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Sample records for pashtun islam modernization

  1. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edis, Taner

    2009-06-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing science, or other ways to retain the primacy of faith while continuing efforts to catch up with modern technology. Muslims argue that science and Islam coexist in harmony, but both intellectually and institutionally, the Islamic world harbors many tensions between science and religion.

  2. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  3. Modern Science and Conservative Islam: An Uneasy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    2009-01-01

    Familiar Western debates about religion, science, and science education have parallels in the Islamic world. There are difficulties reconciling conservative, traditional versions of Islam with modern science, particularly theories such as evolution. As a result, many conservative Muslim thinkers are drawn toward creationism, hopes of Islamizing…

  4. Islamic Studies within Islam: Definition, Approaches and Challenges of Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khir, Bustami M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Programmes of Islamic Studies have a longstanding status in a number of Western universities, yet the boundaries of the discipline, its institutional locale and its methodologies are still being questioned. This paper is an attempt to go beyond the discipline's "Eurocentric" settings and reflect on the provision of the subject within its origins…

  5. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures.

  6. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Modernity and Tradition in Islamic Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens-Bull, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how Java, Indonesia's classical Islamic community, negotiates modernization and globalization through the interface of an Islamic boarding school and higher education. The negotiation requires imagining and reinventing modernity and tradition. Examines how one boarding school's leadership engages these processes in its curricular goals…

  7. Measuring Perceptions About the Pashtun People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    were searched: EBSCOhost, Google, Google News, Google Scholar, JSTOR , LexisNexis, and ProQuest. The search terms included Pashtun, Pashtoon, Pathan...searches of six databases— EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier, Google, Google News, JSTOR , LexisNexis, and Project Muse—and the results were sorted to

  8. Modernization of Indonesian Islamic Schools' Curricula, 1945-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuhdi, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    As the most populous Muslim country in the world, Indonesia has a unique experience in dealing with Islamic education, a system that was established years before the country's independence. This paper summarizes the development of Indonesian Islamic schools with special reference to their changing curricula. Using the social constructionist…

  9. Where Tradition and "Modern" Knowledge Meet: Exploring Two Islamic Schools in Singapore and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    Muslims live in a "modern" world where subjects such as the English language, mathematics, sciences, and information and communication technology (ICT) are highly valued and enthusiastically transmitted in schools. How some Islamic schools attempt to equip their students with "modern knowledge" while remaining faithful to their…

  10. Islamic Modernism and Architectural Modernism of Muhammadiyah’s Lio Mosque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajawisastra, A. F.; Aryanti, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Muhammadiyah’s Lio Mosque is one of the masterpieces of Achmad Noe’man, the great Indonesian mosque architect. The mosque was built as a community mosque at the center of Muhammadiyah’s quarter in Garut, West Java, in conjuction with the construction of the district’s Muhammadiyah branch. Having a shape out of the existing grip, the mosque has neither a dome nor a tajug tumpang tiga (three-tiered pyramidal roof) like other mosques nearby, but instead uses a gable roof and minarets towering. This article aims to analyze the architecture of the Lio Mosque and to learn Achmad Noe’man’s interpretation of modernism, both Islamic modernism and architectural modernism, reflected in the mosque design. Employing a qualitative approach, this study used observation and interviews with the mosque’s stakeholders. This article argues that the ideology of modernism, believed by Achmad Noe’man and the Muhammadiyah organization, was embodied in the Lio Mosque architecture.

  11. The Islamic Approach to Modern Forensic and Legal Medicine Issues.

    PubMed

    Bamousa, Manal Saeed; Al-Fehaid, Suha; Al-Madani, Osama; Al Moghannam, Salah; Galeb, Sherien; Youssef, Mohammed; Kharoshah, Magdy A A

    2016-06-01

    This article is a review, from a Saudi Arabian perspective, of selected historical Arabic books and recent medicolegal journal articles on 4 current controversial issues: medical ethics, forensic autopsies, end-of-life decisions, and genetic profiling. This article demonstrates the flexibility of the Islamic medical jurisprudence to accommodate medicolegal issues.

  12. Ayman Al-Zawahiri: The Ideologue of Modern Islamic Militancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    North Africa and Assistant Country Director for the Arabian Peninsula at the Office of the Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs...foment revolution throughout the Middle East and North Africa . Abdullah Azzam wanted the Arab Afghans to remain and build an Islamic emirate in...and Midhat Mursi (Weapons and Research) to name a few top echelon members of Al-Qaeda.19 These are all handpicked EIJ members that Al-Zawahiri

  13. Islamic View of Nature and Values: Could These Be the Answer to Building Bridges between Modern Science and Islamic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic tenets of Islam and the Islamic view of nature that were influential in the development of science in the so-called "Golden Age of Islam". These findings have been the catalyst for present day Muslim scholars, who have emphasized the importance of Islamic science, as the means of understanding Western…

  14. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers.

  15. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism.

  16. Brain death and Islam: the interface of religion, culture, history, law, and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M

    2014-10-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient's religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only.

  17. The Making of a Fqih: The Transformation of Traditional Islamic Teachers in Modern Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Jennifer E.; Wagner, Daniel

    By looking at changes in the status and role of the fqih or traditional Islamic teacher in Morocco, it is possible to trace the transformation of the entire learning system from an independent, teacher-centered approach to a government-controlled educational system, of which religious education is only a part. In the traditional system, students…

  18. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Leichtman, Mara A.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a ‘national’ Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  19. Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun's Tribal Society

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042

  20. Ethnogynaecological assessment of medicinal plants in Pashtun's tribal society.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Begum, Shaheen; AbdEIsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge.

  1. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  2. Eclipses in the Middle East from the Late Medieval Islamic Period to the Early Modern Period. Part 1: The observation of six lunar eclipses from the Late Medieval Islamic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, S. Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of data obtained from observations of two sets of three lunar eclipses in the Late Medieval Islamic Period. The first trio consists of the lunar eclipses of 7 March 1262, 7 April 1270 and 24 January 1274, observed by Muḥyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī; from the Maragha Observatory (in north-western Iran), and the second includes those of 2 June and 26 November 1406, and 22 May 1407, observed by Jamshīd Ghiyāth al-Dīn al-Kāshī from Kāshān (in central Iran). The results are that al-Maghribī's values for the magnitudes of these eclipses agree excellently with modern data, and his values for the times when the maximum phases occurred agree to within five minutes with modern values. Al-Kāshī's values for the times of the maximum phases show a rather larger divergence from modern data, varying from about ten minutes to about one hour. The errors in all six values both astronomers computed from their own solar parameters for the longitude of the Sun at the instant of the opposition of the Moon to the Sun in these eclipses remain below ten minutes of arc. The motivation for doing these observations was to measure the lunar epicycle radius r in the Ptolemaic model. Al-Maghribī achieved r = 5;12 and al-Kāshī r ∼ 5;17,1 in terms of the radius of an orbit of R = 60 arbitrary units. It is argued that comparing with modern theory, neither of these two medieval values can be considered an improvement on Ptolemy's value of r = 5;15.

  3. Islamic Jihad: Sectarian Factors in Combating Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    Bernard, Crisis in Islam : Holy War and Unholy Terror, ( USA : Modern Library, 2003). Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam , (New York: Random House...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ISLAMIC JIHAD: SECTARIAN FACTORS IN COMBATING TERRORISM by Michael W. Moyles, Lt Col, USAF A Research...fighting an explicitly Islamic adversary, motivated almost exclusively by religion. However, these militant Muslims are not representative of mainstream

  4. Islam in South and Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-08

    dynamics of Islam in Asia should help inform United States’ policy to develop respect between America and Muslim peoples, to foster economic policies to...encourage development of open societies, to support education in Muslim states, and to identify and prioritize terrorist sanctuaries in order to...history of Islam see Karen Armstrong, Islam: A Short History (New York: The Modern Library , 2002). 2 Vartan Gregorian, Islam: A Mosaic Not a Monolith

  5. Thoughts on The Battle for the Minds: IO and COIN in the Pashtun Belt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Corps 1LT Michael Kuiper , with 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, talks with an Afghan man during a civil affairs group patrol in the Nawa District...of Helmand Province, Afghanistan, 19 July 2009. Kuiper is talking with citizens in order to gauge the needs of the populace and provide...Thoughts on The Battle for the Minds: IO and COIN in the Pashtun Belt 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. Y-chromosomal STR analysis in the Pashtun population of Southern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Niaz M; Rahman, Z; Shahzad, M S; Daud, S; Zar, M S; Israr, M; Husnain, T; Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country in the heart of Asia and since the dawn of humankind Afghanistan has faced centuries of turmoil, strife, conflict, warfare, distress, social unrest, difficult climate, harsh terrain and due to its unique geostrategic position in Eurasia which has historically attracted commerce and conflict. It is an important stop along the Silk Road, connecting the far eastern civilizations to the western world. A 5000-year history of constant invasion. Afghanistan has been repeatedly invaded and conquered by rulers and super powers, neighboring interference in this conflict-tattered land for centuries yet rarely leading to the conquest of this rugged and challenging terrain nation. Afghans are not only shepherds, farmers and nomads but also intense fighters and fierce warriors. Currently very limited genetic studies have been performed in Afghan populations. 17 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) were analyzed in 125 unrelated Pashtun (in hindi: Pathan) males residing in the Kandahar region of Southern Afghanistan. A total of 92 unique haplotypes were observed. The predominant haplotype reached a frequency of 9.6%. The haplotype diversity was 0.987 and the discrimination capacity 73.6%. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals a considerable regional stratification within the country as well as between different Pashtun (Pathan) groups from Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.

  7. What Makes Islamic Science "Islamic"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muzaffar

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the roots of science in Islam and the fundamental statement, "There is no god but God". Presents Islamic knowledge and concepts and states that "a Muslim is required to seek knowledge". This religious perspective is viewed with regard to the sciences in Islamic civilizations. (Author/YDS)

  8. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world.

  9. Between Secularism/s: Islam and the Institutionalisation of Modern Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century British India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qadir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematises clean distinctions between secular and religious by tracing the history of modern higher education of Muslims in British colonial India. Grounded in the interpretive research tradition and with an empirical focus on the formative mid-nineteenth century, the article argues that relational notions between singular secularism…

  10. Marxism in Islamic South Yemen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Political Theory and Practice. New York: Vantage Press Inc, 1982. 3. Banisadr , Abolhassan. The Fundamental Principles and Precepts of Islamic...Revolution, Vol 1. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1978. 6. Enayat, Hamid. Modern rslamic Political Thought. Austin : The University of Texas Press, 1982. 7

  11. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  12. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  13. Islam and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  14. Understanding Islam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-03

    the Prophet’s young widow, Aisha , who persuaded the Muslims to elect her father, Abu Bakr as the first caliph. Abu Bakr, a good friend of Muhammed...his name, was copied and sent to the four corners of the Islamic empire.2 3 Ali ibn Abi Talib was elected the fourth caliph in 656 A.D., but Aisha did...later married Aisha , a young daughter of Abu Bakr. She was the Prophet’s favorite wife in his later years. The Night Journey In 620 A.D. Muhammed made

  15. Comparative Book Review of Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam and The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    L. Esposito, Oxford University Press , New York, 2002; and The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. By Bernard Lewis, The Modern Library...John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press , 2002), 21. 4 John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in...the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press , 2002), 24, 153. 5 John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford

  16. An Islamic Consideration of Western Moral Education: An Exploration of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Khuram

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical comparison of the concept of the individual presumed in modern Islamic educational theory and western moral educational theory, revealing a distinct Islamic point of view on the western educational premise that a moral universe is derived dialectically between individual and society. From an Islamic perspective,…

  17. Islam as a Civilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The attention in the West, especially in the United States, now accorded Islam and those who conduct themselves according to its precepts betrays woeful ignorance of both. As Graham Fuller has persuasively argued in his recent book, "A World Without Islam", Western culture owes much to Islam as well as to Muslims and would be greatly impoverished…

  18. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  19. Teaching Islam with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    We can note a varied use and attitudes to song and music in Islam. In the classroom of Sana--a primary school teacher of Islamic religious education (IRE) in a Muslim school in Sweden--music is an important but not uncontested part of IRE. The music not only supports themes discussed in the classroom but also gives variation to the education. A…

  20. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  1. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  2. Peoples, Processes and Patterns: Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Joan; And Others

    Designed for use by elementary and secondary teachers but useful to anyone interested in Islamic art, this booklet considers the ways in which design issues have been solved in Islamic cultures, both in the past and the present. The text covers two major areas: aspects of pattern in Islamic weaving and aspects of Islamic tilework. Under weaving…

  3. Abortion in Islamic countries--legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Asman, Oren

    2004-01-01

    The debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. As one of every four people in the world is of the Muslim religion, it is important to learn more about the Islamic point of view toward this dilemma in medical ethics. The first part of this paper gives a general view of the sources of Islamic law and discusses modern developments in Islamic medical ethics regarding abortion. The second part focuses on the legal aspects of abortion in different Islamic states, dealing with the need to supply solutions to women who for different reasons wish to abort and at the same time enact laws that would not contradict Islamic principles. A study of three Muslim states (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia) demonstrates three different approaches toward legalizing abortion--a conservative approach, a more lenient approach, and a liberal one--all within Islamic oriented states. This leads to a conclusion that a more liberal attitude regarding abortion is possible in Islamic states, as long as traditional principles are taken into account.

  4. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  5. The Relationship between Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Employing Political Culture as an Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toros, Emre

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade the agenda of local and global politics is heavily marked by the encounter of two powerful currents, namely democracy and political Islam. On the one hand Islam as a religion itself is facing a cultural dialectic between a modern and an authentic form, producing a synthesis which is only to be criticized again by a new…

  6. Islam and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed.

  7. Reconciling Islam and feminism.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I

    1999-03-01

    This paper objects to the popular view that Islam supports a segregated social system where women are marginalized, and argues that certain Islamic texts are supportive of women's rights. The article proposes that Islam reconcile with feminism by returning to the Qur'an. The Qur'an provides rights which address the common complaints of women such as lack of freedom to make decisions for themselves and the inability to earn an income. One example is a verse in the Qur'an (4:34) that is frequently interpreted as giving women complete control over their own income and property. This article also explains how Islam has been used as a method of controlling women, particularly in the practices of veiling and purdah (seclusion). The article points out the need to engage in Islam from a position of knowing, and to ensure that Muslim women have access to this knowledge. It is only through this knowledge that women can assert their rights and challenge patriarchal interpretations of Islam.

  8. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  9. CONSANGUINITY AND INBREEDING COEFFICIENT IN TRIBAL PASHTUNS INHABITING THE TURBULENT AND WAR-AFFECTED TERRITORY OF BAJAUR AGENCY, NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Atta Ur; Malik, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    The north-western populations of Pakistan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) adjoining the Pakistan-Afghanistan border are an amalgamation of native and migrated Pashtun tribes. These tribal populations are in transition due to war conditions and geo-political turmoil on both sides of the border since the Soviet invasion in 1979. Bio-demographic and epidemiological data for these tribes are scarce. A prospective cross-sectional sample of 967 males was selected from a representative Pashtun population of Bajaur Agency, and information obtained on bio-demographic variables and marital union types. Analysis of these data revealed that consanguinity was 22.34% and the inbreeding coefficient F was calculated to be 0.0134. The inbreeding coefficient was observed to be higher in subjects who were illiterate, had unskilled jobs and who belonged to younger age categories, extended families and the Tarkalani tribe. Further analyses with respect to temporal variables like subject's age, year of marriage and age at marriage revealed that after a transition in marital union types in the early 80s, there has been a declining trend in the rate of consanguineous unions. Further, consanguineous unions in the parental generation were only 5%, but parental marriage types were predictors of subjects' marital union types. The data further establish that, contrary to a general notion about a high consanguinity rate in Pakistan, consanguineous unions are not common in Bajaur Agency and first cousin marriage is not the preferred type. Furthermore, this research shows that there is a great regional variation in the pattern of consanguinity in Pakistan that needs to be documented in order to draw a more comprehensive picture of the inbreeding coefficient in the country.

  10. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  11. Marketing in the Islamic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    The implications of the Islamic religion and culture for marketing strategies and practices are discussed. An introductory section describes the Islamic population and its segments, and gives some historical background about the religion. A list of the principal tenets and practices of the Islamic faith, and the specific marketing implications of…

  12. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  13. Islamic approach in counseling.

    PubMed

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2014-02-01

    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

  14. Islam and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Ahmed, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if mutually decided on by both parents. The infant's father has an obligation to support his wife through any circumstances that may affect breastfeeding and, in case of divorce, provide shelter and financial support to the mother-infant dyad for as long as breastfeeding continues. By showing understanding and respect of Islamic beliefs related to infant feeding, clinicians can help support healthy early feeding of Muslim infants.

  15. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  16. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  17. [Islam and caring].

    PubMed

    Nadir, Sihem

    2015-10-01

    There are more and more followers of the Muslim religion in France. All caregivers need to understand the fundamental principles that their Muslim patients hold sacred in the area of health and care. For Muslims, it is of utmost importance to observe the fundamentals of Islam and the values of brotherhood, tolerance, fairness and truth are essential.

  18. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  19. The "amazing" fertility decline: Islam, economics, and reproductive decision making among working-class Moroccan women.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cortney L

    2011-12-01

    Often it is understood that Islam prohibits family planning because the Qur'an does not explicitly address contraception. Public health and development officials have recently congratulated the Muslim world for decreases in fertility given the supposed constraints placed on reproductive healthcare by Islam, while popular culture writers have warned the West of threats by young Muslims if the population goes uncontrolled. This article draws on data collected through interviews with working-class women seeking reproductive healthcare at clinics in Rabat, Morocco, and with medical providers to challenge the link between Islamic ideology and reproductive practices and the correlation among Islam, poverty, and fertility. Morocco, a predominantly Muslim country, has experienced a dramatic decrease in fertility between the 1970s and today. I argue that patients and providers give new meanings to modern reproductive practices and produce new discourses of reproduction and motherhood that converge popular understandings of Islam with economic conditions of the Moroccan working class.

  20. Islamic Militancy in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    has also actively resisted Western influences—seen as negatively affecting Muslims ’ religiosity .3 Both al Shabaab and Boko Haram have their roots in...focused on local concerns. u Islamic militant organizations in Africa generally only command the support of small minorities within Muslim communities...educated activist, inspired by the Islamist Muslim Students’ Society of Nigeria1 (MSSN), formed in 1954, and in particular Ibrahim al Zakzaki, as

  1. A Preliminary Insight into an Islamic Mechanism for Neuroethics

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Azizan; Musa, Mohd Noor; Salleh, SM Saifuddeen SM

    2016-01-01

    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari’ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage – to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide ‘different’ meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari’ah – in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes. PMID:27540319

  2. A Preliminary Insight into an Islamic Mechanism for Neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Azizan; Musa, Mohd Noor; Salleh, Sm Saifuddeen Sm

    2016-01-01

    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes.

  3. What does Islam say about dieting?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir

    2014-08-01

    Dieting is very important to maintain a healthy and peaceful life. Today, most of the health problems are related with dieting. Thus, the modern health science recommends a number of suggestions regarding dieting for better health such as learning the five basic food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat); eating three times a day; decreasing the amount of fat; increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains; including an adequate amount of iron; and avoiding excessive rich food, salt, sugar, and fat. Religion can also play a vital role for our good health and lifestyle. The main concern of this paper was to present an analytical justification regarding what Islam as a religion advocates about dieting along with the modern food and nutrition sciences.

  4. Islamic reception of Greek astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2011-06-01

    Research in Islamic science over the last half century or so has clearly established that such old myths as Islamic science being a preservation of Greek science, or that science was always in conflict with religion in Islamic civilization as it was in Europe, or that the European scientific Renaissance was independent of outside influences -a European phenomenon par excellence- are now all subjects of great dispute if not altogether dead. In what follows I will illustrate the evidence that has put such myths into question with only few examples, since time and space do not allow me to elaborate more.

  5. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  6. Suicide and islam.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    Much of the research on suicidal behavior in Muslim countries has been simple descriptive studies of samples of completed and attempted suicides. Despite this, and despite the possible under-reporting of suicidal behavior in countries where such behavior is illegal, suicide rates do appear to be lower in Muslims than in those of other religions, even in countries which have populations belonging to several religious groups. Rates of attempted suicide, on the other hand, do not appear to be lower in Muslims as compared to non-Muslims. Research into this topic has been quite poor, failing to take into account the ethnic background and the Islamic sect to which the suicidal subjects belonged. Reasons for the low rate of completed suicide in Muslims are reviewed, including differences in values and socio-economic status.

