...Attack agency Interaction type \\ Source Fo cu se d su rv ei lla nc e Br oa d su rv ei lla nc e C on ne ct iv ity p ro vi de r O pe n so ur

  2. Learning One Subprocedure per Lesson.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-13

    ilar S ’~ ses a urthe, ’.ick av,:-as3as ’ucl oate’n maic’ no " .3t’ Pe- ’. r * e Ov a ze r w sA$e -" 113t Cass q’’’ e .oss~ .. ~1 C~a:I 3𔃻e’~’’e ies...H3C 3P8 and Computer Science CANADA Irvine, CA 92717 Margaret Jerome Dr. David Kieras c/o Dr. Peter Chandler University of Michigan 83. The Drive

  3. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Experimental Syncope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-11-01

    inspiration with breath-holding, there was a period of squteZe duziag second-degree A-V block . Prolonged breath-holding was followed breath-holding fol...by episodes of second-degree A-V block and syncope. Following lowing a period of aropinairtion breath-holdirg produced no changes tom normal...rhythm and atreal fusion beat* were noted. Breath-holding after hyperventilation pv duced an atrial rhythm with second-degree A-V block , and A-V

  4. The causes of high power diode laser brazed seams fractures of dissimilar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamiak, Marcin; Czupryński, Artur; Janicki, Damian; Górka, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Presented in this article are the results of experiments carried out to determine the causes of braze cracking of dissimilar materials brazed with a ROFIN DL 020 high power diode laser with the use of additional powdered EN AW-1070A aluminium alloy to bond thin aluminium sheets with soft, low alloy DC04+ZE75/75 steel plate which was electrolytically coated with zinc on both sides. Presented are the results of metallographic, macroscopic, microscopic, diffractometric phase analyses of the weld joints. Metallurgical problems arising during processing as well as suggestions regarding technical aspects of laser brazing dissimilar materials in regards to their physical characteristics and chemical composition are explored.

  5. Photophysics of Aqueous Pt(CN)4(2-).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-17

    Miskowski for very helpful discussions on excited state assignments. -13- Table I Average lifetime (±5%) at 510 nni of aqueous, argon deoxygenated solutions...AA-IP 800 North Quincy Street P.O. Box 1211 Arlington, Virg:-nia 22217 2 Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27709 ONR Branch Office Naval Ocean Systems...v Annapolis, Maryland 21401 i.ashing:on, r.C. 205 1 Nval Ocean Systems Center De..ense 7echriza-. Ce-ter 2,ttn: Dr. S. Yamamoto, Marine Bui-5, ze

  6. Phase I Evaluation of TRASANA Technical Staff Productivity Measurement System Test (TPMS-TE),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    OR5) (.26n) TOTAL rnO 1.063 1.002 .gq7 1.309 1.681 _ (.093) (.n31) (.0 I) (.n6 9) (.259) qOf)’T: rhP too number in the tahZe i, the me.7.zn 7)(77, aMzn...factor (R). The priority (P) and computer utilization (C) factors, except for a very few C scores, were constants in the scoring equation . The...in relation to their costs. c. The flifferentipl of S The differential (dS) of S is useful in assessinq effects of chanqes in the values of the

  7. Cobalt-Catalyzed Z-Selective Hydrosilylation of Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Jie; Wang, Chao; Tan, Ye Wei; Ge, Shaozhong

    2017-03-07

    A cobalt-catalyzed Z-selective hydrosilylation of alkynes has been developed relying on catalysts generated from bench-stable Co(OAc)2 and pyridine-2,6-diimine (PDI) ligands. A variety of functionalized aromatic and aliphatic alkynes undergo this transformation, yielding Z-vinylsilanes in high yields with excellent selectivities (Z/E ratio ranges from 90:10 to >99:1). The addition of a catalytic amount of phenol effectively suppressed the Z/E-isomerization of the Z-vinylsilanes that formed under catalytic conditions.

  8. 1H and 13C NMR assignments for new heterocyclic TAM leuco dyes, (2Z,2'E)-2,2'-(2-phenyl propane-1,3-diylidene) bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives. Part II.

    PubMed

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Roh, Se-Jung; Lee, Min-Hyung; Sauriol, Francoise; Buncel, Erwin

    2008-09-01

    The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the novel heterocyclic Leuco-TAM dyes, (2Z, 2'E)-2,2'-(2-phenyl propane-1,3-diylidene) bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives 1-4 as precursors of triarylmethane (TAM)(+) (Malachite Green FB-analog) dyes were completely assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Especially, the diastereotopic gem-dimethyl protons at the C3 and C3' positions of the FB rings were definitively assigned. The (Z,E) isomers adopt the energetically favored three-bladed propeller conformation in solution.

  9. Dagelijks tenue marechaussee -- Eerste indruk (Military Police Daily Dress -- First Impression)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Enkele mannen geven aan de stropdas met clip niet meer te gaan gebruiken. Zeven vrouwen geven aan de hoed met de ronde, rand niet meer te, gaan gebruiken...en zes vrouwen geven aan de, broek niet meer te gaan dragen. Verder geven vier vrouwen aan dat ze de dienstrok, de hoed met de orngeslagen rand en het...A4-model bandtas niet meer gaan gebruiken. 3.2 Pasvorm De helft van de dragers geeft aan geen problemnen te hebben met de pasvorm van de

  10. A Ruthenium Catalyst for Olefin Metathesis Featuring an Anti-Bredt N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David; Marx, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    A ruthenium complex bearing an “anti-Bredt” N-heterocyclic carbene was synthesized, characterized and evaluated as a catalyst for olefin metathesis. Good conversions were observed at room temperature for the formation of di- and tri-substituted olefins by ring-closing metathesis. It also allowed for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclooctadiene, as well as for the cross-metathesis of cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene with allyl-benzene, with enhanced Z/E kinetic selectivity over classical NHC-based catalysts. PMID:27594819

  11. Convergence of the Hermite Wavelet Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    equation (1), the inverse heat equation (4), and the Schr ~ dinger equation Q (XZ t) z E R,t E R1 .at OX2 which describes the one...r., ’Dispersion and anti-dispersion correspond to the Schr ~ dinger equation for the free particle. 5 where r. is the Green’s function for equation (5...dimensional motion of a free particle in quantum mechanics, into the so-called complex- time diffusion equation a C, Z’ ) a 2j( X,, Z) OZ 8z2 x E R’,zE

  12. A Collection of Technical Studies Completed for the Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) Program Fiscal Year 1987. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    eng2.neer:.. departments) 𔃿 |5 Audre estimates thlat Coniversion of a co!nc._ex F-s!_ze czt ajoout $li2. and -lakes four niours, copde w %,t ain . I...obeis any noted ririctions on the presence of ESCAPE elernents. A .confýrin ’i• i asic I interpre:er" is one that at :est correctly :n-er-rets •n- :onfor...ng basic -neciatie aind may have more :3ablctv a 35• e A C ; ormng " asic qenerator" is one that -rsduces o,’ :o ,,i tnetatsies, or :an reitatly be

  13. Optical Computing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    IThe following speed analysis is based on a system of linear equations with ze, n. i 4.1 Digital Processor The total time required, TDT, to solve the...weight, power, time , and cost would be the solv- The generic system is comprised of three properly er (direct or iterative) of the problem solved by...algebraic .*) equations of the discretized system . An analysis simi- Here A is a given matrix, b is a given vector, and x is the lar to the above treatment

  14. Conditional Inference and Logic for Intelligent Systems: A Theory of Measure-Free Conditioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS CONDITIONAL INFERENCE AND LOGIC FOR INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS PR: ZE90 PR: ZW40 A Theory of Measure-Free Conditioning...200 UNCLASSIFIED tf F I CONDIT[ONAL INFERENCE AND LOGIC FOR INTELIUGENT SYSTEMS: I, A THEORY OF MEASURE-FREE CONDTONING F by L R. Goodman Command and...complete and satisfactory theory of "measure-free" conditioning. If the concept of "conditional event" can be formalized and a suitable algebra of

  15. Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology. BOOMAP2 Computer Program for Sonic Boom Research. Volume 1. Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    region 1000 ft above the ground to 1500 ft below the ground, the ray history and caustic location are stored, the ray tracing terminated and the next...MINE1 LZUEAWF X-Com L0WR SCUMO CELL 2 a �.0 CELL S1ZE -w00 .. 7 .32 2122 30M122 19 11 5I𔃻S1 1 3*2 15’ 23’ 18a 16 15 5 5 5 v- cacao LOAN SOUND CULL

  16. Long range surface plasmon enhanced tunable Goos-Hanchen shift in ZnSe prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Goswami, Nabamita; Saha, Ardhendu

    2013-06-01

    This paper first time observed, designed and simulated the surface plasmon enhanced tunable Goos-Hanchen shift with varying refractive index of the dielectric layer in Kretschmann-Reather geometry formed by a ZeSe prism,50 nm silver layer, 4.5 μm liquid crystal layer (as dielectric layer) and 200 nm thin silver layer. Here the Goos-Hanchen shift is tuned from (10-72) nm with the change in refractive index of the liquid crystal layer with varying applied voltage.

  17. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum. Appendix D. Design Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    c.OA io*1 Z" - hILL UL. 004 GANNETT FUKMING COROORY &uIAT .M&4 NO AND CARPIENTIER. INC. porn s*@% UUTs A ’Etk H IImSeSUm.. PA. io~ ? ~ U?.ILb...OU~I 0...CORDDRY "O* F’jwmL cL .. i AND CARPENTER. INC. cyoC- 7ZeAI/sj-r1i sr rjFM BTl.-LO’ S - AMMMOOm. PA. pro kids Fjgg Pi -,AT-ROL Pea-ltcT COMPUTSO My

  18. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of short-chain haloolefins: photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs).

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Sulbaek Andersen, M P; Nielsen, O J

    2015-06-01

    Short-chain haloolefins are being introduced as replacements for saturated halocarbons. The unifying chemical feature of haloolefins is the presence of a CC double bond which causes the atmospheric lifetimes to be significantly shorter than for the analogous saturated compounds. We discuss the atmospheric lifetimes, photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of haloolefins. The commercially relevant short-chain haloolefins CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) have short atmospheric lifetimes (days to weeks), negligible POCPs, negligible GWPs, and ODPs which do not differ materially from zero. In the concentrations expected in the environment their atmospheric degradation products will have a negligible impact on ecosystems. CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) are environmentally acceptable.

  20. Switchable pH actuators and 3D integrated salt bridges as new strategies for reconfigurable microfluidic free-flow electrophoretic separation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Jing; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-03-07

    We present novel strategies for reconfigurable, high-throughput microfluidic free-flow electrophoretic separation using electrically switchable pH actuators and 3D integrated salt bridges to allow rapid formation of stable pH gradients and efficient electrophoresis. The pH actuator is achieved by microfluidic integration of bipolar membranes which change electrolyte pH by injecting excess H(+) or OH(-) ions produced by a field-enhanced water dissociation phenomenon at the membrane junction upon voltage bias. The technique does not require conventional multiple buffer inflows and leaves no gas production as experienced in electrolysis, thus providing stable pH gradients for isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation. With the pH actuator inactivated, the platform can perform zone electrophoretic (ZE) separation in a medium of constant pH. We also describe the use of 3D integrated ion conductive polymers that serve as salt bridges for improving the voltage efficiency of electrophoresis and to allow high throughput. The proof of concept was successfully demonstrated for free-flow IEF and ZE separation of protein mixtures showing the potential and the simplicity of the platform for high-throughput and high-precision sample separation.

  1. Retrieve Optically Thick Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties by Using Airborne Dual-Wavelength Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm to retrieve optically thick ice cloud microphysical property profiles is developed by using the GSFC 9.6 GHz ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and the 94 GHz Cloud Radar System (CRS) measurements aboard the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. In situ size distribution and total water content data from the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign are used for the algorithm development. To reduce uncertainty in calculated radar reflectivity factors (Ze) at these wavelengths, coincident radar measurements and size distribution data are used to guide the selection of mass-length relationships and to deal with the density and non-spherical effects of ice crystals on the Ze calculations. The algorithm is able to retrieve microphysical property profiles of optically thick ice clouds, such as, deep convective and anvil clouds, which are very challenging for single frequency radar and lidar. Examples of retrieved microphysical properties for a deep convective clouds are presented, which show that EDOP and CRS measurements provide rich information to study cloud structure and evolution. Good agreement between IWPs derived from an independent submillimeter-wave radiometer, CoSSIR, and dual-wavelength radar measurements indicates accuracy of the IWC retrieved from the two-frequency radar algorithm.

  2. The chemotaxonomic significance of two bioactive caffeic acid esters, nepetoidins A and B, in the Lamiaceae.

    PubMed

    Grayer, Renée J; Eckert, Maria R; Veitch, Nigel C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Marin, Petar D; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Simmonds, Monique S J; Paton, Alan J

    2003-09-01

    A survey of leaf surface constituents in the family Lamiaceae using HPLC with diode array detection revealed the presence of two characteristic phenolic compounds in many species. The distribution of these phenolics in the Lamiaceae was found to be of taxonomic significance, as they were present in the great majority of species investigated for the subfamily Nepetoideae, including representatives of the well-known genera of culinary herbs, mint, rosemary, sage, thyme and basil. In contrast, they were absent from species of the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae studied and from the related families Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae and Buddlejaceae. The compounds were isolated from Plectranthus crassus and identified by NMR spectroscopy as the known caffeic acid esters (Z,E)-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate and (Z,E)-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate, for which the trivial names nepetoidins A and B are proposed. The presence of this pair of caffeic acid esters adds another character to the chemical, palynological and embryological features distinguishing the Nepetoideae from the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae and related families, and supports the view that the Nepetoideae are a specialised and monophyletic group within the family. Nepetoidin B was shown to have a greater antioxidant activity than gallic, rosmarinic and caffeic acids, and showed activity as an insect phagostimulant. Both compounds were antifungal.

  3. A Collection of Observational Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    eqk C 0CO C - Cr -00 to r o e eC n t-eD e° t-e 0 0b O~~~~ O 0 00 CD ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X C 6 t 0000 00000000 oooo~~~~~~~oE-4 o ~ ~ r0-0otto0Ce-X~esxoesoe Ob~S % o...eq q 00 c X Coo) 00 < 00 C 000 o d0C0 o- 4 t- b.>H an O + e N -- e s14 e t, t- e O Ooŕ -4 t-O N N z O3 ._ cs cr ~~~oo (M t- o Du o cO _ N :ID o- co...276 020863 ZE W 7 WSW 17 K 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 279 090863 ZE NNW 17 WNW 15 F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 280 120863 A SW 52 WSW 94 F 7.8 5.4 9.4 11.9 0 281 130863

  4. Study on the role of active radicals on plasma sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mstsuura, Hiroto; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Okuno, Yasuki; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Takemura, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure discharge plasma has gathered attention in various fields. Among them, plasma sterilization with many types of plasma source has studied for decades and its mechanism is still an open question. If active radicals produced in plasma has main contribution of killing bacterias, direct contact of the so-called plasma flame might not be necessary. To confirm this, sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes is studied in present work. DBD type plasma jet is produce by flowing helium gas in a glass tube. A long polymeric tube is connected and plasma jet is introduced into it. Plasma flame length depends on helium gas flow rate, but limited to about 10 cm in our experimental condition. E.colis set at the exit plasma source is easily killed during 10 min irradiation. At the tube end (about 20 cm away from plasma source exit), sterilization is possible with 30 min operation. This result shows that active radical is produced with helium plasma and mist contained in sample, and it can be transferred more than 20 cm during it life time. More plasma diagnostic data will also be shown at the conference. This work was partially supported by the ''ZE Research Program, IAE(ZE27B-4).

  5. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Inayat, Abrar

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  6. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  7. Peroxidase 4 is involved in syringyl lignin formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Vivar, Tamara; Pomar, Federico; Pedreño, María A; Novo-Uzal, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Syringyl lignins result from the oxidative polymerization of sinapyl alcohol in a reaction mediated by syringyl (basic) peroxidases. Several peroxidases have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana as close homologues to ZePrx, the best characterized basic peroxidase so far, but none of these has been directly involved in lignification. We have used a knock-out mutant of AtPrx4, the closest homologue to ZePrx, to study the involvement of this basic peroxidase in the physiology of the plant under both long- and short-day light conditions. Our results suggest that AtPrx4 is involved in cell wall lignification, especially in syringyl monomer formation. The disruption of AtPrx4 causes a decrease in syringyl units proportion, but only when light conditions are optimal. Moreover, the effect of AtPrx4 disruption is age-dependent, and it is only significant when the elongation process of the stem has ceased and lignification becomes active. In conclusion, AtPrx4 emerges as a basic peroxidase regulated by day length with an important role in lignification.

  8. System-independent characterization of materials using dual-energy computed tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Azevedo, Stephen G.; Martz, Jr., Harry E.; Aufderheide, III, Maurice B.; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a new decomposition approach for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) called SIRZ that provides precise and accurate material description, independent of the scanner, over diagnostic energy ranges (30 to 200 keV). System independence is achieved by explicitly including a scanner-specific spectral description in the decomposition method, and a new X-ray-relevant feature space. The feature space consists of electron density, ρe, and a new effective atomic number, Ze, which is based on published X-ray cross sections. Reference materials are used in conjunction with the system spectral response so that additional beam-hardening correction is not necessary. The techniquemore » is tested against other methods on DECT data of known specimens scanned by diverse spectra and systems. Uncertainties in accuracy and precision are less than 3% and 2% respectively for the (ρe, Ze) results compared to prior methods that are inaccurate and imprecise (over 9%).« less

  9. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  10. The effect of bilirubin photoisomers on unbound-bilirubin concentrations estimated by the peroxidase method.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Onishi, S; Isobe, K; Manabe, M; Sasaki, K

    1986-01-01

    Unbound bilirubin is oxidized to nearly colourless substances in the presence of H2O2 or ethyl hydroperoxide and horseradish peroxidase. To predict the risk of kernicterus (degenerated yellow pigmentation of nerve cells), this principle has been widely utilized for estimating the concentration of unbound bilirubin in hyperbilirubinaemic serum. However, the serum contains polar geometric photoisomers of bilirubin. Therefore, to clarify the effect of bilirubin photoisomer concentrations on unbound-bilirubin concentration, the concentration of bilirubin and its photoisomer and of unbound bilirubin in samples obtained from experiments in vivo and in vitro were simultaneously and individually estimated by h.p.l.c. and the peroxidase method. During photoirradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, the serum polar (ZE)-bilirubin IX alpha concentration increased remarkably, but unbound-bilirubin values were not affected at all. However, during experiments in vitro, unbound bilirubin concentrations increased only when concentrations of the rather polar (EZ)- and (EE)-cyclobilirubin IX alpha increased considerably in a human serum albumin-bilirubin solution irradiated with blue light. Thus it is concluded that unbound-bilirubin concentrations, and consequently the initial rate of the peroxidase reaction, is not accelerated by the increase in either (ZE)-bilirubin or (EZ)-cyclobilirubin concentration within the clinically observed range. PMID:3545181

  11. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espirito Santo Basin, SE Brazil) - Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Bell, Rebecca E.

    2017-05-01

    Ze and Alves (2016) use 3D seismic reflection data to describe the geometry and throw characteristics of a salt-related normal fault population in the Espirito Santo Basin, offshore SE Brazil. As part of their analysis they test two competing fault growth models; (i) the isolated model, which states that faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length, an inference seemingly consistent with displacement-length (D-L) scaling relationships (e.g. Watterson, 1986; Walsh and Watterson, 1988; Dawers et al., 1993; Cartwright et al., 1995; Dawers and Anders, 1995); and (ii) the constant-length model, which states that faults grow via establishment of their near-final length relatively early in their slip history, prior to the accumulation of significant displacement (Fig. 1) (e.g. Morewood and Roberts (1999); Morley, 2002; Walsh et al., 2002, 2003; Childs et al., 2003; Nicol et al., 2005; Schlagenhauf et al., 2008; Giba et al., 2012; Jackson and Rotevatn, 2013). Because they make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution and earthquake hazard potential of rifts, critically testing these models is important for structural geologists, geomorphologists and stratigraphers, amongst many others. However, in our view, such critical testing has rarely been undertaken, thus the study of Ze and Alves (2016) is most welcome.

  12. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics in JMA-NHM Simulations Using Bin or Bulk Microphysical Schemes through Comparison with Cloud Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iguchi, Takamichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Khain, Alexander P.; Saito, Kazuo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hajime; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations using the Japan Meteorological Agency NonhydrostaticModel (JMA-NHM) are conducted for three precipitation events observed by shipborne or spaceborneW-band cloud radars. Spectral bin and single-moment bulk cloud microphysics schemes are employed separatelyfor an intercomparative study. A radar product simulator that is compatible with both microphysicsschemes is developed to enable a direct comparison between simulation and observation with respect to theequivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze, Doppler velocity (DV), and path-integrated attenuation (PIA). Ingeneral, the bin model simulation shows better agreement with the observed data than the bulk modelsimulation. The correction of the terminal fall velocities of snowflakes using those of hail further improves theresult of the bin model simulation. The results indicate that there are substantial uncertainties in the masssizeand sizeterminal fall velocity relations of snowflakes or in the calculation of terminal fall velocity of snowaloft. For the bulk microphysics, the overestimation of Ze is observed as a result of a significant predominanceof snow over cloud ice due to substantial deposition growth directly to snow. The DV comparison shows thata correction for the fall velocity of hydrometeors considering a change of particle size should be introducedeven in single-moment bulk cloud microphysics.

  13. The generalized block-localized wavefunction method: A case study on the conformational preference and C-O rotational barrier of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jian-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun; Mo, Yirong

    2012-04-01

    A Lewis structure corresponding to the most stable electron-localized state is often used as a reference for the measure of electron delocalization effect in the valence bond (VB) theory. As the simplest variant of ab initio VB theory, the generalized block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method defines the wavefunction for an electron-localized state with block-localized orbitals without the orthogonalization constraint on different blocks. The validity of the method can be critically examined with experimental evidences. Here the BLW method has been applied to the investigation of the roles of both the π conjugation and σ hyperconjugation effects in the conformational preference of formic acid for the trans (Z) conformer over the cis (E) conformer. On one hand, our computations showed that the deactivation of the π conjugation or σ hyperconjugation has little impact on the Z-E energy gap, thus neither is decisive and instead the local dipole-dipole electrostatic interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups is the key factor determining the Z-E energy gap. On the other hand, the present study supported the conventional view that π conjugation is largely responsible for the C-O rotation barrier in formic acid, though the existence of hyperconjugative interactions in the perpendicular structure lowers the barrier considerably.

  14. Indenopyrazole oxime ethers: synthesis and β1-adrenergic blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Angelone, Tommaso; Caruso, Anna; Rochais, Christophe; Caputo, Angela Maria; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Dallemagne, Patrick; Filice, Elisabetta; Genest, David; Pasqua, Teresa; Puoci, Francesco; Saturnino, Carmela; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; El-Kashef, Hussein

    2015-03-06

    This paper reports the synthesis and cardiac activity of new β-blockers derived from (Z/E)-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one oximes (5a,b). The latter compounds were allowed to react with epichlorohydrin, followed by reacting the oxiranyl derivatives formed (6a,b) with some aliphatic amines to give the target compounds (Z/E)-1-phenyl-1H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4-one O-((2-hydroxy-3-(substituted amino)propyl)oxime (7a-c) and (Z/E)-1-methyl-1H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazol-4-one O-((2-hydroxy-3-(substituted amino)propyl)oxime (8a-c). These final products 7a-c and 8a-c were evaluated for their ability to modulate the cardiac performance of a prototype mammalian heart. The results showed that, out of these molecules tested, 7b elicits a more potent depressant effect on contractility and relaxation, and competitively antagonizes β1-adrenergic receptors.

  15. The interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or Trichoderma harzianum alters the shoot hormonal profile in melon plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Roldán, Antonio; Albacete, Alfonso; Pascual, Jose A

    2011-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma harzianum are known to affect plant growth and disease resistance through interaction with phytohormone synthesis or transport in the plant. Cross-talk between these microorganisms and their host plants normally occurs in nature and may affect plant resistance. Simultaneous quantification in the shoots of melon plants revealed significant changes in the levels of several hormones in response to inoculation with T. harzianum and two different AMF (Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae). Analysis of zeatin (Ze), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoot showed common and divergent responses of melon plants to G. intraradices and G. mosseae. T. harzianum effected systemic increases in Ze, IAA, ACC, SA, JA and ABA. The interaction of T. harzianum and the AMF with the plant produced a characteristic hormonal profile, which differed from that produced by inoculation with each microorganism singly, suggesting an attenuation of the plant response, related to the hormones SA, JA and ethylene. These results are discussed in relation to their involvement in biomass allocation and basal resistance against Fusarium wilt.

  16. The generalized block-localized wavefunction method: a case study on the conformational preference and C-O rotational barrier of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun; Mo, Yirong

    2012-04-14

    A Lewis structure corresponding to the most stable electron-localized state is often used as a reference for the measure of electron delocalization effect in the valence bond (VB) theory. As the simplest variant of ab initio VB theory, the generalized block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method defines the wavefunction for an electron-localized state with block-localized orbitals without the orthogonalization constraint on different blocks. The validity of the method can be critically examined with experimental evidences. Here the BLW method has been applied to the investigation of the roles of both the π conjugation and σ hyperconjugation effects in the conformational preference of formic acid for the trans (Z) conformer over the cis (E) conformer. On one hand, our computations showed that the deactivation of the π conjugation or σ hyperconjugation has little impact on the Z-E energy gap, thus neither is decisive and instead the local dipole-dipole electrostatic interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups is the key factor determining the Z-E energy gap. On the other hand, the present study supported the conventional view that π conjugation is largely responsible for the C-O rotation barrier in formic acid, though the existence of hyperconjugative interactions in the perpendicular structure lowers the barrier considerably.

  17. Removal of xenobiotics from effluent discharge by adsorption on zeolite and expanded clay: an alternative to activated carbon?

    PubMed

    Tahar, A; Choubert, J M; Miège, C; Esperanza, M; Le Menach, K; Budzinski, H; Wisniewski, C; Coquery, M

    2014-04-01

    Xenobiotics such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals are an increasingly large problem in aquatic environments. A fixed-bed adsorption filter, used as tertiary stage of sewage treatment, could be a solution to decrease xenobiotics concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent. The adsorption efficiency of two mineral adsorbent materials (expanded clay (EC) and zeolite (ZE)), both seen as a possible alternative to activated carbon (AC), was evaluated in batch tests. Experiments involving secondary treated domestic wastewater spiked with a cocktail of ten xenobiotics (eight pharmaceuticals and two pesticides) known to be poorly eliminated in conventional biological process were carried out. Removal efficiencies and partitions coefficients were calculated for two levels of initial xenobiotic concentration, i.e, concentrations lower to 10 μg/L and concentrations ranged from 100 to 1,000 μg/L. While AC was the most efficient adsorbent material, both alternative adsorbent materials showed good adsorption efficiencies for all ten xenobiotics (from 50 to 100 % depending on the xenobiotic/adsorbent material pair). For all the targeted xenobiotics, at lower concentrations, EC presented the best adsorption potential with higher partition coefficients, confirming the results in terms of removal efficiencies. Nevertheless, Zeolite presents virtually the same adsorption potential for both high and low xenobiotics concentrations to be treated. According to this first batch investigation, ZE and EC could be used as alternative absorbent materials to AC in WWTP.

  18. Broad Scope Synthesis of Ester Precursors of Nonfunctionalized Chiral Alcohols Based on the Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α,β-Dialkyl-, α,β-Diaryl-, and α-Alkyl-β-aryl-vinyl Esters.

    PubMed

    León, Félix; González-Liste, Pedro J; García-Garrido, Sergio E; Arribas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Miguel; Cadierno, Victorio; Pizzano, Antonio

    2017-06-02

    The catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of trisubstituted enol esters using Rh catalysts bearing chiral phosphine-phosphite ligands (P-OP) has been studied. Substrates covered comprise α,β-dialkyl, α-alkyl-β-aryl, and α,β-diarylvinyl esters, the corresponding hydrogenation products being suitable precursors to prepare synthetically relevant chiral nonfunctionalized alcohols. A comparison of reactivity indicates that it decreases in the order: α,β-dialkyl > α-alkyl-β-aryl > α,β-diaryl. Based on the highly modular structure of P-OP ligands employed, catalyst screening identified highly enantioselective catalysts for α,β-dialkyl (95-99% ee) and nearly all of α-alkyl-β-aryl substrates (92-98% ee), with the exception of α-cyclohexyl-β-phenylvinyl acetate which exhibited a low enantioselectivity (47% ee). Finally, α,β-diarylvinyl substrates showed somewhat lower enantioselectivities (79-92% ee). In addition, some of the catalysts provided a high enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of E/Z mixtures (ca. Z/E = 75:25) of α,β-dialkylvinyl substrates, while a dramatic decrease on enantioselectivity was observed in the case of α-methyl-β-anisylvinyl acetate (Z/E = 58:42). Complementary deuteration reactions are in accord with a highly enantioselective hydrogenation for both olefin isomers in the case of α,β-dialkylvinyl esters. In contrast, deuteration shows a complex behavior for α-methyl-β-anisylvinyl acetate derived from the participation of the E isomer in the reaction.

  19. Analysis of sugarcane mosaic virus resistance in maize in an isogenic dihybrid crossing scheme and implications for breeding potyvirus-resistant maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yongzhong; Ingvardsen, Christina; Salomon, Raphael; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The gene action of 2 sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) resistance loci in maize, Scmv1 and Scmv2, was evaluated for potyvirus resistance in an isogenic background. All 4 homozygous and 5 heterozygous isogenic genotypes were produced for introgressions of the resistant donor (FAP1360A) alleles at both loci into the susceptible parent (F7) genetic background using simple sequence repeat markers. For SCMV and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), virus symptoms appeared rapidly in the 3 homozygous genotypes, with susceptibility alleles fixed at 1 or both loci. Although the 9 isogenic genotypes revealed a high level of resistance to Zea mosaic virus (ZeMV), the same 3 homozygous genotypes were only partially resistant. This indicates that 1 resistance gene alone is not sufficient for complete resistance against SCMV, MDMV, and ZeMV. Scmv1 showed strong early and complete dominant gene action to SCMV, but it gradually became partially dominant. Scmv2 was not detected at the beginning, showing dominant gene action initially and additive gene action at later stages. Both genes interacted epistatically (for a high level of resistance, at least 1 resistance allele at each of both loci is required). This implies that double heterozygotes at the 2 loci are promising for producing SCMVresistant hybrids. Results are discussed with respect to prospects for isolation of SCMV and MDMV resistance genes.

  20. Novel dimeric leuco-TAM dyes, 1,4-bis{(1E,3Z)-1,3-bis(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)propan-2-yl}benzene derivatives: Structure and spectroscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Ma, So-Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Lim, Hyun-Woo; Roh, Se-Jung

    2012-04-01

    Novel dimeric leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes, 1,4-bis{(1E,3Z)-1,3-bis(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)propan-2-yl}benzene derivatives, as precursors of dimeric TAM+ and TAM++ dyes, were synthesized and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY. Judging from the 1H NMR analysis, the dimeric LTAM molecules were suggested to have a dual-propeller shaped structure. For the prepared dimeric leuco-TAM dyes, the ZE/EZ isomers were formed as the sole products from the reaction of 2-3 M excess Fischer base and terephthalaldehyde in absolute ethanol. The ZE/EZ isomers were equilibrated with other diastereomers (EE/EE and ZZ/ZZ) in organic solvents. UV-Vis spectroscopy of dimeric TAM++ dyes in organic solvents show an absorption band at >700 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Formation of the dimeric TAM++ molecules was further confirmed by comparison of CV diagrams for monomeric TAM+ and dimeric TAM++ molecules.

  1. Synthesis of Unprecedented Sulfonylated Phosphono-exo-Glycals Designed as Inhibitors of the Three Mycobacterial Galactofuranose Processing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Frédéric, Christophe J-M; Tikad, Abdellatif; Fu, Jian; Pan, Weidong; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Koizumi, Akihiko; Xue, Xiaochao; Lowary, Todd L; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2016-10-24

    This study reports a new methodology to synthesize exo-glycals bearing both a sulfone and a phosphonate. This synthetic strategy provides a way to generate exo-glycals displaying two electron-withdrawing groups and was applied to eight different carbohydrates from the furanose and pyranose series. The Z/E configurations of these tetrasubstituted enol ethers could be ascertained using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Deprotection of an exo-glycal followed by an UMP (uridine monophosphate) coupling generated two new UDP (uridine diphosphate)-galactofuranose analogues. These two Z/E isomers were evaluated as inhibitors of UGM, GlfT1, and GlfT2, the three mycobacterial galactofuranose processing enzymes. Molecule 46-(E) is the first characterized inhibitor of GlfT1 reported to date and was also found to efficiently inhibit UGM in a reversible manner. Interestingly, GlfT2 showed a better affinity for the (Z) isomer. The three enzymes studied in the present work are not only interesting because, mechanistically, they are still the topic of intense investigations, but also because they constitute very important targets for the development of novel antimycobacterial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 16-BAC/SDS-PAGE analysis of membrane proteins of yeast mitochondria purified by free flow electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ralf J; Kinkl, Norbert; Zischka, Hans; Ueffing, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cellular metabolism. These organelles are bounded by two membranes, the outer and inner membrane. Especially the inner membrane comprises a high content of proteins, for example, the protein complexes of the respiratory chain. High-resolution separation and analysis of such membrane proteins, for example, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), is hampered by their hydrophobicity and tendency for aggregation. Here, we describe the separation of mitochondrial membrane proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by 16-benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (16-BAC/SDS-PAGE). This method enables the separation of membrane proteins owing to the solubilizing power of the ionic detergents 16-BAC and SDS, respectively. Mitochondria were isolated from yeast cultures by differential centrifugation and were further purified by free flow electrophoresis (FFE) in zone-electrophoretic mode (ZE). Subsequently, membrane proteins from ZE-FFE-purified mitochondria were enriched by carbonate extraction and subjected to 16-BAC/SDS-PAGE. The resulting protein spot patterns were visualized by a highly sensitive fluorescence stain with ruthenium-II-bathophenantroline disulfonate chelate (RuBP), and by colloidal Coomassie staining. Proteins were identified by Maldi-Tof mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting.

  3. The role of vitamin D in the development of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Bryl, Ewa

    2017-08-28

    Witamina D, poza istotną rolą w utrzymaniu homeostazy wapnia i metabolizmie kostnym, odgrywa ważną rolę w funkcjonowaniu układu odpornościowego. Niedobór witaminy D wiąże się z wieloma niekorzystnymi dla zdrowia skutkami, włączając w to m.in. osłabienie odporności, czego skutkiem jest zwiększona podatność na zakażenia wirusowe, bakteryjne oraz grzybicze. W artykule opisano podstawy metabolizmu witaminy D oraz jej rolę fizjologiczną, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wpływu na komórki układu odpornościowego. Ze względu na jej istotną rolę w regulacji odpowiedzi zapalnej oraz wytwarzaniu cytokin zwraca się uwagę na jej rolę w rozwoju chorób o podłożu autoimmunologicznym, takich jak cukrzyca typu 1, toczeń rumieniowaty, reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów, stwardnienie rozsiane, nieswoiste zapalenia jelit, łuszczyca, bielactwo, czy twardzina, w których witamina D ma potencjalne szerokie zastosowanie zarówno w prewencji, jak i wspomaganiu działań terapeutycznych.

  4. Twin-screw extruded lipid implants containing TRP2 peptide for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Even, Marie-Paule; Bobbala, Sharan; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2017-01-16

    Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed. All formulations were characterised in terms of extrudability, implant properties and in vitro release behaviour of the model antigen ovalbumin. The type of extruder used to produce the implants had a major influence on implant properties and the release behaviour, demonstrating that extrusion parameters and lipid formulations have to be individually adapted to each extrusion device. Subsequently, lipid implants containing TRP-2 peptide were extruded on the ZE mini extruder and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo study showed that mice having received TRP2 loaded implants had delayed tumour growth for 3days compared to groups having received no TRP2.

  5. Polarimetric spectra analysis for tokamak pitch angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.; Lange, A. G. G.; de Bock, M. F. M.

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of the internal magnetic field structures using conventional polarimetric approaches are considered extremely challenging in fusion-reactor environments whereas the information on current density profiles is essential to establish steady-state and advance operation scenarios in such reactor-relevant devices. Therefore, on ITER a hybrid system is proposed for the current density measurements that uses both polarimetry and spectral measurements. The spectrum-based approaches have been tested in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) during the past two plasma campaigns. As such, KSTAR is a test-bed for the proposed ITER hybrid system. Measurements in the plasma core are based on the motional Stark effect (MSE) spectrum of the neutral beam emission. For the edge profiles, the Zeeman effect (ZE) acting on the lithium emission spectrum of the newly installed (2013) Lithium-beam-diagnostic is exploited. The neutral beam emission spectra, complicated by the multi-ion-source beam injection, are successfully fitted making use of the data provided by the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database package. This way pitch angle profiles could be retrieved from the beam emission spectra. With the same spectrometer/CCD hardware as on MSE, but with a different wavelength range and different lines of sight, the first ZE spectrum measurements have been made. The Zeeman splitting comparable to and greater than the instrumental broadening has been routinely detected at high toroidal field operations ( ~ 3 Tesla).

  6. Partial deletions of the W chromosome due to reciprocal translocation in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Abe, H; Seki, M; Ohbayashi, F; Tanaka, N; Yamashita, J; Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M; Banno, Y; Sahara, K; Yoshido, A; Ihara, J; Yasukochi, Y; Mita, K; Ajimura, M; Suzuki, M G; Oshiki, T; Shimada, T

    2005-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori (female, ZW; male, ZZ), femaleness is determined by the presence of a single W chromosome, irrespective of the number of autosomes or Z chromosomes. The W chromosome is devoid of functional genes, except the putative female-determining gene (Fem). However, there are strains in which chromosomal fragments containing autosomal markers have been translocated on to W. In this study, we analysed the W chromosomal regions of the Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) at the molecular level. Initially, we undertook a project to identify W-specific RAPD markers, in addition to the three already established W-specific RAPD markers (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai and W-Kamikaze). Following the screening of 3648 arbitrary 10-mer primers, we obtained nine W-specific RAPD marker sequences (W-Bonsai, W-Mikan, W-Musashi, W-Rikishi, W-Sakura, W-Sasuke, W-Yukemuri-L, W-Yukemuri-S and BMC1-Kabuki), almost all of which contained the border regions of retrotransposons, namely portions of nested retrotransposons. We confirmed the presence of eleven out of twelve W-specific RAPD markers in the normal W chromosomes of twenty-five silkworm strains maintained in Japan. These results indicate that the W chromosomes of the strains in Japan are almost identical in type. The Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) lacked the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) lacked the W-Mikan RAPD marker. These results strongly indicate that the regions containing the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers or the W-Mikan RAPD marker were deleted in the T(W;3)Ze and T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosomes, respectively, due to reciprocal translocation between the W chromosome and the autosome. This deletion apparently does not affect the expression of Fem; therefore, this deleted region of the W chromosome does not contain the putative Fem gene.

  7. Three dimensional characteristics of precipitating cloud systems observed during Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2016-09-01

    Ten year of TRMM PR data is used to study the properties of the precipitating cloud systems over Indian land and ocean areas. TRMM PR reflectivity information is often displayed in three dimensions, making it excellent for study the three dimensional characteristics of precipitating cloud systems. A cloud system (CS) is defined by connecting pixels of more than 17 dBZ, with at least one pixel must be higher than 40 dBZ. Within the CSs two types of cloud cells are defined, namely most vigorous cell (MVC) and reflectivity profile for cloud (RPC) for informing the vertical structure of precipitation. Most vigorous cell contains the maximum Ze at each altitude from the CSs, whereas the RPC consists of the vertical extension of Ze ⩾ 40 dBZ at any altitude. Area covered by different reflectivity thresholds (30, 35 and 40 dBZ), and analysis of three dimensional cloud vertical structure show the evolution characteristics of cloud systems. Vertical structure of precipitation shows higher regional differences compared to cloud area and evolution of clouds. Head of Bay consists higher number of precipitating cloud systems. Land areas show the intense cloud systems compared to oceanic areas and on an average, precipitation intensity is least over Arabian Sea and highest over central India. Probability of warm rain is higher over Western Ghats and Arabian Sea. Between 5 and 10 km altitude, reflectivity values show 5 dBZ difference in MVC and RPC. Western Ghats shows higher reflectivity value above 12 km altitude and matches with land dominated areas. Land dominated area shows higher fraction of deep clouds. Almost 50% MVCs cross 10 km altitude over land dominated areas whereas only 20% MVCs are crossing the 10 km altitude over Arabian Sea. Maximum height of 30 and 40 dBZ consist the lower mode over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal compared to land dominated areas. Small cloud systems consist higher area of intense precipitation (higher values of Ze) and as the area of cloud

  8. Topographic position of large slope failures revealed by excess topography in the Himalaya-Karakoram Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Large slope failures (defined here as affecting >0.1 km² in planform area) substantially contribute to denuding hillslopes, thereby limiting the growth of topographic relief in active mountain belts produced by tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. The region around Nanga Parbat, situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges (HKR), has been shown to exhibit one of the largest clusters of large scale slope failure known. However, a thorough analysis of the pattern of landslides in the wider region, let alone an inventory of large slope failure is lacking. We take this as a motivation to create a landslide inventory covering the upper Indus catchment located in the HKR of NW India and N Pakistan. Our data set contains 492 large landslides that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km³. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We further introduce excess topography ZE, which quantifies the vertical column of rock material above a hypothetical failure plane, as a first-order metric of potentially unstable rock slopes. We find that large bedrock landslides in the HKR preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This picture is supported by the distribution of excess topography ZE that peaks along major fluvial and glacial inner gorges, which is where the majority of large rock-slope failures occur. Our analysis suggests a hitherto unrecognised vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport in higher elevations seems to be dominated by

  9. Identifying Spatial Patterns and Processes Affecting Mean Annual Runoff in the Alzette River Basin, Luxembourg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, Keith; Klaus, Julian; Dickson, Sam; Pfister, Laurent; Giustarini, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Mean annual runoff can be impacted by changes to climate and anthropogenic activities within a catchment. Differences in mean annual runoff between catchments in a local region can also reflect variations in average catchment properties, particularly average soil water storage over the prevailing plant root depth. We investigate the relative importance of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and catchment properties using the Budyko framework on sub-catchments of the Alzette river basin in Luxembourg (as represented by the Choudhury model, which uses a single catchment parameter 'n' to encode catchment characteristics). We seek to establish if the 'Choudhury catchment parameter' can be used as a regionalisation index for mean annual runoff and therefore aid in identifying hydrologic response units. For 51 Luxembourgish sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.45km2 to 4232km2 we used average annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and runoff over a 12 year period to 2012 to identify the 'n' parameter by curve fitting. We then break down 'n' into three component parts: annual mean storm depth, α, (mm); mean effective rooting depth, Ze, (mm) and relative soil water holding capacity, κ (dimensionless). The n parameter then becomes a function of κ Ze /α . Information on each of these three components can be obtained independently from GIS mapping of land use, soil texture and spatially distributed rainfall statistics. Results showed the fitted n parameter is not affected by catchment size and did not increase with increased percentage of forest cover (potentially increased Ze). The soil water holding capacity exhibits a weak regional trend from north (0.1 to 0.2) to south (0.15 to 0.25) and α also declined from 18 mm in the north-east to 12 mm in the south-west, following a general slight orographic trend in the rainfall. The independent estimate of n suggests a regional trend, with the lowest values in the north-east and the highest values (less

  10. National Dam Inspection Program. Pemberwick Dam (CT 00042). Southwestern Coastal Basin, Greenwich, Connecticut. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    34 . - -is -2: V *1,, . LC CC,- - I 41, H **, 6;4 E V) (b \\j( ~Q B-17 ’-- v - LOWVER CtAlM SITE LB ,-- - If K . , . - . -- , . . , . . o...S) 0 -1 5 v- lF-l E -. - 7" 3. 1 C c -- 7e17 :-’VP\\ ThOL ) O EQ i-\\U--Th p\\O l Z Y7 ,C’ZE rAJ Pe&URCELL ASSOCIATES D-25 V RATING CURVE DEVELOPMENT...CT 00042 PHASE 1 INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM 4. ’.; -� -JUL05 6194 I E : L.J DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW ENGLAND DIVISION

  11. The Biostack experiment on Apollo 16.

    PubMed

    Bucker, H; Horneck, G; Allkofer, O C; Bartholoma, K P; Beaujean, R; Cuer, P; Enge, W; Facius, R; Francois, H; Graul, E H; Henig, G; Heinrich, W; Kaiser, R; Kuhn, H; Massue, J P; Planel, H; Portal, G; Reinholz, E; Ruther, W; Scheuermann, W; Schmitt, R; Schopper, E; Schott, J U; Soleilhavoup, J P; Wollenhaupt, H

    1973-01-01

    The object of the Biostack experiment is to study the biological effects of high ZE particles of cosmic radiation in order to obtain information on the mechanism of these particles in biological matter. For this purpose individual local evaluation methods have been developed which allow one to identify each biologically effective particle and to correlate the individual hitting particle with the biological effect produced. The Biostack experimental package contains a series of monolayers of selected biological objects (Bacillus subtilis spores, Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, Vicia faba radiculae, Artemia salina eggs) with each layer sandwiched between several different cosmic ion track detectors (nuclear emulsions, cellulose nitrate, polycarbonate). By this arrangement a variety of biological effects due to a single penetrating particle can be analysed. Influence on cellular and tissue development, nuclear damages, and mutation induction are the main investigated effects. These space flight findings will be completed by results of balloon flight and accelerator experiments.

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Loon Lake Dam (Inventory Number NY-795), Upper Hudson River Basin, Warren County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    z c .Oto 0 k 4O M4- W:, 0 >1. >’ 4.o 0!) 4 S414...0.1 0 En~ 0zjN .- 4lr 0i 39)~ N ~ .~0 W U. En Vi :1 0.) IIw 4 4n4 0o-- -H -4 00 p 0 44 tv J 44 r w 4) 1 0 I-- LL. LL. 0.(. CQ ) z (a CU ( o~d Q w - wU...LU ma 0. 3d 0c 0 Ze LLI-I =i. 9 0IZa Wo~- w .i n#AO wI W c z UN LU 41 C 00 4-4 u ( I W V0 4 W w o *A :3 - 0 0 co En0)0 021 0 0.a4 0 0z o w22id

  13. A New Alkylation-Elimination Method for Synthesis of Antiviral Fluoromethylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoman; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of fluoromethylenecyclopropane nucleosides by alkylation-elimination procedure is described. Fluorination of methylenecyclopropane carboxylate 6 gave fluoroester 7. Treatment of 7 with phenylselenenyl bromide afforded the desired ethyl (E)-2-bromomethyl-1-fluoro-2-phenylselenenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate 11 in 85% yield. DIBALH reduction of 11 gave 13, which after acetylation to 14 was reacted with 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give the 9-alkylated product 15 in 87% yield. Se-oxydation of 15 with hydrogen peroxide afforded 16, which underwent smooth elimination in a mixture of THF-DMF at 60 °C giving rise to a Z,E mixture of protected nucleosides 17. Deacetylation gave Z-1a and E-1a which were separated on a silica gel column. Both Z-1a and E-1a were converted into the respective guanine analogues Z-1b and E-1b. PMID:16801980

  14. A bidirectional YAC walk from the Norrie disease (NDP) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, G.C.; Zheng-Yi Chen; Craig, I.W.

    1995-02-10

    The region of Xp between DXS7 and the centromere contains the gene for Norrie disease in addition to the genes for several other ophthalmic disorders. A 650-kb YAC containing the loci MAOA, MAOB, and NDP has been used as the starting point for a bidirectional chromosomal walk. A contig of 16 YACs covering between 2 and 3 Mb has been developed in which the following markers/genes are located (in physical order): Xpter - DXS1201 (256ze5) - DXS6668 - DXS228 - DXS77 - DXS7 - MAOA - MAOB - FR12 (pseudogene) - NDP - DXS6670 - RRM2P3 - DXS6671 - DXS742 - Xcen. Seven new STSs are described both for end clones and for internal Alu PCR products from the contig. The contig contains the breakpoint of the t75-2ma-1b (t75) translocation, close to the 5{prime} end of the MAOB gene. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...mitigated by standardizing WAPS test scores. There is also a concern about AFSC mix in the pool of future enlisted leaders. The Air Force fills about 400...impact of longevity. Because AFSCs comprise members with different mixes of gen- eral and specialty knowledge, because tests can vary in difficulty

  16. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  17. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Vortex Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-06-01

    sSet3)&&SSSBS£*lBä28ttSill •i«c .;-,.’. $fo» » -5 *$*?* i->! .3! °.S, • ii 𔃻.’ * -.i A’ - ’ -~^^ ..# ’$* ;--•.».’ s la...S^-.iacijeB). T$$be< •_».-.. •». »:. . . .» A SKs_ Large Si-20. (:&PS: ihcfsssi ©|fes * ,.„ * Clase >m of ^Jtel| S-i’ze. |’Ö-.l𔄁f Meii) .^übe Coa... ii f • i!h"" «•’ • - SlMBCStS - f" . Voices, feii» inside £?sa» 0v$& scj.: |r*0. SoteS: ifoiazie

  19. Analysis of Air Purifying Respirator Cartridges and Filters as a Determination of Occupational Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    0 CLCL1 C 0)X .1-0 --P-P) 4) NJ-ClOOVD CrN.- =3X X X *- D- ( in Z:E O.PZC occ L L .0l ON 101 C.\\ WULW Uj e fe - u0 fD (pOn C N0 0I 0 0-) M XL 4- - 1...C -P )4J 4.) ( EC L <C<( m )%+ )(InN - 4-) 4- o 1 C~iK* Q1 E EE IV J I fD + E - -0 to 10 - - +5 +-P* %N fO 3+3 -P:3 3f 3- 330 12 in U 10 U -u =r=eE

  20. Down syndrome and hyperthyroidism - two case reports.

    PubMed

    Szatkowska, Marta; Zimny, Dominika; Barg, Ewa

    2016-02-18

    Trisomia 21 pary chromosomów (Zespół Downa, DS) jest jednym z częściej występujących zaburzeń chromosomalnych w praktyce pediatrycznej. Zaburzenia funkcji tarczycy często występują u tych pacjentów. Niedoczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana u blisko 50% pacjentów z ZD, a liczba ta wzrasta wraz z wiekiem. Nadczynność tarczycy jest rozpoznawana znaczniej rzadziej u dzieci z ZD. Odpowiednia strategia leczenia nadczynności tarczycy jest bardzo istotna ze względu na możliwość zaburzenia rozwoju dzieci. Przedstawiamy dwa przypadki dzieci z zespołem Downa i nadczynnością tarczycy. Proces leczenia tych pacjentów był odmienny.

  1. Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.

    2016-11-01

    Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z  >  0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.

  2. The Relative Entropy of a Random Vector with Respect to Another Random Vector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    u (T = p (TfnX+) (1.2.4.2) Z+ CUs+S+sS P -(T - sup I u(TfnZ-) - -(T nUzZ) = -u(T nX-) (1.2.4.3) .Z-e U S_ s s s * lH(T) - sup [ 1p( TrIZ s )I = sup...belongs to the Author; the proof uses the method used in [3], page 203 in a particular case. Lemma 1.3 - In the case r = 2, part a) is proved in [1...represents an amelioration of a statement in [8] , and it belongs to the Author, even that methods from [8] are used. 66 Theorem 1.9 - while following the

  3. Thermodynamical and excess thermoacoustical study on some monosaccharide (glucose) with enzyme amylase in aqueous media at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithiyanantham, S.; Palaniappan, L.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonic velocity (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements have been carried out in three ternary mixtures of glucose with amylase in aqueous medium at 298.15 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate some derived parameters such as acoustical impedance (Z), relative association (RA), Rao's constant (R), Wada's constant (W), relaxation time (τ), relaxation amplitude (α/f2), relaxation strength (r), and some excess thermodynamical properties like excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), excess free length (LfE) excess free volume (VfE), excess internal pressure (πiE) and excess acoustical impedance (ZE). The above parameters have been evaluated and discussed in light of molecular interactions in the mixture.

  4. Improved Methods for Predicting Spectrum Loading Effects. Volume 2. Test Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    toO NIeP tyMNN1 tK m( omIIII( r.,- 19 1" I,0 A’ %Sa0 %a. s %C4NI r- 0, 4 0 d o4. a o ’ 0 d 4 -4 4 4 1 4 1 0 tAr %0 4 p.r 1 oI 41 f1 4c -. 6 IAU MI 0 .4...N.~ 322 . Lai 6-a-t u, -J 4Ic I - IAUkat fA 4 I-A a- a-- a. 4cfUU fcwaiZP=ze I-32- . Ulu 0 99 P- N j 4 It N 0 WN Nm Ne 9 go 9 9 *Il 0’ U. -- 0, S C

  5. Super-Resolving Properties of Metallodielectric Stacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    i i B A   TMM formalism 11332211 ... += nnn TPTPTPTPTF        2221 1211 ff ff F 2 11 2 11 21 1, f T f f R ==)exp())exp()exp(( xiziBziAE...a b s (H )2 i n a .u Plot of the Magnetic field squared across the thickness of MDS1 consisting of Ag and GaP layers. There is an overlay of the...photonic band gaps)”         l  i ZR r i Zw r Zw w tEtrZE )()( exp )( )(),,( 2 2 2 0 0 l  20

  6. Stress-Rupture of New Tyranno Si-C-O-Zr Fiber Reinforced Minicomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    Minicomposites consisting of two varieties of Zr containing SiC-based fibers from Ube (Tyranno) with BN interphases and CVI SiC matrices were studied. The two fiber-types were the ZMI and ZE fiber-types that contain approximately 8 and 2% oxygen, respectively. The minicomposites were precracked and tested under constant load testing at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1200 C. The data were then compared to the rupture behavior of Hi- Nicalon (TM) fiber reinforced minicomposites tested under identical conditions. It was found that the Ube fiber-types had stress rupture life equivalent to Hi- Nicalon (TM) over the entire temperature range. A potential benefit of the ZMI fiber-type is that it offers rupture properties almost as good as Hi-Nicalon (TM) at the cost of ceramic grade Nicalon (TM).