  7. Portraying Islam and Muslims in MEDLINE: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Laird, Lance Daniel; de Marrais, Justine; Barnes, Linda L

    2007-12-01

    The growing number and diversity of Muslims in the United States and Western Europe challenge clinicians and researchers to understand this population's perspectives and experiences regarding health and biomedicine. For information about Muslim patient populations, clinicians and researchers routinely consult medical literature. To examine how this literature portrays Muslims, we conducted an ethnographic content analysis of 2342 OVID MEDLINE-indexed abstracts from 1966 through August 2005, derived from a Boolean search for "islam or muslim or muslims." Manifest (explicitly stated) themes included Muslim religious practices, Islamic law and ethics, history of Islamic medicine, public health, social medicine, and cultural competence. Latent (underlying) themes implied that being an observant Muslim poses health risks; Muslims are negatively affected by tradition, and should adopt modernity; and that "Islam" is a problem for biomedical healthcare delivery. A countervailing latent theme implies that being Muslim may promote good health. We discuss ambiguities in uses of the term "Muslim;" implications of Muslim practices for health management and healthcare delivery; and ways in which MEDLINE-indexed literature intersects with orientalist and colonialist discourse about religious Others. Such intersections highlight connections with potential structural inequalities in healthcare delivery to Muslim patients.

  8. Islam Is Essential for General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The religion of Islam is often portrayed with false and negative stereotypes. If we expect our students to understand and participate in the global world and to be informed and engaged citizens in a democratic America, then it is essential that they develop a basic and sound understanding of Islam. Furthermore, learning about Islam can facilitate…

  9. Teaching Islam to American High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Timothy J., Jr.; Mi, Han-fu

    1988-01-01

    Presents a flexible two-week lesson unit for teaching high school students about Islam. Provides learning objectives and activities, as well as a bibliography of resources. Includes seven study guides which cover such topics as Islamic prophets, the Koran, Islamic morality, and Jihad. (GEA)

  10. Islamic Education and Cosmopolitanism: A Philosophical Interlude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at three conceptions of Islamic education. I argue that conceptions of Islamic education ought to be considered as existing on a minimalist-maximalist continuum, meaning that the concepts associated with Islamic education do not have a single meaning, but that meanings are shaped depending on the minimalist and…

  11. Psychoanalysis, Islam, and the other of Liberalism.

    PubMed

    Massad, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the terms and methods used by psychoanalytic authors to explain and understand something they other as "Islam." The paper engages critically and psycho-analytically with these authors' attempts to read "Islam" psychoanalytically, and finds that more often than not they subject it to liberal principles that are not defined in psychoanalytic terms. Focusing on the work of Tunisian author Fethi Benslama, the paper analyses and deconstructs certain key semantic and conceptual confusions of "Islam" and "Islamism" that are manifest in the general psychoanalytic literature on "Islam".

  12. Islam, Islamism, and Democratic Values. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2006 FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about Islam. Speakers were drawn from the disciplines of religious studies, anthropology, political science, history, law, and journalism. The institute, held in Bryn Mawr, Pa., was…

  13. Bioethics for clinicians: 21. Islamic bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Khitamy, A.

    2001-01-01

    ISLAMIC BIOETHICS DERIVES FROM A COMBINATION OF PRINCIPLES, duties and rights, and, to a certain extent, a call to virtue. In Islam, bioethical decision-making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition. It is intimately linked to the broad ethical teachings of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus to the interpretation of Islamic law. In this way, Islam has the flexibility to respond to new biomedical technologies. Islamic bioethics emphasizes prevention and teaches that the patient must be treated with respect and compassion and that the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of the illness experience be taken into account. Because Islam shares many foundational values with Judaism and Christianity, the informed Canadian physician will find Islamic bioethics quite familiar. Canadian Muslims come from varied backgrounds and have varying degrees of religious observance. Physicians need to recognize this diversity and avoid a stereotypical approach to Muslim patients. PMID:11202669

  14. Holy Alliances: Public Subsidies, Islamic High Schools, and Female Schooling in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the experience of incentive-based reforms in the secondary Islamic/madrasa education sector in Bangladesh within the context of the broader debate over modernization of religious school systems in South Asia. Key features of the reform are changes of the curriculum and policy regarding admission of female students. In return…

  15. Influences on the Teaching of Arabic and Islamic Studies in UK Higher Education: Connections and Disconnections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasek, Lisa; Canning, John

    2009-01-01

    Middle Eastern Studies, modern foreign languages and Islamic Studies have been recognized by the UK government as strategically important subjects in higher education. Motivated by government concerns about lack of knowledge about the Middle East and the radicalization of British Muslims, this designation has complex implications for the teaching…

  16. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  17. Jihad: Islamic Thought and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    the last century, attempts have been made to reinterpret the prevailing doctrine of jihad. Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) believed that the interests of...of Religion, vol.10, edited by Mircea Eliade, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, 1987, pp.463-468. 4. Rahman, Fazlur . "Islam: An Overview." The

  18. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  19. Islamic Universities Spread through Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on new universities for Muslims, many supported by groups in the Middle East, which are spreading through the sub-Saharan region. The Islamic University in Uganda is a prime example of a new kind of institution that has slowly been spreading its way across the continent. Embracing both conservative Muslim values and modern…

  20. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  1. Human Genetics and Islam: Scientific and Medical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Bilal A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To relate diverse aspects of genetics and its applications to concepts in the Glorious Qur’an and the ḥadīth. Study Design: The author compared passages from the Glorious Qur’an and ḥadīth with modern concepts in genetics, such as recessive inheritance, genetic counseling, genetic variation, cytoplasmic inheritance, sex chromosomes, genetics-environment interactions, gender determination, and the hypothesis of “pairing in the universe.” Conclusions: A fresh understanding of Islamic scripture reveals references to principles of genetics that predate contemporary discoveries. This highlights the need for further exploration of possible links between science and religion. PMID:23610491

  2. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  3. What Islamic School Teachers Want: Towards Developing an Islamic Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Nadeem

    2011-01-01

    In the 70 year history of Islamic schools in North America, there is yet to be an accredited teacher education programme to train and professionally equip Islamic school teachers with an understanding of an Islamic pedagogy. Arguably, there has been an imbalance of energy placed on curriculum development projects over the considerations of teacher…

  4. Islamism and Radicalism in the Maldives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Maldives Democratic Party NU Nahdhatul Ulama PAS Parti Islam se- Malaysia x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank...Nahdhatul Ulama (NU) in Indonesia, and the Parti Islam se- Malaysia (PAS) have all participated in the mainstream political and social processes of the...revivalist movement in Maldives and many of their leaders are Islamic clerics who had been educated in places like Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Malaysia

  5. Islam’s Challenge: Jihad and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    resurgence. Reporting from Iran, Nigeria, Egypt, Malaysia , Turkey, and the United States, Frontline told the stories of Muslims struggling to define how...one of the fastest growing religions in the United States and around the world. Reports from Iran, Nigeria, Egypt, Malaysia , Turkey, and the United...called “Islamic Revivalism.” 58 The Islamic revivalism can be regarded as the global reassertion of Islam that extended from Libya to Malaysia . The

  6. Astronomy in the Service of Islam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David A.

    In their assessment of Islamic astronomy, historians have usually been concerned only with that part of the Muslim scientific heritage that was transmitted to the West in the Middle Ages. Yet most Islamic works on astronomy were not transmitted to the West, and they are known today mainly due to the work of orientalists in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This is the case of Muslim writings on three aspects of mathematical science that were closely linked with religious observance. This is an overview of those "Islamic aspects of Islamic astronomy".

  7. Islamic Extremists Love the Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    the global Islamic terrorist movement and to increase support for their movement, ranging from ideological support, to fundraising , and ultimately...reflects that particular terrorist groups were exploiting the Internet for their fundraising . Research indicates that as early as July 1999, our...and safeguard Bin Laden.1 Then in May 2001, just four months prior to the 9/11 attacks the fundraising denial objective was reaffirmed during the

  8. Interfaith education: An Islamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Yahya Sergio Yahe

    2016-08-01

    According to a teaching of the Prophet Muhammad, "the quest for knowledge is the duty of each Muslim, male or female", where knowledge is meant as the discovery of the real value of things and of oneself in relationship with the world in which God has placed us. This universal dimension of knowledge is in fact a wealth of wisdom of the traditional doctrine naturally linked to the cultural and spiritual heritage of every human being and every believer of every faith. It allows for the respect of internal and external differences as positive elements of the cultural and spiritual heritage of mankind. In this sense, intercultural and interfaith education plays a fundamental role and fits naturally within the Islamic religious education framework. The author of this article is Vice-President and Imam of the Islamic Religious Community in Italy (Comunità Religiosa Islamica [COREIS] Italiana), an organisation which has been providing teachers and students with training on Islam and interfaith dialogue for almost twenty years with the support of the regional and national offices of the Italian Ministry of Public Education. Referring to existing interreligious and intercultural societies such as Azerbaijan, and a number of successful initiatives and projects, several of which COREIS is involved in, he demonstrates how interfaith education can effectively contribute to preventing the diffusion of anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and radicalism.

  9. Traditional arabic & islamic medicine: a conceptual model for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Alrawi, Sara N; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-04-28

    Eighty percent of the population in the developing world relies on traditional medicine, and 70-80% of the population in developed countries utilized complementary therapies. Though a vibrant healing tradition pervades modern life in the Arab and Muslim world, no clear definition or model exists to organize it's multiple and intertwined elements . We define Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM) as a system of healing practiced since antiquity in the Arab world within the context of religious influences of Islam and comprised of medicinal herbs, dietary practices, mind-body therapy, spiritual healing and applied therapy whereby many of these elements reflect an enduring interconnectivity between Islamic medical and prophetic influences as well as regional healing practices emerging from specific geographical and cultural origins. Our definition and conceptual model represents a novel addition to the literature on Arab and Muslim health practices, and presents an opportunity to address a global health concern.

  10. To Explain Copernicus: The Islamic Scientific and Religious Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragep, F. Jamil

    No one seriously disputes the novelty of Copernicus's monumental decision to put the Earth in motion or its importance for the development of modern science. But that decision can appear quite different when viewed from the perspective of a modern scientist versus that of a contextualist historian. In his recent book To Explain the World, Prof. Weinberg places great store on what he calls aesthetic criteria for understanding Copernicus's choice. The historical record, however, is rather ambiguous on the matter, and if anything supports the view that Copernicus came to his aesthetic justifications (such as the beautiful ordering of the planets) after first reaching his heliocentric theory. So if not aesthetics, what did lead him to go against a two-millenium tradition that placed the Earth firmly in the center of the Cosmos? There are no doubt many factors; one of the most intriguing suggestions, well-argued by Noel Swerdlow, is that Copernicus was led to heliocentrism by his rather conservative desire to restore uniform, circular motion to the heavens and remove the irregularities of Ptolemaic astronomy. Swerdlow has also asserted that this has much to do with Islamic predecessors who were attempting to do the same thing, only within a geocentric framework. In this presentation, I will briefly summarize this Islamic scientific context and then explore the religious beliefs that led not only to the questioning of Ptolemaic scientific authority, including his alleged lack of observational diligence, but also ancient philosophical authority, the latter opening up possibilities for alternative cosmologies, at least one of which included the Earth's motion. Finally, evidence will be presented that connects these Islamic contexts with Copernicus's theories and justifications.

  11. Islam and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    performance. Indonesia is an interesting case to study because of its similarities with Malaysia in terms of multi-ethnic societies and cultures ...Malaysia and Indonesia , they became the majority. Islam survives despite vast differences in ethnic backgrounds, languages, culture , and historical...legitimacy.34 Throughout Indonesia and Malaya, Islam was integrated into popular culture . Sufi missionaries and village teachers settled widely and made

  12. Islamic Morality: Teaching to Balance the Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence

    2016-01-01

    The article proposes that the teaching of Islamic morality presents as an important if not urgent task for moral education. It offers the opportunity to inform a student body about a vital historical development in the formation of moral thought and action; to challenge and offset a blind spot in Western thinking about Islam in general; to…

  13. Islamic Schools and American Civic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasser, M. Zuhdi

    2011-01-01

    In the nearly ten years since the attacks by Muslim terrorists on 9/11, people have seen an exponential growth in homegrown radical Islam, or Islamism. Insufficiently recognized and acknowledged, this metastasis has produced its natural, deadly effects: jihad against American citizens on their own soil. Some analysts cite "the narrative"…

  14. Memorization and Learning in Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Helen N.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the purpose and methods of Islamic schools have received increased scrutiny from non-Muslim and Muslim leaders as well as the Western media, often leading to negative publicity, criticisms, and statements of official concern. The lack of appreciation of the distinction between radical and ordinary Islamic schools is due to a lack…

  15. Britain Sets Guidelines on Islamic Extremism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    The British government has published a long-anticipated report containing guidelines designed to help higher-education institutions combat Islamic extremism. The report entitled "Promoting Good Campus Relations: Working With Staff and Students to Build Community Cohesion and Tackle Violent Extremism in the Name of Islam at Universities and…

  16. Islam in Egyptian Education: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Charlotte M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…

  17. Pious Science: The Gulen Community and the Making of a Conservative Modernity in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Berna

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the ways in which the Islamic Fethullah Gulen community engages with science as a response to globalization and modernity. Framed with the theoretical discussions on multiple modernities, it investigates how the community contests for hegemony in the field of science against the project of secular modernity, and…

  18. Islamization of Disciplines: Towards an Indigenous Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dangor, Suleman

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades has witnessed the mushrooming of Islamic schools in Europe, the United States and South Africa. Initially, these schools were concerned essentially with providing an Islamic ethos for learners. More recently, however, they have begun to focus on the process of Islamization. The Islamization project was initiated in the United…

  19. Islamic Fundamentalism in the Northern Tier Countries: An Integrative View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    producing .more students exposed to Islamic views. 0 The modernist character of Islamist leadership, which, in sharp distinction to the traditional clergy...people will pursue choices that reflectGod’s -intent in the establishment of the Islamic state and Islitnic society. Islamic modernists , on the other...influence of Islamists in the education system, and a growth of Islamic schools, producing more students exposed to Islamic views. The modernist

  20. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  1. Islamism and Security in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    ISLAMISM AND SECURilY IN BOSNIA -HERZEGOVINA Leslie S. Lebl l UNITED STATES t.{J ARMYWPREsS \\ Carlisle Barracks, PA STRENGTH..WWISD OM U.S...Islamism and Security in Bosnia -Herzegovina 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Institute and U.S. Army War College Press ISLAMISM AND SECURITY IN BOSNIA -HERZEGOVINA Leslie S. Lebl May 2014 The views expressed in this report are

  2. Adapting mudharabah principle in Islamic option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaimi, Siti Noor Aini binti; Salleh, Hassilah binti

    2013-04-01

    Most of the options today use the Black-Scholes model as the basis in valuing their price. This conventional model involves the elements that are strictly prohibited in Islam namely riba, gharar and maisir. Hence, this paper introduces a new mathematical model that has been adapted with mudharabah principle to replace the Black-Scholes model. This new model which is more compatible with Islamic values produces a new Islamic option which avoids any form of oppression and injustice to all parties involved.

  3. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    PubMed

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs.

  4. Organ transplantation: a Sunni Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Albar, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    This paper reviews the standpoints of Muslim jurists within the Sunni tradition on organ transplantation. Muslim jurists allowed different forms of bone grafts (autograft, allograft and xenograft) for widely broken bones. Ibn Sina in 1037 discussed this subject in Al-Kanoon 1000 years ago. In 1959, the Muftis of Egypt and Tunisia allowed, under specific conditions, corneal transplants from dead persons. Thereafter, many fatwas (jurisprudence) on organ trans-plantation have been issued from different parts of the Muslim world. In Amman, Jordan, the International Islamic Jurist Council recognized brain-death as a recognized sign of death in Islam in October 1986. This paved the way for organ transplantation from brain-dead persons, which started immediately in Saudi Arabia. In 1990 and 2003, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA) and the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) issued important fatwas on organ transplantation. By the end of 2008, more than 3600 organs were transplanted from brain-dead persons in Saudi Arabia.

  5. 76 FR 29812 - In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al-Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam, as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al- Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam, as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative...

  6. 76 FR 29812 - In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al-Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam; as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Army of Islam, aka Jaish al- Islam, aka Jaysh al-Islam; as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the authority of and in accordance with...

  7. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait.

  8. Nearness to God: A Perspective on Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    Islam, as one of the most important religions of the world, has particular and significant educational views. The purpose of this article is to extract and interpret Islam's view of education. Using classic texts and the author's scholarship, Islamic education is defined as a form of religious education drawing humans near to God and God's…

  9. Spirituality in Teacher Training at an Islamic College in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at an Islamic teacher training college in Israel in an attempt to understand how religious revival shapes women's understandings of being Muslim women professionals in Israel. The college grew out of Islamic revival in Israel; its teacher training program reflects the sensibilities that Islamic revival hopes to foster in women…

  10. On the Teaching of Islam at Luther Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark N.

    2005-01-01

    In a brief essay originally presented as part of a panel discussion with Christian and Muslim teachers of Islam in the university setting, the author describes the distinctive characteristics of the Islamic Studies Program at Luther Seminary (St. Paul, Minnesota). While the program allows Islamic studies "majors" to earn a degree (M.A. or M.Th.)…

  11. Islam, Democracy and Education for Non-Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I shall attempt to rebuff the view that there is a necessary connection between a monotheistic religion, like Islam, and violence. Rather, I shall argue that the link between Islam and violence is a contingent one, that is, it is neither necessary nor impossible, depending on the reasons offered by a particular Islamic faith…

  12. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  13. Islamic Education and Individual Requirements in Interaction and Media Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khashab, Hamdollah Karimi; Vaezi, Seyed Hossein; Golestani, Seyed Hashem; Taghipour, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the views and teachings of Islam and the Islamic religion in order to determine the requirements of interaction and media use. This article is of qualitative kind and content analysis approach and has done based on the study of Islamic texts and sources associated with the media. Because of the multiplicity and…

  14. The Traditional World of Islam Film Series: A Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    The guide describes a series of six films examining the influence of Islamic doctrine and traditional practices on human endeavors throughout the Islamic world. The objective of the series is to fill an informational gap concerning the important contributions that Islamic civilization has made to the achievements of man. The films are entitled:…

  15. Science Teachers' Interpretations of Islamic Culture Related to Science Education versus the Islamic Epistemology and Ontology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first…

  16. Sex reassignment technology: the dilemma of transsexuals in Islam and Christianity.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Mohd Shuhaimi Bin Haji; Haneef, Sayed Sikandar Shah

    2014-04-01

    The birth of people with confused or ambiguous sex makeup as a biological fact since the annals of history has posed the challenge of accommodating them within the binary gender of sociocultural systems. In this process, the role of religion as a defining factor in social engineering has been paramount. Major religions, such as Islam and Christianity, have addressed this issue within the frame of their God-ordained laws by devising a set of moral and legal imperatives specific to the "third gender." Modern developments in medicine and biology, however, have made sex reassignment possible for this category of people, today called transsexuals. The question is: How do Islam and Christianity respond to it. After presenting an analytical view of both Muslim scholars and Christian religious authorities on the legitimacy of sex reassignment for transsexuals, this paper attempts to explore if such a dilemma can be resolved.

  17. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  18. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view--part I.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-10-01

    Most of the currently accepted western basic principles of ethics in research are consistent with the instructions of Islam. This statement may come as a surprise to some western researchers. In this article, I will discuss why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I will point out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; this would show clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago.

  19. Islamic Commercial Law in Contemporary Economics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    BANKING’ 1. Definition 14 A. Riba 15 B. M.idaraba L C. Islandc Banlcing 22 II. - Strategy and Tactics of lupl1mentatim, 25 III. Prcblems and Prospects for...engineer the instittions of society in order to create an optimn climate for every man to live as a moral being. Islamic econics is a strategy for social...the goal of an entirely new Islamic paradigm for ran’s eox= ic life, and 2) the process or strategy of achieving this goal through "ouprehensive system

  20. Doctor-patient relationship. Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Albar, Mohammed A

    2016-02-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is an intricate concept in which patients voluntarily approach a doctor and become part of a contract by which they tend to abide by doctor's instructions. Over recent decades, this relationship has changed dramatically due to privatization and commercialization of the health sector. A review of the relevant literature in the database of MEDLINE published in English between 1966 and August 2015 was performed with the following keywords: doctor-patient relationship, physician-patient relationship, ethics, and Islam. The Muslim doctor should be familiar with the Islamic teachings on the daily issues faced in his/her practice and the relationship with his/her patients.

  1. The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    E R T Y Y The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct Major Stephen P. Lambert U.S...Air Force Joint Military Intelligence College JO IN T M IL IT AR Y I NTELLIGENCE C O L L E G E 1962 JO IN T M IL IT AR Y I NTELLIGENCE C O L L E G E ...contacts with a diverse group of Islamic experts. I am most grateful to Drs. Russell G. Swenson, David S. Yost, James M. Smith, and Jeffrey A.

  2. Y: The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    E R T Y Y The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct Major Stephen P. Lambert U.S...Air Force Joint Military Intelligence College JO IN T M IL IT AR Y I NTELLIGENCE C O L L E G E 1962 JO IN T M IL IT AR Y I NTELLIGENCE C O L L E G E ...Azerbaijan facilitated close contacts with a diverse group of Islamic experts. I am most grateful to Drs. Russell G. Swenson, David S. Yost, James M.

  3. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  4. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  5. Brain death in Islamic ethico-legal deliberation: challenges for applied Islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Arozullah, Ahsan; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1980s, Islamic scholars and medical experts have used the tools of Islamic law to formulate ethico-legal opinions on brain death. These assessments have varied in their determinations and remain controversial. Some juridical councils such as the Organization of Islamic Conferences' Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC-IFA) equate brain death with cardiopulmonary death, while others such as the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS) analogize brain death to an intermediate state between life and death. Still other councils have repudiated the notion entirely. Similarly, the ethico-legal assessments are not uniform in their acceptance of brain-stem or whole-brain criteria for death, and consequently their conceptualizations of, brain death. Within the medical literature, and in the statements of Muslim medical professional societies, brain death has been viewed as sanctioned by Islamic law with experts citing the aforementioned rulings. Furthermore, health policies around organ transplantation and end-of-life care within the Muslim world have been crafted with consideration of these representative religious determinations made by transnational, legally-inclusive, and multidisciplinary councils. The determinations of these councils also have bearing upon Muslim clinicians and patients who encounter the challenges of brain death at the bedside. For those searching for 'Islamically-sanctioned' responses that can inform their practice, both the OIC-IFA and IOMS verdicts have palpable gaps in their assessments and remain clinically ambiguous. In this paper we analyze these verdicts from the perspective of applied Islamic bioethics and raise several questions that, if answered by future juridical councils, will better meet the needs of clinicians and bioethicists.

  6. Design and Implementation of an Interactive System for Teaching the Islamic Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Mohammed; Munro, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Islamic Prayer is central to the Islam religion and is a requirement for all Muslims to learn and perform properly. Teaching the Islamic Prayer had traditionally been through the use of textbooks. Aims: This paper describes the design and implementation of the iIP (interactive Islamic Prayer) system to teach the Islamic prayer…

  7. Islam and the History of Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippee, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Considers the difficulties presented when studying the Islamic religion through the current approach to history of religions and offers reasons for this phenomena. Examines the academic methodology in studying the history of religion, and traces its evolution. Examines major scholarly figures in the study of religion field. (RW)

  8. Islamic Primary Schools in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years of the 20th century, Islamic primary schools were founded in the Netherlands thanks to its constitutional "freedom of education" (which allows state-funded religious schools), its voucher system (each school receives the same amount of money per pupil), and school choice by parents. This essay gives some…

  9. An Islamic Perspective on Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi

    2009-01-01

    Man's relationship with the environment is crucial. He can use its natural resources, but not in jest. No damaging or overuse behavior should be the dominant behavior. Religious values and rules play an important role in achieving the balance in the environment. One big goal of Islam is to make the life easy and safe. Moreover, in Islamic…

  10. Exploring Islamic Culture with Uncle Sam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Melody Specht

    2005-01-01

    The Iraq war has generated interest combined with apprehension in young minds as to the nature of "the other", in this case Islam and its followers. Attempts by the U.S. Government to allay negative impressions by means of information through specialized web portals are highlighted.

  11. Syed Manzoorul Islam's Postmodern Tales: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarker, Md Abdul Momen; Talukder, Tusar

    2016-01-01

    The paper brings into focus how Syed Manzoorul Islam, in his three-decade-long literary career, has mastered a narrative style that sets him apart from many of his Bengali contemporaries. It demonstrates all the traits unique to his storytelling: blurring of boundaries between dream and reality, self-reflexivity, irony, and humor. The research…

  12. Analysis of the Sources of Islamic Extremism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    thesis considers multiple perspectives including those of the US government, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations and experts...sources of Islamic extremism? In doing so, this thesis considers multiple perspectives including those of the US government, international organizations...Start of war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) 2001 (Dec) Zawahiri publishes AQ manifesto Knights Under the Prophet’s Banner 2002 (Oct) Bali

  13. Understanding Islam: Perspectives of a Turkish Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunel, Elvan

    2008-01-01

    Students come from many different family, cultural, and religious backgrounds. Learning about Islam can help U.S. teachers to understand their students and their own society, as well as to more deeply comprehend history and better interpret current events. In this article, the author recommends some websites (and occasionally books) that can…

  14. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  15. Islamic Education, Eco-Ethics and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Amid the growing coalescence between the religion and ecology movements, the voice of Muslims who care for the earth and its people is rising. While the Islamic position on the environment is not well-represented in the ecotheology discourse, it advances an environmental imaginary which shows how faith can be harnessed as a vehicle for social…

  16. Aesthetic Modernism in the Post-Colony: The Making of a National College of Art in Pakistan (1950-1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarar, Nadeem Omar

    2008-01-01

    With the formation of Pakistan as a modern Islamic republic in 1947, the institutions of art and design education were transformed under the sway of modernization theories of development. A conceptual and physical infrastructure was put in place to modify existing institutions and to create new ones for encouraging modern art and artists in the…

  17. Human Rights in Iran after the 1978 Islamic Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, Hadi

    2005-03-01

    Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a democracy within the framework of Islam, in reality Khomeini instituted a theocratic regime dominated by himself as ``Supreme Leader'' with almost unlimited powers. Surprisingly, these powers actually were expanded after Khomeini's passing. For years now, many Iranian intellectuals, as well as a good portion of the nation, religious or not, have been challenging the absolute powers of the Supreme Leader through legal means. Big prices have been paid, but the friction between the so called ``reformists'' and the ``fundamentalists'' are on the rise without a bright future. These frictions, stemming in large part from the conflicts between the ``elected'' and ``non-elected'' bodies in the political system, will be discussed. The roles of political activists, reformists, and the ``so-called'' ``religious nationalists'' -- and the prices they are paying -- will also be discussed.

  18. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2013-04-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry.

  19. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    Soviet and anti-Taliban wars fought with Pashtun parties including Hezb- i -Islamii. Tajiks have ruled Afghanistan on only a few occasions. Rabbani...militant group Lashkar- i -Jhangvi— generally allied to the almost purely Pashtun Taliban—claimed responsibility. There are also tensions between the...Hizb-e-Islami. Several other Karzai supporters are followers of Abd- i - Rab Rasul Sayyaf, a prominent Pashtun Islamic conservative mujahedin era party

  20. Religious and cultural legitimacy of bioethics: lessons from Islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Shabana, Ayman

    2013-11-01

    Islamic religious norms are important for Islamic bioethical deliberations. In Muslim societies religious and cultural norms are sometimes confused but only the former are considered inviolable. I argue that respect for Islamic religious norms is essential for the legitimacy of bioethical standards in the Muslim context. I attribute the legitimating power of these norms, in addition to their purely religious and spiritual underpinnings, to their moral, legal, and communal dimensions. Although diversity within the Islamic ethical tradition defies any reductionist or essentialist reconstruction, legitimacy is secured mainly by approximation of Islamic ethical ideals believed to be inherent in the scriptural texts, rather than by the adoption of particular dogmatic or creedal views. With these characteristics, Islamic (bio) ethics may provide useful insights for comparative ethics and global bioethics.

  1. Assessing the Threat of Islamically Motivated Terrorism in Bulgaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    THREAT OF ISLAMICALLY MOTIVATED TERRORISM IN BULGARIA by Stefan L. Dimov December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Heather S. Gregg Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASSESSING THE THREAT OF ISLAMICALLY MOTIVATED TERRORISM IN BULGARIA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Extremism Manifestation Model (REMM), that will help identify whether specific conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for the emergence of Islamic extremism

  2. Contributions of Medieval Islamic physicians to the history of tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Golzari, Samad E J; Khan, Zahid Hussain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aslanabadi, Saeid; Ansarin, Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Tracheostomy was first described by Greco-Roman physicians, including Paulus of Aegina. Medieval Islamic clinicians extended the Greco-Roman ideas with substantial contributions to the field of surgery, including tracheostomy. Although Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE) stated that he had not heard or read of any Islamic physicians having performed tracheostomy, there is evidence that many prominent Islamic surgeons did practice this lifesaving procedure during medieval times. Throughout the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim physicians advanced the practice of tracheostomy with many modifications of the procedure, instrumentation, and adjuvant medicinal prescriptions.

  3. Photographing human subjects in biomedical disciplines: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Saidun, Salilah

    2013-02-01

    Visual recording of human subjects is commonly used in biomedical disciplines for clinical, research, legal, academic and even personal purposes. Guidelines on practice standards of biomedical recording have been issued by certain health authorities, associations and journals, but none of the literature discusses this from an Islamic perspective. This article begins with a discussion on the general rules associated with visual recording in Islam, followed by modesty issues in biomedical recording and issues of informed consent and confidentiality. In order to be deemed ethical from the Islamic perspective, all the aforementioned criteria must conform to, or not contradict, Islamic teaching.

  4. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  5. Islamic E-health: definitions, applications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to introduce the concept of Islamic E-health. The study defines Islamic E-health and discusses various applications of this concept. Data collection methods used for the study included interviews, Facebook, Google, and iTunes searches using a variety of Islamic E-health-related terms. The results show that some Islamic E-health applications focus primarily on spiritual health, followed by Hajj systems for surveillance and monitoring and the use of electronic medical records to monitor the blood glucose levels of Muslim patients who fast during the month of Ramadan. Future research and research limitations are also discussed.

  6. Modern thermoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gründler, Peter; Kirbs, Andreas; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-08-03

    Thermoelectrochemistry as a branch of electrochemistry like photoelectrochemistry is reviewed in an integral treatment of the subject. Especially modern thermoelectrochemistry is focused on new techniques to vary the temperature as an independent variable. This review based on a definition of modern thermoelectrochemistry includes all the classical work which contributes to the formation of modern thermoelectrochemistry, among them high-temperature electrochemistry, subcritical- and supercritical electrochemistry and in-situ electrochemical calorimetry. The main focus is on modern techniques like fast electrode heating by lasers or by alternating current as well as on heating of solution spots by microwaves and related methods. Here the state of the art in modern thermoelectrochemistry is critically reviewed for the first time.

  7. Making sense of Islamic creationism in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Salman

    2015-05-01

    Islamic creationism has been noted as a serious concern in Europe. There have been reports of boycotts of university evolution lectures and, in one extreme case, even a threat of violence. While religious objections are indeed at play in some cases, our understanding of the rise of Islamic creationism should also take into account socioeconomic disparities and its impact on education for Muslim minorities in Europe. Furthermore, the broader narrative of rejection of evolution in Europe, for some Muslims, may be bound up in reactions to the secular culture and in the formation of their own minority religious identity. On the other hand, the stories of Muslim rejection of evolution in media end up reinforcing the stereotype of Muslims as "outsiders" and a threat to the European education system. A nuanced understanding of this dynamic may benefit those who support both the propagation of good science and favor cultural pluralism.

  8. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  9. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-21

    groups do not necessarily emerge from poverty, then this strategy may be inappropriate. If Western liberal democracy is not a consonant ...fact that the jihadiyyeen are not acting in dissonance with what has been written. As fundamentalists, their starting point is a literal, contextual...they are, indeed, acting in logical consonance with their scripture. If Islam has been twisted, the only position one can take is that it has been

  10. Islam, polygamy and family planning in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, I A

    1972-01-01

    This refutes the belief common in Nigeria that Islam enjoins its adherents to be polygamous and thereby, indirectly, to procreate many children. This notion occurs not only among non-Muslims but also among Nigerian Muslims, who feel that to be sincere about their faith they must practice polygamy and have so many children they can barely support them. In fact, at the advent of Islam the number of wives was set at a maximum of 4 to counteract the then prevalent practice of having large numbers of wives. In pre-Islamic Arabian society a man could and often did have 10-20 wives. The Qur'an 4:3 is cited to point out that the true intent of the Prophet was to limit the number of wives to at most 4 and to insist that each wife be treated equally. This means that each wife and her children must have separate quarters, not, as is common in Nigeria, be jammed into 1 room with the other wives. The scriptural references regarding birth control can be taken 2 ways. Those who cite them as prohibiting birth control point out that children are a blessing from Allah. Those who read whole passages find many references to the Prophet's approval of coitus interruptus, which was the only family planning method known at the time. It is felt he would also have approved of something more sure and less messy. In many Muslim countries polygamy is dying out because of economic circumstances. In Pakistan the permission of the 1st wife must be obtained before a 2nd can be married. Many Muslim countries also have active family planning programs. The overburdened women would appreciate a chance to practice family planning. It is the alfas and mallams who must be reeducated to the true Islamic precepts on these subjects.

  11. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  12. Overt Indicators of Islamic Extremism in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    since it is through jihad that the Islamic community developed and expanded. Muslim theologians explained that jihad is a collective religious duty...College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE General Studies by ANDY J...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ii MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: MAJ Andy J. Genasci Thesis Title

  13. Islam’s First Arrow: The Battle of Badr as a Decisive Battle in Islamic History and Its Significance Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    editor, Pioneers of Islamic Revival (New York: Zed Books, 1994), William E. Shepard , Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism: A Translation and Critical...Publishers, 2005), and Luke Loboda, The Thought of Sayyid Qutb, Unpublished Thesis, (Ashland: Ashland University, 2004). 30 Shepard , Sayyid Qutb and...Quoted in Shepard , lxi. All further citations from Social Justice in Islam will be from Shepard . adherent, Muhammad.”36 He further drives home

  14. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways.

  15. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  16. AFGHAN Civilian Police: Police Instead of Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    differs from Islamic Law “Sharia” enforced by mullahs. See Tribal Analysis Center, “Starfish, Spiders and Jellyfish : Pashtun Cultural Factors...Spiders and Jellyfish : Pashtun Cultural Factors limiting Warlord Development,” 2009. http://www.tribalanalysiscenter.com/freePDF/Afghanistan%20A

  17. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  18. Commentary of Senge's Fifth Discipline from Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Aini

    2010-01-01

    The study of Islamic management is still very rare and no study has yet been made on how Islam views the concept of learning organisation. Learning organisation is considered an ideal model of organisation and it is important to view the concept from other cultures and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to explore one of the popular ideas…

  19. Islamic Schools in Three Western Countries: Policy and Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare Islamic schools in three countries: the United States, the Netherlands, and Belgium. In each country, the authors take care to situate Islamic schools within the broader context of educational policy and practice. In particular, the authors examine the mechanisms for funding, choice and control, noting that for…

  20. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  1. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  2. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbih, Randa

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  3. Transplantation ethics from the Islamic point of view.

    PubMed

    Golmakani, Mohammad Mehdi; Niknam, Mohammad Hussein; Hedayat, Kamyar M

    2005-04-01

    Organ transplantation has been transformed from an experimental procedure at Western academic centers to an increasingly common procedure in private and public hospitals throughout the world. Attendant with advancements in organ harvesting, preservation, and transplantation come moral issues. Islam is a holistic religion that takes into account social affairs of man as well as spiritual ones. Islam has a long history of ethics literature including the subgenre of medical ethics. Historical considerations are discussed as to why Muslim thinkers were late to consider contemporary medical issues such as organ donation. Islam respects life and values the needs of the living over the dead, thus allowing organ donation to be considered in certain circumstances. The sources of Islamic law are discussed in brief in order for non-Muslims to appreciate how the parameters of organ transplantation are derived. The Islamic viewpoint, both Shiite and Sunni, is examined in relation to organ donation and its various sources. The advantages and disadvantages of brain dead and cadaveric donation is reviewed with technical and ethical considerations. The Islamic concept of brain death, informed and proxy consent are also discussed. We discuss the concept of rewarded donation as a way to alleviate the current shortage of organs available for transplantation and consider secular and religious support for such a program. Suggestions are made for greater discussion and exchange of ideas between secular and religious thinkers in the Islamic world and between the Islamic world and secular Western countries.

  4. The Dilemma of Islam as School Knowledge in Muslim Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thobani, Shiraz

    2007-01-01

    In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…

  5. Islam in the Classroom: What The Textbooks Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2008-01-01

    This review samples ten of the nation's most widely used junior and senior high school history textbooks comparing what respected historians say about Islam in authoritative histories to what is being said in textbooks. It assesses how today's history textbooks characterize Islam's foundations and creeds; changes and additions that have occurred…

  6. Islamic Community Worker Training Program for the Management of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Tina

    2002-01-01

    To prepare Islamic background bilingual community workers to provide culture and gender appropriate support to women with depression, an education program was developed in consultation with Islamic community leaders. Participants indicated that they were able to apply the new knowledge and skills to provide appropriate support to women with…

  7. Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

  8. Perception and Awareness of Islamic Accounting: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswantoro, Dodik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception and awareness of Islamic accounting of undergraduate accounting students at Universitas Indonesia. The Indonesian Institute of Accountants has an Islamic Accounting Certification and a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) test, meaning that the course's competency should satisfy both…

  9. Seek Knowledge throughout the World? Mobility in Islamic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While Southeast Asia as a region is generally poorly represented in scholarship on higher education, this is even more the case when considering Islamic higher education in the region. While patterns of mobility within the Islamic world are ancient, with mediaeval scholarly centres such as Baghdad, Cairo and Alexandria attracting scholars and…

  10. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  11. Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraince, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of public Islamic higher education in promoting better relations between various religious communities in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Based on field research conducted between December 2005 and March 2006, it documents how progressive Islamic education leaders have advanced a tradition of critical intellectualism in…

  12. Differentiation for the Gifted in American Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Lawati, Fatma A. K.; Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on teacher instructional and curricular practices in gifted students' experiences in Islamic schools in the United States. Surveys were administered at private, full-time Islamic elementary schools to determine the extent to which differentiation practices for meeting the needs of gifted students and the integration of…

  13. Emerging discourse: Islamic teaching in HIV prevention in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maulana, Aisha Omar; Krumeich, Anja; Van Den Borne, Bart

    2009-06-01

    Islamic values portraying sex outside of marriage as sinful are often believed to contribute to HIV transmission as they reject safe-sex practices. Moreover, stigma associated with sinful behaviour is frequently assumed to interfere with access to care for those infected. In contrast, adherence to religious values such as abstinence is viewed as an explanation for the relatively low incidence of HIV infection in Islamic populations. Inspired by this debate, a study was conducted into the possibilities of using Islamic texts as a starting point for health promotion addressing HIV infection and HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Lamu, a Muslim community in Kenya. The study also explored the potential role of Lamu's Islamic leaders in the delivery of that health promotion. In collaboration with Islamic leaders, texts were identified that applied to sexual conduct, health, stigma and the responsibilities of Islamic leaders towards their congregations. In spite of the association of HIV with improper sexual behaviour, Islamic texts offer a starting point for tackling HIV transmission and HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Under particular conditions, the identified Islamic texts may even justify the promotion of safer-sex methods, including condom use.

  14. Islamic Scientific Creationism: A New Challenge in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Umit; Kence, Aykut

    1999-01-01

    Compares "being Muslim" in Turkey with other Islamic countries and describes the regime changes of the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic. Explains evolution in Islamic understanding and discusses creationism's effects and evolution's place in the high school biology curriculum. Defines the Science Research Foundation's (BAV) and…

  15. Education of Women in Islam: A Critical Islamic Interpretation of the Quran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abukari, Abdulai

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, knowledge, its acquisition and application is a fundamental requirement for all Muslims to enable them to believe, think, and act according to the principles of the religion. However, differences in style of interpretation of the Qur'an have led to text being interpreted against its own fundamental worldview; an example is the…

  16. Islamic Studies or the Study of Islam?: From Parker to Rammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dien, Mawil Izzi

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses some of the practical and contextual difficulties facing the teaching of Islamic studies within the British higher education environment. The main problems in the author's view stem from the haziness surrounding the discipline definition and the methodology employed in teaching it. This is particularly observed when…

  17. British Female Converts to Islam: Choosing Islam as a Rejection of Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutar, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary religious conversion is a topic of great interest and fascination. However, this fascination is increased when the religion is Islam and the convert is female. Through the use of three in-depth interviews, this research hopes to answer the following questions: how much does a dissatisfaction with typical British individualism contribute…

  18. Islam and the four principles of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yassar

    2014-07-01

    The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence,justice and autonomy) is investigated in turn, looking in particular at the extent to which each is rooted in the Islamic paradigm. This will provide an important insight into Islamic medical ethics, enabling the clinician to have a better informed discussion with the Muslim patient. It will also allow for a higher degree of concordance in consultations and consequently optimise culturally sensitive healthcare delivery.

  19. Religious Education, Conflict and Diversity: An Exploration of Young Children's Perceptions of Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the way pupils in English primary school perceive Islam through discussion of Islam in the media. The research suggests that pupils are aware of Islam as a world religion and of many of the images and popular discourses associated with Islam. The research also suggests that while a minority of pupils expressed explicit racist…

  20. Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

  1. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 11186 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad Group; AKA Jama'at al-Jihad; AKA The Libyan Society; AKA The Kazakh Jama'at; AKA The Jamaat Mojahedin; AKA Jamiyat;...