  7. Final Report for N00014-75-C-0749.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    the struet:..e )f in the c :in, -n #If fcrt to study the r:.sidual :.oi ze fi.?ld --5s - ,nder this contr- ict . A"-.st 2s :-o)n -s it -was rQ liued...looking cnar was c si~rned, constractod, and tested at fea as an elrzeent of the deep-- tow _1.rstrur elt ::y tcr. Subsequent --i.~n :odification and...100 ’-151 GiceLn S!Jcet P,-. St lICUIS. . y, ’? Corn C ne -- N% Sea S -Ic:ns CC;nr.-and lc Dc,-i--- (7: ,p ONE NV,hnvon. D C. 2U62’- iv7ce ICt <oe 6

  8. Summer Research Program (1992). High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-28

    F5 ’󈨉 44-*.A 35.019 3501 00 - 35000 Oil-~ 24r993 T 24 996 U ’ 46734 967 34 960.0 104.960 106.968 106,976 106,964 10691,3 !C.7COI ’,,;C9 l,7ý.17 JL...surface area for the chlorine that flows between the disks. The chlorine and BHP 9-3 ""HL*R,., OXYGEN .HEUUM ’ ISKS (S• , u •,o •.w,.ROTATION flWUCL-d...ir a u aer E: ren7zio ~e q er-n coeratrn Ic r. Nov, reserar- Tru st ze o aul !t nt Wa t pt it etPC= 13-5 SYNTHESIS AND PURIFICATION OF FULLERENES

  9. Ocular-specific chemical delivery systems of betaxolol for safe local treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Farag, H H; Wu, W M; Barros, M D; Somogyi, G; Prokai, L; Bodor, N

    1997-08-01

    Novel ketomethoxime (BMO) and oxime (BO) analogs of betaxolol (B) were prepared through the oxidation of betaxolol, followed by quenching of the ketone with the appropriate oxyamine. The Z isomers were kinetically favored and thermodynamically more stable. Isomerization to reach an equilibrium mixture of Z/E was observed for all pure isomers in buffers. Equilibration is much faster, however in biological fluids. Ocular administration of any of the oxime derivatives, delivers betaxolol specifically to the eye tissues, with the highest concentration in the iris ciliary body. Both BMO and BO, when applied topically, showed marked reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbits. No effect on isoproterenol-induced tachycardia in rabbits and rats were observed, even after iv. administration. Very mild eye irritation, which was less than that of betaxolol hydrochloride, was observed particularly with BMO maleate, which is an excellent candidate for safe treatment of glaucoma.

  10. Investigation of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Crystalline Organic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-14

    S The Schrodinger equation can then be solved by the variational principle using the following trial wavefunction: Ttot = We(ze)Wh(Zh) Vls(P,Z) (5.17...aw ’Yoon"i. inludn" ;.re ta~tt r""WWi4 .A"ti%&=oft Mwar=10 euvurng " CAt lourt qauwn arw 160 mstuw"q me, data neea". arwe czmenveaq arnvww...q C...34 C011OCU0Of atIfltMAUon. SW"~ CaMmnf qagr430 V UCI b, e, or SM tav, S aW atPMn toIlecOon at mfomn=o@n. i nau~ ta aqqc,,u tO reaionq amn Oura*,. to Way

  11. Development of Improved 3DOF Analysis Capabilities in the AEDC-VKF continuous Wind Tunnels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    Implications for Dynamic Stability Testing." AIAA Paper No. 71-275, presented at AIAA 6th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico , March 10... VPH |) QmDA6S(VTHTA) HaDASS(VPSI) IFIPeLT.SPHZISIGIPHmSIG|PH*|.D*O |F(PeGEeSPHI.ANDePeLT.2eO*OeSPHI)SIG2PHsS|G2PH~|eO~O IF(P.GEe~eD...NLOOP8| DO I0 |81tN " CALL GAUSS(ZXeSPHXeANPHZgVPH|) CALL GAUSS(IYtSTHTAgAHTHTAgVTHTA) CALL GAUSS(|ZeSPSIgAHPSIIVPS|) PHXH(X)sPHIM(X)~ VPH ; THTAM

  12. A Compendium of Tension Member Properties for Input to Cable Structure Analysis Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    M r r-."LL cV) nr. coC)cn to tD o o t C C> %j’’.’. 00OC~C- U)C. 0M c’jcL l. UlA co - r--.c-Jr- LA) 01 c,; c; m,’c. ~ c- Lo C4e c4~ c4 oc r.c- LA LA;c...Approx. Air Approx. Weight Approx. Breaking BWG Di ameter Weight in Sea Water Strength (lbs.) Si ze inches lbs/1000 feet lbs/1000 feet Based on 100, 000...RADIIIS) / p td / / I 0 05 t (RADIUS) -- .- -- Series B Thickness Fineness .Chord Length Designation Ratio Ratio c/t (ft) (cm) B-1 0.6 2.875 0.28

  13. Generation of the Starting Plane Flowfield for Supersonic Flow over a Spherically Capped Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    tfli to♦-^z/ut’u lO*J/ibd’U 10 * ^ I i b ti ° u to* H/Sic °U to* -ikt^t’^i lO*.-)/ Hcc ;*0 tO*Jfilu<’u -lO’dlVbl-U iu*3 IU»39?B<>»I...Z 55Z*Z ZE5V %56V 19’(V Zl6V Z01"f 195’£ EST’Z E5Z’Z ftZ5V 056V 55’iV •>06V hbO ") £05’£ t5TZ OGZ’Z 5Z5V 5’>6V 6’>*V /6B V 990’* 5**V 9VTZ 9"TZ’Z

  14. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Van Auwegem, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Ferrini, M.; Muhammad, S.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Tytgat, M.

    2016-09-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  15. Log Polar Quantization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    100 2 CONTINUE C I1VI=Ix1 I2VI =IX2 CALL IPOKE(*167762PI1VI) CALL IPOKEU01677532PI2VI) C DETERMINE LARGEST VECTOR AMPLITUDE ILF=IDLVA( IlVIPI2VI) C...ITEIT:=INVAT( ITAFF, ITAAL) C COMBINE EPROM DATA ITI)=ICED( ITAAl..vITDT) C SELECT LARGEST VECTOR IVIL--ISLV( ILFP’[lVI , I2VI ) C INVERSE-NORMAL [ZE...IIVI ;* ERROR SECTION ERR: JP @#4 ;ABORT TO MONITOR ;**** M2 M2: COM R2 ;COMPLEMENT I2VI BIC #377 ,R2 ;CLEAR PHASE BITS ADD *400 ,R2 ;- I2VI JMP ADD

  16. Development of Sidebands in Tapered and in Untapered Free-Electron Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    taken to be of the form a (r,z,t) I a(r,z,t) exp [i z - Wt e x + c.c. 2r T-r) - where A r=mec a r lei is the radiation vector potential, m is the...rest-mass of an electron, lel is the magnitude of the electronic change, c is the speed of light in vacuo, w is the radian frequency, and e is the unit-X... vector along the x axis. The wiggler field is assumed to be plane- polarized, of amplitude B and period 2rt/k : w w B (z) - B exp (ik z)e + c.c. w2w

  17. Fourth graders' sensitivity to morphological context in spelling.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Derrick C; Beaupre, Jennilee; Macgregor, Krista

    2011-06-01

    An important aspect of spelling development in English involves the child's ability to use morphological context to deal with one-to-many sound-spelling mappings for word endings. One case involves /z/ endings that follow long vowels, where an "s" spelling is required in the case of inflected noun and verb contexts, but an "se" or "ze" spelling is required in the case of noninflected nouns and verbs. The present study examined the ability of good and poor spellers in Grade 4 to capture these morphological distinctions in a pseudoword spelling task. Overall, the good spellers outperformed the poor spellers, and both groups were more sensitive to the inflected-noninflected noun distinction than the inflected-noninflected verb distinction. These findings underscore the importance of linguistic factors in spelling development as well as the necessity of providing due consideration to these factors in spelling instruction.

  18. Cross-Correlation: Statistics, Templating, and Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-29

    g ze26.19 u)U*O D 0 Lb4 S ! 94a p*L 6 a 0 6 m n 00M op op C 4j 1 L* 2 C- 4 0.1 "I I LU C*~i 0:01:06 s - U Ib ILO) -0 ) 0...0 a as1 -x * c x 40 U 1m0u -,L-60 .C51 £ 1 - , It 0;0341 C4 WI - CU-acO 2 . 2 , 0 b llzU 1s to 6 aU - 3 I wCSSa . G % wooa a.. S -I0f 0=: f-l _ VV1 4A...L ru S .. 0 0~ 0 t- L -4 bot- I’D 0 ~ ~~cl e___ ’~C~-~. 2 - 1 2.2.2 Situational Templating For purposes of this report terrain, vegetation,

  19. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 and its aspirin-triggered stereoisomer

    PubMed Central

    Petasis, Nicos A.; Yang, Rong; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Zhu, Min; Uddin, Jasim; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1, a potent anti-inflammatory, proresolving, and neuroprotective lipid mediator derived biosynthetically from docosahexaenoic acid, was prepared in enantiomerically pure form via total organic synthesis. The synthetic strategy is highly stereocontrolled and convergent, featuring epoxide opening of glycidol starting materials for the introduction of the 10(R) and 17(S) hydroxyl groups. The desired alkene Z geometry was secured via the cis-reduction of alkyne precursors, while the conjugated E,E,Z triene was introduced at the end, in order to minimize Z/E isomerization. The same strategy, was also employed for the total synthesis of aspirin-triggered neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 having the 17(R)-stereochemistry. Synthetic compounds obtained with the reported method were matched with endogenously derived materials, and helped establish their complete stereochemistry. PMID:22690022

  20. Volume Integral Equations Applied to Circular and Square Cylinders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Derivation of Exact Formula 2.1.1 TM Case inc ikx LetE - ze (1) E - z E 5’•< (2) 1 lz E -E + > f>a (3) 2 scat inc From Maxwell’s equation V X E...k H (k y)J’(k •) 0 n n o in o n 1 (14) 14 2.1.2 TE Case inc ^ ikx Let H - z e (1) H - z H • a (2) 1 lz H mH + H >a(3) 2 scat inc From Maxwell’s ... equation V X H -iweE (4) 1 ýH E - z i (5) i ?H E9 - z we (6) Using boundary conditions for t and ta at - a tan tan H - H (7) lz 2z E - E (8) 10 21 15 and

  1. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY 85. Part 10 (7035-9150).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    SiONSORiNG 3b OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (If applicable) i"i ’ y , 51te, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS...0 0 w lee a 0 w * aF a w Y c z Z) 4 <ac z z<Ze a 44 1 lI4 le.- oeel0 lee.-I. 0eelLA Veel I-V 1 e . . leeto c c -. c 44 dc a1 al aL I0c lee C .40U 1...4 Co 4 a a 0a ma 0 z a4mC o~ ~ . I-- I. <-m I-- wn a n a n a n a n annwn a a n a n a-~ y - I-Z aaa a. a a . a. a .- a. a. a. m~a a . a . a . a ma -C

  2. Determining the Index of Refraction of an Unknown Object using Passive Polarimetric Imagery Degraded by Atmospheric Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-09

    0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 F re sn el R efl ec ta n ce θi = θr [Degrees] Rs Glass Rp Glass Rs Iron Rp Iron Figure 4. Fresnel reflectances of glass...Degrees] N o rm a li ze d R efl ec ta n ce D is tr ib u ti o n θi = 10 ◦ θi = 30 ◦ θi = 45 ◦ θi = 60 ◦ θi = 75 ◦ MoM Solution pBRDF Figure 39...64] James, Steven P. Blind Deconvolution Through Polarization Diversity of Long Exposure Imagery. Master’s thesis , Graduate School of Engineering

  3. Regenerative Sampling and Monotonic Branching Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    clinical study of a potentially life-saving medical procedure because of its tendency to put more patients on the better treatment (Bartlett et al...Choose s such that s > 1 and r < s < p. Then by Minkowski and Holder inequalities (43) [lT n1 -u-mT nSJi/S zn-i E (E( Zk - 1 J jZk-mZkl sji/s k1 n-i...Zi < kl( 4j jS ZE Zk ’-1 IP]i/p Let q =asp/(p-s). Then by Lemma 1, for some 0 < (x < 1 Zkiq E(E((’ ’-1’LL2)’IF ( Zn~ Z n_2) n-l n-1n-2 (44) E (k) E(( n

  4. An Analysis of Symmetric Reinforcement of Graphite/Epoxy Honeycomb Sandwich Panels with a Circular Cutout under Uniaxial Compressive Loading,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    FgrF2 ane RR1 tana~prsnAon h uot 11179 7L -7 04 4 zz CIO .1n ~ cr (NOV ~-nfN nr tr U E-4 oc~OO~c~oOOOOOOOOO + -0 + 4. + 04~~ +C~tr + 0 g . 99.9 990 99 99...o’-ooz 0c o0.v00 (C’)l I -l-jov Figur H. Pane RS1 tan0mp nAon h uot 200 Ze’ a .%. ’ % ;.4 -4 a, ~ INV- nr -Z, - -U) 4, o a . n L* m c, c Ln*, m a* a a...g g --3 i1 -t 4. :r i~ OV gm i i ton( nr -’Oftfn rl( (WienO~ (IOto 210 * .. -~--9 :7. -~-. . -~-, .L Co LLI 0 0C .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... . U-. x

  5. Navy EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) Labor Market Availability Data for the 1980’s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    34gjL LL.- LA x LLLLL I xc D6200 U X* X g *g Z ~ Z*e as 40 OD U AI JLU MXX 9-9: wSww Vco 0 r000 P 0 N NN MoOC .4 M0 0 0000 00000 q-N-44 *K0000 0 i~n 00.4...CL5Q~( CLQ O I XCcX P-QP. - ) iV )6 * 2 C i LU ( sig Ui 4 - .4 M- m-.-rr ac r-r3C UjLJ .iLU ILW.L L eOI 4 cc at Ui LA W JA I^ lA sJ(* m z x V) vi V-L Q

  6. The Impact of the Demonstration Project on Managers at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    8217 tfl s aia» •H.|J Pfl ••-(4J >U) •H i *»W a J3 l-l i-i l-l l-l UU> < «J-H * r-H.,-1 >- ( drH 2 OX) 111 U)«J 5 ua, V xi *-ü 0.0 z...MO 00 « OBM f| <-GM tO (N to (a II w OB xo OW ZQ >ou «Of! s us HZOSH «fJfiiM PUS at OHM 1-4 6-1 tou HV H0> ze ca-H

  7. Effects of high pressure on unsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povedano, Isabel; Guignon, Bérengère; Montoro, Óscar R.; Sanz, Pedro D.; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure processing on the molecular structure of some unsaturated fatty acids. Samples of elaidic acid, linoleic acid, ZE and EE conjugated linoleic acid are treated at 293 or 333 K at pressures up to 700 MPa. It is observed that the adiabatic heat generated from compression is able to bring the sample temperature above 373 K after 700 MPa. These relatively extreme conditions are of great interest for food sterilization, but they may induce undesirable change in fatty acid quality characteristics. To check for structural changes, Raman spectra of the samples are analysed after treatments. The comparison with Raman spectra of samples kept at atmospheric pressure shows that pressure induces some conformational changes at the hydrocarbon skeleton in solid samples, while the liquid ones remain unchanged. No cis/trans isomerization occurs, but gauche conformers are likely to be present.

  8. Analysis and optimization of process parameters in Al-SiCp laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Ainhoa; Rodrigo, Pilar; Escalera-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Rams, Joaquín

    2016-03-01

    The laser cladding process parameters have great effect on the clad geometry and on dilution in the single and multi-pass aluminum matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles (Al/SiCp) coatings on ZE41 magnesium alloys deposited using a high-power diode laser (HPLD). The influence of the laser power (500-700 W), scan speed (3-17 mm/s) and laser beam focal position (focus, positive and negative defocus) on the shape factor, cladding-bead geometry, cladding-bead microstructure (including the presence of pores and cracks), and hardness has been evaluated. The correlation of these process parameters and their influence on the properties and ultimately, on the feasibility of the cladding process, is demonstrated. The importance of focal position is demonstrated. The different energy distribution of the laser beam cross section in focus plane or in positive and negative defocus plane affect on the cladding-bead properties.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum extract for the treatment of mild to moderate depression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Caraci, Filippo; Forti, Bruno; Drago, Filippo; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    Depression is a common condition in the community with a significant impact on affected individuals, their relatives and society. Many patients with depression do not seek treatment and are often concerned about the possible adverse effects of antidepressant drugs. Extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) has long been recognized as a treatment for depression. Several published trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum extract for mild to moderate depression. Recent comparative trials of Hypericum extract and other antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), provide support for Hypericum extract efficacy. However, since the constituents of Hypericum extract differ between the individual manufacturers, the efficacy cannot be extrapolated from one extract to another. In this review, WS 5572, LI 160, WS 5570 and ZE 117 Hypericum extracts have been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo with at least similar efficacy and better tolerability compared to standard antidepressant drugs.

  10. Prime Contract Awards by $100,000 or More by Federal Supply Classification or Service Category and Purchasing Office. Part 3 (AA11-F999)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    1-U0 a C0 )= ’U 0 cco U-w~ 0CL C EE u -~~OE.4j - 54o -4 EuQ C f- 1-- -’ 0 .C40 0 C U’U>.-4LLUmow444 0 0.4’U4-4..4 ) CL~ 0 E0 ui 0 ze) 4 06 4 . 0 .CL...34 -- I > mum 0 C 0 LA .0 -rI-%>U CAn6WO Z a t-IL.L . U) LL. 4--0-4 0UMf-4 M Up) o Zu(000U) o U td 4ommoS o dUoc -4-40I 0.i,-L. 6-0.CC c = 0 0 wO 00.0W3 ap

  11. Magnetowave Induced Plasma Wakefield Acceleration for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Pisin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert; Sydora, Richard; /Alberta U.

    2009-10-17

    Magnetowave induced plasma wakefield acceleration (MPWA) in a relativistic astrophysical outflow has been proposed as a viable mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic particles to ultrahigh energies. Here we present simulation results that clearly demonstrate the viability of this mechanism for the first time. We invoke the high frequency and high speed whistler mode for the driving pulse. The plasma wakefield obtained in the simulations compares favorably with our newly developed relativistic theory of the MPWA. We show that, under appropriate conditions, the plasma wakefield maintains very high coherence and can sustain high-gradient acceleration over hundreds of plasma skin depths. Invoking active galactic nuclei as the site, we show that MPWA production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays beyond ZeV (10{sup 21} eV) is possible.

  12. Simulations of Keratoconus Patient Vision with Optical Eye Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ming

    2007-11-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is an eye condition that involves progressive corneal thinning. Pushed by the intraocular pressure, the weakened cornea bulges outward and creates an irregular surface shape. The result is degraded vision that is difficult to correct with regular eye glasses or contact lens. In this study we use the optical lens design software, ZeMax, and patient data including cornea topography and refraction prescription to construct KC eye models. The variation of KC ``cone height'' on the cornea is used to simulate KC progression. The consequent patients' night vision and Snellen letter chart vision at 20 feet are simulated using these anatomically accurate 3-dimensional models. 100 million rays are traced for each image simulation. Animated results illustrate the change of KC visual acuity with the progression of disease. This simulation technique provides a comprehensive tool for medical training and patient consultation/education.

  13. Influence of the oxime and anomeric configurations on the stability of 2-deoxy-2-hydroxyimino-D-hexopyranosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyman, Magdalena; Wielińska, Justyna; Myszka, Henryk; Trzybiński, Damian; Sikorski, Artur; Nowacki, Andrzej; Liberek, Beata

    2016-12-01

    The Z/E isomerisations of the synthesized benzyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-hydroxyimino-D-hexopyranosides during the NMR measurement and during the Zemplén O-deacetylation were observed. In order to study stabilities and tendency of the obtained compounds to isomerise, B3LYP/6-311++G∗∗ level geometry optimisations for four stereoisomers of methyl 2-deoxy-2-hydroxyimino-D-arabino-hexopyranosides in both the O-acetylated and O-deacetylated forms were performed. The results of our theoretical studies are fully in agreement with the experimental data and NMR analysis. Additionally, a single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for benzyl 2-deoxy-2-hydroxyimino-α-D-lyxo-hexopyranoside are reported to supplement our theoretical studies.

  14. Variation in relative quantities of airborne sex pheromone components from individual femaleEphestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Barrer, P M; Lacey, M J; Shani, A

    1987-03-01

    The airborne sex pheromone components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradeca-dien-1-yl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-y1 acetate from single calling females ofEphestia cautella (Walker) were trapped within glass capillary tubes and were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Broad and similar distributions of relative quantities were found for a laboratory strain and three Australian field strains, and means differed strongly from those reported previously for this species. The overall mean proportion of the two components found for Australian females was 88∶12. The composition in individuals ranged from 63∶27 to 97∶3. The proportions for individuals appeared to vary slightly in a random fashion from day to day, and proportions for first-generation progeny were influenced by the maternal blend.

  15. Observation of the spectral-invariant properties of clouds in transition zones during MAGIC, A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Marshak, A.; McBride, P. J.; Chiu, J. Y. C.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C. J.; Lewis, E. R.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    The time-resolved hyper spectral measurements during MAGIC provide a unique opportunity to study both clouds and aerosols in transition zones between cloudy and clear skies. This presentation presents the spectral-invariant properties of cloud transition zones observed on two cases of July, 2013 using the measurements from the Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SAS-Ze) and the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR). Though radiance measurements from the two instruments can be different possibly due to the calibration drifting, the spectral-invariant properties observed on the two instruments show some common features. These features indicate that the overall cloud effective particle size likely decreases during the transition from cloudy to clear skies in the two cases.

  16. Toward a stable α-cycloalkyl amino acid with a photoswitchable cationic side chain.

    PubMed

    Rossi Paccani, Riccardo; Donati, Donato; Fusi, Stefania; Latterini, Loredana; Farina, Grazia; Zanirato, Vinicio; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-02-17

    The N-alkylated indanylidenepyrroline (NAIP) Schiff base 3 is an unnatural α-amino acid precursor potentially useful for the preparation of semisynthetic peptides and proteins incorporating charged side chains whose structure can be modulated via Z/E photoisomerization. Here we report that the heteroallylic protons of 3 led to partial loss of ethanol accompanied by formation of the novel heterocyclic system 4 during attempted deprotection. We also show that the same protons catalyze the thermal isomerization of 3, making the light-driven conformational control concept ineffective for times longer than a few hours. These problems are not present in the previously unreported compound 5 where the acidic methyl group is replaced by an H atom. Therefore, 5, rather than 3, constitutes a promising prototype for the design of building blocks capable to modulate the electrostatic potential of a protein in specific locations via light irradiation.

  17. Microstructural Features in Corroded Celtic Iron Age Sword Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiara, G.; Piccardo, P.; Campodonico, S.; Carnasciali, M. M.

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological artefacts made from iron and steel are often of critical importance for archaeometallurgical studies, which aim to understand the process of manufacturing, as the nearly complete alloy mineralization does not allow for any type of metallographic interpretation. In this study, three Iron Age sword blades dated from the second century BC (LaTène B2/D1) found in the archaeological site of Tintignac (Commune de Naves, Corrèze, France), were investigated. A multianalytical approach was employed to acquire a complete range of data from the partially or totally corroded objects. Analyses were carried out with the use of light optical microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Remnants of metallographic features—ghost microstructure—in the corrosion layers of the blades were observed, allowing for a partial reconstruction of the manufacturing process.

  18. Adaptive Algorithms for Control of Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    delay-free case described in section fore, 3.1, for which a first order compensator could stabilize the plant ) = (s+z 0 +k 2)Ro(s)+ kiko (s+z,)Zo(s) of...this stage) the a, are arbitrary coefficients. Then, af- Ra(s) = (s+ze+k2 )Ro(s)+ kiko (s+z,) [Zo(s)-Totn3(s)] (54) ter substitution into (42) and...division by s’-1 of the 3 highest coefficients of 2 R.I(s), we obtain o s2 + (k2 - ksko-rtotC)s + ( kiko - kikort0 tCze) (55) (b) I, where C is the

  19. Health in China. From Mao to market reform.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Wei, X. Z.

    1997-01-01

    After the Liberation by Mao Ze Dong's Communist army in 1949, China experienced massive social and economic change. The dramatic reductions in mortality and morbidity of the next two decades were brought about through improvements in socioeconomic conditions, an emphasis on prevention, and almost universal access to basic health care. The economic mismanagement of the Great Leap Forward brought about a temporary reversal in these positive trends. During the Cultural Revolution there was a sustained attack on the privileged position of the medical profession. Most city doctors were sent to work in the countryside, where they trained over a million barefoot doctors. Deng Xiao Ping's radical economic reforms of the late 1970s replaced the socialist system with a market economy. Although average incomes have increased, the gap between rich and poor has widened. PMID:9183206

  20. Applications of Natural Constraints in Critical Point Theory to Periodic Solutions of Natural Hamiltonian Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    the formulation we let 1 - (2VT)2 and A eV . Ixlim x V(x) 1 2 (V2 ) 1 ,,infla >-1 • Ixl+0 x (V) l(1+l) 2 for ll x e 3n 3 1 2 2 1 x (V4 ) There exist... Rabinowitz for suggestions for improvement of the presentation of the results. W -8- 2. Proof of Theorem I and 2 for even potentials. In this section we...where * (Ca,b]) - {x e ze : a C #(x) C b) is the preimage of [a,b] under *. As a consequence, if one can find some symmetric, compact set Z c eV \\0

  1. Stages and Discharges of the Mississippi River and Tributaries and Other Watersheds in the New Orleans District for 1994.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    A.M. STAGE IN FEET GAGE ZE DAY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG 1 2 3 4 5 16.40 16.59 16.86 16.90 16.83 22.37 21.07 20.55 20.22... Hfo 49 !w 7$ MAR 28 38:90 49 1906 766 APR 11 ?H? It 1896 771 „$03 «Is 48 922 783 KAY 17 4045 49 1923 806 ÜUNOI 28...89 259 696 5.70 499 89 1234 682 5.57 my & «A? fl? 1116 600 3.90 JUN 08 8.65 82 ni| °™ 3 57 SI tl 8 i?l » i« II llll 1 II I I I I

  2. Local atomic structure of Fe/Cr multilayers: Depth-resolved method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanov, Yu. A.; Ponomarev, D. A.; Devyaterikov, D. I.; Salamatov, Yu. A.; Romashev, L. N.; Ustinov, V. V.; Vasin, V. V.; Ageev, A. L.

    2017-10-01

    A depth-resolved method for the investigation of the local atomic structure by combining data of X-ray reflectivity and angle-resolved EXAFS is proposed. The solution of the problem can be divided into three stages: 1) determination of the element concentration profile with the depth z from X-ray reflectivity data, 2) determination of the X-ray fluorescence emission spectrum of the element i absorption coefficient μia (z,E) as a function of depth and photon energy E using the angle-resolved EXAFS data Iif (E , ϑl) , 3) determination of partial correlation functions gij (z , r) as a function of depth from μi (z , E) . All stages of the proposed method are demonstrated on a model example of a multilayer nanoheterostructure Cr/Fe/Cr/Al2O3. Three partial pair correlation functions are obtained. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and a regularization method are applied.

  3. Insects betray themselves in nature to predators by rapid isomerization of green leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-08-27

    Plants emit green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in response to herbivore damage, thereby attracting predators of the herbivores as part of an indirect defense. The GLV component of this indirect defense was thought to be a general wound signal lacking herbivore-specific information. We found that Manduca sexta-infested Nicotiana attenuata attract the generalist hemipteran predator Geocoris spp. as the result of an herbivore-induced decrease in the (Z)/(E) ratio of released GLVs, and that these changes in the volatile bouquet triple the foraging efficiency of predators in nature. These (E)-isomers are produced from plant-derived (Z)-isomers but are converted by a heat-labile constituent of herbivore oral secretions. Hence, attacking herbivores initiate the release of an indirect defense a full day before the attacked plants manufacture their own defensive compounds.