  3. Astronomy at the service of the Islamic society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernini, Ilias M.

    2011-06-01

    The Islamic society has great ties to astronomy. Its main religious customs (start of the Islamic month, direction of prayer, and the five daily prayers) are all related to two main celestial objects: the Sun and the Moon. First, the start of any Islamic month is related to the actual seeing of the young crescent after the new Moon. Second, the direction of prayer, i.e., praying towards Mecca, is related to the determination of the zenith point in Mecca. Third, the proper time for the five daily prayers is related to the motion of the Sun. Everyone in the society is directly concerned by these customs. This is to say that the major impetus for the growth of Islamic astronomy came from these three main religious observances which presented an assortment of problems in mathematical astronomy. To observe these three customs, a new set of astronomical observations were needed and this helped the development of the Islamic observatory. There is a claim that it was first in Islam that the astronomical observatory came into real existence. The Islamic observatory was a product of needs and values interwoven into the Islamic society and culture. It is also considered as a true representative and an integral par of the Islamic civilisation. Since astronomy interested not only men of science, but also the rulers of the Islamic empire, several observatories have flourished. The observatories of Baghdad, Cairo, Córdoba, Toledo, Maragha, Samarqand and Istanbul acquired a worldwide reputation throughout the centuries. This paper will discuss the two most important observatories (Maragha and Samarqand) in terms of their instruments and discoveries that contributed to the establishment of these scientific institutions.

  4. The cosmic statements in the Holy Quran as introduction to the public understanding of space science in the Islamic countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    The Holy Quran contains more than 800 cosmic statements speak about: sun, moon, planets, stars, Sirius, zodiac, day, night, twilights, position of stars, navigation, blue sky, night sky, dawn, noon, sunrise and sunset, eclipses, lunar months, release to the sky, landing to the earth, and so on. Due to the new discoveries in the 19th and 20th centuries in astronomy and space sciences, some of the Arabian-Islamic scientists and astronomers wished to find the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of these new discoveries. This current started at the end of the 19th century, and was growing through the 20th century. Hundreds of the articles published in the Daily news, and in the Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Annually Journals. Also, tens of the books published for different authors, from different Arabian and Islamic countries about the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and Space sciences. Also, Radio and TV play an important role in this field, specially after the releasing of the Human kind to the space in the second half of the 20th century. This activity led to construct the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, which follow to the Muslim World League in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia. Where, there is a Quarterly Journal for this purpose, and periodic International conference for the same purpose, the seventh conference was held in February 2004. This paper speak about the activity of the different Arabian-Islamic Scientists and Astronomers in the field of interpretations of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and space science, and their role of increasing the public understanding of space science in the Arabian and Islamic countries.

  5. Masturbation: Scientific Evidence and Islam's View.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

    2013-04-23

    Masturbation is the stimulation of sexual organs usually to the point of orgasm with an essential autoerotic component. Due to the high prevalence of this sexual behavior, it was and still is a matter of debate if masturbation is a normal action without any side effects and even if it is advantageous or it is associated with side effects necessitating public education how to avoid it. In addition, it is a common question if masturbation is religiously lawful or not. In this study, I assess the results of scientific studies about this sexual behavior and also shed some light on the Islam's view about it.

  6. The Influence of Islam in Turkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    must be considered evidence of some popular chord beinq struck. The question then of this paper is: "Is Islam an influ- ence in Turkey today?" By tracing...34 Middle East Journal vol. 30 #2 (Spring, 1976), p. 187; and Gunaydin 16 Oct 1979, p. 1. 50 Labor was never a particularly vocal force in the leadership...the 1960 coup, students too were not a major political force, but became more vocal and impatient after- ward. At the same time, the students, following

  7. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  8. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  9. Adab and its significance for an Islamic medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Sartell, Elizabeth; Padela, Aasim I

    2015-09-01

    Discussions of Islamic medical ethics tend to focus on Sharī'ah-based, or obligation-based, ethics. However, limiting Islamic medical ethics discourse to the derivation of religious duties ignores discussions about moulding an inner disposition that inclines towards adherence to the Sharī'ah. In classical Islamic intellectual thought, such writings are the concern of adab literature. In this paper, we call for a renewal of adabi discourse as part of Islamic medical ethics. We argue that adab complements Sharī'ah-based writings to generate a more holistic vision of Islamic medical ethics by supplementing an obligation-based approach with a virtue-based approach. While Sharī'ah-based medical ethics focuses primarily on the moral status of actions, adab literature adds to this genre by addressing the moral formation of the agent. By complementing Sharī'ah-based approaches with adab-focused writings, Islamic medical ethics discourse can describe the relationship between the agent and the action, within a moral universe informed by the Islamic intellectual tradition.

  10. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  11. Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Context In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. Evidence Acquisition The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed. Conclusions Islam has

  12. Spiritual energy of Islamic prayers as a catalyst for psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Henry, Hani M

    2015-04-01

    Islamic prayers can produce spiritual energy that may yield many psychological benefits, such as amelioration of stress and improvement in subjective well-being, interpersonal sensitivity, and mastery. Islamic prayers can also be integrated into mainstream therapeutic interventions with religious Muslim clients, and this integration can mobilize, transform, and invigorate the process of psychotherapy. This paper provides methods that can be used for the explicit integration of Islamic prayers into traditional psychotherapy. Further, the paper offers strategies for avoiding potential pitfalls that may hamper this process. Finally, a case study illustrating this therapeutic integration and its psychological benefits will be presented.

  13. Competitiveness of Educational Quality of the State College of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Pontianak after Status Change to the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Pontianak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misdah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) Reality competition education quality of The State college of Islamic studies (STAIN) Pontianak after status change to the state institute of Islamic studies (IAIN) Pontianak, 2) Education quality management strategy of The State college of Islamic studies (STAIN) Pontianak after status change to the…

  14. Pre-Eminent Curriculum in Islamic Basic School Integrated Comparative Studies in Islamic Basic School Integrated Al-Izzah Serang and Al-Hanif Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauz, Anis; Hasbullah

    2016-01-01

    Compare to General SD (Primary school), the superiority of SD Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Primary School) lies on the development of the curriculum and learning that is more emphasize on integrated curriculum and integrated learning. Curriculum model applied in Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SDIT) is integrated curriculum. This curriculum is…

  15. Coverage of Islamic Literature in Selected Indexing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, A.; Rehman, S. ur

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates bibliographical coverage of Islamic literature provided by four Western indexing services ("Social Sciences Citation Index,""Social Sciences Index,""Humanities Index,""Index Islamicus") by using bibliographical checking method. Highlights include characteristics of literature and…

  16. Stunning and animal welfare from Islamic and scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Man, Y B Che; Aghwan, Zeiad A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Al-Kahtani, H A; Sazili, A Q

    2013-10-01

    The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for the Muslim community is important both ethically and economically. However, from the animal welfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughter without stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss the methods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter.

  17. Surgery for Gynecomastia in the Islamic Golden Age: Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013 AD)

    PubMed Central

    Chavoushi, Seyed Hadi; Ghabili, Kamyar; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Aslanabadi, Arash; Babapour, Sarah; Ahmedli, Rafail; Golzari, Samad E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of European science during the Renaissance is greatly indebted to the flourishing of the sciences during the Islamic Golden Age. However, some believe that medieval Islamic physicians and in particular surgeons had been merely a medium for Greco-Roman ideas. Contrarily, in some medieval Islamic medical books, such as Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), the surgical instructions represent a change in the usual techniques or are accompanied by a case history, implying that the procedure was actually undertaken. Along with the hundreds of chapters on different diseases and related medical and surgical treatments, Al-Tasrif includes a chapter on surgical techniques for gynecomastia. The present paper is a review of the description of the surgical management of gynecomastia by Al-Zahrawi as well as that of the ancient Greek, medieval, and modern medicine. Although Al-Zahrawi seemed to base his descriptions of surgery for gynecomastia upon those of Paulus of Aegina, his modification of the procedure and application of the medicinal substances might be indicative of Al-Zahrawi's own practice of the procedure. Al-Zahrawi's surgical procedures remained unchanged for many centuries thenceforward until the technological evolution in the recent centuries. PMID:23050167

  18. Religio-ethical discussions on organ donation among Muslims in Europe: an example of transnational Islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    This article analyzes the religio-ethical discussions of Muslim religious scholars, which took place in Europe specifically in the UK and the Netherlands, on organ donation. After introductory notes on fatwas (Islamic religious guidelines) relevant to biomedical ethics and the socio-political context in which discussions on organ donation took place, the article studies three specific fatwas issued in Europe whose analysis has escaped the attention of modern academic researchers. In 2000 the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) issued a fatwa on organ donation. Besides this "European" fatwa, two other fatwas were issued respectively in the UK by the Muslim Law (Shariah) Council in 1995 and in the Netherlands by the Moroccan religious scholar Mustafā Ben Hamza during a conference on "Islam and Organ Donation" held in March 2006. The three fatwas show that a great number of Muslim religious scholars permit organ donation and this holds true for donating organs to non-Muslims as well. Further, they demonstrate that transnationalism is one of the main characteristics of contemporary Islamic bioethics. In a bid to develop their own standpoints towards organ donation, Muslims living in the West rely heavily on fatwas imported from the Muslim world.

  19. Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    Islamic Movements in Algeria and the Strategy of Violence FORMAT : Strategy Research Project DATE: 23 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 7,820 PAGES: 32...James D Le Sueur after the party‟s victory in the first round of parliamentary elections, stated: Democracy is one of the numerous nefarious...democratic model , dealing with man‟s spiritual element besides his human and social aspects. For Ben Nabi the development of democracy in Islam needs not

  20. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.

  1. Bodily Integrity and Male Circumcision: An Islamic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Dekkers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The notion of bodily integrity forms an important part of the value-structure of many religions and cultures. In this paper, we explore the notion of bodily integrity in Islam using male circumcision as the focus of the discussion. Our aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the Muslim perspective and of the differences and similarities between Western and Islamic ethical structures, in particular, regarding the concept of bodily integrity. PMID:23610746

  2. Islamic Banking: Financing Terrorism or Meeting Economic Demand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    increasing market discipline, and implement international standards. Risk management is the key to strengthening domestic financial systems and managing ...191. 63 • all banks must have comprehensive risk management systems as well as management information systems that enable management to identify...all parts of the Islamic world except Saudi Arabia.183 Internal risk management can be problematic to Islamic bankers. Shari’a boards tend not to

  3. Investigating the Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Junaid B; Abdul-Latif, Hussein

    2016-07-01

    In his 2006 article in the Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA), Dr. Ahmed qualified the predominant psychiatric view on homosexuality by recourse to opinions prevalent within reparative therapy circles. Conservative Muslim thinkers, online counselors, and other professionals continue to hold opinions similar to those delineated by Dr. Ahmed in his journal article. We use his article as a focal point to critique the general opinions upheld by conservative Muslim thinkers by alluding to the harms associated with reparative therapy and by rejecting the unreasonable prescription of permanent celibacy. We critique Dr. Ahmed's association of homosexuality with mental health issues, fatal diseases, alcoholism, and illicit sexual intercourse. Investigating the Muslim tradition, we encourage conservative Muslim leaders to facilitate Muslim gays and lesbians in their legitimate human need for intimacy, affection, and companionship.

  4. Science teachers' interpretations of Islamic culture related to science education versus the Islamic epistemology and ontology of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2010-03-01

    The debate about Islam and science extends to a debate about the relationship between Islam and science education. In this paper, I explore Egyptian teachers' views of the relationship between science and religion within the Islamic context. Teachers' key vision of the relationship between science and religion was that "religion comes first and science comes next. I will argue that teachers' personal religious beliefs are among the major constructs that drive teachers' ways of thinking and interpretation of scientific issues related with religion. Then, I discuss how teachers' personal religious beliefs have been formed and influenced their pedagogical beliefs related to science and religion issues. Finally, I will argue, how we use the personal religious beliefs model as a framework of teaching/learning scientific issues related with religion within sociocultural (Islamic) context. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  5. Islam, mental health and being a Muslim in the West.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity.

  6. "Harvesting" and Use of Human (Embryonic) Stem Cells: An Islamic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bouzenita, Anke I

    2017-03-01

    This paper gives insight into the Islamic bioethical discussion on harvesting and using human embryonic (hESC) and adult stem cells. It describes some of the Islamic legal mechanisms involved in the bioethical discourse among Muslims. As the contemporary Islamic bioethical discourse is very diverse, the paper focuses on the critical discussion of related resolutions of the Saudi-based Islamic Fiqh Academy due to the esteem in which the IFA is held in the Islamic world and the pertinence of their rulings on this issue. This study discusses the different sources of human adult and embryonic stem cells and their use from an Islamic perspective, while questioning some directions the Islamic bioethical discourse has taken. The paper invites interested parties to deliberate the use of some of the legal means resorted to in the ongoing Islamic bioethical discourse.

  7. The Relationship Between Islamism and Women in Civil Society: A Look at Turkey and Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    discomse that Muslim women need saving. This study reviews the effects of Islamism , especially when it influences political decisions , on women. In...influences political decisions , on women. In particular, the study focuses on whether there is a correlation between rising Islamism and women in civil...women to go back to the sacred texts to make the case that oppressive practices in many Islamic societies are not in fact Islamic .44 Instead of

  8. Religion and Animal Welfare—An Islamic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sira Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Cruelty to animals occurs during production, handling, transport, and slaughter in most countries where Islam is a major religion. Most of the people involved in this, such as those involved in the transport of animals, animal handlers, and butchers, are Muslims. However, many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of this cruelty. Islam is a religion that shows compassion to animals as mentioned in the holy book Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). This paper highlights what Islam says of the welfare of animals and how animal welfare can be improved by sensitizing all Muslims and religious leaders to the teachings on animal welfare in the Qur’an and the Hadiths so that they can influence their followers. Abstract Islam is a comprehensive religion guiding the lives of its followers through sets of rules governing the personal, social, and public aspects through the verses of the Holy Qur’an and Hadiths, the compilation of the traditions of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the two main documents that serve as guidelines. Islam is explicit with regard to using animals for human purposes and there is a rich tradition of the Prophet Mohammad’s (pbuh) concern for animals to be found in the Hadith and Sunna. Islam has also laid down rules for humane slaughter. In many countries animals are killed without pre-stunning. Regardless of pre-stunning, such meat should not be treated as halāl or at least be considered as Makrooh (detestable or abominable), because the animals have been beaten or treated without compassion during production, handling, transport, and slaughter. Many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of the cruelty that is routinely inflicted on animals during transport, pre-slaughter, and slaughter in many Islamic countries. There is an urgent need to sensitize all Muslims to the teachings of animal welfare in the Qur’an and the Hadiths. A campaign is needed to apprise religious leaders of the current

  9. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  10. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  11. Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    Islamic schools, especially "madrasahs", have been viewed as sites of indoctrination for Muslim students and militants. Some educators and parents in the United States have also regarded introductory courses on Islam in some public schools as indoctrinatory. But what do we mean by "indoctrination"? And is Islamic education…

  12. Why Religious Education Matters: The Role of Islam in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Islam has become an increasingly important topic in American society and education. This article will explore the rationale for teaching about religion in public schools, the role of Islam and Muslims in a multicultural society, and discuss numerous ways in which Islam can be incorporated into multicultural secondary school curricula.

  13. Islamic Educational Goals, Methods, and Content, with Emphasis on Shia' Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    As a major world religion representing approximately 20% of the human family, Islam holds particular and significant educational perspectives. The purpose of this article is to identify and interpret the viewpoints of Islam on education (with emphasis on Shia' faith). To accomplish this aim, "educational goals" from the viewpoint of Islam have…

  14. Female Leadership in Islamic Schools in the United States of America: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world, and the status of Muslim women is even more misinterpreted. There have been relatively few studies of Islamic educational leaders and even fewer specifically addressing female Islamic educational leadership. Although women have made tremendous progress in the labor force, the proportion of…

  15. An Ancient Islamic University Has a New Role: Explaining Its Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoepf, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Founded in the 10th century, Cairo's Al-Azhar University is one of the World's oldest and most respected institutions of Islamic scholarship. This article discusses the university's academic program, efforts on behalf of interfaith dialogue, dissemination of Islamic thought, and promotion of goodwill between Islamic and Western cultures.

  16. Ethnocentric and Stereotypical Concepts in the Study of Islamic and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahme, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the usage of five concepts in the study of Islamic and world history that serve to perpetuate the image of Islamic civilization as the Other: (1) Middle East; (2) East and West; (3) Judaic-Christian heritage; (4) Islamic fundamentalism; and (5) jihad. Argues for replacing these concepts. (CMK)

  17. Mental Health Counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Marriage of Religion, Science, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the state of mental health counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Topics that are addressed include training of clinicians, theoretical developments in Islamic-based theories of psychology, and issues related to the practice of counseling. Counseling issues in the Islamic Republic of Iran are influenced by its unique…

  18. Islamic Counseling: The Services of Mental Health and Education for People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubis, Saiful Akhyar

    2011-01-01

    Even though classified as a new phenomenon, Islamic counseling is actually as old as the Islamic preaching activities among the people. It is because of counseling genuinely is an essential part from the religious activities as depict in a number of Islamic spiritual terminologies. For the context of Moslems society, the existence of…

  19. Navigating Islam and same-sex liaisons among men in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bereket, Tarik; Adam, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the experiences of 20 Turkish men in having sex with men in an Islamic society. As part of a broader study on Turkish homosexualities, the article analyzes responses to the question, "What joys and difficulties have you experienced regarding your sexual orientation in relation to Islam?" to elicit responses on how Islam and homosexuality might coexist in everyday life.

  20. Christianity, Islam, and Political Culture: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Robert A.

    Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…

  1. Islamic theology and the principles of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahri, Mohammad Zafir

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that provision of palliative care is a human right for the patients and their families going through the suffering associated with a life-threatening illness. The holistic nature of palliative care, dictated by the multifaceted suffering experienced by patients, calls for giving due consideration to the cultural and spiritual background of the target population. Similarly, the paramount impact of Islamic wholeness on Muslims' perceptions, beliefs, and way of living makes it necessary for non-Muslim palliative care professionals who are caring for Muslim patients to increase their awareness about the parts of Islamic theology pertinent to the principles of palliative care. This would include a basic knowledge of the Islamic faith and how Muslims view and cope with the calamity of a life-threatening condition along with the suffering associated with it. Equally important are issues related to the management of symptoms using agents that are normally strictly prohibited by Islamic teachings, including opioids, brain stimulants, and cannabinoids. The current review briefly discusses the Islamic perspectives pertinent to a Muslim patient's journey throughout the palliative care experience, onward to a safe passing, and beyond.

  2. Religion and Animal Welfare-An Islamic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sira Abdul

    2017-02-17

    Islam is a comprehensive religion guiding the lives of its followers through sets of rules governing the personal, social, and public aspects through the verses of the Holy Qur'an and Hadiths, the compilation of the traditions of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the two main documents that serve as guidelines. Islam is explicit with regard to using animals for human purposes and there is a rich tradition of the Prophet Mohammad's (pbuh) concern for animals to be found in the Hadith and Sunna. Islam has also laid down rules for humane slaughter. In many countries animals are killed without pre-stunning. Regardless of pre-stunning, such meat should not be treated as halāl or at least be considered as Makrooh (detestable or abominable), because the animals have been beaten or treated without compassion during production, handling, transport, and slaughter. Many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of the cruelty that is routinely inflicted on animals during transport, pre-slaughter, and slaughter in many Islamic countries. There is an urgent need to sensitize all Muslims to the teachings of animal welfare in the Qur'an and the Hadiths. A campaign is needed to apprise religious leaders of the current cruelty that occurs during transport and slaughter.

  3. Performance comparison of Islamic and commercial banks in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizud-din, Azimah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Zahid, Zalina

    2016-10-01

    The steady growth in the size and increase in the number of Islamic banks show that the Islamic banking system is considered as an alternative to the conventional banking system. Due to this, comparisons in term of performance measurements and evaluation of the financial health for both type of banks are essential. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the differences between Islamic and commercial banks performance. Five years secondary data were collected from the annual report for each bank. Return on Asset ratio is chosen as the dependent variable, while capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning, liquidity and sensitivity to market risk (CAMELS) are the independent variables. Descriptive analyses were done to understand the data. The independent t-test and Mann Whitney test show the differences of Islamic and commercial banks based on the financial variables. The stepwise and hierarchical multiple regressions were used to determine the factor that affects profitability performance of banks. Results show that Islamic banks are better in term of profitability performance, earning power performance, liquidity performance and sensitive to market risk. The factors that affect profitability performance are capital adequacy, earning power and liquidity variable.

  4. The Emergence of the Collegiate System in Classical Islam: 700-1200 A.D. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Charles M.

    Formal structures of higher education that evolved in Islamic culture are discussed, along with parallels to the rise of universities in Medieval Europe. Both Islamic communities and Western Christianity founded colleges through endowments. The structural form of higher education in Islamic education in Islamic regions developed from the efforts…

  5. Organ donation and Islam-challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan

    2012-09-15

    The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.

  6. The Impact of Islamic Messages on Twitter Towards Moslem Youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathan Hidayatullah, Ahmad; Hamzah, Almed

    2017-03-01

    The presence of social media has increased the opportunities for the Moslem in sharing and gaining knowledge about the religion of Islam. In general, Twitter can be an alternative for people to deliver and obtain Islamic messages. As the biggest moslem community, Indonesian people has made use of Twitter as a tool for them to gain knowledge about religion. As a matter of fact, there are many Islamic preachers that have been utilize Twitter as a media of proselytizing various topic related to religion practice. The most popular preacher usually has many follower. The result shows that there is a strong correlation between the two. There is a correlation between the number of tweets with the number of follower. The more preacher post a tweets the more follower they attained. Moreover, several topics are identified as the most frequently occurred. The tweets which contain about worship, love, information, and purification of soul have become the most favourable subject among preachers and scholars.

  7. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother’s Life is in Danger

    PubMed Central

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

    2010-01-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  8. The concept of nature in Islamic science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarman, Wendi

    2016-02-01

    Science teaching is basically value laden activities. One of the values tells that science is not related to any religion. This secular value is reflected to science teaching in many places, including religious country like Indonesia. However, we argue that in Indonesia science teaching should not be secular as in the Western country since one of the basic aim of National Education according to the Indonesian constitution Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, is to inculcate faith and god-fearing to One God Almighty. As we know, Indonesia is a Moslem country and has many Islamic schools in it too. Thus, it is important to design a science teaching framework base on Islamic teaching to fulfill the basic aim of National Education This paper discusses concept of nature, the key term in science, based on Islamic view that may used as a framework to develop Islamic science teaching. In Islam, science has a strong relation to religion since nature reflects the existence of the Creator. This concept is derived from the analysis of several verses from Qur'an as the main source of Islamic teaching. There are several principle can be derived from this analysis. Firstly, visible world is not the only world, but there is also the unseen world. Secondly, the nature is not merely matter that doesn't have any sacred value, but it is the indication or symbol of God existence and His Nature. Thirdly, The Qur'an and the nature are both Books of Allah that contain messages of Him, so they are complementary to each other

  9. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  10. A redefinition and model of Canadian Islamic spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Nazila; O'Connor, Thomas St James

    2012-06-01

    The criteria for a new definition and model of what constitutes one approach to Canadian Islamic spiritual care is provided. The authors believe that to be an effective profession, Islamic spiritual care givers need to use both the Qur'an and Sunnah and adequate holistic concept from the social sciences. This involves coherent scientific knowledge based on evidence and serving diverse Muslim populations that also could include a multi-faith approach. The model based on a Canadian context is person centered, sensitive to theological and cultural environment, open to female Muslim spiritual caregivers with a concern for Muslim youth at risk.

  11. The Iranian Islamic Clergy: Governmental Politics and Theocracy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-05

    and liberal elements from the political scene. The elimination of the rival Islamic forces took an additional year-and-a-half. By the end of 1982...chey had destroyed the well-organized and highly dedicated Islamic radicals, the Mujahedin. They had also succeeded in putting an end to the presence of...is bel-.evea hto VaE takern place in the ninth century and! to our.ir.uc to the End of Time, Snhi uiits were collectively entitled to reilgIOus author

  12. A veil (hijab) as a public symbol of a Muslim woman modern identity.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Tarik

    2006-12-01

    In this article the author explains the social role of Muslim woman in a postmodern society through a public symbol of her identity--the veil. The article's thesis is that the Muslim women's manifestation of their Islamic denomination through veiling and wearing appropriate clothes (in the case of men through growing beards and wearing clothes considered appropriate for them) signifies an expression of a new, Islamic shaped identity. This is a postmodern identity based on modernity rather than a fundamental reaction to modernity. The veil, a public symbol of Muslim identity, is often given a different meaning by its observers than the person actually wearing it. Therefore, the intention of this article is to analyze the elements of a particular, postmodern identity that a Muslim woman's veil, as a public symbol, represents.

  13. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents.

  14. Islam, Western Education and the Riddle of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaftan, Nadja; Smith-Doughty, Lexy

    2009-01-01

    Relations between Islam and the West have seldom been easy. Enmities and resentments date back centuries. So do cultural contacts, economic ties and periods of relative cooperation. Today, however, nothing symbolizes that unsteady and often tense relationship more than the events of 11 September, 2001 and the bloodshed that has followed in…

  15. Teaching about Islam in Secondary Schools: Curricular and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Current demographic trends are contributing to a rapid increase in religious, racial, and ethnic diversity in the United States. This article provides a rationale for teaching about religious diversity, particularly Islam, in public schools and the vital role religion has played in American history. The article provides readers with important…

  16. Islamic Health Sciences: A Model for Health Education and Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazizadeh, Majid

    1992-01-01

    Because the concept of Islamic health sciences is unfamiliar to most health professionals, the article reviews its history, focusing on physician-patient relationships, dental health, diet and nutrition, sexual health, reproduction, and boundaries for sexual behavior. Recommends that health professionals recognize the issues when considering…

  17. Contributions of Islamic Scholars to the Scientific Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faruqi, Yasmeen Mahnaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion regarding the role that Muslim scholars played in the development of scientific thinking in the Middle Ages. It argues that the Muslims were not just the preservers of the ancient and Greek knowledge, but that they contributed original works to the different fields of science. They were inspired by the Islamic view…

  18. Democratizing Indonesia through Education? Community Participation in Islamic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lyn; Raihani, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, Indonesia embarked on a journey to democracy. This journey involved the decentralization of education from 2002. The new school-based management (SBM) system required greater community and parental participation in schools--thereby, it was hoped, contributing to a deepening of democracy. Islamic schools ("madrasah") also adopted…

  19. Research based instruction in the teaching of islamic education.

    PubMed

    Asyafah, Abas

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to produce skilled and competent graduates, Indonesia University of Education with its motto of "producing knowledgeable, educated and religious human-beings", considers the development of required scientific attitudes, good behaviour, and strong religious values of students as an integral and important component needed to develop students' noble character and their intellectual ability. Developing such qualities requires innovative teaching and learning techniques which are enjoyable and able to motivate students. In this paper, the author seeks to answer four(4) questions: 1. How can one plan a research-based instruction for an Islamic education seminar course? 2. What are the steps considered in research-based instruction for a seminar course? 3. How is the evaluation of research-based instruction in an Islamic education seminar course? And 4. What are the weaknesses and strength of the research based instruction model in regard to facilitating an Islamic education seminar? To establish an appropriate answer to these questions, the author has used a descriptive-qualitative approach. The data have been obtained through observation, interviews and a study of relevant documents. The findings reveal that the implementation of an instruction research-based model is appropriate and applicable in the teaching of Islamic education seminar course. The study concludes that instruction research based model has the capacity to engage students and it is able to improve their problem solving skills in daily life.

  20. The Necessity of Theology and Practice in Islamic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandoodewaard, William

    2005-01-01

    In his groundbreaking article "The Theological and Apologetical Dimensions of Muslim Evangelization," Samuel P. Schlorff states that "for far too long evangelical missions have been limping along without an effective apologetic to Islam" (Schlorff, 1980, 335). Since his article was published some work has been done, yet there remains a great need…

  1. Teaching about Islam and Women: On Pedagogy and the Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlas, Asma

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the challenges she faced as a teacher who teaches "Understanding Islam: Religion and Politics." She shares that most of the strains she had experienced began to surface when her class came to the segments on jihad and Muslim women. She also relates that some of the tensions experienced by her students result from…

  2. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  3. An Interactive Approach to Teaching about Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santora, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Describes activities around which a seventh grade religious studies unit is developed. Describes the building of a timeline, the game "Human Bingo," a hunt for Christian artifacts, creation of biography partners to study Jesus Christ and Mohammed, a jigsaw activity to discover Islamic principles, and a group activity using Jewish and Islamic…

  4. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  5. Pedagogic Discourses and Imagined Communities: Knowing Islam and Being Muslim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thobani, Shiraz

    2011-01-01

    Academic disciplines in the school curriculum which engage explicitly with cultural identities pose a major dilemma for liberal, pluralist societies seeking to foster the dual imperatives of diversity education and social cohesion. This paper uses the case of Islam as school knowledge to analyse the relations between political stances and symbolic…

  6. Islamic and Indonesianic Characters Perspective of Higher Education of Muhammadiyah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobroni; Purwojuwono, Ribut

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe the educational model of Islamic and Indonesianic character in Muhammadiyah, perspective of phenomenological studies at School of Higher Education Teaching (STKIP) of Muhammadiyah Sorong of Papua Province Indonesia. The study is done by using qualitative approach with phenomenological paradigm. The main data was obtained…

  7. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  8. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  9. Sustainability in Multi-Religious Societies: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grine, Fadila; Bensaid, Benaouda; Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Ladjal, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The question of sustainability in multi-religious societies underscores interrelating theological, moral and cultural issues affecting the very process of social co-existence, cohesion and development. This article discusses Islam's understanding of the question of sustainability in multi-religious contexts while highlighting the contribution of…

  10. The Problems in Translating Islamic Expressions in Religious Occasions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khammyseh, Daoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find the problems that face translation students in translating Islamic expressions in religious occasions into English language. The motivations that support the researcher to select this topic are to the causes of these problems and finding some solutions for them. The data were collected from parents, ordinary people…

  11. The nursing metaparadigm concept of human being in Islamic thought.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadi, Esa; Akbarian, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The metaparadigm concept of person as a core emphasis for nursing theorizing has attracted considerable attention in western literature, but has received less attention in the context of eastern philosophical contexts. In this philosophical inquiry, we sought to clarify the concept of what it is to be a human being according to ideas deriving from Islamic tradition, drawing on concept analysis as general approach to advance an understanding of how nursing within an Islamic context might operationalize metaparadigm conceptualization. Specifically, we considered person as human being on the basis of its definition, attributes/characteristics and boundaries to explore the anatomy of the concept in this context. Our analysis revealed that Islamic thought is relevant to two distinct understandings of the holistic concept of human being. Reciprocal interaction worldview organizes the dimensions of being human (cognitive, emotion, social and spiritual) into a whole. Simultaneous action worldview emphasizes that the human is a coherent and unified creature in harmony with the universe. In Islamic thought, these two worldviews are integrated and operate concurrently. Nurse-patient interactions arising from an integrated perspective that aligns both of these worldviews will allow for informed applications of knowledge to practice and enhanced patient care.

  12. Roles & Responsibilities of the Women Leading American Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir, Amaarah

    2016-01-01

    Literature of educational leadership often fails to represent the experiences of faith-based school leaders, particularly women. This study seeks to position the experiences of American Islamic school leaders in a larger context of educational leadership roles, responsibilities, and practices. This national, qualitative study utilized an Islamic…

  13. Teachers' Perspectives on Citizenship Education in Islamic Schools in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saada, Najwan L.

    2013-01-01

    This multiple case study examines how 4 social studies teachers in 2 private Islamic schools in Michigan understand the concept of citizenship education and the dilemmas they face in teaching for unity and diversity and in helping their students negotiate their civics identities within the American sociopolitical context. Data were collected…

  14. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  15. The Future of Science in Islamic Countries (August 1986)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * What is Wrong Today with Science and Science- based Technology in Islamic Countries? * Summary Recommendations * The Importance of Science for the Muslim Nations * NOTES * Appendix I * Appendix II * "7.5 Science and technology in Japan since the Meiji restoration * REFERENCES * SUMMARY * Appendix III

  16. Arabism and Islam: Stateless Nations and Nationless States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Notes 1. NationalGeographic, vol. 119, no. 1 (January 1961), p. 84. 2. Michel Foucault , quoted in translation from Keith Michael Baker, "Memory...Islamic Jihad released a photograph of the corpse o f French hostage Michel Seurat, a respected scholar of the Arab-Muslim world. Terry Ander

  17. Islam and Environmental Consciousness: A New Scale Development.

    PubMed

    Emari, Hossein; Vazifehdoust, Hossein; Nikoomaram, Hashem

    2017-04-01

    This research proposed a new construct, Islamic environmental consciousness (IEC), and developed a measurement scale to support this construct. Churchill's (J Mark Res 16(1):64-73, 1979) paradigm, adapted by Negra and Mzoughi (Internet Res 22(4):426-442, 2012), was utilized. A total of 32 items were generated based on the verses of the Qur'an from nine interviews with teachers in an Islamic seminary. This set of items was reduced to 19 after dropping redundant or non-representative items. In a pilot study, factor analysis of the 19-item scale yielded a two-factor structure scale of seven items with a reliability ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. The Islamic environmental consciousness scale (IECS) was statistically confirmed and validated in a subsequent investigation. The proposed measurement scale warrants further exploratory study. Future research should assess the IECS's validity across different Muslim countries, locales, and various Islamic schools of thought and practice. IEC is proposed as a new construct that focuses primarily on the Qur'an and seeks to achieve acceptance by both Sunni and Shia denominations. In this study, both cognitive attitudes and behavioral aspects were considered in the design of the IECS.

  18. Critical Literacy: Using Nonfiction to Learn about Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Schools have a legitimate and vital role in providing Americans with a better and more accurate understanding of the Muslim world. Given the cultural and ideological issues at play in any understanding of Islam, the theories and practices of critical literacy can provide useful guidance to teachers. The purposes of this article are to counteract…

  19. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  20. Nationalism and Islamic Identity in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Chinese. The leadership of the Tang dynasty (618-906) held sway over the region for a short time through alliances with local elites. This pre-modern...their ancestors did with the Manchu Qing dynasty when Xinjiang first became part of “China.” Their dress, customs, language, history, and religion...Qing Dynasty 250 years ago. This chapter explains how the Uyghurs came to Xinjiang and how they became established. It explains who the Uyghurs

  1. The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan and the Formation of Modern Uyghur Identity in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of Soviet Political, Economic, and Military Involvement in Sinkiang from 1928 to 1949.,” Ph.D diss., New York University, 1982. 5 Lars-Erik Nyman...Great Britain, Chinese, Russian and Japanese Interests in Sinkiang . 1918- 1934, (Sweden: Scandinavian University Books, 1977). 2 Masami Hamada’s...Shih-Ts’ai’s Early Years in Sinkiang , 1930-1934," Journal of Oriental Studies [Hong Kong] 7, no. 2 (1969): 230. 11 After assuming the post of

  2. "A Modern, Integral, and Open Understanding": Sunni Islam and Lebanese Identity in the Makassed Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terc, Mandy

    2006-01-01

    Lebanon's violent past and sectarian strife have made the country's name synonymous with violence and disunity. Yet the discourse of at least one Lebanese religious institution can complicate the simplistic narrative about a country of warring religious groups with no national sentiments. The writings produced by the Makassed Philanthropic Islamic…

  3. Near East/South Asia Report, Afghanistan: Islam and Political Modernity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-11

    imbalance of the potlatch rgifts requiring allegiance from recipient] type than the stable architecture of a feudality. A khan derives his power only...selsele). potlatch : Indian term of North America: gifts of prestige by which a notable asserts his authority over those who do not have the means to give

  4. A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-12-01

    Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and Human Rights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in Human Rights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law.

  5. An Exploratory Examination of Islamic Values in Science Education: Islamization of Science Teaching and Learning via Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study outlines the perceptions of four Muslim graduate students regarding Islam and its influence on their approach to the teaching and learning of science. All of the four interviewees were enrolled in science related programmes at a Midwestern US university. The interview responses were evaluated both within the frame of the…

  6. Are Muslim Women in Need of Islamic Feminism? In Consideration of a Re-Imagined Islamic Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan

    2015-01-01

    In its remonstrations against male patriarchy, common understandings of Islamic feminism have, on the one hand, claimed attachment to other forms of feminism. On the other hand, because of its location within the structures of Qur'anic exegesis and prophetic traditions, it has claimed a detachment from what has been understood as the largely…

  7. The crescent and Islam: healing, nursing and the spiritual dimension. Some considerations towards an understanding of the Islamic perspectives on caring.

    PubMed

    Rassool, G H

    2000-12-01

    Caring from Islamic perspectives is not well versed in Eurocentric nursing literature. There is widespread misunderstanding of the concept and practice of Islam within the context of health care and nursing practice. The areas of contention, in the context of health care systems, are whether the western paradigm to nursing care and management are applicable to Muslims and non-Muslims in both Islamic and non-Islamic countries. What is lacking in some of the conceptual frameworks and models of care is not only the fundamental spiritual dimension of care, but also the significance of spiritual development of the individual towards healing. The focus of this paper is to provide an awareness of Islamic health practices, health behaviours, code of ethics and the framework of Islamic perspectives of caring and spirituality. A brief overview of the Muslim world, the historical development in caring and health and the pillars of the Islamic faith provide the context of the paper. The development of a model of care based on the Islamic perspective is suggested.

  8. Wisdom, insight and pragmatism. In the early days of Islam, Muslim society was familiar with the concept of the small family.

    PubMed

    Jullundri, R A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of rapid population growth, Pakistan's main political parties have stressed the importance of the small family norm and the need to adopt modern methods of family planning. Some Ulama, however, have argued that family planning does not conform to the traditions of Islam under the assumption that the levels of sexual perversion and female physical and psychological ailments would increase were family planning widely practiced. The author counters that the opposition of the few Ulama to family planning is based not upon theology and jurisprudence, but rather upon socioeconomic grounds. Islam may be the only divine religion which supports human free will such that a man can organize his affairs according to his own social and economic circumstances. Common belief is, however, that adherence to Islam impedes progress and prosperity. Muslims themselves are responsible for the perpetuation of such an impression. Muslim societies now face several social problems, one of which is their relatively lower acceptance of family planning. Muslim countries share problems in the following areas with regard to family planning: management, women's status in Muslim society, and low educational status.

  9. “Fighting a Hurricane”: Tobacco Industry Efforts to Counter the Perceived Threat of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry’s response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  10. "Fighting a hurricane": tobacco industry efforts to counter the perceived threat of Islam.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry's response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Improving Counterterrorism Efforts by Removing Misconceptions about Islam in the Western World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims (New York: Prometheus Books, 2005). 72 Craig Charney and Nicole Yakatan, A New Beginning: Strategies for a Fruitful...trained many great thinkers in science, math, philosophy and medicine .334 During these times, Madrasas were considered legitimate for the conception of...Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non- Muslims. New York: Prometheus Books, 2005. Sprinzak, Ehud. “Rational Fanatics.” Foreign Policy

  12. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation.

  13. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy.

  14. Rituals of infant death: defining life and Islamic personhood.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-02-01

    This article is about the recognition of personhood when death occurs in early life. Drawing from anthropological perspectives on personhood at the beginnings and ends of life, it examines the implications of competing religious and customary definitions of personhood for a small sample of young British Pakistani Muslim women who experienced miscarriage and stillbirth. It suggests that these women's concerns about the lack of recognition given to the personhood of their fetus or baby constitute a challenge to customary practices surrounding burial as a Muslim. The article suggests that these women's concerns cannot be adequately glossed as a clash of Islamic belief versus Western medicine. Rather, they represent a renegotiation of Islamic opinion and customary practices within the broader context of changes in the medical and social norms surrounding pregnancy loss and infant death in multi-ethnic British society.

  15. RITUALS OF INFANT DEATH: DEFINING LIFE AND ISLAMIC PERSONHOOD

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, ALISON

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the recognition of personhood when death occurs in early life. Drawing from anthropological perspectives on personhood at the beginnings and ends of life, it examines the implications of competing religious and customary definitions of personhood for a small sample of young British Pakistani Muslim women who experienced miscarriage and stillbirth. It suggests that these women's concerns about the lack of recognition given to the personhood of their fetus or baby constitute a challenge to customary practices surrounding burial as a Muslim. The article suggests that these women's concerns cannot be adequately glossed as a clash of Islamic belief versus Western medicine. Rather, they represent a renegotiation of Islamic opinion and customary practices within the broader context of changes in the medical and social norms surrounding pregnancy loss and infant death in multi-ethnic British society. PMID:23906387

  16. Reflections on Palliative Care from the Jewish and Islamic Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Michael; Baddarni, Kassim; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual care is a vital part of holistic patient care. Awareness of common patient beliefs will facilitate discussions about spirituality. Such conversations are inherently good for the patient, deepen the caring staff-patient-family relationship, and enhance understanding of how beliefs influence care decisions. All healthcare providers are likely to encounter Muslim patients, yet many lack basic knowledge of the Muslim faith and of the applications of Islamic teachings to palliative care. Similarly, some of the concepts underlying positive Jewish approaches to palliative care are not well known. We outline Jewish and Islamic attitudes toward suffering, treatment, and the end of life. We discuss our religions' approaches to treatments deemed unnecessary by medical staff, and consider some of the cultural reasons that patients and family members might object to palliative care, concluding with specific suggestions for the medical team. PMID:22203878

  17. The attribution of psychotic symptoms to jinn in Islamic patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-02-01

    Patients with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms may attribute these experiences to jinn (i.e., invisible spirits). In this paper, we review the medical literature on jinn as an explanatory model in the context of psychotic disorders. We conducted a systematic search for papers on jinn and psychosis in Pubmed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases. Our search yielded 105 scientific texts on jinn and their relationship with mental disorders, including 47 case reports. Among the case reports a definite biomedical diagnosis was provided in 66% of the cases, of which 45.2% involved a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Fully 10 of 16 hallucinating patients experienced multimodal hallucinations. Although infrequently documented in the biomedical literature, the attribution of psychiatric symptoms to jinn appears to be quite common among Islamic patients, and to have significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and course of mental disorders, particularly psychotic disorders.