  4. Characterizing the Sensitivity, Selectivity, and Reversibility of the Metal-Doped Phthalocyanine Thin-Films Used with the Interdigitated Gate Electrode Field-Effect Transistor (IGEFET) to Detect Organophosphorous Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    rovedREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 0MB No 0704-0188 0,o’ -’ r’ n _ ’r: 2t~ t or, , on s . st- a3 d t, )e~viqe - cJ ze, -- s acr~e. - !virg::, t , -e...established by reviewing the previous research accomplished by Jenkins [7:5-13,15], Shin [22:IV-7] and Hamann [5:77]. This bias level is a ’best pick’ choice...z., C4 ____ ___ ___ z c &-c J- ~ . M4J 41- D-32 xM v .2 t cQ c 4~- 04CC D-33 -~-z lb IL " ; i.. ɜ. - ~ D-34 ~0 zoz 0 tU C - Cj 7 Y’ -C- IZ~A !5 4- W

  5. Design of Advanced Digital Flight Control Systems via Command Generator Tracker (CGT) Synthesis Methods. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    CALL RSVS (SMvLONO,39IT 0 U) IF(LABORT,GT.’.*) RETURN NSI ZE NNT4kNT IF(NSIZE*LE*NVCOM) GO TO 8 17𔃻 IFORMAT(OICNSUFqCIENT MTEMORY /tAINI/,/MAIN2...V(4) 55 !FIK*EO.1) GO TO 65 0O 6 11, Kid V(I~uOOT3(LLvC(!.1),8(±,vLJ) V(Z1z0013 LLcII,1) B(1tLL)) C(KvLLlcC(KvLLJ-A(KrIRv(2) 65 V(1)=AKK’BLL-ioI V(2)=A...LAi~i ±: Z(LAt)=Z(LAL)4Y(J,ll C END SUBROUTINE PPADO ZND :21 SUBROUTINE RSVS (A*LvNDvITVPjIWRT) CONMON/OSSIGN/NVCOMTSAM4PLFLRPILFLCGTPLFLKFLTZVALLA9ORT

  6. Commentary: assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?

    PubMed

    Dublyansky, Yuri V; Smirnov, Sergey Z

    2005-04-01

    Two papers recently published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology by Marshall et al. [Marshall, B.D., Neymark, L.A., Peterman, Z.E., 2003. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam. Hydrol. 62-63, 237-247] and Xu et al. [Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Bodvarsson, G., 2003. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock. J. Contam. Hydrol. 64, 113-127] attempt to assess past volumes of seepage and infiltration fluxes through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, on the basis of the modeling of the spatial distribution of secondary calcite. In this commentary, we argue that the employed methodology is not viable. In addition, the thermal boundary conditions used in simulations do not correspond to the temperatures of the mineral forming fluids established on the basis of the fluid inclusion studies.

  7. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound.

    PubMed

    Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

    2013-09-01

    The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2'-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell.

  8. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

    2013-09-01

    The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2‧-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell.

  9. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  10. Identification and synthesis of female sex pheromone of Oriental beetle,Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, A; Facundo, H T; Robbins, P S; Linn, C E; Hanula, J L; Villani, M G; Roelofs, W L

    1994-09-01

    Females of the Oriental beetle,Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), release a sex pheromone composed of a 9:1 blend of (Z)- and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one. The double-bond position of the pheromone was determined by DMDS derivatization and interpretation of the fragmentation patterns produced by monounsaturated ketones. In a sustained-flight tunnel, males responded by flying toward female beetles and attempting to copulate with them. Both effluvium and whole-body extracts of OB females were analyzed, and the activity was found only in the airborne extracts. Flight-tunnel bioassays also showed that a synthetic 90:10Z/E blend on a rubber septum was attractive and that the responses of males to this blend were equivalent toZ isomer alone, but much better than to the singleE isomer.

  11. Kairomonal activities of 2-acylcyclohexane-1,3 diones produced byEphestia kuehniella zeller in eliciting searching behavior by the parasitoidBracon hebetor (say).

    PubMed

    Strand, M R; Williams, H J; Vinson, S B; Mudd, A

    1989-05-01

    2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones produced in the mandibular glands ofEphestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) fifth instars acted as arrestment and host-trail following kairomones for the parasitoid,Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The behavioral response of the parasitoids to the kairomone varied with kairomone concentration and distribution. However, only small differences in activity were noted for the different mandibular gland components.B. hebetor females that encountered filter paper patches impregnated with the kairomone exhibited antennation and probing behavior. Females followed trails formed with 2-[(Z,E)12,14-hexadecadienoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the same manner exhibited with host-made trails. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/mm and above, trail following was interrupted by frequent probing.

  12. Time Domain Radar Laboratory Operating System Development and Transient EM Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    NTIS G-71,11 DTIC TAB lUnannoiin~"c Just if icgM,)- _ Dis _ tribut iion/ Avaiabji ii.y Codes S Avaii DTd/or- Dist I Special ( 2 0D Forro 1473 S/.4 UA56...STORAGE 14114 iVARIOUS NUMERIC/STRING VARIABLES AND COJSTANTS 11516 1II TOTAL 34564 I MAXIMUM MEMORY REQUIREMENTS (INTERNAL) FOR INPUT 49108 (238 228 di F... osso I-W -W-O..-. i..J ., \\,,,. % %. W% -% .s.. -I...see .0oose so U Ze..... ...~ Z"Z .... J.. I-_E I 3 lfl O 0 0 ~ ( M 111 NO@%O 001 -N .) so IoN- NO

  13. Status of motional Stark effect and Zeeman effect diagnostics for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jinseok; Chung, Jinil; de Bock, Maarten; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system is under development aiming at commissioning in 2015. The design and fabrication of the polarization preserving front optics has been complete, including the multi-layer dielectric coated mirror and beam splitter, the latter being required to split the incident light into that above 600 nm for MSE and that below 600 nm for the Charge Exchange Spectroscopy (CES) that shares the front optics with MSE. The bandpass filters with a sharp transmission function and a minimum distortion against tilting have been procured. Both the analog lock-in and the post-processing numerical Fourier transform will be exploited. The Li-beam based Zeeman effect (ZE) diagnostic system is under conceptual design. Its details on the design are introduced in this work including the radial resolution and sensitivity to the change of the magnetic field pitch near the pedestal region. Work supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea.

  14. Polarity dependent photoisomerization of ether substituted azodyes: Synthesis and photoswitching behavior.

    PubMed

    Gan, Siew Mei; Pearl, Zynia Fernandes; Yuvaraj, A R; Lutfor, M R; Gurumurthy, Hegde

    2015-10-05

    Two new ether substituted azodyes were synthesized and characterized by different spectral analysis such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and UV/Vis. Synthesized compounds were used to study the photoisomerization phenomenon by using UV-Vis spectro-photometer. Interesting polarity dependent effect is observed for the first time on these materials. Trans-cis (E-Z) and cis-trans (Z-E) conversion occurred within 41 s and 445 min, respectively for both the compounds in solutions. Polarizing optical microscopy studies revealed that there is no liquid crystal phase for both the compounds. The dramatic variation in the optical property is speculated to be the polarity of the chemical species. These derivatives are useful to fabricate optical data storage devices.

  15. On the Stereochemical Course of Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Allylic Silanolate Salts with Aromatic Bromides

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Werner, Nathan S.

    2010-01-01

    The stereochemical course of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of an enantioenriched, α-substituted, allylic silanolate salt with aromatic bromides has been investigated. The allylic silanolate salt was prepared in high geometrical (Z/E, 94:6) and high enantiomeric (94:6 er) purity by a copper-catalyzed SN2’ reaction of a resolved allylic carbamate. Eight different aromatic bromides underwent cross-coupling with excellent constitutional site selectivity (γ) and with excellent stereospecificity. Stereochemical correlation established that the transmetalation event proceeds through a syn SE’ mechanism which is interpreted in terms of an intramolecular delivery of the arylpalladium electrophile through a key intermediate that contains a discrete Si–O–Pd linkage. PMID:20163185

  16. Ring currents in the porphyrins: pi shielding, delocalisation pathways and the central cation.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Erich; Soncini, Alessandro; Fowler, Patrick W

    2005-11-21

    It is shown that the ipsocentric orbital-based model explains how the charge of the central cation drives the delocalisation pathway in metalloporphyrins. A positive charge +Ze at the centre of the porphin ring gives rise to a two-way radial transfer of charge within the pi structure of the porphin macrocycle. This manifests itself in a change of pathway of the global pi current, as Z increases from Z = 0, from an inner- through a bifurcated- to an outer-pathway. Changes of pathway can be interpreted in terms of a specific pi shielding effect whereby electrons in high-lying pi orbitals are screened from the central charge by the electrons in lower-lying orbitals of the same symmetry. These changes in pi structure are essentially independent of accompanying changes in the sigma structure.

  17. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths Alphabetical Index by Name. October 1, 1979 through September 30 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    beb ɜ )- (0 (0) w (A < 4 (n0 ><= w0 -<Lo 0 -7 ’))I)< w ) 0u L LU CO 0 S e LU (0.- 0< -z -i -Iiwz> wm a F...RELEASE: DISTRIBLUTION UNLIMITED. p t oe AUTH: WHS/DIOR (MR. DAUL (703) 746-0786 Avg.-i..ltty Code/ s PER TELECON 24 FEB 93 CB A.! an Disnt 93 6 ്...LaCZ 0 >- LJ na Z wZ (D wLao CD t 00C Wa> "-Woý-Owz w (n 5,zIw-) CDCO (A ~ w0z -jO CD 0 44 0 0 0 <ZE Z~ 0-< 4CA 4 -J-j a z- 0 > -Z 0•10Q- s z " 0" j e

  18. Wavelet-based method for time-domain noise analysis and reduction in a frequency-scan ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Szu-Wei; Shiu, Guo-Rung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2012-11-01

    We adopt an orthogonal wavelet packet decomposition (OWPD) filtering approach to cancel harmonic interference noises arising from an AC power source in time domain and remove the resulting rf voltage interference noise from the mass spectra acquired by using a charge detection frequency-scan quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. With the use of a phase lock resampling technique, the transform coefficients of the rf interference in signals become a constant, exhibiting a shift of the baseline in different rf phases. The rf interference is therefore removable by shifting the baselines back to zero in OWPD coefficients. The approach successfully reduces the time-domain background noise from 1367 electrons (rms) to 408 electrons (rms) (an improvement of 70 %) and removes the high frequency noise components in the charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. Unlike other smoothing or averaging methods commonly used in the mass-to-charge (m/Ze) domain, our approach does not cause any distortion of original signals.

  19. Inverse algorithms for 2D shallow water equations in presence of wet dry fronts: Application to flood plain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J.; Couderc, F.; Dartus, D.; Larnier, K.; Madec, R.; Vila, J.-P.

    2016-11-01

    The 2D shallow water equations adequately model some geophysical flows with wet-dry fronts (e.g. flood plain or tidal flows); nevertheless deriving accurate, robust and conservative numerical schemes for dynamic wet-dry fronts over complex topographies remains a challenge. Furthermore for these flows, data are generally complex, multi-scale and uncertain. Robust variational inverse algorithms, providing sensitivity maps and data assimilation processes may contribute to breakthrough shallow wet-dry front dynamics modelling. The present study aims at deriving an accurate, positive and stable finite volume scheme in presence of dynamic wet-dry fronts, and some corresponding inverse computational algorithms (variational approach). The schemes and algorithms are assessed on classical and original benchmarks plus a real flood plain test case (Lèze river, France). Original sensitivity maps with respect to the (friction, topography) pair are performed and discussed. The identification of inflow discharges (time series) or friction coefficients (spatially distributed parameters) demonstrate the algorithms efficiency.

  20. Normal phase LC-MS determination of retinoic acid degradation products.

    PubMed

    Bempong, D K; Honigberg, I L; Meltzer, N M

    1995-03-01

    The degradation products formed when 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA) and all-trans RA were exposed to fluorescent light and air were investigated. These retinoids are known to undergo Z-E isomerization (due to the existence of four unsaturated double bonds) and oxidation when exposed to light and air. Analysis by LC was carried out on a 25 cm x 4.6 mm Zorbax Rx-SIL (5 microns) with a mobile phase (1.4 ml min-1) of heptane-THF-acetic acid (96.5:3.5:0.015) and an in-line UV (365 nm) detector. The LC eluate was coupled through a Vestec universal interface to a Finnigan 4023 mass spectrometer. EI-mass spectra were obtained at 77 eV from m/z 200 to 350 with multiplier voltage of 1200 V. Solid samples of 13-cis RA and all-trans RA exposed to light and air and also solutions of these retinoids in the mobile phase exposed to the same conditions were used for the analysis. Tentative identities of the degradation products from the mass spectra suggest the isomerization of the retinoids (Z-E isomerism) and the formation of the 5,6-epoxides of these isomers. Identities of the 5,6-epoxides were confirmed with chromatographic and mass spectral data from synthetic samples of the epoxides. Isomerization occurred more readily in solution than in the solid form and the 13-cis RA isomer oxidized more readily than the all-trans isomer.

  1. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  2. Cloud-resolving model intercomparison of an MC3E squall line case: Part I-Convective updrafts: CRM Intercomparison of a Squall Line

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Jiwen; Han, Bin; Varble, Adam; ...

    2017-09-06

    An intercomparison study of a midlatitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 1 km horizontal grid spacing with eight different cloud microphysics schemes to investigate processes that contribute to the large variability in simulated cloud and precipitation properties. All simulations tend to produce a wider area of high radar reflectivity (Ze > 45 dBZ) than observed but a much narrower stratiform area. Furthermore, the magnitude of the virtual potential temperature drop associated with the gust front passage is similar in simulations and observations, while the pressure rise and peak wind speed aremore » smaller than observed, possibly suggesting that simulated cold pools are shallower than observed. Most of the microphysics schemes overestimate vertical velocity and Ze in convective updrafts as compared with observational retrievals. Simulated precipitation rates and updraft velocities have significant variability across the eight schemes, even in this strongly dynamically driven system. Differences in simulated updraft velocity correlate well with differences in simulated buoyancy and low-level vertical perturbation pressure gradient, which appears related to cold pool intensity that is controlled by the evaporation rate. Simulations with stronger updrafts have a more optimal convective state, with stronger cold pools, ambient low-level vertical wind shear, and rear-inflow jets. We found that updraft velocity variability between schemes is mainly controlled by differences in simulated ice-related processes, which impact the overall latent heating rate, whereas surface rainfall variability increases in no-ice simulations mainly because of scheme differences in collision-coalescence parameterizations.« less

  3. Resonance Raman analysis of the Pr and Pfr forms of phytochrome.

    PubMed

    Fodor, S P; Lagarias, J C; Mathies, R A

    1990-12-18

    Resonance Raman vibrational spectra of the Pr and Pfr forms of oat phytochrome have been obtained at room temperature. When Pr is converted to Pfr, new bands appear in the C = C and C = N stretching region at 1622, 1599, and 1552 cm-1, indicating that a major structural change of the chromophore has occurred. The Pr to Pfr conversion results in an 11 cm-1 lowering of the N-H rocking band from 1323 to 1312 cm-1. Normal mode calculations correlate this frequency drop with a Z----E isomerization about the C15 = C16 bond. A line at 803 cm-1 in Pr is replaced by an unusually intense mode at 814 cm-1 in Pfr. Calculations on model tetrapyrrole chromophores suggest that these low-wavenumber modes are hydrogen out-of-plane (HOOP) wagging vibrations of the bridging C15 methine hydrogen and that both the intensity and frequency of the C15 HOOP mode are sensitive to the geometry around the C14-C15 and C15 = C16 bonds. The large intensity of the 814-cm-1 mode in Pfr indicates that the chromophore is highly distorted from planarity around the C15 methine bridge. If the Pr----Pfr conversion does involve a C15 = C16 Z----E isomerization, then the intensity of the C15 HOOP mode in Pfr argues that the chromophore has an E,anti conformation. On the basis of a comparison with the vibrational calculations, the low frequency (803 cm-1) and the reduced intensity of the C15 HOOP mode in Pr suggest that the chromophore in Pr adopts the C15-Z,syn conformation.

  4. Toward Improving Ice Water Content and Snow Rate Retrievals from Spaceborne Radars, Emphasizing Ku and Ka-Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, A.; Bansemer, A.; Tanelli, S.; Poellot, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses a data set from either overflying aircraft or ground-based radars operating at Ku and Ka bands, combined with in-situ microphysical measurements to develop radar reflectivity (Ze)-ice water content (IWC) and Ze-snowfall rate (S) relationships that are suited for retrieval of snowfall rate from the GPM radars. During GCPEX, the NASA DC-8 aircraft, carrying the JPL APR-2 KU and KA band radars overflew the UND Citation aircraft, making microphysical measurements in the ice clouds below. On two days, 19 and 28 January 2011, there are a total of almost 7000 1-sec colocations of the aircraft, where a collocation was defined as having a combination of a spatial separation of less than 3 km and a time separation of less than 10 minutes. During the NASA GPM Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E), the Citation aircraft made in-situ observations over Oklahoma in 2011. We evaluated the data from two types of collocations. First, there were two Citation spirals on 27 April 2011, over the NPOL radar. At the same time, the UHF-band KUZR radar was collecting data in a vertically-pointing mode. Also, the Ka band KAZR Doppler radar was operating in a zenith orientation. Reflectivities and Doppler velocities, without and with appreciable Mie-scattering effects of the hydrometers (for KUZR and KAZR, respectively), are thus available during the spirals. Also during MC3E, six deep convective clouds with a total of more than 5000 5-sec samples and a range of temperatures from -40 to 0C were sampled by the Citation at the same time that NEXRAD reflectivities were measured at about the same position. These data allows us to evaluate various backscatter models and to develop multi-wavelength Z-IWC and Z-S relationships. We will present the results of this study.

  5. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  6. Ensembled artificial neural networks to predict the fitness score for body composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, X R; Abbod, M F; Liu, Q; Shieh, J S; Chao, T Y; Hsieh, C Y; Yang, Y C

    2011-05-01

    To predict the nutrition and health status of staff and students in Yuan Ze University and select the influential variables from the total body composition variables, which should have similar predictive ability with the whole factors. Spontaneous and voluntary physical examination. Sanitary and Health Care Section of Yuan Ze University in Taiwan. 1227 staff and students. With the help of Inbody720TM, 139 body composition variables were measured and 60 variables were retained after data pre-processing. An ensembled artificial neural networks (EANN) prediction model was established and seven different methods for assessing variables importance were applied. Besides, classical linear and logistic regression models were developed for comparison with EANN prediction results. The prediction performance of EANN model was satisfactory (RMSE (train) = 0.2686, RMSE (validation) = 0.2648, RMSE (test) = 0.3492). Since both the actual and simulation fitness score were at the range of 0 to 100, according to rounding off rule, the simulated value was almost the same with actual value. Besides, 12 important variables were obtained by seven methods for quantifying variable importance in EANN, which had similar predictive capability with 60 variables (RMSE (train) = 0.3263, RMSE (validation) = 0.322, RMSE (test) = 0.3226). The linear and logistic regression models results were both evidently worse than EANN results. The results confirm that EANN is appropriate to approximate such a complicated, non-invasive and highly non-linear problem as body composition analysis. It can be helpful for nutritionists to manage and improve the nutrition and health condition of staff and students, by adjusting the 12 most important variables.

  7. Ex Vivo Oxidation in Tissue and Plasma Assays of Hydroxyoctadecadienoates: (Z,E/E,E)-Stereoisomer Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Huiyong; Akazawa, Yoko Ogawa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Niki, Etsuo; Porter, Ned A.

    2010-01-01

    The primary products from peroxidation of linoleate in biological tissues and fluids are the hydroperoxy octadecadienoates and the products normally assayed, after reduction of the hydroperoxides, are the corresponding hydroxy octadecadienoates (HODEs). The HODEs are found in tissues and fluids as a mixture of Z,E and E,E stereoisomers. Two regioisomeric sets of Z,E and E,E stereoisomers are normally observed with substitution at the 9 and 13 position of the 18-carbon chain. The Z,E/E,E product ratio has proved to be a useful means for assessing the reducing capacity of the medium undergoing peroxidation. The HODE Z,E/E,E product ratios previously reported for tissues such as liver and brain vary from 0.5 to 2.0 and plasma ratios are somewhat higher, between 2.0 and 3.0. The reported literature protocols for HODE assay in tissues involve homogenization, reduction with sodium borohydride in the presence of BHT, and ester hydrolysis with KOH to give the free HODEs. This is followed by either reverse-phase HPLC of the free acid HODEs or by conversion to TMS derivatives and GC/MS. When sodium borohydride is replaced in the protocol by triphenylphosphine, a gentler reducing agent, HODE Z,E/E,E product ratios are much higher and lower total HODEs levels of are found. It is proposed that inclusion of sodium borohydride in the isolation procedures leads to ex vivo reactions that are avoided if triphenylphosphine is used as the reducing agent. Modified protocols for HODE analyses (Tissue and Plasma Methods #2) are described that should be used for assays of tissues and fluids. PMID:20423158

  8. Attenuation Drift in the Micro-Computed Tomography System at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Brown, William; Seetho, Isaac; Kallman, Jeff; Lennox, Kristin; Glascoe, Lee

    2016-01-12

    The maximum allowable level of drift in the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) for a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) micro-computed tomography (MCT) system was determined to be 0.1%. After ~100 scans were acquired during the period of November 2014 to March 2015, the drift in μ for a set of six reference materials reached or exceeded 0.1%. Two strategies have been identified to account for or correct the drift. First, normalizing the 160 kV and 100 kV μ data by the μ of water at the corresponding energy, in contrast to conducting normalization at the 160 kV energy only, significantly compensates for measurement drift. Even after the modified normalization, μ of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) increases linearly with scan number at an average rate of 0.00147% per scan. This is consistent with PTFE radiation damage documented in the literature. The second strategy suggested is the replacement of the PTFE reference with fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), which has the same effective atomic number (Ze) and electron density (ρe) as PTFE, but is 10 times more radiation resistant. This is important as effective atomic number and electron density are key parameters in analysis. The presence of a material with properties such as PTFE, when taken together with the remaining references, allows for a broad range of the (Ze, ρe) feature space to be used in analysis. While FEP is documented as 10 times more radiation resistant, testing will be necessary to assess how often, if necessary, FEP will need to be replaced. As radiation damage to references has been observed, it will be necessary to monitor all reference materials for radiation damage to ensure consistent x-ray characteristics of the references.

  9. Growth and energy budget of juvenile lenok Brachymystax lenok in relation to ration level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Mou, Zhenbo; Liu, Jiashou

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of ration level (RL) on the growth and energy budget of lenok Brachymystax lenok. Juvenile lenok (initial mean body weight 3.06±0.13 g) were fed for 21 d at five different ration levels: starvation, 2%, 3%, 4% bwd (body weight per day, based on initial mean values), and apparent satiation. Feed consumption, apparent digestibility, and growth were directly measured. Specific growth rates in terms of wet weight, dry weight, protein, and energy increased logarithmically with an increase in ration levels. The relationship between specific growth rate in terms of wet weight (SGRw, %/d) and RL (%) was characterized by a decelerating curve: SGRw=-1.417+3.166ln(RL+1). The apparent digestibility coefficients of energy exhibited a decreasing pattern with increasing ration level, and there was a significant difference among different RLs. Body composition was significantly affected by ration size. The relationship between feed efficiency rate in terms of energy (FERe) and RL was: FERe=-14.167+23.793RL-3.367(RL)2, and the maximum FERe was observed at a 3.53% ration. The maintenance requirement for energy of juvenile lenok was 105.39 kJ BW (kg)-0.80/d, the utilization efficiency of DE for growth was 0.496. The energy budget equation at satiation was: 100IE=29.03FE+5.78(ZE+UE)+39.56 HE+25.63 RE, where IE is feed energy, FE is fecal energy, ZE+UE is excretory energy, HE is heat production, and RE is recovered energy. Our results suggest that the most suitable feeding rate for juvenile lenok aquaculture for wet weight growth is 2.89% bwd, whereas for energy growth, the suggested rate is 3.53% bwd at this growth stage.

  10. Galaxy emission line classification using three-dimensional line ratio diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions—H II-like or excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN)—have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce the ZQE diagrams, which are a specific set of 3D diagrams that separate the oxygen abundance and the ionization parameter of H II region-like spectra and also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define the ZE diagnostics, a new set of 2D diagnostics that can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars and that cleanly separate H II region-like objects from the different classes of AGNs. We show that these ZE diagnostics are consistent with the key log [N II]/Hα versus log [O III]/Hβ diagnostic currently used by the community. They also have the advantage of attaching a probability that a given object belongs to one class or the other. Finally, we discuss briefly why ZQE diagrams can provide a new way to differentiate and study the different classes of AGNs in anticipation of a dedicated follow-up study.

  11. High expression of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE coincides with initiation of various developmental pathways in in vitro culture of Trifolium nigrescens.

    PubMed

    Pilarska, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Salaj, Jan; Bartnicki, Filip; Konieczny, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and examine the expression pattern of the ortholog of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE gene from Trifolium nigrescens (TnSERK) in embryogenic and non-regenerative cultures of immature cotyledonary-stage zygotic embryos (CsZEs). In the presence of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and N(6)-[2-isopentenyl]-adenine, the CsZE regenerated embryoids directly and in a lengthy culture produced callus which was embryogenic or remained non-regenerative. As revealed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the TnSERK was expressed in both embryogenic and non-regenerative cultures, but the expression level was significantly higher in embryogenic ones. An in situ RNA hybridization assay revealed that the expression of TnSERK preceded the induction of cell division in explants, and then, it was maintained exclusively in actively dividing cells from which embryoids, embryo-like structures (ELSs), callus or tracheary elements were produced. However, the cells involved in different morphogenic events differed in intensity of hybridization signal which was the highest in embryogenic cells. The TnSERK was up-regulated during the development of embryoids, but in cotyledonary embryos, it was preferentially expressed in the regions of the apical meristems. The occurrence of morphological and anatomical abnormalities in embryoid development was preceded by a decline in TnSERK expression, and this coincided with the parenchymatization of the ground tissue in developing ELSs. TnSERK was also down-regulated during the maturation of parenchyma and xylem elements in CsZE and callus. Altogether, these data suggest the involvement of TnSERK in the induction of various developmental programs related to differentiation/transdifferentiation and totipotent state of cell(s).

  12. Using palynology to re-assess the Dead Sea laminated sediments - Indeed varves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Eshel, Amram; Epshtein, Valentina; Belmaker, Reuven; Bookman, Revital

    2016-05-01

    Lacustrine laminated sediments are often varves representing annual rhythmic deposition. The Dead Sea high-stand laminated sections consist of mm-scale alternating detrital and authigenic aragonite laminae. Previous studies assumed these laminae were varves deposited seasonally. However, this assumption has never been robustly validated. Here we report an examination of the seasonal deposition of detrital-aragonite couplets from two well-known Late Holocene laminated sections at the Ze'elim fan-delta using palynology and grain-size distribution analyses. These analyses are complemented by the study of contemporary flash-flood samples and multivariate statistical analysis. Because transport affects the pollen preservation state, well-preserved (mostly) air-borne transported pollen was analysed separately from badly-preserved pollen and fungal spores, which are more indicative of water transport and reworking from soils. Our results indicate that (i) both detrital and aragonite laminae were deposited during the rainy season; (ii) aragonite laminae have significantly lower reworked and fungal spore concentrations than detrital and flash-flood samples; and (iii) detrital laminae are composed of recycling of local and distal sources, with coarser particles that were initially deposited in the Dead Sea watershed and later transported via run-off to the lake. This is in line with previous carbon balance studies that showed that aragonite precipitation occurs after the massive input of TCO2 associated with run-off episodes. Consequently, at least for the Holocene Ze'elim Formation, laminated sediments cannot be considered as varves. Older Quaternary laminated sequences should be re-evaluated.