  18. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency.

  19. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    imprisonment of women who flee domestic violence . Islamist influence and tradition has also frequently led to persecution of converts from Islam to...the legitimate political process. There have been very few incidents of ethnic-based violence since the fall of the Taliban, but jealousies over...Protests erupted in December 2013 when a Pashtun former intelligence official said on a television show that “Pashtuns are the rulers and owners of

  20. The Islamic State Crisis and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-11

    Euphrates rivers in Iraq, seizing population centers including Mosul, one of Iraq’s largest cities . Since then, IS forces have massacred Syrian and...in fall of city of Idlib to Islamic fighters,” April 17, 2015. 8 OSC Report LIN2015050430405051, “Syrian Opposition Sources Cited on Efforts in...River Valley, with operations stretching from Ras al Ayn on the border with Turkey to Hasakah city . These areas are currently held by Kurdish Democratic

  1. The Violent Islamic Radicalization Process: A Framework for Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    identity or social interactions and processes ( Tajfel & Turner, 1986) or as part of a ‘collective identity crisis’ in the Islamic world (Moghaddam...a lack of access to education or gainful employment, and difficulty with social integration or perceived discrimination . Pull factors are described...structures that might cause issues, such as unemployment, discrimination and marginalization which fuel radicalization, and socio-cultural factors that

  2. Understanding Islam and Its Impact on Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Muslims are primarily Javanese from Indonesia , Indo-Pakistanis who came as indentured laborers more than 100 years ago, and the Afro-Surinamese. The... Indonesia . Additionally, Wahhabism has spawned so-called neo- Wahhabist movements such as the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, Pakistani Islamists, and... Javanese , Indo-Pakistan, or African heritage. They are not Shi’ites, but neither are they devout followers of Sunni Islam or Wahabbism despite

  3. Ignoring the Obvious: The Influence of Islamism in America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    relationship ’ between the US- Saudi governments. This relationship makes it a potentially ‘international incident’ to close the school without exhausting...concerns over Saudi efforts to spread the Wahabbi brand of Islam, US-Saudi relationship will prevail. There are many people who disagree with that...assessment and think that the official report on US-Saudi relationship and the Saudi influences in Wahabbism lacked forthright honesty. Ali Alyami

  4. Look Out Below: Islamic Terrorism in South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-13

    fundraising efforts in the TBA. Barakat, Hezbollah’s chief of military operations and chief fundraiser in the TBA, helped financially support Hezbollah...possession of false documents, distribution of contraband, fundraising for terrorists, and tax evasion. In May 2004, the Argentine judiciary...indisputable is that the TBA has been a robust fundraising source for Islamic terrorists and that there has been a significant terrorist presence in

  5. Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan. Its Characters and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    For although Pakistan was founded as a Muslim homeland, it was not at all the intention of its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , that the state should be...origin: "* The founder of Pakistan, Muhammad ’ Ali Jinnah , was of Isma’ili background; "* Yahya Khan, former Commander in Chief of the Army, and then...more interested in socialist policies or regional issues. Islam entered more fully into the political debate when former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali

  6. Reassessing the Barriers to Islamic Radicalization in Kazakhstan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    tried to convert nomadic people to Islam. The initial functions of mullahs and imams were to teach and enlighten those who wanted to learn vol...sionals” stem from the socio-economic injustice and poverty of the general population. The violence is a demonstration of the protest against the state...the distinction should al- ways be kept in mind . • Kazakhstan’s experience of domestic public violence in 2011-12 is unlikely to represent a

  7. Exploitable Vulnerabilities of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-12

    Iraq war depicted an arrow stretching from Iran, through Iraq’s Shiite holy city of Karbala to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. The image and its...during Iran-Iraq war Esfandiar Rahim-Mashaei -- Ahmadinejad’s Chief of Staff, established the IRGC intelligence unit in Kurdistan Hoseyn Dehgan...August 24, 2011). 68 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, chap. IV, art . 44, available at http://www.iranchamber.com/government/laws

  8. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  9. Pakistan Education Systems and the Radical Islamic Jihadist Ideology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    government and religious leaders continue to negotiate these measures. After the 8 October 2005 earthquake that devastated Pakistan, al -Qaida-linked...exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends.”19 An example, the Al Qaida Associated Movement--comprised of al Qaida and affiliated jihadists...jihadists, such as Osama Bin Laden and al -Qaida in general, believe that targeting and destroying the United States and the West is of primary

  10. Bayesian Islamic medication expert system (B-IMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Jung, Low Tan; Zaida, Shahnaz

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses on the development of an expert system (ES) that applies Bayesian Probability concept for Islamic Medication practice that is made available on web platform. This ES allows user to choose sickness such as headache, stomachache, toothache and etc that he/she may have and list of symptoms related to the sickness will appear for the user to choose. Once symptom(s) is/are chosen the diagnosis is being carried out to suggest percentage of possible specific sickness such as classic migraine, common migraine, tension headache and etc if headache was chosen. This diagnosis is being carried out using Bayes' Theorem and the ES will suggest the treatments or therapy that he/she needs to perform in reference to Muslim Holy Quran and Hadith. This ES was developed to preserve Islamic medication and to create awareness among the young generation and make it accessible at anytime and anywhere and to save users time to meet Islamic Medication practitioners who are not easily available in Malaysia and other parts of the world.

  11. Islam, brain death, and transplantation: culture, faith, and jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Richard; AlGhamdi, Hanan Mesfer Saad; Peters, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A significant gap exists between availability of organs for transplant and patients with end-stage organ failure for whom organ transplantation is the last treatment option. Reasons for this mismatch include inadequate approach to potential donor families and donor loss as a result of refractory cardiopulmonary instability during and after brainstem herniation. Other reasons include inadequate cultural competence and sensitivity when communicating with potential donor families. Clinicians may not have an understanding of the cultural and religious perspectives of Muslim families of critically ill patients who may be approached about brain death and organ donation. This review analyzes Islamic cultural and religious perspectives on organ donation, transplantation, and brain death, including faith-based directives from Islamic religious authorities, definitions of death in Islam, and communication strategies when discussing brain death and organ donation with Muslim families. Optimal family care and communication are highlighted using case studies and backgrounds illustrating barriers and approaches with Muslim families in the United States and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that can improve cultural competence and family care as well as increase organ availability within the Muslim population and beyond.

  12. Discourses on sex differences in medieval scholarly Islamic thought.

    PubMed

    Gadelrab, Sherry Sayed

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how medical authorities in medieval Islamic society understood and analyzed Greek authorities on the differences between men and women and their mutual contributions to the process of reproduction. As this research illustrates, such thinkers' interpretations of sex differences did not form a consistent corpus, and were in fact complex and divergent, reflecting, and contributing to, the social and cultural constructs of gender taken up by European authors in the Middle Ages. While some scholars have argued for a "one sex" view of human beings in the medieval period, a close reading of Islamic medical authors shows that the plurality and complexity of ideas about sex differences and the acceptance of the flexibility of barriers between the sexes make it difficult to assume that the biological knowledge about sex differences formed a unitary ideological foundation for a system of gender hierarchy. It is clear, however, that whatever their differences, medieval Islamic discussions of sex differences implicitly or explicitly emphasized the inferiority of the female body.

  13. Islamic Medicine and Evolutionary Medicine: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings’ susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration. PMID:23864992

  14. An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkın, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study outlines the perceptions of four Muslim graduate students regarding Islam and its influence on their approach to the teaching and learning of science. All of the four interviewees were enrolled in science related programmes at a Midwestern US university. The interview responses were evaluated both within the frame of the Islamization of science and Ian Barbour's (When science meets religion: enemies, strangers, or partners?, Harper, San Francisco, 2000) classification, which is based on four categories; conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Interviews were semi-structured and the data analyzed using a framework of typological and interpretive approaches (Hatch in Doing qualitative research in education settings, State University of New York Press, New York, 2002). The interview findings show that Barbour's classification is a useful tool for categorizing perceptions. However, these perceptions may fall into more than one category. A surprising side effect was the misinterpretation and misuse of constructivism as well as the notion of a scientific theory as ways to negate the theory of evolution, and promote the teaching of intelligent design. These misinterpretations and misuses occur because there is the belief that the interaction between science and religion in daily life is considered part of the cultural setting in Islamic countries, which is what students bring to the table, as well as the notion that reality can only be found in the Qur'an.

  15. My Qarina, my self: The homoerotic as Islamic feminism in Alifa Rifaat's "My World of the Unknown".

    PubMed

    Abdo, Diya M

    2012-01-01

    In Alifa Rifaat's "My World of the Unknown," the female narrator's homoerotic encounter with a djinn functions as a radical brand of Islamic feminism that challenges Arabo-Islamic cultural perceptions of female sexuality as threatening. Rifaat reinterprets Islamic teachings and Arabic folklore to show how women's sexuality must be revered rather than feared.

  16. 78 FR 32000 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group aka Groupe Islamique...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Matter of the Designation of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group aka Groupe Islamique Combattant... conclude that the circumstances that were the basis for the designation of Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group... designation. Therefore, I hereby determine that the designation of the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group as...

  17. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…

  18. Lineage and the rights of cloned child in the islamic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Moeinifar, Mohaddeseh; Ardebeli, Faezeh Azimzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins' relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration.

  19. Lineage and the Rights of Cloned Child in the Islamic Jurisprudence

    PubMed Central

    Moeinifar, Mohaddeseh; Ardebeli, Faezeh Azimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins’ relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration. PMID:23926545

  20. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  1. Educating about Islam and Learning about Self: An Approach for Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that the emergence of the era of terrorism, fuelled in part by a form of Wahhabist Islam, impels a religious education imperative of improving understanding about Islam, both in terms of the historical roots with Judaism and Christianity, as well as ongoing conflict between the three traditions. On this basis, this article…

  2. On the Right Track? Islamic Schools in the Netherlands after an Era of Turmoil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands currently has 43 Islamic primary schools. Each is fully subsidised by the government. Yet since the first school was established in 1988 Islamic schools have been confronted with obstacles by the Ministry of Education, bad press and increasingly strict state supervision. Under pressure to improve their image, since 2008 Dutch…

  3. The Sunni and Shia Schism: Religion, Islamic Politics, and Why Americans Need to Know the Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that most American citizens know little about Islam and, specifically, the major differences between Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims and why this matters to the United States. Although the two major Islamic factions share many common core beliefs and practices, there are some significant religious and political differences…

  4. The Influence of Islam on AIDS Prevention among Senegalese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sarah S.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants'…

  5. Islamic Fatalism and the Clash of Civilizations: An Appraisal of a Contentious and Dubious Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will address the question of Islamic fatalism. Survey data will be used to assess Samuel P. Huntington's controversial "Clash of Civilizations" thesis and its emphasis on fatalism as an inherent characteristic of Islamic religion. The concept of fatalism is expanded and theorized as a function of both structural and…

  6. The Training of Imams and Teachers for Islamic Education in Europe. Wiener Islamstudien. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ednan, Ed.; Windisch, Zsofia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Following 9/11 and the growth of religiously legitimated violence in Islamic countries, the focus of public discussion moved to imams and teachers of religion as actors supporting Muslim isolation and the lack of willingness to integrate--imams became central figures in the debate on Islam. With great enthusiasm, politicians discovered them to be…

  7. Islam in Social Studies Education: What We Should Teach Secondary Students and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important and difficult challenges facing social studies educators, particularly world history teachers, concerns the role of Islam--one of the world's fastest growing and most dynamic religions--in historical and contemporary domestic and international affairs. What teachers choose to teach about Islam and how they present it are…

  8. Islamic Pedagogy and Embodiment: An Anthropological Study of a British Madrasah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This anthropological study of a higher education British Madrasah was undertaken to increase our awareness of the spectrum of sensory experiences that shape Islamic pedagogy. We started our anthropological study from an Islamic premise of the inseparable nature of knowledge and the sacred. Pedagogy is defined as not a matter of simple methods and…

  9. Reclaiming an Ideal: The Islamization of Education in the Southern Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes three distinct but interrelated currents in the process of Islamization: the evolution of the "integrated" madrasah, the growth of the Jema'at al Tabligh as a form of nonformal Islamic education for adults, and the effort by the Department of Education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao…

  10. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  11. Understanding Islam in the U.S. Classroom: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Kazi I.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides strategies that are recommended to elementary school teachers to help students in the U.S. understand Islam and its followers. It discusses the importance of cultural and historical studies in making students aware of the value of Islam to its followers. Three strategies described herein are: the concept of similarities, the…

  12. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  13. Islamic Education, Possibilities, Opportunities and Tensions: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    If Islam continues to evoke skepticism, as it has done most intensely since 9/11, then it stands to reason that its tenets and education are viewed with equal mistrust, and as will be highlighted in this special issue, equal misunderstanding. The intention of this special edition is neither to counter the accusations Islam stands accused of, nor…

  14. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  15. Islam and Muslims in U.S. Public Schools since September 11, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2011-01-01

    While much research has considered the way Muslims are represented in the mass media in recent years, there has been little exploration of the way Muslims and Islam are discussed in U.S. public schools. This article considers how Muslims and Islam are represented in educational standards, textbooks, and supplementary resources, with an eye to the…

  16. Discourses in Islamic Educational Theory in the Light of Texts and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahmar, Fella

    2011-01-01

    The historical variety, richness and complexity of Islamic educational tradition raise questions concerning the underlying reasons for this diversity. It therefore becomes important to explore the debates that British Islamic schools draw upon to understand their educational aims as well as any future directions that they may take. This paper has…

  17. Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings. Global Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2011-01-01

    "Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings" argues that "madaris" (Muslim schools) cannot exclusively be held responsible for the cultivation of extremism. Islamic education can most appropriately be framed according to three interrelated concepts: "tarbiyyah" (rearing or nurturing), "ta'lim"…

  18. Role of Islamic Science Textbooks and Teaching Methods in Arab Schools and Universities and Ideological Extremism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Alkarim

    2014-01-01

    The study concludes that most Islamic sciences courses in schools and universities adopt a dogmatic or indoctrinatory approach combined with little room for dialogue and discussion. The study recommends reconsidering Islamic science textbooks through including additional higher-order thinking skills and reconsidering Sharia faculties' syllabi.

  19. English as an Islamic Language: A Case Study of Pakistani English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahboob, Ahmar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will explore the nature of English as it is used in one Muslim country and argue that, far from being a colonizing language, English used in Pakistan reflects Islamic values and embodies South Asian Islamic sensitivities. Through analysis of the current discourses on the politics of the English language and a study of Pakistani…

  20. Reading Trends and Perceptions Towards Islamic English Websites as Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairuddin, Zurina; Shukry, Azimah Shurfa Mohammed; Sani, Nurshafawati Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a study of the reading trends and perceptions of Muslim Malaysian undergraduate students towards Islamic English websites as pedagogical materials in English language classrooms. Data was collected through a set of questionnaires to 180 students from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) and Universiti Sultan…

  1. Promoting Learning Environment among the Islamic School Principals in the State of Pahang, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Jamelaa Bibi; Kassim, Jainabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the learning environment in schools that influence teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: A study was conducted using the Instructional Leadership Model to compare principal practices of instructional leaders in the Islamic Religious Secondary Schools and Islamic Religious Schools…

  2. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  3. The right of women in property sharing in Bangladesh: Can the islamic inheritance system eliminate discrimination?

    PubMed

    Khan, Issa; Abdullah, Md Faruk; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to discover the best solution for women's property sharing between Islamic and current social practices in Bangladesh. A qualitative method has been adopted to achieve this goal. It is found that the majority of the women are marginalised from their property in the social practice. On the other hand, in the Islamic solution, the property is fixed for all classes of women and is based on a property sharing system called fara'id that takes into account the roles and responsibilities of man and woman in the society. Men are responsible for providing maintenance to their wives and children. Men in Islamic society should bear expenditure related to marriage. The research concludes that the Islamic solution is fair and ensures just property sharing rights for women. It suggests that the Islamic solution for property sharing should be implemented to empower women in Bangladesh.

  4. Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Nadir, Aneesah

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little information exists on the provision of culturally competent services to Muslims, in spite of the growing presence of this population in the United States. Consequently, the authors discuss a number of therapeutic approaches in light of their level of congruence with common Islamic values. Psychodynamic approaches, for example, may not be as congruent as cognitive approaches. Although cognitive therapy may be relatively consistent with Islamic values, the self-statements that are central to this modality are often packaged in secular terminology that is inconsistent with Islamic norms. To provide culturally relevant services, practitioners must unwrap the secular terminology used to express the underlying therapeutic precepts and then repackage the precepts in terminology that reflects Islamic teaching. The authors conclude by offering a number of examples to illustrate the construction of statements that reflect Islamic values.

  5. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  6. 2010 Army Modernization Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    details outlined in Chapter 4 will describe the following modernization objectives: With night vision goggles our Soldiers “own the night .” 10 2010 ARMY...modern armor-capable truck versus a non-armor capable truck? What percentage of our Night Vision Devices must be the most modern variant? The Army...Soldier weapons sight and sensors so they operate within the GSS framework. Systems such as the Digital Enhanced Night Vision Goggle could allow

  7. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  8. The Spread of Islamic Extremism in the Republic of Macedonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2003, 90. 8 Mark Juergensmeyer, “Religion as a Cause of Terrorism,” in the Roots of Terrorism, ed. Louise...Genus and Species,” Strong Religion: The Rise of Fundamentalism around the World, Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2003, 90. 18 Almond, Appleby... Shepard , “Sayyid Qutb’s Doctrine of Jahiliyya,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 35 (2003): 526–528. 44 Bale, “Islamism,” 297. 26 Even

  9. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into how to use

  10. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  11. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  12. Pashtun Social Structure: Cultural Perceptions and Segmentary Lineage Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-03

    Mongolian  dynasties.  These  dynasties  tried  to  rule   only   the   most...the  mid   eighteenth  century,  every  dynasty  that  ruled  in  the  region  was  either  of   Turko-­‐ Mongolian ...origin,   or   relied  on  a  military   that  was  dominated  by   Turko-­‐ Mongolian  peoples.  When  Afghanistan

  13. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  14. Islam and the healthcare environment: designing patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Kopec, D A K; Han, Li

    2008-01-01

    Islam and the Muslim population are often the source of much misunderstanding and media-influenced misconceptions. Muslim patients who enter the healthcare environment are often weak and likely to experience feelings of vulnerability. Because of the complex and interwoven nature of culture and religion in a person's identity, it is important to consider patient belief systems and values when designing a patient's immediate environment. Through an exploration of literature related to culture and diversity and the beliefs and value system of the Muslim population, the authors were able to identify flexible design initiatives that could accommodate an array of cultural and spiritual practices. Islam and the Muslim population were chosen as the points of reference for this study because of the strong influence of the religion on the culture, and because of the many nuances that differ from the dominant culture within the United States. From these points of reference, a hypothetical design was developed for a patient room that considers differing notions of privacy, alternatives for cultural and religious practices, and ways to include symbolic meaning derived from attributes such as color.

  15. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  16. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  17. Advance medical directives: a proposed new approach and terminology from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Baharoon, Salim; Al Sayyari, Abdullah; Al-Ahmad, Ghiath

    2013-05-01

    Advance directives are specific competent consumers' wishes about future medical plans in the event that they become incompetent. Awareness of a patient's autonomy particularly, in relation to their right to refuse or withdraw treatment, a right for the patient to die from natural causes and interest in end of life issues were among the main reasons for developing and legalizing advance medical directives in developed countries. However, in many circumstances cultural and religious aspects are among many factors that can hamper implementation of advance directives. Islam and Muslims in general have a good understanding of death and dying. Islam allows the withholding or withdrawal of treatments in some cases where the intervention is considered futile. However, there is lack of literature and debate about such issues from an Islamic point of view. This article provides the Islamic perspective with regards to advance medical directive with the hope that it will generate more thoughts and evoke further discussion on this important topic.