  13. Magnetostructural correlations for Fe2+ ions at orthorhombic sites in FeCl2·4H2O and FeF2·4H2O crystals modeled by microscopic spin Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Magdalena; Lipiński, Ignacy Eryk; Rudowicz, Czesław

    2016-03-01

    The microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) theory developed up to the fourth-order perturbation theory for 3d4 and 3d6 ions with spin S=2 within the 5D approximation is employed to predict the zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) ones. The SH parameters, measurable by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), are expressed in terms of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligands-field) energy levels (∆i) within the 5D multiplet. The energies, ∆i, are indirectly related with structural data, thus enabling investigation of magnetostructural correlations. As a case study Fe2+ (3d6; S=2) ions at orthorhombic sites in FeCl2·4H2O and FeF2·4H2O crystals are considered. Calculations of the ZFS and Ze parameters are carried out for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters using the package MSH/VBA. Dependence of the theoretically determined ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation) and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and ∆i is examined and suitable graphs are presented. The absolute value of dominant ZFS parameter |b20| is predicted to be in the range from nearly 8.5 to 1.4 cm-1. Matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones enables determination of the suitable values of λ, ρ, and ∆i. The fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, considered for the first time here, are found important. The MSH predictions may be verified and fine-tuned by high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR measurements. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related systems.

  14. Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-ΔpH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. Results We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles. PMID:22269024

  15. Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2011-12-26

    In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-ΔpH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles.

  16. Energy Carriers Use in the World: Natural Gas - Conventional and Unconventional Gas Resources / Wykorzystanie Nośników Energii w Świecie: Zasoby Gazu Ziemnego w Złożach Konwencjonalnych i Niekonwencjonalnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemek, Jakub; Nagy, Stanisław

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses forecasts of energy carrier use with particular emphasis on the changing position of natural gas due to global climatic conditions and the increasing role of unconventional natural gas reservoirs. Allocation of natural gas resources in the world are discussed as well as global gas consumption and conditions for development of transport infrastructure and storage. The most important indicators of the energy security of countries are presented. The basic properties of unconventional deposits, and differences in the production/extraction of gas from the conventional and unconventional fields are given. In the paper are also discussed natural gas reserves in Poland, including possible non-conventional resources in the fields and issues of increasing the role of gas as an energy carrier in Poland in the background of the energy changes in Europe and the world. W pracy omówiono prognozy energetyczne wykorzystania energii ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zmieniającej się pozycji gazu ziemnego z uwagi na uwarunkowania klimatyczne oraz wzrastającą role niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego. Omówiono alokację zasobów gazu ziemnego w świecie, zużycie gazu w regionach oraz warunki rozbudowy infrastruktury transportu i magazynowania. Przedstawiono najważniejsze wskaźniki dotyczące bezpieczeństwa energetycznego krajów. Omówiono podstawowe własności złóż niekonwencjonalnych oraz różnice w charakterze wydobycia gazu ze złóż konwencjonalnych i niekonwencjonalnych. Omówiono zasoby gazu w Polsce, w tym możliwe zasoby w złożach niekonwencjonalnych oraz zagadnienia zwiększenia roli gazu jako nośnika energii w Polsce w tle energetycznych zmian Europy i świata.

  17. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I activity and induction of apoptosis by thiazacridine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Francisco W.A.; Bezerra, Daniel P.; Ferreira, Paulo M.P.; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Silva, Teresinha G.; Pitta, Marina G.R.; Lima, Maria do C.A. de; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan da R.; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Burbano, Rommel R.; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A.P.; Pessoa, Cláudia

    2013-04-01

    Thiazacridine derivatives (ATZD) are a novel class of cytotoxic agents that combine an acridine and thiazolidine nucleus. In this study, the cytotoxic action of four ATZD were tested in human colon carcinoma HCT-8 cells: (5Z)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-4; (5ZE)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-bromo-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-7; (5Z)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chloro-benzyl) -1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-10; and (5ZE)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione — AC-23. All of the ATZD tested reduced the proliferation of HCT-8 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. There were significant increases in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation without affecting membrane integrity. For morphological analyses, hematoxylin–eosin and acridine orange/ethidium bromide were used to stain HCT-8 cells treated with ATZD, which presented the typical hallmarks of apoptosis. ATZD also induced mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphatidylserine exposure and increased the activation of caspases 3/7 in HCT-8 cells, suggesting that this apoptotic cell death was caspase-dependent. In an assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA topoisomerases 1 and 3, the ATZD showed enhanced activity, suggesting an interaction between ATZD and DNA topoisomerase enzyme activity. In addition, ATZD inhibited DNA topoisomerase I action in a cell-free system. Interestingly, these ATZD did not cause genotoxicity or inhibit the telomerase activity in human lymphocyte cultures at the experimental levels tested. In conclusion, the ATZD inhibited the DNA topoisomerase I activity and induced tumour cell death through apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: ► Thiazacridine derivatives induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cell death. ► Thiazacridine derivatives inhibit DNA topoisomerase I action. ► Thiazacridine derivatives failed to cause genotoxicity on human lymphocytes.

  18. Functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis by heterologous expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Montagné, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Brigaud, Isabelle; François, Adrien; François, Marie-Christine; de Fouchier, Arthur; Lucas, Philippe; Larsson, Mattias C; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-09-01

    Moth sex pheromone communication is recognised as a long-standing model for insect olfaction studies, and a widespread knowledge has been accumulated on this subject thanks to numerous chemical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. A key step has been the identification of candidate sex pheromone receptors, opening new routes to understanding the specificity and sensitivity of this communication system, but only few of these receptors have as yet been functionally characterised. In this context, we aim at unravelling the molecular bases of pheromone reception in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. Taking advantage of a collection of antennal-expressed sequence tags, we previously identified three fragments of candidate pheromone receptors in this species. Here, we report full-length cloning of one of these receptors, named SlitOR6. Both sequence and expression pattern analyses were consistent with its annotation as a pheromone receptor, which we further confirmed by functional characterization. Using Drosophila antennae as a heterologous expression system, we identified a single component of the pheromone blend of S. littoralis, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, as the ligand of SlitOR6. Two strategies were employed: (i) expressing SlitOR6 in the majority of Drosophila olfactory neurons, in addition to endogenous receptors, and monitoring the responses to pheromone stimuli by electroantennography; (ii) replacing the Drosophila pheromone receptor OR67d with SlitOR6 and monitoring the response by single sensillum recordings. Results were fully congruent and responses to (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were highly specific in both heterologous systems. This approach appears to be efficient and reliable for studying moth pheromone receptors in an in vivo context.

  19. Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether and Two Next-Generation Alternative Refrigerants

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Dylan S.; Laesecke, Arno

    2012-01-01

    The viscosities of dimethyl ether (DME, C2H6O) and of the fluorinated propene isomers 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (R1234yf, C3H2F4) and trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234ze(E)) were measured in a combined temperature range from 242 K to 350 K at saturated liquid conditions. The instrument was a sealed gravitational capillary viscometer developed at NIST for volatile liquids. Calibration and adjustment of the instrument constant were conducted with n-pentane. The repeatability of the measurements was found to be approximately 1.5 %, leading to a temperature-dependent estimated combined standard uncertainty of the experimental data between 5.7 % at 242 K for dimethyl ether and 2.6 % at 340 K for R1234yf. The measurements were supplemented by ab initio calculations of the molecular size, shape, and charge distributions of the measured compounds. The viscosity results for dimethyl ether were compared with literature data. One other data set measured with a sealed capillary viscometer and exceeding the present results by up to 7 % could be reconciled by applying the vapor buoyancy correction. Then, all data agreed within the estimated uncertainty of the present results. Viscosities for the fluorinated propene isomers deviate up to 4 % from values predicted with the NIST extended corresponding-states model. The viscosities of the two isomers do not scale with their dipole moments. While the measured viscosity of R1234ze(E) with the lower dipole moment is close to that of R134a, the refrigerant to be replaced, that of R1234yf with the higher dipole moment is up to 25 % lower. The viscosity of dimethyl ether is compared with those of water and methanol. PMID:26900526

  20. Co-Infection by Chytrid Fungus and Ranaviruses in Wild and Harvested Frogs in the Tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W.; LaBumbard, Brandon; LaGrange, Seth; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife

  1. Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether and Two Next-Generation Alternative Refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Dylan S; Laesecke, Arno

    2012-01-01

    The viscosities of dimethyl ether (DME, C2H6O) and of the fluorinated propene isomers 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (R1234yf, C3H2F4) and trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234ze(E)) were measured in a combined temperature range from 242 K to 350 K at saturated liquid conditions. The instrument was a sealed gravitational capillary viscometer developed at NIST for volatile liquids. Calibration and adjustment of the instrument constant were conducted with n-pentane. The repeatability of the measurements was found to be approximately 1.5 %, leading to a temperature-dependent estimated combined standard uncertainty of the experimental data between 5.7 % at 242 K for dimethyl ether and 2.6 % at 340 K for R1234yf. The measurements were supplemented by ab initio calculations of the molecular size, shape, and charge distributions of the measured compounds. The viscosity results for dimethyl ether were compared with literature data. One other data set measured with a sealed capillary viscometer and exceeding the present results by up to 7 % could be reconciled by applying the vapor buoyancy correction. Then, all data agreed within the estimated uncertainty of the present results. Viscosities for the fluorinated propene isomers deviate up to 4 % from values predicted with the NIST extended corresponding-states model. The viscosities of the two isomers do not scale with their dipole moments. While the measured viscosity of R1234ze(E) with the lower dipole moment is close to that of R134a, the refrigerant to be replaced, that of R1234yf with the higher dipole moment is up to 25 % lower. The viscosity of dimethyl ether is compared with those of water and methanol.

  2. Attraction modulated by spacing of pheromone components and anti-attractants in a bark beetle and a moth.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Binyameen, Muhammad; Sadek, Medhat M; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2011-08-01

    Orientation for insects in olfactory landscapes with high semiochemical diversity may be a challenging task. The partitioning of odor plumes into filaments that are interspersed with pockets of 'clean air' may help filament discrimination and upwind flight to attractive sources in the face of inhibitory signals. We studied the effect of distance between odor sources on trap catches of the beetle, Ips typographus, and the moth, Spodoptera littoralis. Insects were tested both to spatially separated pheromone components [cis-verbenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol for Ips; (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate for Spodoptera], and to separated pheromone and anti-attractant sources [non-host volatile (NHV) blend for Ips; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate for Spodoptera]. Trap catch data were complemented with simulations of plume structure and plume overlap from two separated sources using a photo ionization detector and soap bubble generators. Trap catches of the beetle and the moth were both affected when odor sources in the respective traps were increasingly separated. However, this effect on trap catch occurred at smaller (roughly by an order of magnitude) odor source separation distances for the moth than for the beetle. This may reflect differences between the respective olfactory systems and central processing. For both species, the changes in trap catches in response to separation of pheromone components occurred at similar spacing distances as for separation of pheromone and anti-attractant sources. Overlap between two simulated plumes depended on distance between the two sources. In addition, the number of detected filaments and their concentration decreased with downwind distance. This implies that the response to separated odor sources in the two species might take place under different olfactory conditions. Deploying multiple sources of anti-attractant around a pheromone trap indicated long-distance (meter scale) effects of NHV on

  3. Interlobular arteries from two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats exhibit impaired vasodilator response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sporková, Alexandra; Reddy, N. Rami; Falck, John R.; Imig, John D.; Kopkan, Libor; Sadowski, Janusz; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Background Small renal arteries have a significant role in regulation of renal hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP). To study potential changes in regulation of vascular function in hypertension, we examined renal vasodilatory responses of small arteries from nonclipped kidneys of the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertensive rats to native epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are believed to be involved in regulation of renal vascular function and BP. Two newly synthesized EET analogs were also examined. Methods Renal interlobular arteries isolated from the nonclipped kidneys on day 28 after clipping were preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE), pressurized, and the effects of a 14,15-EET analog, native 14,15-EET, and 11,12-ether-EET-8ZE, an analog of 11,12-EET, on the vascular diameter were determined and compared to the responses of arteries from the kidneys of sham-operated rats. Results In the arteries from non-clipped kidneys isolated in the maintenance phase of Goldblatt hypertension the maximal vasodilatory response to 14,15-EET analog was 30.1 ± 2.8% versus 49.8 ± 7.2% in sham-operated rats; the respective values for 11,12-ther-EET-8ZE were 31.4± 6.4% versus 80.4±6%, and for native EETs they were 41.7 ± 6.6 % versus 62.8 ± 4.4 % (P ≤ 0.05 for each difference). Conclusions We propose that reduced vasodilatory action and decreased intrarenal bioavailability of EETs combined with intrarenal ANG II levels that are inappropriately high for hypertensive rats underlie functional derangements of the nonclipped kidneys of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats. These derangements could play an important role in pathophysiology of sustained BP elevation observed in this animal model of human renovascular hypertension. PMID:27140711

  4. Prediction of in-tube pressure drop of low GWP refrigerants during condensation and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Masud Rana; Hossain, Md. Anowar; Afroz, Hasan M. M.; Miyara, Akio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, a new in-tube two phase pressure drop correlation of low GWP refrigerants during condensation and evaporation has been proposed in this paper. This correlation for the prediction of condensation and evaporation pressure drop inside smooth horizontal tube by incorporating the effect of mass velocity, tube geometry and surface tension. By comparing with other existing well-known correlations and the newly proposed correlation of two-phase pressure drop have been used to predict the condensation and evaporation pressure drop of R1234ze(E), R32, R410A, dimethyl ether (DME), CO2/DME mixtures (10/90, 25/75 and 45/55 weight %) and R1234ze(E)/R32 mixtures (30/70 and 45/55 weight %) inside a horizontal smooth tube. The predicted results have been compared with the available experimental data which is done inside a water heated double tube heat exchanger. The test section is a horizontally installed smooth tube with effective length of 3.6m and inner diameter of 4.35mm. The experiment had been carried out under the conditions of mass flux varying from 147 to 403 kgm-2s-1 and the saturation temperatures ranging between 30 and 45°C for condensation and 5-10°C for evaporation, over the vapor quality range 0.00 to 1.00. From the analysis and results of comparison, proposed correlation shows better performance. Proposed correlation can predict all the experimental condensation and evaporation data within ±13.91%.

  5. Investigation of liquid cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems: 1. Parameterization raindrop size distribution and its application for stratiform rain estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyu; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    To investigate liquid-phase (T > 3°C) cloud and precipitation microphysical properties within Deep Convective Systems (DCSs), eight DCS cases sampled by the University of North Dakota Citation II research aircraft during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment were selected. A full spectrum of raindrop size distribution (DSD) was constructed from 120 µm to 4000 µm through a combination of two-dimensional cloud probe (120 to 900 µm) and High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer (900 to 4000 µm) data sets. A total of 1126 five second DSDs have been used to fit to Gamma and Exponential functions within the stratiform rain (SR) regions of DCSs. The Gamma shape μΓ and slope λΓ parameters are then compared with those derived from surface disdrometer measurements. The similar μΓ-λΓ relationships but different μΓ and λΓ value ranges from two independent platforms at different elevations may represent the real nature of DSD shape information in clouds and at the surface. To apply the exponentially fitted DSD parameters to precipitation estimation using Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) radar reflectivity factor Ze, the terms N0E and λE have been parameterized as a function of Ze using an empirical N0E-λE relationship. The averaged SR rain rate retrieved from this study is almost identical to the surface measurements, while the NEXRAD Q2 precipitation is twice as large. The comparisons indicate that the new DSD parameterization scheme is robust, while the Q2 SR precipitation estimation based on Marshall-Palmer Z-R relationship, where a constant DSD intercept parameter (N0E) was assumed, needs to be improved for heavy precipitation cases.

  6. Propagation and stability of expanding spherical flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaas, Grunde

    High-fidelity experiments were conducted to determine the laminar flame speeds of various fuels, to define the transition boundaries of both cellular and spiral flame front instabilities that develop over the flame surface, and to determine the cellular flame acceleration constants for outwardly propagating spherical flames in a near-constant pressure environment up to 60 atmospheres. The flame front movement was monitored using schlieren cinematography and recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Experiments were conducted for a wide range of pressures and equivalence ratios to yield flame speed data for acetylene, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen/carbon monoxide in air. These data were post-processed in order to account for stretch effects, yielding laminar, unstretched flame speeds and Markstein lengths. The results were compared with existing chemical kinetics mechanisms and used to suggest improvements. The instant of transition to cellularity was experimentally determined for various fuels and fuel mixtures and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusional-thermal instabilities. Experimental results show that the transition Peclet number, Pec = Rc/ℓL, assumes an almost constant value for the near-equidiffusive acetylene and ethylene flames with wide ranges in the mixture stoichiometry, oxygen concentration, and pressure, where Rc is the flame radius at transition and ℓL the laminar flame thickness. However, for the non-equidiffusive hydrogen and propane flames, Pec respectively increases and decreases somewhat linearly with the mixture equivalence ratio. Evaluation of Pec using the theory of Bechtold and Matalon show complete qualitative agreement and satisfactory quantitative agreement, demonstrating the insensitivity of Pec to all system parameters for equidiffusive mixtures, and the dominance of the Markstein number, Ze(Le-1), in destabilization for non-equidiffusive mixtures, where Ze is the

  7. Czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące i indeksy tych czynników w badaniach nad zachowaniami problemowymi nastolatków:

    PubMed Central

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Bobrowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Streszczenie Opis i wyjaśnianie zachowań problemowych młodzieży jest w dużej mierze oparte na analizie czynników zwiększających ryzyko wystąpienia zaburzeń i czynników chroniących. Badania nad tymi czynnikami dostarczają wiele cennych danych, jednak ze względu na dużą liczbę i różnorodność analizowanych w badaniach zmiennych, często trudno jest uogólniać ich wyniki. Jednym ze sposobów radzenia sobie z tym problemem jest konstruowanie złożonych indeksów zmiennych, które określają ekspozycję jednostki na sumę czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących. W niniejszym opracowaniu omówiono osiem badań, w których wyjaśniano zachowania problemowe młodzieży (głównie: używanie substancji psychoaktywnych) na podstawie analizy tworzonych indeksów czynników ryzyka i chroniących. Wyniki przeglądu pokazują, że na uzyskane w badaniach wyniki znaczący wpływ mają arbitralne decyzje autorów, dotyczące definiowania czynników ryzyka/chroniących, wyjściowej puli analizowanych zmiennych, sposobu ustalania istotnego natężenia danego czynnika. Najbardziej jednoznaczne są wyniki mówiące tym, że każdy z indeksów (ryzyka i ochrony), niezależnie od innych czynników, pozwala wyjaśnić aktualnie występujące zachowania problemowe nastolatków, co jest ważnym argumentem za wzmacnianiem czynników chroniących w działaniach profilaktycznych. Natomiast najpoważniejszym minusem badań, wykorzystujących indeksy, jest „uśrednianie” znaczenia poszczególnych czynników, przypisywanie im a priori identycznej wagi w wyjaśnianiu zachowań, co stoi w sprzeczności z wynikami badań, pokazujących duże zróżnicowanie znaczenia poszczególnych czynników. PMID:19390638

  8. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present, encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 °C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature and with profiling radar measurements of Ze and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 g m-3 with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMDeq) of 200-300 μm. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMDeq than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 °C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal diameter are reduced by entrainment and by increasing aerosol concentrations

  9. High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection - Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The aeronautics industry has established that a threat to aircraft is posed by atmospheric conditions of substantial ice water content (IWC) where equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) does not exceed 20-30 dBZ and supercooled water is not present; these conditions are encountered almost exclusively in the vicinity of deep convection. Part 1 (Fridlind et al., 2015) of this two-part study presents in situ measurements of such conditions sampled by Airbus in three tropical regions, commonly near 11 km and -43 °C, and concludes that the measured ice particle size distributions are broadly consistent with past literature with profiling radar measurements of Ze and mean Doppler velocity obtained within monsoonal deep convection in one of the regions sampled. In all three regions, the Airbus measurements generally indicate variable IWC that often exceeds 2 g m-3 with relatively uniform mass median area-equivalent diameter (MMDeq) of 200-300 μm. Here we use a parcel model with size-resolved microphysics to investigate microphysical pathways that could lead to such conditions. Our simulations indicate that homogeneous freezing of water drops produces a much smaller ice MMDeq than observed, and occurs only in the absence of hydrometeor gravitational collection for the conditions considered. Development of a mass mode of ice aloft that overlaps with the measurements requires a substantial source of small ice particles at temperatures of about -10 °C or warmer, which subsequently grow from water vapor. One conceivable source in our simulation framework is Hallett-Mossop ice production; another is abundant concentrations of heterogeneous ice freezing nuclei acting together with copious shattering of water drops upon freezing. Regardless of the production mechanism, the dominant mass modal diameter of vapor-grown ice is reduced as the ice-multiplication source strength increases and as competition for water vapor increases. Both mass and modal diameter are reduced by

  10. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    PubMed

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10(6) cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUTZT (936.4 ± 120.9(b) ) and AUT + MZE (867.2 ± 49.3(b) ) groups presented significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of flexural strength than those of the control groups (CZT : 716.5 ± 185.7(a) ; CZE : 779.9 ± 114(a) ) (Tukey's test). The monoclinic phase percentage (%) was higher for AUTZE (71), AUTZT (66), AUT + MZE (71), and AUT + MZM (66) compared to the C groups (ZE:0; ZT:0). Surface roughness (µm) was higher for AUTZE (0.09), AUTZT (0.08), AUT + MZE (0.09 µm), and AUT + MZT (0.09 µm) than those of other groups. Regardless of the zirconia type, autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  11. Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA): Combined Imaging Observation of Astroparticles — For Clear Identification of Cosmic Accelerators and Fundamental Physics Using Cosmic Beams —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kifune, Tadashi

    In VHEPA (very high energy particle astronomy) 2014 workshop, focused on the next generation explorers for the origin of cosmic rays, held in Kashiwa, Japan, reviewing and discussions were presented on the status of the observation of GeV-TeV photons, TeV-PeV neutrinos, EeV-ZeV hadrons, test of interaction models with Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and theoretical aspects of astrophysics. The acceleration sites of hadrons, i.e., sources of PeV-EeV cosmic rays, should exist in the universe within the GZK-horizon even in the remotest case. We also affirmed that the hadron acceleration mechanism correlates with cosmic ray composition so that it is important to investigate the acceleration mechanism in relevance to the composition survey at PeV-EeV energy. We regard that LHC and astrophysics theories are ready to be used to probe into hadron acceleration mechanism in the universe. Recently, IceCube has reported detection of three events of neutrinos with energies around 1 PeV and additional events at lower energies, which significantly deviate from the expected level of background events. It is necessary to observe GeV-TeV photon, EeV-ZeV hadron and TeV-PeV neutrino all together, in order to understand hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the PeV-EeV energy region. It is required to make a step further toward exploring the PeV-EeV universe with high accuracy and high statistics observations for both neutrinos and gamma rays simultaneously, by using the instrument such as Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA). Wide and fine survey of gamma-rays and neutrinos with simultaneously detecting Cherenkov and fluorescence light with NTA will guide us to a new intriguing stage of recognizing astronomical objects and non-thermal phenomena in ultra-high energy region, in addition, new aspect about the fundamental concepts of physics beyond our presently limited understanding; the longstanding problem of cosmic ray origin, the radiation mechanism of gamma-rays, neutrino and

  12. Studies of ice clouds using 95 GHz airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolde, Mengistu Yirdaw

    2000-12-01

    exponential fits have shown strong correlations and follow a power law relationship. The equivalent radar reflectivity, Ze near the nearest usable range gates shows that in general there is negative correlation between λ and Ze.

  13. Superficial scald and bitter pit development in cold-stored transgenic apples suppressed for ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pesis, Edna; Ibáñez, Ana M; Phu, My Lin; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-04-08

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates climacteric fruit ripening and plays a major role in the development of superficial scald in apple fruits during cold storage. The effect of cold storage at 0 degrees C on development of superficial scald and bitter pit (BP) in transgenic Greensleeves (GS) apples suppressed for ethylene biosynthesis was investigated. Four apple lines were used: untransformed GS; line 68G, suppressed for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO); and lines 103Yand 130Y, suppressed for ACC synthase (ACS). Fruits from the transformed lines 68G, 103Y, and 130Y produced very little ethylene during 3 months of cold storage at 0 degrees C and after subsequent transfer to 20 degrees C, whereas untransformed fruits produced significant ethylene during cold storage, which increased dramatically at 20 degrees C. Respiration, expressed as CO(2) production, was similar in all four apple lines. After 2 months at 0 degrees C, all apple lines showed some BP symptoms, but lines 68G and 103Y were more affected than untransformed GS or line 130Y. Both transformed and untransformed apples produced alpha-farnesene, but concentrations were lower in yellow fruit than in green fruit in all lines but 68G. Line 68G produced the most alpha-farnesene after 2 months at 0 degrees C, including both (E,E) alpha-farnesene and (Z,E) alpha-farnesene. Concentrations of (E,E) alpha-farnesene were 100 times greater than those of (Z,E) alpha-farnesene in all lines. After 4 months at 0 degrees C plus 1 week at 20 degrees C, untransformed GS apples exhibited the most superficial scald, whereas fruits from lines 68G and 103Y were less affected and line 130Y had no scald. Superficial scald severity was higher in green fruit than in yellow fruit in all affected lines. These lines also exhibited significant production of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO), a major oxidation product of (E,E) alpha-farnesene. Line 130Y neither exhibited superficial scald nor produced MHO. It is

  14. The Effectiveness of Organic Pollutants Removal in Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow / Efektywność Usuwania Zanieczyszczeń Organicznych W Oczyszczalni Hydrofitowej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubaszek, Anita; Sadecka, Zofia

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the research work related to the removal efficiency from wastewater organic pollutants and suspended solids at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetland. The average effectiveness defined as loss of value COD in wastewater has reached 77%, for BOD5 - 80% and TOC - 82%. The effect of seasonal temperature changes and the period of plant vegetation and rest on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment were also analyzed. The results of the presented research showed a decrease in the efficiency of removing organic pollutants from wastewater and suspended solids in the autumn and winter. During the vegetation the object in Małyszyn has been characterized by the effectiveness of wastewater treatment at the level of 78% for COD, 82% for BOD5, and in the non-vegetation period the effectiveness has decreased up to 75% for COD and 74% for BOD5. During the plants growth the total suspension was removed in 88%, whereas during the plants rest efficiency of removing lowered to 69%. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące efektywności usuwania ze ścieków zanieczyszczeń organicznych w oczyszczalni hydrofitowej. Średnia skuteczność oczyszczania wyrażona jako obniżenie wartości ChZT w ściekach była na poziomie 77%, dla BZT5 80%, a dla OWO 82%. Analizowano również wpływ sezonowych zmian temperatury oraz okresu wegetacji i spoczynku roślin na skuteczność oczyszczania ścieków. Wyniki badań wykazały obniżenie efektywności usuwania zanieczyszczeń organicznych ze ścieków wyrażonych przez ChZT i BZT5 oraz zawiesiny ogólnej w okresie jesienno-zimowym. W okresie wegetacyjnym obiekt w Małyszynie charakteryzował się efektywnością oczyszczania ścieków na poziomie: 78% dla ChZT, 82% dla BZT5, a w sezonie pozawegetacyjnym skuteczność uległa obniżeniu do 75% w przypadku ChZT oraz 74% dla BZT5. Zawiesina ogólna w okresie wegetacji trzciny usuwana była w 88%, a w okresie powegetacyjnym w 69%.

  15. Electrical characteristics of mammalian cells on porous supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo

    2003-10-01

    The quantification of epithelial barrier functions by measuring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) and using the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) has been complicated by the current flowing inside the narrow space underneath cells. This thesis work, by examining the electrical characteristics of epithelial cells on porous supports, is aimed to tackle this problem. A mathematical model has been constructed to quantify the impedance from the various sources within a cell/electrode system. This model presents three cell-related parameters, alpha, Rb and Cm: alpha stands for the impedance contribution from the above-mentioned current underneath cells, Rb is an equivalent representation of epithelial barrier functions and Cm denotes the capacitive impedance of cell membranes. Analysis of the three parameters as well as the electrode impedance (Z e) has revealed two experimental approaches to reduce or eliminate the complication of alpha to the deduction of Rb: lowering alpha down to zero or lowering both Ze and alpha. The experimental realization of the first approach has been studied by examining the electrical characteristics of the African green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on porous filters of mixed esters of cellulose or nitrocellulose. A unique setup featuring a plastic/filter/plastic triple-layer structure was constructed to measure the impedance of cells on filters. With the extremely low alpha, all the electrical characteristics can be explained by using an equivalent circuit and Rb can be directly obtained from the resistance difference in the low frequency range. The second approach has been experimentally investigated by examining the electrical characteristics of BS-C-1 cells on porous/rough electrodes, i.e. the gold ECIS electrodes electrochemically coated with conducting polypyrrole/heparin composites or platinum black. Ze and alpha, especially the former, were found to be significantly

  16. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment.

  17. Feasibility of drying system using waste heat as the heating source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, M. N.; Shi, Y. L.; Chen, L. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a wastewater heat pump system was proposed and its thermal performance was analyzed. The proposed system includes two evaporators: an air-source evaporator and a water-source evaporator. The air-source evaporator absorbs heat from the moist hot air which exhaust from the drying oven. The water-source evaporator absorbs heat from the waste water, while the waste water recovers heat from the mechanical energy, which was produced by cutting and polishing in stone production. The thermodynamic model was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The energetic analysis was carried out to investigate the influences of the temperature of fresh air. The results show significantly higher energy efficiency, compact-sized and energy-saving compared with the system which uses air as the heat source. Among the seven of alternative refrigerants (R152a, R123, R1234yf, R1234ze, R600a, R22 and R600) investigated, R123 was suggested to be used in this heat pump for its high heating efficiency, inflammable, very low ODP(Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP(Global warming potential).

  18. Characterization of RPC operation with new environmental friendly mixtures for LHC application and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, R.; Capeans, M.; Mandelli, B.

    2016-07-01

    The large muon trigger systems based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the LHC experiments are currently operated with R134a based mixture. Unfortunately R134a is considered a greenhouse gas with high impact on the enviroment and therefore will be subject to regulations aiming in strongly reducing the available quantity on the market. The immediat effects might be instability on the price and incertitude in the product availability. Alternative gases (HFO-1234yf and HFO-1234ze) have been already identified by industry for specific applications as replacement of R134a. Moreover, HFCs similar to the R134a but with lower global warming potential (GWP) are already available (HFC-245fa, HFC-32, HFC-152a). The present contribution describes the results obtained with RPCs operated with new enviromemtal friendly gases. A particular attention has been addressed to the possibility of maintening the current operation conditions (i.e. currently used applied voltage and front-end electronics) in order to be able to use a new mixture for RPC systems even where the common infrastructure (i.e. high voltage and detector components) cannot be replaced for operation at higher applied voltages.

  19. What Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been Regulated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Fleming, E. L.; Frith, S. M.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Krotkov, N. A.; Nash, E. R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the sci entific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depl eting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory m easurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements t hat largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fu lly-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an ann ual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation 1.7 % of the globa lly-average column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed b y 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observ ed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower strat osphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near ze ro by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as curren tly observed in the Antarctic ozone hole). The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increa ses, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  20. Atomic alchemy: Weak decays of muonic and pionic atoms into other atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Greub, C.; Wyler, D.; Brodsky, S.J.; Munger, C.T.

    1995-10-01

    The rates of weak transitions between electromagnetic bound states, for example, ({pi}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({mu}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}, and the exclusive weak decay of a muonic atom into an electronic atom, ({ital Z}{mu}{sup {minus}}){r_arrow}({ital Ze}{sup {minus}}){nu}{sub {mu}}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}, are calculated. For {ital Z}=80, relativistic effects are shown to increase the latter rate by a factor of 50 compared to the results of a nonrelativistic calculation. It is argued that the conditions for producing the muonic decay in neon gas ({ital Z}=10), where the branching ratio for the decay per captured muon is 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}9}, can be realized using cyclotron traps, though the prospect for a practical experiment seems remote. In lead the same ratio would be approximately {similar_to}1{times}10{sup {minus}6}. In addition to providing detailed information on the high momentum tail of the wave functions in atomic physics, these decays of QED bound states provide a simple toy model for investigating kinematically analogous situations in exclusive heavy hadronic decays in quantum chromodynamics, such as {ital B}{r_arrow}{ital K}{sup *}{gamma} or {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{ital e}{nu}.

  1. Correlating Hardness Retention and Phase Transformations of Al and Mg Cast Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Czerwinski, F.; Niewczas, M.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    The methodology based on correlating hardness and phase transformations was developed and applied to determine the maximum temperature of hardness retention of selected Al-based and Mg-based alloys for aerospace applications. The Al alloys: A356, F357, and C355 experienced 34-66% reduction of the initial hardness, in comparison to 4-22% hardness reduction observed in Mg alloys: QE22A, EV31A, ZE41A, and WE43B after the same annealing to 450 °C. For Al alloys the hardness reduction showed a steep transition between 220 and 238 °C. In contrast, Mg alloys showed a gradual hardness decrease occurring at somewhat higher temperatures between 238 and 250 °C. The hardness data were correlated with corresponding phase transformation kinetics examined by dilatometer and electrical resistivity measurements. Although Mg alloys preserved hardness to higher temperatures, their room temperature tensile strength and hardness were lower than Al alloys. The experimental methodology used in the present studies appears to be very useful in evaluating the softening temperature of commercial Al- and Mg-based alloys, permitting to assess their suitability for high-temperature applications.

  2. Automated retinal image quality assessment on the UK Biobank dataset for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Welikala, R A; Fraz, M M; Foster, P J; Whincup, P H; Rudnicka, A R; Owen, C G; Strachan, D P; Barman, S A

    2016-04-01

    Morphological changes in the retinal vascular network are associated with future risk of many systemic and vascular diseases. However, uncertainty over the presence and nature of some of these associations exists. Analysis of data from large population based studies will help to resolve these uncertainties. The QUARTZ (QUantitative Analysis of Retinal vessel Topology and siZe) retinal image analysis system allows automated processing of large numbers of retinal images. However, an image quality assessment module is needed to achieve full automation. In this paper, we propose such an algorithm, which uses the segmented vessel map to determine the suitability of retinal images for use in the creation of vessel morphometric data suitable for epidemiological studies. This includes an effective 3-dimensional feature set and support vector machine classification. A random subset of 800 retinal images from UK Biobank (a large prospective study of 500,000 middle aged adults; where 68,151 underwent retinal imaging) was used to examine the performance of the image quality algorithm. The algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 95.33% and a specificity of 91.13% for the detection of inadequate images. The strong performance of this image quality algorithm will make rapid automated analysis of vascular morphometry feasible on the entire UK Biobank dataset (and other large retinal datasets), with minimal operator involvement, and at low cost.

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Beam Profiles and First SZ Cluster Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hincks, A. D.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dunkley, J.; Duenner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Hajian, A.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is currently observing the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz, In this paper, we present ACT's first results. Data have been analyzed using a maximum-likelihood map-making method which uses B-splines to model and remove the atmospheric signal. It has been used to make high-precision beam maps from which we determine the experiment's window functions, This beam information directly impacts all subsequent analyses of the data. We also used the method to map a sample of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Ze1'dovich (SZ) effect, and show five clusters previously detected with X-ray or SZ observations, We provide integrated Compton-y measurements for each cluster. Of particular interest is our detection of the z = 0.44 component of A3128 and our current non-detection of the low-redshift part, providing strong evidence that the further cluster is more massive as suggested by X-ray measurements. This is a compelling example of the redshift-independent mass selection of the SZ effect.

  4. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender.

  5. Antennal response of codling moth males, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to the geometric isomers of codlemone and codlemone acetate.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, A C; Anderson, P; Bengtsson, M; Löfqvist, J; Unelius, C R; Witzgall, P

    2000-06-01

    Single sensillum recordings from Cydia pomonella male antennae showed three different types of receptor neurons. The most abundant type was most sensitive to the main pheromone compound (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol, while its response to the geometric isomers E,Z, Z,E and Z,Z was comparable to a tenfold lower dose of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol. This neuron type also responded to the four behaviorally antagonistic isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate, among which it was most sensitive to the E,E isomer. Cross-adaptation studies showed that these compounds were all detected by the same receptor neuron type. Receptor neurons specifically tuned to (E,Z) or (Z,Z)-8,10-dodecadienol were not found, although these two compounds are behaviorally active. A second type of receptor neuron responded to all isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate and was most sensitive to the E,E isomer. This neuron type did not respond to any of the isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienol. A third receptor neuron type was highly sensitive to the plant compound alpha-farnesene. The finding that the receptor neuron type tuned to the main pheromone compound responded even to strong behavioral antagonists aids the interpretation of ongoing behavioral studies for the development of the mating disruption technique in codling moth.

  6. A PILOT STUDY ON HOW DO ELITE SURFSKI PADLLERS MANAGE THEIR EFFORT AND HYDRATION PATTERN IN THE HEAT

    PubMed Central

    Hue, O; Le Jeannic, P; Chamari, K

    2014-01-01

    To investigate thermal response, hydration behaviour and performance over flatwater kayaking races in tropical conditions (36.8°C and 68% rh). Five internationally-ranked subjects participated in the 2012 Surfski Ocean Racing World Cup in Guadeloupe to the “Ze Caribbean Race 2012” [i.e., a 35-km downwind race]. Core temperature (T°C) and heart rate (HR) were measured using portable telemetry units whereas water intake was deduced from backpacks absorption. The kayakers were asked to rate both their comfort sensation and thermal sensation on a scale before and after the race. The performance was related to an increase in T°C, high HR and low water intake (WI); and (2) high values of final T°C were related to high pre T°C and greater increases in T°C being obtained with low pre T°C and (3) WI being related to high pre T°C. The present study demonstrated that the fastest kayakers were those able to paddle at the highest intensities, increasing their T°C and drinking little water without any interference from thermal sensations. Water intake was positively related to pre-race T°C, which reinforces the importance of beginning surfski races with a low T°C. This study demonstrated that well-trained kayakers drinking ad libitum were able to anticipate their intensity/heat storage ratio to prevent heat illness and severe dehydration and maintain high performance. PMID:25435671

  7. Ching Chuan Kang AB, Kung Kuan, Formosa. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-04-11

    25 92,5 >1 _200 0, 9 76.3 86,4 90,3 921 921 92,8 92,5 92,8 92,8 92,8 92,8 92,8 92,8 92,8 0 1000 6 7714 978 91z8 3 , 93 9 94.3 94.3 94.3 94m 94v1 94m3...i 22,7! ze6 90! 4 6 , 6 2232 5EP 0 .5. 14.9 __ 14t9 31.s7! 785 0 .lf11 60.21 2160 fIC T 6,3_ . ~ I___ 6,3 211, 3105 5 2.. 22123 NOiV 3 , 3 ,_ _ _9...17. 1, 29,3. 3j 1L 46,5 2160 U___ 6,2 __-- ~ 3 . 27,01 61.5 2199 TOTALS 1 ~ 8,6 6 ..j0!3.0 .0!26233 (USAMEAC 0.10-5 (OL-4) ,wus~ mxnomo a raw Am soi

  8. Effects of PEF and heat pasteurization on PME activity in orange juice with regard to a new inactivation kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Agcam, E; Akyıldız, A; Evrendilek, G Akdemir

    2014-12-15

    The inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME) during the shelf life (4°C-180 days) of freshly squeezed orange juice samples processed by both pulsed electric fields (PEF) and heat pasteurization (HP) was evaluated in the study. The PME inactivation level after the PEF (25.26 kV/cm-1206.2 μs) and HP (90°C-20s) treatments were 93.8% and 95.2%, respectively. The PME activity of PEF-processed samples decreased or did not change, while that of HP samples increased during storage (p<0.01). A kinetic model was developed expressing PME inactivation as a function of the PEF treatment conditions, and this enabled the estimation of the reaction rate constant (587.8-2375.4s(-1)), and the time required for a 90% reduction (De, 3917.7-969.5s). Quantification of the increase in PEF energy to ensure a ten-fold reduction in De (ze, 63.7 J), activation electric fields (-921.2 kV cm(-1)mol(-1)), and electrical activation energy (12.9 kJ mol(-1)) was also carried out. Consequently, PEF processing was very effective for the inactivation of PME and for providing stability of orange juice during storage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters.

  10. 75 FR 34017 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 25 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting substances under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Significant New Alternatives Policy program. The substitutes are for use in the following sectors: Refrigeration and air-conditioning, foam blowing, aerosols, and sterilants. The majority of the acceptability decisions find substitutes acceptable as alternatives to the class II ozone depleting substances hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-22, HCFC-142b and blends containing one or both of these substances. EPA is also finding one of the alternatives, HFO- 1234ze, acceptable as a substitute for CFC-113 in the heat transfer end use and as a substitute for CFC-11 in the aerosol propellant end use. The listing of additional refrigerant alternatives as acceptable will provide users in the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector with more options for replacing HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b, which, pursuant to EPA's phaseout regulations, may generally be used only as a refrigerant to service equipment manufactured before January 1, 2010.

  11. Acid etching of glass-infiltrated zirconia and its biological response.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Thi; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Kim, Ji-Won; Nguyen, Thao Phuong Thi; Park, Sang-Won

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid etching treatment on surface characteristics and biological response of glass-infiltrated zirconia. A hundred zirconia specimens were divided into four groups depending on surface treatments: untreated zirconia (group Z); acid-etched zirconia (group ZE); glass-infiltrated zirconia (group ZG); and glass-infiltrated and acid-etched zirconia (group ZGE). Surface roughness, surface topography, surface morphology, and Vickers hardness of specimens were evaluated. For biological response test, MC3T3-E1 cell attachment and proliferation on surface of the specimens were examined. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Group ZGE showed the highest surface roughness (Ra = 1.54 µm) compared with other groups (P < .05). Meanwhile, the hardness of group Z was significantly higher than those of other groups (P < .05). Cell attachment and cell proliferation were significantly higher in group ZGE (P < .05). We concluded that effective surface roughness on zirconia could be made by acid etching treatment after glass infiltration. This surface showed significantly enhanced osteoblast cell response.

  12. Functional genomics to discover antibiotic resistance genes: The paradigm of resistance to colistin mediated by ethanolamine phosphotransferase in Shewanella algae MARS 14.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Shewanella algae MARS 14 is a colistin-resistant clinical isolate retrieved from bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalised patient. A functional genomics strategy was employed to discover the molecular support for colistin resistance in S. algae MARS 14. A pZE21 MCS-1 plasmid-based genomic expression library was constructed in Escherichia coli TOP10. The estimated library size was 1.30×10(8) bp. Functional screening of colistin-resistant clones was carried out on Luria-Bertani agar containing 8 mg/L colistin. Five colistin-resistant clones were obtained after complete screening of the genomic expression library. Analysis of DNA sequencing results found a unique gene in all selected clones. Amino acid sequence analysis of this unique gene using the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) and KEGG databases revealed that this gene encodes ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EptA, or so-called PmrC). Reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that resistance to colistin in S. algae MARS 14 was associated with overexpression of EptA (27-fold increase), which plays a crucial role in the arrangement of outer membrane lipopolysaccharide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. CENTAURUS A: THE EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS WITH ENERGIES ABOVE THE KNEE

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, Peter L.; De Souza, Vitor E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2012-02-10

    The origin of cosmic rays at all energies is still uncertain. In this paper, we present and explore an astrophysical scenario to produce cosmic rays with energy ranging from below 10{sup 15} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} eV. We show here that just our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A, each with their own galactic cosmic-ray particles but with those from the radio galaxy pushed up in energy by a relativistic shock in the jet emanating from the active black hole, are sufficient to describe the most recent data in the PeV to near ZeV energy range. Data are available over this entire energy range from the KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and Pierre Auger Observatory experiments. The energy spectrum calculated here correctly reproduces the measured spectrum beyond the knee and, contrary to widely held expectations, no other extragalactic source population is required to explain the data even at energies far below the general cutoff expected at 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min turnoff due to interaction with the cosmological microwave background. We present several predictions for the source population, the cosmic-ray composition, and the propagation to Earth which can be tested in the near future.

  14. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of ZeT is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  15. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Emdadull H; Mikami, Osamu; Murata, Hideo; Sultana, Parvin; Shimada, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2004-02-01

    The presence of maize intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab genes in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and visceral organs of calves fed genetically modified Bt11 maize was examined by PCR in a subchronic 90-day performance study. Samples were collected from six Japanese Black/Holstein calves fed Bt11 maize and from six calves fed non-Bt maize. Fragments of maize zein (Ze1), invertase, chloroplast, and cry1Ab were detected inconsistently in the rumen fluid and rectal contents 5 and 18 h after feeding. The chloroplast DNA fragments of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and tRNA were detected inconsistently in the PBMC, the visceral organs, and the longissimus muscle, while the cry1Ab gene was never detected in PBMC or in the visceral organs. These results suggest that feed-derived maize DNA was mostly degraded in the GI tract but that fragmented DNA was detectable in the GI contents as a possible source of transfer to calf tissues. These results also suggest that the recombinant cry1Ab genes were not transferred to the PBMC and tissues of calves fed Bt11 maize.

  16. The effect of strain induced by Ag underlayer on saturation magnetization of partially ordered Fe16N2 thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Meiyin; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ji, Nian; ...

    2013-12-12

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study film formation by magnesium alloys AZ31B (Mg-3Al-1Zn base) and ZE10A (Elektron®717, E717: Mg-1Zn + Nd, Zr) in H2O and D2O with and without 1 or 5 wt.% NaCl. No SANS scattering changes were observed after 24 h D2O or H2O exposures compared with as received (unreacted) alloy, consistent with relatively dense MgO-base film formation. However, exposure to 5 wt.% NaCl resulted in accelerated corrosion, with resultant SANS scattering changes detected. The SANS data indicated both particle and rough surface (internal and external) scattering, but withmore » no preferential size features. The films formed in 5 wt.% NaCl consisted of a thin, inner MgO-base layer, and a nano-porous and filamentous Mg(OH)2 outer region tens of microns thick. Chlorine was detected extending to the inner MgO-base film region, with segregation of select alloying elements also observed in the inner MgO, but not the outer Mg(OH)2. Modeling of the SANS data suggested that the outer Mg(OH)2 films had very high surface areas, consistent with loss of film protectiveness. Here, implications for the NaCl corrosion mechanism, and the potential utility of SANS for Mg corrosion, are discussed.« less

  17. Design and synthesis of urea-linked aromatic oligomers--a route towards convoluted foldamers.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, James J; Xing, Liyan; Tang, Nathalie; Cuccia, Louis A

    2009-10-05

    Herein we report the design and synthesis of crescent-shaped and helical urea-based foldamers, the curvature of which is controlled by varying the constituent building blocks and their connectivity. These oligomers are comprised of two, three or five alternating aromatic heterocycles (pyridazine, pyrimidine or pyrazine) and methyl-substituted aromatic carbocycles (tolyl, o-xylyl or m-xylyl) connected together through urea linkages. A crescent-shaped conformational preference is encoded within these pi-conjugated urea-linked oligomers based on intramolecular hydrogen bonding and steric interactions; the degree of curvature is tuned by the urea connectivity to the heterocycles and the aryl groups. NMR characterization of these foldamers confirms the intramolecular hydrogen-bonded conformation expected (Z,E configuration of the urea bond) in both the pyridazyl and pyrimidyl foldamers in solution. An X-ray crystal structure of the N(3),N(6)-diisobutylpyridazine-4,6-diamine-o-tolyl urea-linked foldamer (4) confirms the presence of N-H...N hydrogen bonds between the heterocyclic nitrogen atom and the free hydrogen of the urea linkage. Additionally, the tolyl methyl group interacts unfavourably with the urea carbonyl oxygen, thus destabilising the alternate planar conformation.

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 85. Part 16 (Pilot Electric Co - Reyex Corporation).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    U.ILI 40 20 40 . 664 W c NINI GC<W)U 0WW-9 "W 01- NOC WcC)0.00 . 0 W 1-CD W.4 64o lz ZI~ (NI W0 0 04N 406 z 0𔃺 c-NN’)Wi( ZN - z v--w4 ZeN zoo 4 N MCI. 1...0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ioo I10 IC. 1 01l(. WN W 40WWW-4 M M -4 RtV - -*-V tR-t44ItV--t-V4tVVVVlR 4V CV-4-4 -4 -t I 10l) 10 r tIO NC’. cl -&nc )mmo0 -cn (-4 Vc...4 7(N X-4 -4 1 MC-I- Iwo w WOI WO WO W-I 0 W-4 W-400000000-4-4 w .4 W-4 0640>04I0&M ) 04 0-In 0C C 0-L’ 0-I 0-NM’ M" Rtv %.44 4 a.N 0-4 0 mr 0 )41M

  19. A second conserved GAF domain cysteine is required for the blue/green photoreversibility of cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Njuguna, Stephanie Lane; Roberts, Laurel; Castillo, Elenor; Parson, Victoria L.; Dwojak, Sunshine; Lagarias, J. Clark; Spiller, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochromes are widely occurring red/far-red photoreceptors that utilize a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore covalently bound within a knotted PAS-GAF domain pair. Cyanobacteria also contain more distant relatives of phytochromes that lack this knot, such as the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochromes implicated to function as blue/green switchable photoreceptors. In this study, we characterize the cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Full-length Tlr0924 exhibits blue/green photoconversion across a broad range of temperatures, including physiologically relevant temperatures for this organism. Spectroscopic characterization of Tlr0924 demonstrates that its green-absorbing state is in equilibrium with a labile, spectrally distinct blue-absorbing species. The photochemically generated blue-absorbing state is in equilibrium with another species absorbing at longer wavelengths, giving a total of 4 states. Cys499 is essential for this behavior, because mutagenesis of this residue results in red-absorbing mutant biliproteins. Characterization of the C499D mutant protein by absorbance and CD spectroscopy supports the conclusion that its bilin chromophore adopts a similar conformation to the red-light-absorbing Pr form of phytochrome. We propose a model photocycle in which Z/E photoisomerization of the 15/16 bond modulates formation of a reversible thioether linkage between Cys499 and C10 of the chromophore, providing the basis for the blue/green switching of cyanobacteriochromes. PMID:18549244

  20. High-value alcohols and higher-oxidation-state compounds by catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Khan, R. Kashif M.; Torker, Sebastian; Yu, Miao; Mikus, Malte S.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis catalysts provide access to molecules that are indispensable to physicians and researchers in the life sciences. A persisting problem, however, is the dearth of chemical transformations that directly generate acyclic Z allylic alcohols, including products that contain a hindered neighbouring substituent or reactive functional units such as a phenol, an aldehyde, or a carboxylic acid. Here we present an electronically modified ruthenium-disulfide catalyst that is effective in generating such high-value compounds by cross-metathesis. The ruthenium complex is prepared from a commercially available precursor and an easily generated air-stable zinc catechothiolate. Transformations typically proceed with 5.0 mole per cent of the complex and an inexpensive reaction partner in 4-8 hours under ambient conditions; products are obtained in up to 80 per cent yield and 98:2 Z:E diastereoselectivity. The use of this catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of the naturally occurring anti-tumour agent neopeltolide and in a single-step stereoselective gram-scale conversion of a renewable feedstock (oleic acid) to an anti-fungal agent. In this conversion, the new catalyst promotes cross-metathesis more efficiently than the commonly used dichloro-ruthenium complexes, indicating that its utility may extend beyond Z-selective processes.

  1. [Mind-body connection, parapsychological phenomena and spiritual healing. A review].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2010-06-01

    Evidence regarding the influence of the mind on the body is abundant. Several mind-body healing procedures are currently being used, among them hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, visualizations, management of emotions and prayer. Since the Big Bang, we are entangled with everything. This interaction would let individuals to communicate with the minds and bodies of others. The field of parapsychological research has provided a lot of information about significant events, including apparitions, communications with the dead, near-death experiences and out of the body experiences. It looks apparently evident, that consciousness can persist in the absence of brain function. According to the model that assumes that it is consciousness and not matter, the base of everything that exists, what survives after death is the "quantum monad" or spirit. It is said that spiritual cures are practiced by discarnate physicians who diagnose and prescribe conventional treatments, but very often they use unknown procedures based on the management of energy fields that are currently being studied by many physicists. Representative examples of the practice of spiritual medicine were the mediums Ze Arigo, George Chapman, Barbara Guerrero (Pachita) and presently the Brazilian medium John of God. Case reports of paranormal phenomena observed and studied by honest and serious scientists are very important for the advancement of parapsychology, because it has not been clearly established which approach, the qualitative or the quantitative, is more useful for the development of this field.

  2. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, County, Contractor and Place. Part 4 (Montgomery-Weston)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    I.WMi I GO I co ’Co lGa I I .g o "oc taa smMm E 2 IC )-I 0, W04= L-U A C 0 41 -.- C % . , 0 c I - . - z I >- IL I La. aL 00 Ezw 0 W- Ow 41. uj a I-9 t...34 2 2 2 -4z0 424. 0. I 2l I xx << W CK ZIL I.Rw L z ww 0ww0 w0 (0Z I- 30 ~ C C 0 OO 0Ze C fo I I in6 1D t 0L 4 - in 0C)c Dc r I& U)10 I I. L i 4 CK... 1D L-). IL 00L -U-L~ I0 CL-9 I.- "CUC 9ow I- 004 915)9 (0z 9J x 948o--iz0 0 0-O " 43 -a I" I<C zdw " 0 I -I (0. I " 9 I 04 ~~ I * J WM I UW . . 9 L. LL

  3. Predicted number of lung cancer cases in Germany among former uranium miners of the Wismut

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske-Hohlfeld, I.; Moehner, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1946-1990, the Wismut-Company in the former German Democratic Republic was the leading producer of uranium for the Soviet union. After the German reunification, a central welfare system for uranium miners of the Wismut Zentrale Betreuung Wismut (ZeBWiS) was initiated by the Hauptverband der Berufsgenossenschaften in 1992, and a data base of exposed employees was established. In spring 1993, data regarding 95,000 exposed persons were available from Saxony, but none from Thuringia. A sample of 3,654 persons was drawn. For 3,128 of them the working history at the Wismut could be reconstructed. Having established the age distribution and taking into account mortality of other causes, the expected age-specific mortality rates of lung cancer were calculated. Statistical risk models were applied. Assuming that for Saxony about 156,000 workers were exposed in underground mining and/or uranium processing, a total (past and future) of about 7,000-25,000 excess lung cancer cases are estimated to be due to exposure to radon and its progeny. From 1995 onwards about 1,300-4,800 additional cases are predicted in the population of exposed former Wismut workers in Saxony. The peak incidence was reached between 1985-1991. No prognosis for Thuringia can be given so far.