  18. GPS Status and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    11 GPS IIA • 12 GPS IIR • 7 GPS IIR-M • 4 additional satellites in residual status • 1 additional IIR-M waiting to be set healthy • Global GPS ...AEP) Next Generation Control Segment (OCX) Legacy Control System 7 GPS Modernization – Ground • Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) • Transitioned in 2007...Modern distributed system replaced 1970’s mainframes • Increased capacity for monitoring of GPS signals • Increased worldwide commanding

  19. Saudi Arabia: Islamic Threat, Political Reform, and the Global War on Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    and Diasporic Studies, 2005). She recently co-authored Islamic Rulings on Warfare, an SSI monograph, with Youssef El-Enein. Dr. Zuhur holds a B.A...Prior to the latest wave of violence in the Kingdom and infl amed feelings in both countries, those writing on security issues predicted a continuing...mainstream Sunni Islam. The writings of ibn `Abd al-Wahhab were very sparse, limited to the booklet, Kitab al-Tawhid (Book of Unicity). A key to his

  20. Relative chronology of violent and nonviolent themes in early Christian and Islamic historical documents.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2004-06-01

    Early Islamic and Christian documents were divided into early and late periods chronologically and then compared to Morgan-Miller's 2002 themes of violence and nonviolence. No significant relationship between chronology and violence themes was found for the Christian documents but for the Islamic documents a significant relationship was detected, with later documents (those revealed at Madinah) reporting a higher percentage of violent and a lower percentage of nonviolent themes than those revealed earlier (at Mecca).

  1. Examining the Religious Strands of Islamic Terrorists to Enhance U.S. Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    today in dealing with the political Islam. He referenced the stand Russia took with America when President Ronald Reagan took office, and that he... Reagan opposed and vowed to defeat. Is there a willingness to recognize the Islamic ideology in today‟s society? Is there any one or a...several operational deployments, to Iraq, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf, Egypt, and Grenada . He most recently served as the special assistant to the

  2. Islamic Radicalization in the United States. New Trends and a Proposed Methodology for Disruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Islamic Radicalization in the United States. New Trends and a Proposed...arrested for al-Qaeda- related terrorism. 3 This paper reviewed the timeline of how a suspected homegrown terrorist moves quickly from adopting extremist...Islamic extremism. We can’t assume we’ve got months and years”[to apprehend them].5 3 Ibid. 4

  3. Islamic Insurgency and Transnational Terrorism in Thailand: Analysis and Recommended Solution Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Malaysian Islamic heritage . Underdevelopment, poverty, drug use, corrupt government officials, unemployment, violence, and lack of attention from the...Thailand’s Buddhist majority, the Muslim culture in the provinces of the far south is closely tied to its Malaysian Islamic heritage ...scale terrorist attacks of JI began with the bombing of the Bali nightclub that left 202 dead, followed by the 2003 bombing of the J.W. Marriott Hotel

  4. Abandoned Ideology: How the Iranian Revolution Failed Islamic Economics and Embraced Populism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Iranian revolution had an economic motivation. To the Islamist, it is not about the price of watermelons .14 The motivations that led to the rise of...man unconcerned with the price of watermelons was similarly unconcerned with the economic factors affecting the price of the watermelon in the first...about the price of watermelons .41 The motivations that led to the rise of Islamism in general also affected the growth of Islamic economics. As

  5. A Cause for Concern The Spread of Militant Islam in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-11

    actors have played in the current uptick in militant Islam in East Africa. Historic turmoil and instability in East Africa have served as catalysts for...political alienation and the perception of underrepresentation by Muslims in government.14 This perception in Tanzania has historically applied...Islam in East Africa.” 6 development—within the last 30 years—in a region that has long-standing historical ties to the Arab world.18 These

  6. The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: Radical Islamic Ideology in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Thailand and the Philippines are the most active in the region, but the analysis in this volume shows that they are least influenced by global jihadi...ideology. Further analysis of those attacks from the WITS database shows there are Islamic connections to 4% (144) of attacks in Thailand, 9% (95...Malaysia has a complicated relationship with Islamism in both the social and political spheres. His analysis concludes that Malaysia may continue to

  7. The Word ("Qara'a") (Read) in the Holy Koran and Pre-Islamic Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Deeky, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This research deals with the verb "qara'a" (read) and with what is derived from or built on in Qur'an and pre Islam poetry. The research stems from the assumption that this item (read) did not appear in pre-Islam Arabic in the meaning agreed upon regarding the concept of reading a written text, and what is stated in the Qur'an regarding…

  8. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  9. Scrupulosity and obsessive compulsive disorder: the cognitive perspective in Islamic sources.

    PubMed

    Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Karaca, Sitki; Keskin, Ibrahim

    2014-02-01

    A moral/religious subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder has been termed as scrupulosity by mental health professionals. Since ultimate feared consequence in scrupulous individuals is religious or moral in nature, it also presents interesting and difficult issue for religious authorities. This article focuses on various aspects of scrupulosity that have until now been poorly conceptualized in Islamic world and provides a conceptual cognitive framework and analysis of scrupulosity according to Islamic sources.

  10. The Caliphates Global Workforce: An Inside Look at the Islamic States Foreign Fighter Paper Trail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    The Caliphate’s Global Workforce: An Inside Look at the Islamic State’s Foreign Fighter Paper Trail Brian Dodwell Daniel Milton Don Rassler The...Caliphate’s Global Workforce: An Inside Look at the Islamic State’s Foreign Fighter Paper Trail Brian Dodwell Daniel Milton Don Rassler Combating...port provides a window into the organization’s global workforce, revealing information about foreign fighters’ countries of origin, citizenship

  11. State Capacity and Resistance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Islamist theocracy, and President Hamid Karzai’s democratic Islamic Republic. Charles Tilly’s Four State Activities model is used to subjectively...State- making, State building, United Islamic Front, Northern Alliance, Pashtun 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...democratic Islamic Republic. Charles Tilly’s Four State Activities model is used to subjectively determine each regime’s relative degree of state

  12. Pre-Islamic Religious Monuments in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, César

    I review data on the orientations of pre-Islamic religious monuments in North Africa dating from the 5th century BC to the 7th century AD and covering most of the present-day Maghreb, from Western Libya to Morocco. A sample of more than 100 Roman temples shows a rather random orientation pattern except for those dedicated to Saturn, which follow a clear relation to the rising sun or moon. This group of temples were built over previous sanctuaries dedicated to the Punic god Baal Hammon. In fact, a sample of genuine Punic sanctuaries presents a similar orientation pattern. I also discuss evidence of remarkable astronomical markers found in several of the temples. Christian churches of this area, among the earliest ones erected in the Mediterranean, also show a clear lunisolar orientation pattern.

  13. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Walaa M.; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment. PMID:23858256

  14. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria.

  15. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Walaa M; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment.

  16. Islamic perspective on human cloning and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Larijani, B; Zahedi, F

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hope for treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has been accompanied by enormous questions. Currently, cloning is a matter of public discussion. It is rare that a field of science causes debate and challenge not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. One important concern is religious arguments. Various religions have different attitudes toward the morality of these subjects; even within a particular religious tradition there is a diversity of opinions. The following article briefly reviews Islamic perspectives about reproductive/therapeutic cloning and stem cell research. The majority of Muslim jurists distinguish between reproductive and therapeutic cloning. The moral status of the human embryo, the most sensitive and disputed point in this debate, is also discussed according to Holy Quran teachings.

  17. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  18. Naming to empower: lesbianism in the Arab Islamicate world today.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the proliferation of newly coined Arabic words to speak about LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and ally) identities, this article interrogates the facile imitation of Western labels and questions their usefulness in the context of Arab societies and cultures. It demonstrates that the assumptions that underlie the creation of new wordlists overlook and ultimately erase the very rich tradition on alternative sexual practices that has been prominent in the Islamicate world at least since the ninth century. Salvaging this tradition and its accompanying terminology on homosexuality challenges the claim that homosexuality is a Western importation, and renders the recourse to English categories superfluous. Moreover, uncovering the forgotten Arabic cultural material on alternative sexualities offers contemporary Arab gays and lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.

  19. The politics of engagement between Islam and the secular state: ambivalences of 'civil society'.

    PubMed

    Turam, Berna

    2004-06-01

    The paper reveals contemporary transformations of the interaction between Islam and secular states from opposition to engagement. In-depth ethnographic evidence challenges the predominant juxtaposition of Islam against the secular state. Following micro-sites of interaction between the Gülen movement and the state from Turkey to Kazakhstan, my fieldwork revealed a continuum of engagements between them. The paper analyses the engagements ranging from contestation and negotiation to co-operation. The case illustrates the extent to which scholarly interest in opposition and clash has left a wide-ranging variety of state-Islam interaction understudied with regard to civil society. It also reveals the conditions under which effective Islamic horizontal organizations have provided the platforms of vertical engagements with the secular states. The major argument of the paper is that both civil and uncivil outcomes in the Muslim world are primarily shaped by the nature of state-Islam interaction. The evidence suggests that the key to understanding the relationship between Islam and civil society is the state.

  20. Islam, medicine, and Arab-Muslim refugee health in America after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Serour, Gamal I

    2011-09-03

    Islam is the world's second largest religion, representing nearly a quarter of the global population. Here, we assess how Islam as a religious system shapes medical practice, and how Muslims view and experience medical care. Islam has generally encouraged the use of science and biomedicine for the alleviation of suffering, with Islamic authorities having a crucial supportive role. Muslim patients are encouraged to seek medical solutions to their health problems. For example, Muslim couples who are infertile throughout the world are permitted to use assisted reproductive technologies. We focus on the USA, assessing how Islamic attitudes toward medicine influence Muslims' engagement with the US health-care system. Nowadays, the Arab-Muslim population is one of the fastest growing ethnic-minority populations in the USA. However, since Sept 11, 2001, Arab-Muslim patients--and particularly the growing Iraqi refugee population--face huge challenges in seeking and receiving medical care, including care that is judged to be religiously appropriate. We assess some of the barriers to care--ie, poverty, language, and discrimination. Arab-Muslim patients' religious concerns also suggest the need for cultural competence and sensitivity on the part of health-care practitioners. Here, we emphasise how Islamic conventions might affect clinical care, and make recommendations to improve health-care access and services for Arab-Muslim refugees and immigrants, and Muslim patients in general.

  1. Nursing in Islamic thought: Reflection on application nursing metaparadigm concept: A philosophical inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Fariba; Alimohammadi, Nasroolah; Mohammadi, Esa; Akbarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metaparadigm of nursing is one of the nursing discipline challenges of the present century, which should take into consideration the diversity of different cultures and viewpoints. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to evolve the concept of “nursing” (one of the concepts in nursing metaparadigm) on the basis of the Islamic scholars’ view. In this philosophical inquiry, we sought to clarify the concept of nursing according to the ideas derived from the Islamic scholars’ view. To achieve the research objectives, Islamic texts were studied and analyzed based on the criteria of concept anatomy (definition, attributes/characteristics, and boundaries). Results: Based on Morse's criteria, with regard to Islamic thought, the concept of nursing in scientific literature is an immature concept. In Islamic viewpoint, human is a unique and integrated reality that implies a holistic paradigm in nursing theories. Since in Islamic thought human is described precisely and delicately, nursing concept can be delineated more clearly and can be helpful in enhancing and producing nursing clinical knowledge, nursing care, and nursing philosophy, specially clarifying holistic nursing. Conclusion: According to the criteria of concept anatomy, nursing is caring for and fulfilling the needs of patients, and it believes that nursing has a holistic paradigm and includes all of the dimensions and aspects of human beings. PMID:24403921

  2. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-06

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief Matthew C. Weed Analyst in...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: In Brief Congressional Research Service Contents The

  3. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-21

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief Matthew C. Weed Analyst in...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: In Brief Congressional Research Service Contents The

  4. Diagnosis through rosary and sand: Islamic elements in the healing custom of the Yoruba (Nigeria).

    PubMed

    Sanni, Amidu

    2002-01-01

    The inhabitants of south western Nigeria are known as the Yoruba. Their earliest contact with Islam goes back to the 14th century, but it was only in the 19th century that the faith got firmly established, as Islamic mores and intellectual culture which included medical tradition - became well entrenched. Before the advent of Islam, diagnosis of ailments, witchcraft attacks etc., was carried out through a traditional procedure which involved the use of palm kernels, cowries, the latter similar to "bone throwing" among the Zulu of South Africa. This traditional system has since lost position to divination with rosary (subha) and sand (khatt al-raml), particularly among Muslims. This development notwithstanding, elements of the indigenous medical tradition medical tradition have been incorporated into the Islamic tradition. Inam Ahmad al-Buni (d.622.H) remains a point of reference among Yorouba Muslim healers and standard works on divination with sand, for example, Ahmad al-Afandi's (fl.1290 A.H.) ilm al-raml and al-Adhami's Mizan al-adl fi masqasis ahkam al-raml (1322.A.H.) continue to be popular. Nevertheless, the native Muslim diviners have developed their own literature for this and for divination with rosary, which betrays the level of their linguistic competence as well as the degree of acculturation and hybridization of indigenous and Islamic elements in a healing custom. This paper will examine how traditional elements had been grafted on Islamic divination, and how the practitioners continue to resolve the inherent contradictions between the two phenomena in their dual role as votaries of the Islamic faith and social workers in a medical tradition with a strong religious underpinning.

  5. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  6. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bockris, J.M.; Conway, B.E.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: perspectives in electrochemical physics; modern state of double layer study of solid metals; photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical catalysis; electron transfer reactions on oxide-covered metal electrodes; and interfacial electrostatics and electrodynamics in disperse systems.

  7. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  8. Deconstructing Modern Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses modern educational technology, including postmodernism; deconstruction; the Shannon-Weaver Model for telecommunication apparatus and the epistemology of educational technology; the systems approach; and possible demands of postmodern educational technology, including technoscience, instructional design issues, and cultural aspects.…

  9. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  10. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  11. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  12. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  13. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  14. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  15. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  16. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  17. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  18. Modern School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2008-01-01

    There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

  19. Introducing Values of Peace Education in Quranic Schools in Western Africa: Advantages and Challenges of the Islamic Peace-Building Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nimer, Mohammed; Nasser, Ilham; Ouboulahcen, Seddik

    2016-01-01

    Quranic schools (QS) play a central role in the education system in the Islamic world. Despite their relatively small numbers, QS teachers play a major role in introducing Islamic values to the public. Thus, working with QS becomes a key strategy in influencing local Islamic discourse. This article introduces a case study of a program integrating…

  20. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Other Forms of Euthanasia in Islamic Spiritual Care.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Nazila

    2015-12-01

    The muteness in the Qur'an about suicide due to intolerable pain and a firm opposition to suicide in the hadith literature formed a strong opinion among Muslims that neither repentance nor the suffering of the person can remove the sin of suicide or mercy 'killing' (al-qatl al-rahim), even if these acts are committed with the purpose of relieving suffering and pain. Some interpretations of the Islamic sources even give advantage to murderers as opposed to people who commit suicide because the murderers, at least, may have opportunity to repent for their sin. However, people who commit suicide are 'labeled' for losing faith in the afterlife without a chance to repent for their act. This paper claims that Islamic spiritual care can help people make decisions that may impact patients, family members, health care givers and the whole community by responding to questions such as 'What is the Islamic view on death?', 'What is the Islamic response to physician-assisted suicide and other forms of euthanasia?', 'What are the religious and moral underpinnings of these responses in Islam?'

  1. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Houchang D

    2015-04-01

    During the Sassanid Empire in Persia (226-652 AD), there was a renaissance of humanistic sciences, including medicine, in the city of Gondi-Shapur. When the Islamic center of power moved to Baghdad in about 750 AD, physicians of Gondi-Shapur, including the dean of the medical school (a Nestorian Christian), gradually moved to Baghdad constructing hospitals and medical schools. Aided by the Persian and Nestorian Christians, the Islamic civilization ushered in what is considered to be the Golden Age of Islam from the 8th to 13th century AD. During this period, there were remarkable achievements in humanistic sciences including medicine by many physicians/authors whose medical textbooks were used for centuries in burgeoning medical schools in Europe. The medical texts written during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine contain sections and chapters about the clinical conditions, diseases and medical care of children. It was during this era that the first treatise was written on the diseases of children and their care. This essay will describe, in brief, the writings about the conditions and diseases of children and their medical care, by three prominent Persian physicians of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine: 1) Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD); 2) Ali ibn-al-Abbas al-Majusi or Haly Abbas (949-994 AD); and 3)  Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD).

  2. Concept of Collaboration from the Islamic Perspective: The View Points for Health Providers.

    PubMed

    Irajpour, Alireza; Ghaljaei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Collaboration involves direct and open communication and respect for different perspectives. In particular, religious literature has many references to collaboration. This study is a report of knowledge synthesis based on qualitative systematic review by content analysis. The study surveys the concept of collaboration from the Islamic point of view and intends to answer the question, 'Does the Quran deal with the use of collaboration in human activities?' This study was conducted using electronic documents from websites related to Islamic and Quran sciences, such as Howzah.net, Nashriat.ir, Tebyan.net and Google Scholar from 1950 until 2013 by focusing on the keywords, collaboration and Islam, and then retrieving the Islamic document (Quran and Hadith). The language in which the search was conducted was English and Persian. Nearly, 28 articles and 72 books related to this topic were found and after applying the search criteria, only 13% of the references were found to be applicable. In the Quran, collaboration is equivalent to Taavon, and Muslims are requested to collaborate in their affairs and never collaborate with each other for illegal affairs. Islam asserts that everyone requires social relationship in their life. God has enacted mutual rights for people and meeting these requirements is only possible through collaboration and respecting mutual rights.

  3. What do Islamic institutional fatwas say about medical and research confidentiality and breach of confidentiality?

    PubMed

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Dierickx, Kris

    2012-08-01

    Protecting confidentiality is an essential value in all human relationships, no less in medical practice and research.(1) Doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships are built on trust and on the understanding those patients' secrets will not be disclosed.(2) However, this confidentiality can be breached in some situations where it is necessary to meet a strong conflicting duty.(3) Confidentiality, in a general sense, has received much interest in Islamic resources including the Qur'an, Sunnah and juristic writings. However, medical and research confidentiality have not been explored deeply. There are few fatwas about the issue, despite an increased effort by both individuals and Islamic medical organizations to use these institutional fatwas in their research. Infringements on confidentiality make up a significant portion of institutional fatwas, yet they have never been thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the efforts of organizations and authors in this regard still require further exploration, especially on the issue of research confidentiality. In this article, we explore medical and research confidentiality and potential conflicts with this practice as a result of fatwas released by international, regional, and national Islamic Sunni juristic councils. We discuss how these fatwas affect research and publication by Muslim doctors, researchers, and Islamic medical organizations. We argue that more specialized fatwas are needed to clarify Islamic juristic views about medical and research confidentiality, especially the circumstances in which infringements on this confidentiality are justified.

  4. Islam, religiosity, and immigrant political action in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Just, Aida; Sandovici, Maria Elena; Listhaug, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The issues of migration and immigrant political integration in western democracies have become increasingly intertwined with debates on religion, particularly Islam. To date, however, we have surprisingly little systematic research on how religious beliefs are related to immigrants' political engagement. In this study, we argue that religion has a capacity to mobilize immigrants politically but the strength of this relationship depends on immigrant generation, religiosity, and the type of religion. Using survey data collected as part of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2010 in 18 West European democracies, our analyses reveal that religion is indeed linked to political engagement of immigrants in a complex way: while belonging to a religion is generally associated with less political participation, exposure to religious institutions appears to have the opposite effect. Moreover, we find that, compared to foreign-born Muslims, second-generation Muslim immigrants are not only more religious and more politically dissatisfied with their host countries, but also that religiosity is more strongly linked to their political engagement. This relationship, however, is limited to uninstitutionalized political action.

  5. "We Had To Hide We're Muslim": Ambient Fear, Islamic Schools and the Geographies of Race and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been virulent urban politics surrounding the provision of government-funded Islamic K-12 schooling in suburban south-western Sydney, Australia. In this paper, drawing on examples of local government opposition to Islamic schools, we argue that race and religion constitute contestations of urban space around the…

  6. 76 FR 72500 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) AGENCY... its connection to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) and is updating the entries on.... Newly Identified Vessel IRAN SHAHR-E-KORD Container Ship 29,870DWT 23,200GRT Iran flag (IRISL);...

  7. 76 FR 55167 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice... previously identified as property blocked because of its connection to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping... property of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) from OFAC's list of Specially...

  8. A case series study of the neurophysiological effects of altered states of mind during intense Islamic prayer.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew B; Wintering, Nancy A; Yaden, David B; Waldman, Mark R; Reddin, Janet; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a case series with preliminary data regarding the neurophysiological effects of specific prayer practices associated with the Islamic religion. Such practices, like other prayer practices, are likely associated with several coordinated cognitive activities and a complex pattern of brain physiology. However, there may also be changes specific to the goals of Islamic prayer which has, as its most fundamental concept, the surrendering of one's self to God. To evaluate Islamic prayer practices, we measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in three Islamic individuals while practicing two different types of Islamic prayer. In this case series, intense Islamic prayer practices generally showed decreased CBF in the prefrontal cortex and related frontal lobe structures, and the parietal lobes. However, there were also several regions that differed between the two types of prayer practices including increased CBF in the caudate nucleus, insula, thalamus, and globus pallidus. These patterns also appear distinct from concentrative techniques in which an individual focuses on a particular idea or object. It is hypothesized that the changes in brain activity may be associated with feelings of "surrender" and "connectedness with God" described to be experienced during these intense Islamic prayer practices. Overall, these results suggest that several coordinated cognitive processes occur during intense Islamic prayer. Methodological issues and implications of the results are also discussed.