  4. Direct numerical simulation study of statistically stationary propagation of a reaction wave in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rixin; Lipatnikov, Andrei N.

    2017-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulation (DNS) study of the propagation of a reaction wave in forced, constant-density, statistically stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is performed by solving Navier-Stokes and reaction-diffusion equations at various (from 0.5 to 10) ratios of the rms turbulent velocity U' to the laminar wave speed, various (from 2.1 to 12.5) ratios of an integral length scale of the turbulence to the laminar wave thickness, and two Zeldovich numbers Ze=6.0 and 17.1. Accordingly, the Damköhler and Karlovitz numbers are varied from 0.2 to 25.1 and from 0.4 to 36.2, respectively. Contrary to an earlier DNS study of self-propagation of an infinitely thin front in statistically the same turbulence, the bending of dependencies of the mean wave speed on U' is simulated in the case of a nonzero thickness of the local reaction wave. The bending effect is argued to be controlled by inefficiency of the smallest scale turbulent eddies in wrinkling the reaction-zone surface, because such small-scale wrinkles are rapidly smoothed out by molecular transport within the local reaction wave.

  5. Comparison of chlorophyll a concentration detected by remote sensors and other chlorophyll indices in inhomogeneous turbid waters.

    PubMed

    Sokoletsky, Leonid G; Yacobi, Yosef Z

    2011-10-20

    A new analytical approach for retrieval of the vertically weighted chlorophyll a concentration (Chl(rs)) detected by remote sensors is presented. Model calculations were carried out for the turbid waters of Lake Kinneret, Israel, and showed that Chl(rs) may be replaced by the average chlorophyll a concentration (Chl(p)) within the upper "penetration layer" 0-Z(p). The study also showed a high correlation between Chl(rs) and Chl concentration averaged in the other depth layers, namely, the 0-1 m layer, the euphotic layer (0-Z(e)), and the production layer (0-Z(pr)). Our findings are closely related to models developed for the world ocean, with the exception of periods when the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense blooms in the lake. We showed the effect of the pattern of vertical Chl distributions within the penetration layer on the difference between Chl(rs) and other Chl indices was conspicuous when the Chl maximum was in the uppermost 0- m layer of the water column. We assume that the presented approaches are instrumental for further development of optimal, locally adapted algorithms for remote sensing of Chl in any type of natural waters.

  6. Diagnostic Features of Alzheimer’s Disease Extracted From FDG Pet Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Fjueh\\lc kms�xzwFcTnäk� c ��@oZ*4pC�d���@B4pC ��Z]\\lYF� @ S �7C X7^Ó`�cTx�ehvlghc]�Îkm_d_rghcJsuxFkdj½Zp^Fjln�eixFjVeècJ�FcJj kd`Îkds�xFwFc]4 kmn...ein«^z`9x�gi^ze]x�ehkm^Fj°xzgi^Fv?jl{ìeh\\?cÑgh^Feixzehkm^Fj�Zpcpj:ehgic `�^V_d_m^rcT{ S :��ehg]xzjlnh_x�ehkm^Fjä\\?kn=gi^zeixzehkm^Fj�Z...cìgicJnhv?_deinäkn�Z&^VsS t?v?ehcJ{#D�Êjæei\\?cu{[kmniZ&gic&eic�{[^VsuxFkdjÒk�e�kmn�n�kmsut?_m� ei\\?cun�v? s .^F`bxz_m_ ei\\?c�ghcTn�vl_�e]nY^T [e]xzkmj

  7. Enhancement of chromium uptake in tanning using oxazolidine.

    PubMed

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Brutto, Patrick E; Siddhartha, G; Ramesh, R; Ramanaiah, B; Saravanan, P; Mandal, A B

    2011-06-15

    Monocyclic and bicyclic oxazolidines were offered at three different junctures of chrome tanning process viz. prior to BCS offer, along with BCS and after basification. It was found that oxazolidine when offered after basification brought about better chromium uptake and reduction of chromium load in the wastewater. Offer of oxazolidine was also varied. Increase in offer of oxazolidine from 0.25% to 1% was found to enhance the chromium uptake and decrease the chromium load in wastewater. But the increase in uptake was not proportionate to the increase in oxazolidine offer more than 0.75%. Offer of 1% Zoldine ZA 78 (monocyclic oxazolidine) and Zoldine ZE (bicyclic oxazolidine) after basification brought about 63.4% and 73.1% enhancement in chrome content in leather compared to control where oxazolidine was not offered. The tone of the wetblue was found to be altered moderately. However this did not call for any process adjustments in wet-finishing. The oxazolidine treated leathers were found to be immensely fuller and tighter. It was found experimentally that offer of 1% of oxazolidine facilitated reduction in the offer of syntans administered for filling and grain tightening by around 46%. Oxazolidine could bring about significant reduction in cost of chemicals apart from resulting environmental benefits due to enhancement of chromium uptake during tanning.

  8. Ginzburg-Landau theory for the solid-liquid interface of bcc elements. II - Application to the classical one-component plasma, the Wigner crystal, and He-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, X. C.; Stroud, D.

    1989-01-01

    The previously developed Ginzburg-Landau theory for calculating the crystal-melt interfacial tension of bcc elements to treat the classical one-component plasma (OCP), the charged fermion system, and the Bose crystal. For the OCP, a direct application of the theory of Shih et al. (1987) yields for the surface tension 0.0012(Z-squared e-squared/a-cubed), where Ze is the ionic charge and a is the radius of the ionic sphere. Bose crystal-melt interface is treated by a quantum extension of the classical density-functional theory, using the Feynman formalism to estimate the relevant correlation functions. The theory is applied to the metastable He-4 solid-superfluid interface at T = 0, with a resulting surface tension of 0.085 erg/sq cm, in reasonable agreement with the value extrapolated from the measured surface tension of the bcc solid in the range 1.46-1.76 K. These results suggest that the density-functional approach is a satisfactory mean-field theory for estimating the equilibrium properties of liquid-solid interfaces, given knowledge of the uniform phases.

  9. Dual-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems using genetic algorithm: a comparison between basic and recuperative cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ameen, Muhammad Tahir; Tariq, Muhammad Kashif; Shah, Syed Nadeem Abbas; Naveed, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Exploitation of low potential waste thermal energy for useful net power output can be done by manipulating organic Rankine cycle systems. In the current article dual-objectives ({{η}}_{th} and SIC) optimization of ORC systems [basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC)] has been done using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (II). Seven organic compounds (R-123, R-1234ze, R-152a, R-21, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in basic cycle and four dry compounds (R-123, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in recuperative cycle to investigate the behaviour of two systems and compare their performance. Sensitivity analyses show that recuperation boosts the thermodynamic behaviour of systems but it also raises specific investment cost significantly. R-21, R-245ca and R-601 show attractive performance in BORC whereas R-601 and R-236ea in RORC. RORC, due to higher total investment cost and operation & maintenance costs, has longer payback periods as compared to BORC.

  10. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  11. Experimental analysis of refrigerants flow boiling inside small sized microfin tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diani, Andrea; Rossetto, Luisa

    2017-07-01

    The refrigerant charge reduction is one of the most challenging issues that the scientific community has to cope to reduce the anthropic global warming. Recently, mini microfin tubes have been matter of research, since they can reach better thermal performance in small domains, leading to a further refrigerant charge reduction. This paper presents experimental results about R134a flow boiling inside a microfin tube having an internal diameter at the fin tip of 2.4 mm. The mass flux was varied between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat flux from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapor quality from 0.10 to 0.99. The saturation temperature at the inlet of the test section was kept constant and equal to 30 °C. R134a thermal and fluid dynamic performances are presented and compared against those obtained with R1234ze(E) and R1234yf and against values obtained during R134a flow boiling inside a 3.4 mm ID microfin tube.

  12. HPLC-DAD and MS/MS analysis of novel drug candidates from the group of aromatic hydrazones revealing the presence of geometric isomers.

    PubMed

    Kovaríková, Petra; Vávrová, Katerina; Tomalová, Katerina; Schöngut, Michal; Hrusková, Katerina; Hasková, Pavlína; Klimes, Jirí

    2008-09-29

    Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is an iron-chelating aromatic hydrazone with promising pharmacological properties. However, it suffers from relatively short biological half-life. Hence, two novel derivates of SIH, HAP-INH and HPP-INH were synthesized in order to overcome this pharmacokinetic drawback. The aim of the present study was to employ HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS methods to investigate the identity of the putative impurities of these newly prepared substances, which are being formed in aqueous environment. At first, it was shown that their retention times as well as UV spectra did not correspond to any expected synthetic precursor, by-product or degradation product. HPLC-DAD analysis confirmed purity of peaks and revealed close but not identical UV spectra of putative impurities and corresponding hydrazones. The subsequent HPLC-MS/MS analyses using ESI and the ion trap mass analyzer showed the identical molecular ions (in both modes) as well as their fragmentation, which implicated presence of geometric isomers. This suggestion was further supported by the NMR analyses. Since the Z/E isomers can have different biological activities, results of this study might be of great importance for further development of the aroylhydrazones as novel drug candidates as well as from the theoretical point of view.

  13. Robust scatter correction method for cone-beam CT using an interlacing-slit plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kui-Dong; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Ding-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Shi, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in medical imaging and industrial nondestructive testing, but the presence of scattered radiation will cause significant reduction of image quality. In this article, a robust scatter correction method for CBCT using an interlacing-slit plate (ISP) is carried out for convenient practice. Firstly, a Gaussian filtering method is proposed to compensate the missing data of the inner scatter image, and simultaneously avoid too-large values of calculated inner scatter and smooth the inner scatter field. Secondly, an interlacing-slit scan without detector gain correction is carried out to enhance the practicality and convenience of the scatter correction method. Finally, a denoising step for scatter-corrected projection images is added in the process flow to control the noise amplification The experimental results show that the improved method can not only make the scatter correction more robust and convenient, but also achieve a good quality of scatter-corrected slice images. Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (2012ZX04007021), Aeronautical Science Fund of China (2014ZE53059), and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (3102014KYJD022)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Zapien, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The capture of solar energy has gained the attention for the next generation solar cell. ZnO/ZnSe NW arrays were synthesized on an FTO glass substrate using a simple and facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange approaches. The lead sulfide (PbS) QDs was infiltrated into ZnO/ZnSe NWs via SILAR method for making inorganic quantum dot sensitized ZnO/ZnSe/PbS QDs solar cell. The surface morphology, structural, optical, and J-V characteristics have been investigated. The ZnO/ZnSe NW is a core-shell like structure, and the absorption edge shifted from the UV region (ZnO NWs) to the near infrared region for ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs. For PbS QDs-sensitized solar cell, the obtained value of η = 1.1%, J sc = 20.60 mA/cm2, V oc = 155 mV, and FF = 34.7%, respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the device in this study is still inferior. However, it is the first report regarding to ZnO/ZnZe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell. The achieving high absorption and large short circuit current density may interest in further improvement of the device performance by suppressing surface defects, optimizing the quality of ZnO/ZnSe NWs and PbS QDs.

  15. Low Temperature Photoluminescence of PVT Grown ZnSe and ZnSeTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ling Jun; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    ZnSe and ZnSeTe single crystals were grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) technique horizontally and vertically. The grown ZnSe and ZnSeTe single crystals were characterized by low temperature photoluminescence at 5 to 10 K using the 3.4 eV emission of an argon laser. The intensity of the sharp near band edge defect lines at 2.799, 2.783 eV and the intrinsic free exciton line at 2.802 eV were mapped on various crystal surfaces with different orientations to the gravitational field. The results show the effects of gravity vector orientation on the defect segregation. Comparison of the photoluminescence spectra of the ZeSe crystal before and after annealing in the Zn vapor shows that the 2.783 eV line of ZnSe crystal is related to the zinc vacancy. The photoluminescence spectra of the ternary ZnSeTe crystal were characterized by a single broad band from 2.2 to 2.4 eV, with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of about 100 meV. The temperature dependence of the peak position and intensity were determined from 7 to 150 K.

  16. NASA's Webb Telescope ISIM Gets Cubed for Gravity Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The James Webb Space Telescope's ISIM structure recently endured a "gravity sag test" as it was rotated in what looked like giant cube in a NASA clean room. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that will fly on the Webb telescope was rotated upside down inside a cube-like structure in the cleanroom at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The purpose of "cubing" the ISIM was to test it for "gravity sag," which is to see how much the structure changes under its own weight due to gravity. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is one of three major elements that comprise the Webb Observatory flight system. The others are the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Spacecraft Element (Spacecraft Bus and Sunshield). Read more: 1.usa.gov/1ze7u2l Credit: NASA/Goddard/Chris Gunn NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. DFT and PCM-TD-DFT investigation of the electronic structures and spectra of 5-(3-phenyl-2-propenylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Taher, Sabry; Metwaly, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    UV-Visible absorption spectra of 5-(3-phenyl-2-propenylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinones (5pR-PPTT, R = H, CH3, CH3O, and N(CH3)2) were measured in different solvents and investigated using the theoretical PCM-TD-DFT scheme. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different DFT functionals has been performed. The best agreement with X-ray data is achieved by using the long-range corrected LC-wPBE functional, while the PBE0 functional provided the most accurate λmax for the studied compounds. The thionic forms of the ZE isomers of the studied compounds are found to be the most stable tautomers. The assignation debate of the second absorption band of rhodanine [2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (Rd)] has been solved by confirming on its π-π∗ nature. It was found that the expansion of the π-conjugation system at position 5 of Rd ring leads to significant bathochromic shift. The CT lengths (Δr) and dipole moment change (ΔμCT) indices showed that the charge transfer character of the electronic transitions is directly proportional to the electron-releasing strength of substituted phenyl ring. It was concluded that the red shifting of the maximum absorption is mainly regulated by the solvent polarizability and much less by solvent polarity.

  18. Two distinct mechanisms of alkyne insertion into the metal-sulfur bond: combined experimental and theoretical study and application in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ananikov, Valentine P; Gayduk, Konstantin A; Orlov, Nikolay V; Beletskaya, Irina P; Khrustalev, Victor N; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2010-02-15

    The present study reports the evidence for the multiple carbon-carbon bond insertion into the metal-heteroatom bond via a five-coordinate metal complex. Detailed analysis of the model catalytic reaction of the carbon-sulfur (C-S) bond formation unveiled the mechanism of metal-mediated alkyne insertion: a new pathway of C-S bond formation without preliminary ligand dissociation was revealed based on experimental and theoretical investigations. According to this pathway alkyne insertion into the metal-sulfur bond led to the formation of intermediate metal complex capable of direct C-S reductive elimination. In contrast, an intermediate metal complex formed through alkyne insertion through the traditional pathway involving preliminary ligand dissociation suffered from "improper" geometry configuration, which may block the whole catalytic cycle. A new catalytic system was developed to solve the problem of stereoselective S-S bond addition to internal alkynes and a cost-efficient Ni-catalyzed synthetic procedure is reported to furnish formation of target vinyl sulfides with high yields (up to 99%) and excellent Z/E selectivity (>99:1).

  19. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  20. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  1. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  2. Mechanical properties of several magnesium and aluminum composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsangarakis, N.; Taleghani, B.

    1992-12-01

    Several composites of magnesium and aluminum alloys were tested in order to assess and evaluate their mechanical properties. The magnesium alloys were AZ91 C, ZE41 A, and commercially pure magnesium, reinforced with 40% by volume continuous graphite fiber. The tensile properties of these composites were not superior to those of unreinforced magnesium and estimates of their fracture toughness were low. The matrices of the aluminum composites were 2124-T6, 6061-T4, 2124-T4, and 2219-T4. The reinforcements were either particulate or whiskers of silicon carbide or boron carbide and their volume content was 15% to 30%. The aluminum composites which were reinforced with silicon carbide particulate exhibited improved yield and ultimate tensile stresses, as well as tensile elastic modulus over the unreinforced aluminum alloys. The 2124-T4/B4C/25p composite exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength which was 511 MPa. The composite which was reinforced with whiskers of silicon carbide exhibited an endurance limit which was 20% higher than that of the matrix alloy. The compressive properties and fracture toughness of some of these aluminum composites were not improved over those of the unreinforced matrix alloy.... Composites, Mechanical properties.

  3. The Local Group in LCDM - Shapes and masses of dark halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift bestuderen we de eigenschappen van donkere materie halo's in het LCDM paradigma. Het eerste deel richt zich op de vorm van de massadistributie van dergelijke objecten. We hebben gevonden dat de vorm van ge"isoleerde Melkweg-achtige donkere materie halo's significant afwijkt van bolsymmetrie. De lokale omgeving heeft invloed op de halo's en deze worden daarbij sterk be"invloed door de manier waarop massa aangroeit. We hebben ook de structuur en de baanstructuur van de satellieten van dergelijke halo's in detail onderzocht. In het algemeen zijn deze objecten sferischer dan de halo's zelf. Ze vertonen ook duidelijke afdrukken van getijdenwerking in zowel hun geometrische vorm als in de baanstructuur. Daarna gebruiken we het aantal massieve objecten rond de Melkweg om limieten te zetten op de totale massa van de donkere materie halo van de Melkweg. De eigenschappen van de massaverdeling van de Melkweg worden verder onderzocht in het laatste hoofdstuk. Daar maken we gebruik van de Sagittarius sterstroom om de vorm van de galactische potentiaal beter te bepalen. We komen met een nieuw model dat rekening houdt met de galactische schijf en de invloed van satellietstelsels en die bovendien consistent is met het LCDM paradigma.

  4. The State Policy for Natural Gas Sector / Sektor Gazu Ziemnego W Polityce Państwa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurlej, Adam

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the state policy for natural gas sector. A particular attention has been given to how the assumptions of gas demand, import volumes and gas production from domestic reserves have developed in strategic documents. The restructuring of natural gas sector has been brought closer on the example of PGNiG S.A. (Polish Oil and Gas Company), and changes in the domestic gas market resulting from the implementation of EU law have been discussed as well. Major changes in the domestic gas market in the period of 1990-2011 have been presented along with the cooperation between Poland and Russia regarding the natural gas supply for the Polish market. W artykule dokonano przeglądu polityki państwa wobec sektora gazu ziemnego. W sposób szczególny przeanalizowano jak kształtowały się w dokumentach strategicznych prognozy w zakresie zapotrzebowania na gaz, wielkości importu i wydobycia gazu ze złóż krajowych. Przybliżono także restrukturyzację sektora gazu ziemnego na przykładzie PGNiG oraz zmiany na krajowym rynku gazu wynikające z implementacji prawa UE. Wskazano najważniejsze zmiany na krajowym rynku gazu ziemnego w latach 1990-2011 oraz scharakteryzowano współpracę polsko - rosyjską w zakresie dostaw gazu do Polski.

  5. Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Klavs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The admissible scenarios are considered as related to reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport in Latvia by 2020. All of the scenarios are analysed, and the proofs are presented for the possibility to reduce such emissions as well as the energy consumption through a more extensive use of efficient cars and biofuel. Izmantojot scenāriju modelēšanas pieeju un COPERT IV modeli, novērtēts siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju samazināšanas potenciāls autotransportā Latvijā līdz 2020. gadam. Modelēšanas rezultāti un analīze ļauj secināt, ka neskatoties uz sagaidāmo automašīnu skaita palielināšanos, jaunu energoefektīvu automašīnu ar augstākiem izmešu standartiem izmantošana un biodegvielas piemaisījuma palielināšana autotransportā izmantojamā degvielā ļauj ierobežot siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju pieaugumu.

  6. Radio Detection of GZK Neutrinos - AURA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, H.; Ruckman, L.; Varner, G. S.

    The excellent radiofrequency transparency of cold polar ice, combined with the 'coherent' Cherenkov emission produced by neutrino-induced showers when viewed at macroscopic wavelengths, has spurred considerable interest in an ultimate, large-scale radiowave neutrino detector array. Detection of GZK neutrinos will require at least an order of magnitude improvement in the product of (livetime)x(Effective volume) over existing (RICE, ANITA, e.g. neutrino detection experiments. Correspondingly, the AURA (Askaryan Underice Radio Array) experimental effort seeks to take advantage of the opportunity presented by IceCube drilling through 2010 to establish the radiofrequency technology needed to achieve 100-1000 km3 effective volumes. We discuss three test strings co-deployed with IceCube in 2006-07 which combine fast in-ice digitization with an efficient, multi-tiered trigger scheme. Ultimately, augmentation of IceCube with large-scale (100 km2 x 2 km deep) radio and acoustic arrays would extend the physics reach of IceCube into the EeV-ZeV regime and offer substantial technological redundancy.

  7. Erratum: Standard Solar Models in the Light of New Helioseismic Constraints. II. Mixing below the Convective Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, A. S.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Zahn, J. P.

    2000-06-01

    In the paper ``Standard Solar Models in the Light of New Helioseismic Constraints. II. Mixing below the Convective Zone'' by A. S. Brun, S. Turck-Chièze, and J. P. Zahn (525, 1032 [1999]), several corrections are required: 1. The words ``greater than'' just after equation (11) for the definition of rbcz should be removed. 2. The beginning of first sentence of the next paragraph should read: ``With the latitudinal dependence of the angular velocity at the base of the convection zone borrowed from Thompson et al. (1996), Ωbcz/2π=456-72x2-42x4 nHz,'' instead of ``Ωbcz>/2π=456-72x2- 42x4.'' 3. In the footnote to Table 1, ``Rbzc'' should be ``Rbcz,'' as it is appears for ``Tbcz'' in the same footnote. 4. In Table 2, in the ``Parameters'' column, ``i0'' should be ``Z0,'' as in Table 1. 5. In Table 3, ``Observaton'' should be ``Observation.'' The Press sincerely regrets these errors.

  8. Magnetic-dipole-to-electric-quadrupole cross-susceptibilities for relativistic hydrogenlike atoms in some low-lying discrete energy eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefańska, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present tabulated data for magnetic-dipole-to-electric-quadrupole cross-susceptibilities (χ M 1 →E 2) for Dirac one-electron atoms with a pointlike, spinless and motionless nucleus of charge Ze. Numerical values of this susceptibility for the hydrogen atom (Z = 1) and for hydrogenic ions with 2 ⩽ Z ⩽ 137 are computed from the general analytical formula, recently derived by us (Stefanska, 2016), valid for an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate. In this work we provide 30 tables with the values of χ M 1 →E 2 for the ground state, and also for the first, the second and the third set of excited states (i.e.: 2s1/2, 2p1/2, 2p3/2, 3s1/2, 3p1/2, 3p3/2, 3d3/2, 3d5/2, 4s1/2, 4p1/2, 4p3/2, 4d3/2, 4d5/2, 4f5/2 and 4f7/2) of the relativistic hydrogenlike atoms. The value of the inverse of the fine-structure constant used in the calculations is α-1 = 137.035999139, and was taken from CODATA 2014.

  9. Selectfluor and NFSI exo-glycal fluorination strategies applied to the enhancement of the binding affinity of galactofuranosyltransferase GlfT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Lidia; Eppe, Guillaume; Tikad, Abdellatif; Pan, Weidong; El Bkassiny, Sandy; Gurcha, Sudagar S; Ardá, Ana; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Besra, Gurdyal S; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2014-11-10

    Two complementary methods for the synthesis of fluorinated exo-glycals have been developed, for which previously no general reaction had been available. First, a Selectfluor-mediated fluorination was optimized after detailed analysis of all the reaction parameters. A dramatic effect of molecular sieves on the course of the reaction was observed. The reaction was generalized with a set of biologically relevant furanosides and pyranosides. A second direct approach involving carbanionic chemistry and the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide (NFSI) was performed and this method gave better diastereoselectivities. Assignment of the Z/E configuration of all the fluorinated exo-glycals was achieved based on the results of HOESY experiments. Furthermore, fluorinated exo-glycal analogues of UDP-galactofuranose were prepared and assayed against GlfT2, which is a key enzyme involved in the cell-wall biosynthesis of major pathogens. The fluorinated exo-glycals proved to be potent inhibitors as compared with a series of C-glycosidic analogues of UDP-Galf, thus demonstrating the double beneficial effect of the exocyclic enol ether functionality and the fluorine atom. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin IX alpha using the relative molar absorptivity values.

    PubMed

    Itoh, S; Isobe, K; Onishi, S

    1999-07-02

    It has been reported that considerable differences exist between the relative molar absorptivity values of the geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin. We have devised an accurate HPLC method for photoisomer quantification based on the following principle: the sum of both the integrated peak areas corrected by each factor for each photoisomer, and the integrated peak area of unchanged (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-B] after an anaerobic photoirradiation, should be constant and equal to the integrated peak area of initial (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-Bi] before photoirradiation. On this basis, the following equation can be used to determine each factor. [equation: see text] alpha, beta, gamma and delta represent the factors used to correct the integrated peak areas of individual bilirubin photoisomers, and they are arranged in the order of the formula. It was demonstrated that the relative 455 nm molar absorptivity values for (ZZ)-bilirubin and all its geometrical and structural photoisomers, i.e., (ZZ)-bilirubin, (ZE)-bilirubin (EZ)-bilirubin, (EZ)-cyclobilirubin (= lumirubin) and (EE)-cyclobilirubin in the HPLC eluent, are, respectively, 1.0, 0.81 (= alpha), 0.54 (= beta), 0.47 (= gamma) and 0.39 (= delta).

  11. The influence of two common sterilization techniques on the corrosion of Mg and its alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sean; Shi, Zhiming; Hoe, Cherilyn; Uggowitzer, Peter J; Cihova, Martina; Löffler, Jörg F; Dargusch, Matthew S; Atrens, Andrej

    2017-09-23

    This paper studied the influence of two common sterilization techniques, ethylene oxide (EO) and gamma irradiation (GI), on the corrosion rate of four Mg-based materials in CO2 -bicarbonate buffered Hanks' solution. The four materials were: high-purity (HP)-Mg, ZE41, ultra-high purity (XHP)-Mg, and XHP-ZX00. The corrosion rate was measured through mass loss (Pm ) and hydrogen evolution (PH ). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to assess the effect of the sterilization techniques on the corrosion rates across the four materials. The ANOVA analyzed the variables of (1) material, (2) sterilization condition (EO, GI, and an unsterilized control group), and (3) the interaction between these two independent variables. Neither sterilization technique (EO and GI) significantly influenced the corrosion rate as measured by Pm (p < 0.84) nor PH (p < 0.08). This result was consistent across the four materials tested, as there was no interaction between the test variables of material and sterilization condition for Pm (p < 0.49) or PH (p < 0.27). As neither EO nor GI influenced the corrosion rates, either of these techniques warrants consideration for use on Mg-based medical implants and devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evolving Improvements to TRMM Ground Validation Rainfall Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M.; Kulie, M. S.; Marks, D. A.; Wolff, D. B.; Ferrier, B. S.; Amitai, E.; Silberstein, D. S.; Fisher, B. L.; Wang, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The primary function of the TRMM Ground Validation (GV) Program is to create GV rainfall products that provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements for select primary sites. Since the successful 1997 launch of the TRMM satellite, GV rainfall estimates have demonstrated systematic improvements directly related to improved radar and rain gauge data, modified science techniques, and software revisions. Improved rainfall estimates have resulted in higher quality GV rainfall products and subsequently, much improved evaluation products for the satellite-based precipitation estimates from TRMM. This presentation will demonstrate how TRMM GV rainfall products created in a semi-automated, operational environment have evolved and improved through successive generations. Monthly rainfall maps and rainfall accumulation statistics for each primary site will be presented for each stage of GV product development. Contributions from individual product modifications involving radar reflectivity (Ze)-rain rate (R) relationship refinements, improvements in rain gauge bulk-adjustment and data quality control processes, and improved radar and gauge data will be discussed. Finally, it will be demonstrated that as GV rainfall products have improved, rainfall estimation comparisons between GV and satellite have converged, lending confidence to the satellite-derived precipitation measurements from TRMM.

  13. Repellency of a wax-based catnip-oil formulation against stable flies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei J; Dunlap, Christopher A; Behle, Robert W; Berkebile, Dennis R; Wienhold, Brian

    2010-12-08

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are one of the most serious livestock pests, which cause significant economic loss in the cattle industry. Current practices for managing stable flies are limited to costly sanitation techniques and unsustainable insecticide applications. The present study reports the initial efforts using catnip essential oil as a spatial repellent and the results of field trials using a wax-based formulation to repel stable flies in the cattle feedlot. Electroantennograms showed that catnip oil and its ingredient compounds elicit significant antennal responses from both sexes of stable flies. Catnip oil and ZE- and EZ-nepetalactone showed repellent activity in a single cage olfactormeter study. No behavioral activity was observed from another ingredient compound, caryophyllene. A laboratory dispersal bioassay also showed that stable flies avoided areas treated with catnip oil. Using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, the atmospheric concentration of catnip active ingredient compounds (nepetalactones) absorbed by SPME fiber in treated areas was detected at 4 times higher than those in control areas. Application of wax-based catnip pellets in cattle feedlots resulted in >99% repellency of stable flies in treated areas, compared with that in nontreated areas. However, the repellent efficacy of the formulation only lasted 3 h. This is the first study demonstrating the potential application of a plant-based repellent formulation that may be used as an alternative method against stable flies.

  14. Quantification of nepetalactones in catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) by HPLC coupled with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingfu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E

    2007-01-01

    Nepetalactones, the major chemical components of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled with UV and MS detection. Two major nepetalactones, Z,E-nepetalactone and E,Z-nepetalactone, were successfully identified and quantified. The linearity range for Z,E-nepetalactone was determined as 0.00655-0.655 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and the linearity range of E,Z-nepetalactone was found to be 0.00228-0.456 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, under UV detection at 228 nm. The linearity ranges were from 0.00164 to 0.0328 mg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, for ZE-nepetalactone and 0.00114-0.0228 mg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, for E,Z-nepetalactone by MS detection with selected ion monitoring of ion peak m/z 167. The MS detection was found to be more sensitive than UV detection and this method was validated as simple, reliable and sensitive for catnip nepetalactone analysis. This method can be used for identification and fingerprinting of catnip products.

  15. Mechanical Systems Conditioning Monitoring Technology Working Group Report (IDA/OSD R&M (Institute for Defense Analyses/Office of the Secretary of Defense Reliability and Maintainability) Study).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    in0 0() Vw (a j 4jJJ -4 WO 0 >-4 a,~ X -4 0>4 oz (12 004a 140 .4 C4 -4 9 .> cO w~ 0 w 0 01-ji w C. Li c t) 0 -q 00 a4 ol 4 4 J.-M? PV 02 o VOC (1 20...LACC.) C4) U en0 $4 044 4’.) OC -4 04 u0 . ) w ) mZ U04 𔃺 >0 4) 4 U). 4)4. 0 I *4)l CL, MfV’- 1n1 0 w Ix V4O Ol I c4 C >§ ) M a I (L)44 0 0U-4 -4 I...D = n X> 0 0 ol -4C ~4) U) kv4.)r- 0to0 -4 w al fn C 0) $zE~4’~ 0 0) 41 *9o U o* %$ -42 -SC0 HOWWWO)U) Quc z4’c 0 E-’ WNOO 0. IN 1O.. a c C C -4 ta

  16. A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-09

    When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

  17. Dynamic analysis of a hexacopter controlled via LQR-PI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artale, V.; Barbaraci, G.; Milazzo, C.; Orlando, C.; Ricciardello, A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the dynamic behaviour of a hexacopter has been studied in order to analyse the controlled dynamic via LQR with PI controller. Then, based on mathematical model a set simulation has been performed in order to carry out the results for linear and non linear model. The simulations have been performed to show how LQR and PI controller lead to zero error the position along Z earth direction and to stop the rotation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) around body axes. The LQR has been introduced in order to move the plant's poles of UAV in the left half plane since with out controller the systems is unstable. The reference set-point is reached by the introduction of PI controller that regulates the position when gravity force is acting on it together exogenous excitation such as applied moment leading the system to rotate around body axes. The PI controller action does not involve all 6 d.o.f. hexarotor but only the variables ze, p, q and r. Simulations, LQR and PI controllers have been designed by using Matlab/Simulink. The results show the LQR with PI controllers robustly stabilize the hexarotor.

  18. Analysis and optimization of three main organic Rankine cycle configurations using a set of working fluids with different thermodynamic behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Basma; Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar; Kairouani, Lakdar; Kheiri, Abdelhamid

    2017-06-01

    Different configurations of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are potential thermodynamic concepts for power generation from low grade heat. The aim of this work is to investigate and optimize the performances of the three main ORC systems configurations: basic ORC, ORC with internal heat exchange (IHE) and regenerative ORC. The evaluation for those configurations was performed using seven working fluids with typical different thermodynamic behaviours (R245fa, R601a, R600a, R227ea, R134a, R1234ze and R1234yf). The optimization has been performed using a genetic algorithm under a comprehensive set of operative parameters such as the fluid evaporating temperature, the fraction of flow rate or the pressure at the steam extracting point in the turbine. Results show that there is no general best ORC configuration for all those fluids. However, there is a suitable configuration for each fluid. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  19. Rapid screening natural-origin lipase inhibitors from hypolipidemic decoctions by ultrafiltration combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shun; Yu, Runru; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-02-01

    Lipase inhibitors generate hypolipidemic effect that is helpful to control or treat some obesity diseases by inactivating catalytic activity of human pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme involved in triglyceride hydrolysis in vivo. Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been effectively used to treat obesity and other fat related diseases for centuries and modern biological experiments demonstrate therapeutic effect of these formulae can be linked to their lipid-lowering capability in blood. These observations suggest that these hypolipidemic decoctions (HDs) could be a promising resource of natural-origin lipase inhibitors. This work described a rapid approach for screening lipase inhibitors from four widely used HDs, including Wu-Ling-San (WLS), Ze-Xie decoction (ZX), Xiao-Xian-Xiong decoction (XXX) and Xiao-Chai-Hu decoction (XCH), by ultrafiltration combing with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Our results showed sixteen natural-origin lipase inhibitors were discovered and identified by high resolution and multistage mass spectrometry. Inhibitory activities of two compounds were confirmed by a functional assay of lipase, which validated the reliability of our approach. Molecular docking simulation was then performed to investigate potential mechanism of action for these compounds. Together we present an efficient method for rapid screening lipase inhibitors from complex natural products, which can be easily accommodated to other important enzymatic system with therapeutic values.

  20. Improving representation of convective transport for scale-aware parameterization: 1. Convection and cloud properties simulated with spectral bin and bulk microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yi-Chin; Xu, Kuan-Man; North, Kirk; Collis, Scott; Dong, Xiquan; Zhang, Guang J.; Chen, Qian; Kollias, Pavlos; Ghan, Steven J.

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the representation of convective transport by cumulus parameterization for mesoscale and climate models. As Part 1 of the study, we perform extensive evaluations of cloud-resolving simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complexes in midlatitude continent and tropical regions using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics (SBM) and with two double-moment bulk microphysics schemes: a modified Morrison (MOR) and Milbrandt and Yau (MY2). Compared to observations, in general, SBM gives better simulations of precipitation and vertical velocity of convective cores than MOR and MY2 and therefore will be used for analysis of scale dependence of eddy transport in Part 2. The common features of the simulations for all convective systems are (1) the model tends to overestimate convection intensity in the middle and upper troposphere, but SBM can alleviate much of the overestimation and reproduce the observed convection intensity well; (2) the model greatly overestimates Ze in convective cores, especially for the weak updraft velocity; and (3) the model performs better for midlatitude convective systems than the tropical system. The modeled mass fluxes of the midlatitude systems are not sensitive to microphysics schemes but are very sensitive for the tropical case indicating strong microphysics modification to convection. Cloud microphysical measurements of rain, snow, and graupel in convective cores will be critically important to further elucidate issues within cloud microphysics schemes.

  1. Ginzburg-Landau theory for the solid-liquid interface of bcc elements. II - Application to the classical one-component plasma, the Wigner crystal, and He-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, X. C.; Stroud, D.

    1989-01-01

    The previously developed Ginzburg-Landau theory for calculating the crystal-melt interfacial tension of bcc elements to treat the classical one-component plasma (OCP), the charged fermion system, and the Bose crystal. For the OCP, a direct application of the theory of Shih et al. (1987) yields for the surface tension 0.0012(Z-squared e-squared/a-cubed), where Ze is the ionic charge and a is the radius of the ionic sphere. Bose crystal-melt interface is treated by a quantum extension of the classical density-functional theory, using the Feynman formalism to estimate the relevant correlation functions. The theory is applied to the metastable He-4 solid-superfluid interface at T = 0, with a resulting surface tension of 0.085 erg/sq cm, in reasonable agreement with the value extrapolated from the measured surface tension of the bcc solid in the range 1.46-1.76 K. These results suggest that the density-functional approach is a satisfactory mean-field theory for estimating the equilibrium properties of liquid-solid interfaces, given knowledge of the uniform phases.

  2. Meeting report: fourth international congress of the Society for Melanoma Research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David E; Medrano, Estela E; McMahon, Martin; Soengas, Marisol S; Schuchter, Lynn; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merlino, Glenn

    2008-02-01

    The 4th international melanoma congress of the Society for Melanoma Research (SMR), organized by Marianne Berwick (University of New Mexico), Paul Chapman (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center), Rene Gonzalez (University of Colorado) and Ze'ev Ronai (Burnham Institute), was held at the Marriott Hotel in downtown New York on November 2007. The congress was attended by a record high number of attendees (over 500 delegates) who joined to discuss recent advances in melanoma biology and therapy. About 40% of the participants arrived from 39 countries, a testament to the high impact of this annual gathering on the international melanoma community. Over 120 of the participants were students or postdoctoral fellows, representing a most impressive fraction of young scientists engaged in melanoma research. The meeting consisted of more than 50 plenary and minisymposia presentations, stimulating the exchange of unpublished data and novel ideas, and helping to forge new collaborations that are anticipated to facilitate significant advances in basic, translational and clinical melanoma research. Another major focus of this meeting was over 160 posters, which were heavily attended and provided an effective forum for extensive informal discussions. This report will highlight the major scientific themes and advances of this most successful meeting, and provide a useful perspective on the current state of melanoma research, as well as where the field should be heading.

  3. Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, A.; Zhang, C.; Kollias, P.; Matrosov, S.; Szyrmer, W.

    2015-09-01

    The use of millimeter wavelength radars for probing precipitation has recently gained interest. However, estimation of precipitation variables is not straightforward due to strong signal attenuation, radar receiver saturation, antenna wet radome effects and natural microphysical variability. Here, an automated algorithm is developed for routinely retrieving rain rates from the profiling Ka-band (35-GHz) ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) zenith radars (KAZR). A 1-dimensional, simple, steady state microphysical model is used to estimate impacts of microphysical processes and attenuation on the profiles of radar observables at 35-GHz and thus provide criteria for identifying situations when attenuation or microphysical processes dominate KAZR observations. KAZR observations are also screened for signal saturation and wet radome effects. The algorithm is implemented in two steps: high rain rates are retrieved by using the amount of attenuation in rain layers, while low rain rates are retrieved from the reflectivity-rain rate (Ze-R) relation. Observations collected by the KAZR, rain gauge, disdrometer and scanning precipitating radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign at the Gan Island of the tropical Indian Ocean are used to validate the proposed approach. The differences in the rain accumulation from the proposed algorithm are quantified. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm has a potential for deriving continuous rain rate statistics in the tropics.

  4. Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, A.; Zhang, C.; Kollias, P.; Matrosov, S.; Szyrmer, W.

    2014-02-01

    The use of millimeter wavelength radars for probing precipitation has recently gained interest. However, estimation of precipitation variables is not straightforward due to strong attenuation, radar receiver saturation, antenna wet radome effects and natural microphysical variability. Here, an automated algorithm is developed for routinely retrieving rain rates from profiling Ka-band (35-GHz) ARM zenith radars (KAZR). A 1-D simple, steady state microphysical model is used to estimate the impact of microphysical processes and attenuation on the profiles of the radar observables at 35-GHz and thus provide criteria for identifying when attenuation or microphysical processes dominate KAZR observations. KAZR observations are also screened for saturation and wet radome effects. The proposed algorithm is implemented in two steps: high rain rates are retrieved by using the amount of attenuation in rain layers, while lower rain rates by the Ze-R (reflectivity-rain rate) relation is implemented. Observations collected by the KAZR, disdrometer and scanning weather radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign at Gan Island of the tropical Indian Ocean are used to validate the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can be used to derive robust statistics of rain rates in the tropics from KAZR observations.

  5. Improving representation of convective transport for scale-aware parameterization: 1. Convection and cloud properties simulated with spectral bin and bulk microphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yi-Chin; Xu, Kuan-Man; North, Kirk; Collis, Scott; Dong, Xiquan; Zhang, Guang J; Qian, Chen; Kollias, Pavlos; Ghan, Steven

    2015-04-27

    The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the representation of convective transport by cumulus parameterization for mesoscale and climate models. As Part 1 of the study, we perform extensive evaluations of cloud-resolving simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complexes in midlatitude continent and tropical regions using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics (SBM) and with two double-moment bulk microphysics schemes: a modified Morrison (MOR) and Milbrandt and Yau (MY2). Compared to observations, in general, SBM gives better simulations of precipitation and vertical velocity of convective cores than MOR and MY2 and therefore will be used for analysis of scale dependence of eddy transport in Part 2. The common features of the simulations for all convective systems are (1) themodel tends to overestimate convection intensity in the middle and upper troposphere, but SBM can alleviate much of the overestimation and reproduce the observed convection intensity well; (2) the model greatly overestimates Ze in convective cores, especially for the weak updraft velocity; and (3) the model performs better for midlatitude convective systems than the tropical system. The modeled mass fluxes of the midlatitude systems are not sensitive to microphysics schemes but are very sensitive for the tropical case indicating strong microphysics modification to convection. Cloud microphysical measurements of rain, snow, and graupel in convective cores will be critically important to further elucidate issues within cloud microphysics schemes

  6. Branching and competition of ultrafast photochemical reactions of cyclooctatriene and bicyclooctadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosma, Kyriaki; Trushin, Sergei A.; Schmid, Wolfram E.; Fuß, Werner

    2015-12-01

    The main primary photoproducts of cycloocta-1,3,5-triene (COT) are a strained mono-E isomer, Z,Z-octatetraene (OT, from electrocyclic ring opening) and benzene + ethylene. We investigated the excited-state dynamics of COT by time-resolved mass spectroscopy, probing by near-IR photoionization. Unexpectedly, we found only one reaction channel. We assign it to the pericyclic reactions. Evidence for an early branching between this and the Z-E channel is taken from previous resonance Raman data. This channel confirms previously formulated rules on the excited states involved, the reaction path and driving forces and contributes to their rationalization. Bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4-diene undergoes only two pericyclic reactions: ring opening to OT and cleavage to benzene + ethylene. We investigated it briefly in its equilibrium mixture with COT. The data are consistent with a common path on the excited surfaces. Suggestions are made for structures of conical intersections, and driving forces are considered. All processes were found to be barrierless.

  7. Dual-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems using genetic algorithm: a comparison between basic and recuperative cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ameen, Muhammad Tahir; Tariq, Muhammad Kashif; Shah, Syed Nadeem Abbas; Naveed, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Exploitation of low potential waste thermal energy for useful net power output can be done by manipulating organic Rankine cycle systems. In the current article dual-objectives (η_{th} and SIC) optimization of ORC systems [basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC)] has been done using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (II). Seven organic compounds (R-123, R-1234ze, R-152a, R-21, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in basic cycle and four dry compounds (R-123, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in recuperative cycle to investigate the behaviour of two systems and compare their performance. Sensitivity analyses show that recuperation boosts the thermodynamic behaviour of systems but it also raises specific investment cost significantly. R-21, R-245ca and R-601 show attractive performance in BORC whereas R-601 and R-236ea in RORC. RORC, due to higher total investment cost and operation & maintenance costs, has longer payback periods as compared to BORC.

  8. The new epidemic.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeanne V; Mellin, Grace C

    2014-03-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the November 1982 issue, is the first AJN article published on AIDS. It was early in the epidemic; only 608 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-a mere trickle in the flood that was to come. Reading it now, aware of all we've learned since, we have a sense of how much we were fumbling around in the dark in those early days, searching for a cause and a cure, often going in wrong directions. The closest we had come to the true nature of the syndrome was an understanding that "life-style factors seem to be involved and the agent appears to be infectious." To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/1iswhZe.

  9. Contribution of two-boson exchange with {delta}(1232) excitation to parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Keitaro; Kao, C. W.; Zhou Haiqing; Yang Shinnan

    2009-06-15

    We study the leading electroweak corrections in the precision measurement of the strange form factors. Specifically, we calculate the two-boson exchange (TBE), two-photon exchange (TPE) plus {gamma}Z exchange ({gamma}ZE), and corrections with {delta}(1232) excitation to the parity-violating asymmetry of the elastic electron-proton scattering. The interplay between nucleon and {delta} contributions is found to depend strongly on the kinematics, as {delta}{sub {delta}} begins as negligible at backward angles but becomes very large and negative and dominant at forward angles, while {delta}{sub N} always stays positive and decreases monotonically with increasing {epsilon}. The total TBE corrections to the extracted values of G{sub E}{sup s}+{beta}G{sub M}{sup s} in recent experiments of HAPPEX and G0 are, depending on kinematics, found to be large and range between 13% and -75%, but are found to be small in the case of A4 experiments.

  10. Monte Carlo analysis of pion contribution to absorbed dose from Galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghara, S. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Norbury, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV-GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  11. A case of Z/E-isomers elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiy, Oleg I; Ustinovich, Konstantin B; Usovich, Oleg I; Parenago, Olga O; Lunin, Valeriy V; Ovchinnikov, Denis V; Kosyakov, Dmitry S

    2017-01-06

    A case of elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography was observed and investigated in some detail. Z- and E-isomers of phenylisobutylketone oxime experience an elution order reversal on most columns if the mobile phase consists of CO2 and alcohol. At lower percentages of alcohol Z-oxime is retained less, somewhere at 2-5% coelution occurs and at larger cosolvent volume elution order reverses - Z-oxime is eluted later than E-oxime. We suppose inversion with CO2-ROH phases happens due to a shift in balance between two main interactions governing retention. At low ROH percentages stationary phase surface is only slightly covered by ROH molecules so oximes primarily interact with adsorption sites via hydrogen bond formation. Due to intramolecular sterical hindrance Z-oxime is less able to form hydrogen bonds and consequently is eluted first. At higher percentages alcohols occupy most of strong hydrogen bonding sites on silica surface thus leaving non-specific electrostatic interactions predominantly responsible for Z/E selectivity. Z-oxime has a much larger dipole moment than E-oxime and at these conditions it is eluted later. Additional experimental data with CO2-CH3CN, hexane-iPrOH and CHF3-ROH mobile phases supporting this explanation are presented.

  12. Ribosomal protein S19 deficiency in zebrafish leads to developmental abnormalities and defective erythropoiesis through activation of p53 protein family.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2008-12-15

    Mutations in several ribosomal proteins (RPs) lead to Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a syndrome characterized by defective erythropoiesis, congenital anomalies, and increased frequency of cancer. RPS19 is the most frequently mutated RP in DBA. RPS19 deficiency impairs ribosomal biogenesis, but how this leads to DBA or cancer remains unknown. We have found that rps19 deficiency in ze-brafish results in hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities resembling DBA. Our data suggest that the rps19-deficient phenotype is mediated by dysregulation of deltaNp63 and p53. During gastrulation, deltaNp63 is required for specification of nonneural ectoderm and its up-regulation suppresses neural differentiation, thus contributing to brain/craniofacial defects. In rps19-deficient embryos, deltaNp63 is induced in erythroid progenitors and may contribute to blood defects. We have shown that suppression of p53 and deltaNp63 alleviates the rps19-deficient phenotypes. Mutations in other ribosomal proteins, such as S8, S11, and S18, also lead to up-regulation of p53 pathway, suggesting it is a common response to ribosomal protein deficiency. Our finding provides new insights into pathogenesis of DBA. Ribosomal stress syndromes represent a broader spectrum of human congenital diseases caused by genotoxic stress; therefore, imbalance of p53 family members may become a new target for therapeutics.

  13. Whole-genome sequencing identifies a recurrent functional synonymous mutation in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Jared J; Parker, Stephen C J; Prickett, Todd D; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Stitzel, Michael L; Lin, Jimmy C; Davis, Sean; Simhadri, Vijaya L; Jha, Sujata; Katagiri, Nobuko; Gotea, Valer; Teer, Jamie K; Wei, Xiaomu; Morken, Mario A; Bhanot, Umesh K; Chen, Guo; Elnitski, Laura L; Davies, Michael A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Carter, Hannah; Karchin, Rachel; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A; Collins, Francis S; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Komar, Anton A; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Hayward, Nicholas K; Margulies, Elliott H; Samuels, Yardena

    2013-08-13

    Synonymous mutations, which do not alter the protein sequence, have been shown to affect protein function [Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C (2011) Nat Rev Genet 12(10):683-691]. However, synonymous mutations are rarely investigated in the cancer genomics field. We used whole-genome and -exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in 29 melanoma samples. Validation of one synonymous somatic mutation in BCL2L12 in 285 samples identified 12 cases that harbored the recurrent F17F mutation. This mutation led to increased BCL2L12 mRNA and protein levels because of differential targeting of WT and mutant BCL2L12 by hsa-miR-671-5p. Protein made from mutant BCL2L12 transcript bound p53, inhibited UV-induced apoptosis more efficiently than WT BCL2L12, and reduced endogenous p53 target gene transcription. This report shows selection of a recurrent somatic synonymous mutation in cancer. Our data indicate that silent alterations have a role to play in human cancer, emphasizing the importance of their investigation in future cancer genome studies.

  14. Search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a standard W or a Z boson and decaying to bottom quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,

    2014-01-21

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson (H) decaying to b b-bar when produced in association with a weak vector boson (V) is reported for the following channels: W(mu nu)H, W(e nu)H, W(tau nu)H, Z(mu mu)H, Z(e e)H, and Z(nu nu)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and up to 18.9 inverse femtobarns at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. An excess of events is observed above the expected background with a local significance of 2.1 standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, consistent with the expectation from the production of the standard model Higgs boson. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the standard model Higgs boson, is 1.0 +/- 0.5.

  15. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    PubMed

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  16. Non-racemic atropisomeric (thio)ureas as neutral enantioselective anion receptors for amino-acid derivatives: origin of smaller Kass with thiourea than urea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christian; Roman, Mihaela; Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto; Faure, Robert; Vanthuyne, Nicolas

    2006-09-01

    The synthesis of a limited series of non-racemic atropisomeric 1-(2-(4-methyl-2-thioxothiazol-3(2H)-yl)phenyl)-3-(hetero)aryl-(thio)ureas is described. Using NMR titration experiments monitoring the shift of the two NH of the (thio)urea and the C-5 hydrogen of the heterocycle, the binding constants for some optically pure (thio)-ureas with the enantiomers of N-protected amino acid tetrabutylammonium salts were determined in CD3CN. The obtained enantioselectivities were modest. Contrary to what was expected on the basis of the NH acidity in thiourea versus urea group, the association constants were smaller with the thiourea than with the corresponding urea. X-ray data, DFT calculations, and NMR provided the explanation of that unexpected behavior: the urea presents a pre-organized (Z,Z) conformation suitable for a double hydrogen bond with the carboxylate anion, the thiourea presents a (Z,E) conformation, which must be reorganized in a constrained (Z,Z) conformation in the complex. An intramolecular hydrogen bond between one NH and the thiocarbonyl group of the heterocycle, which is present in the thiourea and absent in the urea, might also contribute to the smaller K(ass) for the thiourea. The possible implication of these observations in the field of bifunctional organocatalysis is briefly discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo Analysis of Pion Contribution to Absorbed Dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghara, S.K.; Battnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV - GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  18. First Results from the ANITA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present initial results of the 18 day long-duration balloon flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) prototype payload, dubbed ANITA-lite. The goal of the ANITA experiment is to detect cosmogenic ultra-high energy neutrinos, the so-called ``guaranteed'' flux arising from the integrated interactions of EeV-to-ZeV cosmic rays throughout the universe. ANITA exploits the power of coherent radio Cerenkov radiation emitted from the Askaryan excess charge in a high energy cascade. The exceptional radio-frequency (RF) transparency of Antarctic ice enables an antenna array on a balloon payload to monitor more than a million cubic kilometers of ice, giving unprecedented sensitivity to neutrino interactions in the EeV energy regime. ANITA-lite flew in early 2004 with a pair of prototype dual-polarization ANITA antennas, sensitive over the 0.2-1 GHz band, and able to trigger on impulsive events such as those expected from coherent RF cascade emission. ANITA-lite has demonstrated that RF backgrounds and electromagnetic interference for an Antarctic balloon payload are extremely low, and has verified the interferometric timing capabilities of the system, which are essential to event reconstruction and neutrino direction estimation. Limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes from analysis of the ANITA-lite data are presented, along with constraints on large extra dimensions and ultra-high energy neutralino fluxes.

  19. Functional expression in yeast and characterization of a clofibrate-inducible plant cytochrome P-450 (CYP94A1) involved in cutin monomers synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tijet, N; Helvig, C; Pinot, F; Le Bouquin, R; Lesot, A; Durst, F; Salaün, J P; Benveniste, I

    1998-06-01

    The chemical tagging of a cytochrome P-450-dependent lauric acid omega-hydroxylase from clofibrate-treated Vicia sativa seedlings with [1-14C]11-dodecynoic acid allowed the isolation of a full-length cDNA designated CYP94A1. We describe here the functional expression of this novel P-450 in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overproducing their own NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase or a reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results show a much higher efficiency of the yeast strain overproducing the plant reductase compared with the yeast strain overproducing its own reductase for expressing CYP94A1. The methyl end of saturated (from C-10 to C-16) and unsaturated (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) fatty acids was mainly oxidized by CYP94A1. Both E/Z and Z/E configurations of 9, 12-octadecadienoic acids were omega-hydroxylated. Lauric, myristic and linolenic acids were oxidized with the highest turnover rate (24 min-1). The strong regioselectivity of CYP94A1 was clearly shifted with sulphur-containing substrates, since both 9- and 11-thia laurate analogues were sulphoxidized. Similar to animal omega-hydroxylases, this plant enzyme was strongly induced by clofibrate treatment. Rapid CYP94A1 transcript accumulation was detected less than 20 min after exposure of seedlings to the hypolipidaemic drug. The involvement of CYP94A1 in the synthesis of cutin monomers and fatty acid detoxification is discussed.

  20. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.