  9. Islam in the Classroom: Teachers and Parents Alike Are Unsure about the Topic, but It's Never Been More Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Between recent threats by a Florida pastor to burn the Quran, the nation's ongoing presence in Afghanistan, and protests at the planned site for Park 51, an Islamic community center and mosque set to be built two blocks from the World Trade Center site, the topic of Islam is a tricky one, especially in K-12 schools, say many educators. For…

  10. Social Work and the House of Islam: Orienting Practitioners to the Beliefs and Values of Muslims in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the…

  11. The Essence of Education in a Secular Islamic Land: One Is as Free as He Is Responsible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duruhan, Kemal; Sad, Suleyman Nihat

    2006-01-01

    With Christianity and the Jewish religion, Islam has been the leading divine religion, accepted and obeyed by millions over a large geography since its declaration in the early 7th century. In this article, the authors shed light on some milestones in Islamic civilization, such as the golden age, the Abbasids, the Ottomans, and the rise of Western…

  12. Industrial technology modernization (ITM) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, M. R.

    The Industrial Technology Modernization (ITM) program represents an F-16 technology modernization program for subcontractors. The original F-16 Technology Modernization Program was conceived to establish a manufacturing environment which would minimize the manufacturing costs of F-16 aircraft. The success of this program led to the expansion of the concept of modernization to include key F-16 subcontractors. The phases in the ITM program structure are related to analysis and conceptual design, detailed factory modernization designs, and the implementation of factory medernization. Attention is also given to aspects of program documentation, and details regarding the contracting mechanics established for initiating subcontractor technology modernization.

  13. Army Equipment Modernization Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    transition , we must continue to provide the Nation with the best equipped, most modernized, and highly capable Army to prevail in any operational...interoperability. • Conducted the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOTE) for WIN-T Inc 2 provid- ing an initial on-the-move capability to BCTs and...the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) which supports the transition of Army Hellfire missile to a joint missile system and replaces the Marine

  14. Modernizing public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli throughout Europe highlights the need for modern and flexible public health laws to identify, control and treat infections and contamination that give significant concern for the health of the population. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 that adopt an all-hazards approach to threats to public health.

  15. Neanderthals and Modern Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2004-04-01

    The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

  16. Modern HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    AD-A131 163 MODERN HF COUNICATIONS(U) ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRANCE) d AARONS ET AL. MAY 83 AGARD...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD) AGARD Lecture...other NATO bodies and to member nation-, in connection with research aind development problems in the aerospace field: Plros iding assistance to

  17. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  18. A Synthesis of Spiritual Intelligence Themes from Islamic and Western Philosophical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hanefar, Shamsiah Banu; Sa'ari, Che Zarrina; Siraj, Saedah

    2016-12-01

    Spiritual intelligence is an emerging term that is widely discussed and accepted as one of the main components that addresses and solves many life problems. Nonetheless there is no specific study being done to synthesize the spiritual intelligence themes from Western and Islamic philosophical perspectives. This research aimed to identify common spiritual intelligence themes from these two perspectives and elucidated its contents by the view of two well-known Islamic scholars; al-Ghazali and Hasan Langgulung. Seven spiritual intelligence themes were identified through thematic analysis; meaning/purpose of life, consciousness, transcendence, spiritual resources, self-determination, reflection-soul purification and spiritual coping with obstacles. These findings will be the groundwork for centered theory of spiritual intelligence themes that synthesize the Islamic and Western philosophical perspectives. It is hoped that this study will contribute significantly to the development of valid and reliable spiritual intelligence themes beyond the social and cultural boundaries.

  19. Managing a Transnational Insurgency: The Islamic State of Iraq’s Paper Trail, 2005-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-15

    Islamic  State of Iraqʹs “Paper Trail,” 2005‐2010          Danielle F. Jung  Pat Ryan  Jacob N. Shapiro  Jon Wallace    15 December 2014...The Islamic State of Iraqʹs ’Paper Trail,’ 2005‐2010 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...one’s  opponent.  Developing such an understanding in dealing with the  Islamic  State (IS) is challenging.  Constraints  on  access  to  the  frontlines

  20. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  1. When the spirit leaves: Childhood death, grieving, and bereavement in Islam.

    PubMed

    Hedayat, Kamyar

    2006-12-01

    The death of a child has a profound and often long-lasting impact on families. The parent's relationship and their ability to bond with and take care of surviving children may be affected. It is important for healthcare workers to understand the dynamics associated with bereavement, especially when the family comes from a non-Western culture. Islam is one of the three most populous religions along with Christianity and Hinduism and the fastest growing religion in the United States but remains largely misunderstood. This paper seeks to explain what Islam is, who is a Muslim, where they live, and what they believe and practice. It also explains how Islamic beliefs contextualize the meaning of life and death for Muslims and how they are exhorted to grieve upon a child's death. Reading this paper will enable those who care for Muslim families to better attend to the social and emotional needs of Muslim parents and siblings after such a tragic event.

  2. Reproductive strategies and Islamic discourse: Malian migrants negotiate everyday life in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Carolyn F

    2006-03-01

    Approximately 37 thousand Malians currently reside in France as part of the West African diaspora. Primarily Muslim, both women and men confront challenges to their understandings of Islamic prohibitions and expectations, especially those addressing conjugal relations and reproduction. Biomedical policies generate marital conflicts and pose health dilemmas for women who face family and community pressures to reproduce but biomedical encouragement to limit childbearing. For many women, contraception represents a reprieve from repeated pregnancies and fatigue in spite of resistance from those who contest women's reproductive decisions as antithetical to Islam. French social workers play a particularly controversial role by introducing women to a discourse of women's rights that questions the authority of husbands and of religious doctrine. Women and men frame decisions and debate in diverse interpretations of Islam as they seek to manage the contradictions of everyday life and assert individual agency in the context of immigration and health politics.

  3. Abortion in Islamic Ethics, and How it is Perceived in Turkey: A Secular, Muslim Country.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-06-30

    Abortion is among the most widely discussed concepts of medical ethics. Since the well-known ethical theories have emerged from Western world, the position of Islamic ethics regarding main issues of medical ethics has been overlooked. Muslims constitute a considerable amount of world population. Turkish Republic is the only Muslim country ruled with secular democracy and one of the three Muslim countries where abortion is legalized. The first aim of this paper is to present discussions on abortion in Islamic ethics in the context of major ethical concepts; the legal status of the fetus, respect for life and the right not to be born. The second aim is to put forth Turkey's present legislation about abortion in the context of Islamic ethical and religious aspects.

  4. Dissolving the engineering moral dilemmas within the Islamic ethico-legal praxes.

    PubMed

    Solihu, Abdul Kabir Hussain; Ambali, Abdul Rauf

    2011-03-01

    The goal of responsible engineers is the creation of useful and safe technological products and commitment to public health, while respecting the autonomy of the clients and the public. Because engineers often face moral dilemma to resolve such issues, different engineers have chosen different course of actions depending on their respective moral value orientations. Islam provides a value-based mechanism rooted in the Maqasid al-Shari'ah (the objectives of Islamic law). This mechanism prioritizes some values over others and could help resolve the moral dilemmas faced in engineering. This paper introduces the Islamic interpretive-evaluative maxims to two core issues in engineering ethics: genetically modified foods and whistleblowing. The study aims primarily to provide problem-solving maxims within the Maqasid al-Shari'ah matrix through which such moral dilemmas in science and engineering could be studied and resolved.

  5. Effectiveness of Islamic spiritual care: foundations and practices of Muslim spiritual care givers.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Nazila

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the effectiveness of Islamic spiritual and religious care based on the ethnographic research with 15 Muslim spiritual caregivers. Six themes emerged from the interviews with fifteen Muslim spiritual caregivers. These six themes describe what the spiritual care providers see as effective Muslim spiritual care: (1) The most effective Muslim spiritual care is rooted in the Qur'an and the Hadith; (2) Effective Muslim spiritual care also means creating a caring relationship with the patient; (3) Muslim scholars are one of the important sources of effective Islamic spiritual care; (4) The insights of psychology and the social sciences are a necessary part of effective Islamic spiritual care; (5) There is a need for continuing education; (6). Styles of effective Muslim spiritual care are varied.

  6. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in

  7. Towards an Archaeology of Early Islamic Ports on the Western Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Against a background of developing research on Red Sea ports, a hypothetical model of the morphology of port towns during the early Islamic period is presented here. These places went through constant cycles of change as economic and political frameworks fluctuated. While their physical shape and form was strongly influenced by architectural features of the Islamic world their functionality was more aligned to commercial interaction. These were dynamic spaces where the daily life of their inhabitants was guided by trade, religion, weather and politics. The ports were intrinsically tied to the trade networks that connected Africa with Arabia and the broader Indian Ocean world.

  8. The influence of Islam on AIDS prevention among Senegalese university students.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sarah S

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants' religiosity scores explain their risky decisions associated with sex, condom use, and drug use. Participants with higher religiosity scores were more likely to abstain from sex. However, participants high in religiosity were not more likely to report that they did not use condoms when sexually active.

  9. The Group That Calls Itself a State: Understanding the Evolution and Challenges of the Islamic State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    funded and deep-rooted: How ISIS makes its millions,” CNN, 7 October 2014; Dilshad Hamid, “What is behind the Islamic State’s decision to reopen banks in...inevitably make the mistake of invading it,”23 but also because al-Zarqawi wanted to duplicate an episode in Islamic history, with Mosul at its center...to make this unilateral decision : it is possible that he was envious of JN’s stardom in the jihadist world, and he wanted to make it known to the

  10. Islamic Sunni Mainstream Opinions on Compensation to Unrelated Live Organ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

  11. A Historical Glance at the Arabo-Islamic Surgical Instruments During the Ages.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-02-17

    Arabo-Islamic physicians demonstrated exceptional skill and innovation in surgery, by having used the instruments introduced by ancient Greeks and Greco-Roman surgeons. In many cases they have manufactured their own innovative designs promoting further the success of the difficult surgical operations of their era. The surgical instruments and the surgeon's boxes, used to regularise the plethora of the metallic items, were decorated with fine designs, in order to depict the Arab civilisation. For the first time surgery became a separate medical art, while Arabo-Islamic medicine re-introduced ancient Greek and Byzantine surgery to the world.

  12. Acupuncture in modern society.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Kristin; Yi, Xiaobin

    2009-03-01

    For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.

  13. Foundations of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

  14. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  15. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  16. Learning From Our Past: How a Vietnam-Era Pacification Program Can Help Us Win in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    6 E. THESIS OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSION................................................7 II. LITERATURE REVIEW...have historically been a tribal society, putting their trust and faith in Islam instead of their government. Pashtuns are used to living their lives...the Classical Literature on Counterinsurgency and its Applicability to the Afghan Hybrid Insurgency, NUPI Report, Security in Practice no. 13, 2008, 20

  17. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  18. Essentialism and Islamic Theology of Homosexuality: A Critical Reflection on an Essentialist Epistemology Toward Same-Sex Desires and Acts in Islam.

    PubMed

    Alipour, M

    2017-01-31

    Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars have argued that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by the Qur'an and Islam. This article argues that an essentialist approach is not suitable to defend all manifestations of same-sex desires and acts, not only because it is narrow (as it excludes both bisexual Muslims and homosexual Muslims who believe that their sexual orientation is socially constructed), but also because it cannot even argue the case for the view of homosexuality as inborn. This article proposes to open up the debate beyond essentialism and constructivism, which both have their limitations, to accommodate a more inclusive and tolerant Islamic approach to same-sex desires and acts.

  19. Moving toward Culturally Competent Practice with Muslims: Modifying Cognitive Therapy with Islamic Tenets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Nadir, Aneesah

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little information exists on the provision of culturally competent services to Muslims, in spite of the growing presence of this population in the United States. Consequently, the authors discuss a number of therapeutic approaches in light of their level of congruence with common Islamic values. Psychodynamic approaches, for example,…

  20. Art Activities about Mesopotamia, Egypt and Islam. Hands-On Ancient People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Yvonne Y.

    This book features objects of the Mesopotamian, the Egyptian, and Islamic cultures. In exploring important contributions in ancient art, the book presents visuals that are interpretations of authentic artifacts, usually in museum collections, or illustrations from archaeological publications and articles. Historical items (n=55+) have been adapted…

  1. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  2. The Political History of Islam and its Role in Contemporary Arab Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    MAJOR SHAWN M. DAWLEY KENTUCKY AIR NATIONAL GUARD AY 09-10 Mentor and Oral Defense Committee Member: Dr. Douglas E...Streusand Approved: Date: Oral Defense Committee Member: Dr. Francis H. Marlo Approved: Date:     Report...Islam is Allah’s final revelation to mankind through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril) to the merchant Mohammed over two decades.1 Transmitted orally

  3. Science, Religion, and the Quest for Knowledge and Truth: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In…

  4. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  5. Advocacy and Involvement: The Role of Parents in Western Islamic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Muslim parents share many of the same ideals that other religious parents do when considering comprehensive religious schools. For those who see Islamic schooling as a viable option, supporters claim that these schools help to (1) preserve the culture and customs passed down from generation to generation, and (2) provide Muslim children with a…

  6. Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb. A History of Algeria 1952 - 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Islamic Salvation Army (AIS). The GIA responded by declaring war on the FIS/AIS alliance25. The GIA, led by Djamel Zitouni , united under the...guerilla organization. Zitouni expanded the organization by enlisting many former mujahedin fighters from the fields of Afghanistan. This

  7. Constructing an Alternative Pedagogy of Islam: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Muslims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Shanon

    2016-01-01

    There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…

  8. Arabic Language Teachers and Islamic Education Teachers' Awareness of Authentic Assessment in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Basheer, Akram; Ashraah, Mamdouh; Alsmadi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating Islamic Education teachers' and Arabic Language teachers' perceptions of authentic assessment in Jordan, and exploring the effects of factors related to teachers' specialization, gender and years of experience on their understanding of the implications of this kind of assessment. In this mixed-method research, a…

  9. Critical Development Exploration Based on the Islamic Education in Iranian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yousefy, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to do a critical development exploration based on the Islamic education in Iranian higher education. In this paper, logical analysis qualitative method was used. Through library studies, information was collected and analysis of the results was done. The information collecting tool was note taking and information was…

  10. Islam and the Textbooks. A Report of the American Textbook Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    How widely adopted world history textbooks cover Islam and the history of the Middle East is a timely and important subject to explore. In 2001 the American Textbook Council began a comprehensive review of middle school and high school world history textbooks. The Council relied on respected historians and standard sources, influential articles…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Implementation of Computer Technology in an American Islamic Private School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Mohammed M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…

  12. Graeco-Roman case histories and their influence on Medieval Islamic clinical accounts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Millan, C

    1999-04-01

    The medieval Islamic medical tradition was the direct heir of Classical and Hellenistic medicine thanks to an unprecedented movement of translation into Arabic, commentaries and systematizations of Greek scientific texts. In the process of assimilation, not only theoretical principles, but also literary models of presenting medical knowledge were adopted, amongst them the case history. Since the clinical account can be used as a tool for medical instruction as well as an instrument for professional self-promotion, this study seeks to investigate which purpose most motivated Islamic physicians, and to demonstrate the extent to which they were influenced by the stylistic patterns which served them as a model. This article comprises an analysis of the context, literary devices and purpose of case histories of the Epidemics, Rufus of Ephesos and Galen, and compares them with those by the tenth-century Islamic physician Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi. Author of the largest number of case histories preserved within the medieval Islamic medical literature, al-Razi's clinical records constitute an instrument with which to study and expand medical knowledge as well as providing useful material for students' medical training. Although al-Razi fused elements from the sources which served him as a model, he did not emulate Galen's use of the clinical history to assert himself in order to gain authority and prestige, but remained faithful to the Hippocratic essence.

  13. An Insight into Islamic Pedagogy at the University of University of al-Qarawiyyin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, A'ishah Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into teaching practice of the University of al-Qarawiyyin, Morocco, with a particular focus on Islamic pedagogy. Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted daily participant observations of "teaching circles" over a seven-month period. The participant observation was achieved from…

  14. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia.…

  15. Caring for patients of diverse religious traditions: Islam, a way of life for Muslims.

    PubMed

    Miklancie, Margaret A

    2007-06-01

    You have been a nurse for many years, yet you have never cared for a patient who practices Islam until now. You are assigned to a Muslim family for a home visit. What aspects about Muslim beliefs and way of life might be helpful to know before your visit?

  16. Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies: Arabic with English Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Religious Freedom, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the…

  17. Foundations of the Islamic State: Management, Money, and Terror in Iraq, 2005-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    report presents a comprehensive examination of the organization, territorial designs , management, personnel policies, and finances of AQI and ISI. The...the website of the Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) at West Point (www.ctc.usma.edu/isil-resources).The report also presents recommendations applicable to countering the Islamic State.

  18. Response to the American Textbook Council Report, "Islam and the Textbooks."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Susan

    The Council on Islamic Education (CIE) is a nonprofit resource organization comprised of a diverse body of scholars of history, education, religion, and related disciplines. CIE strives to improve the U.S. K-12 education system by fostering the cultivation of knowledge, critical thinking, and global awareness among the nation's young citizens. CIE…

  19. Religion and Social Hidden Curriculum--The Educative Influences of Christianity and Islam in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vincente; Llorent, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam, on the social functions of women based on the sacred texts of both, references to a hidden social curriculum in the history. Faced with the growing religious pluralism in contemporary societies, we believe that the debate on how the two main religions in…

  20. The Importance of Positive Self-Concept for Islamic Education Teachers as a Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Nurul Asiah Fasehah; Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Tamuri, Ab. Halim; Ja'afar, Noornajihan; Ghazali, Norzulaili Mohd; Amat, Robiatul Adawiyah Mohd; Raus, Norakyairee Mohd; Hassan, Syed Najihuddin Syed

    2013-01-01

    This study embarks from the great and huge responsibility of teachers nowadays especially the IRT (Islamic religious teachers). As the role model of students, they play an important task especially in producing the good Muslim character. Therefore, their job not only focuses on the content of subject but becomes wider in scope, more than other…

  1. Envisioning Multicultural Education Development in U.S. Islamic Schools in Light of Reviewed Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Atwani, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is first to provide a literature review that informs the race, class, and ethnic diversity among Muslims in the United States; then to show how this literature review may acknowledge developing multicultural education in Islamic schools in the United States. In the direction of these aims, the author reviews the…

  2. Model Debate for the Yellow Book Learning in Islamic Boarding School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apdoludin; Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect model of debate in the yellow book learning in schools to improve students' critical thinking skills so they can find a new science. This study was an experimental study with a control group. The study was conducted in classes XI Islamic Boarding School Al-Hidayah Jambi. This study uses two parallel…

  3. Teaching about Women and Islam in North Africa: Integrating Postcolonial Feminist Theory in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayzafoon, Lamia Ben Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Using postcolonial feminist theory, the researcher attempts in this article to redefine the interpretive framework through which courses on Islam and North African women are being taught in American undergraduate classes. Several conceptual limitations have been identified: inadequate knowledge of the geography and history of North Africa; the…

  4. Science Teachers' Views of Science and Religion vs. the Islamic Perspective: Conflicting or Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study that explores Egyptian science teachers' views on religion and science within the context of Islam. It also highlights an ontological and epistemological consideration of these views, particularly the ways through which Egyptian Muslim teachers understand such a relationship with reference to the Qur'anic/Islamic…

  5. Sunni Islam: What Students Need to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2010-01-01

    It is the mark of a great world religion to accommodate different outlooks and sensibilities. Quite often, these differences are manifested in terms of formal divisions within the faith. In Islam, the major split is between Sunni and the various forms of Shiism, though other divisions also exist. This essay, excerpted from the book "Divisions…

  6. Using Narrative Case Studies in an Online World Religions Course to Stimulate Deep Learning about Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sherman Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to examine how a narrative case study in an online asynchronous world religions course affected learners' understandings, appreciation, and respect for the beliefs and values of others. The world religions course examined a variety of religions including Islam. Ten participants received information about the…

  7. Anti-Racist Teaching, Student Ethnography and the Multiracial Model of Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    My Ethnography of the University (EUI) course "Muslims in America" introduces undergraduate students to the racialisation of Islam and Muslims in the U.S. at large, and in the University in particular. In this article, I describe how an anti-racist pedagogy coupled with student ethnographic research can yield a rich learning process.…

  8. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Shia Ismaili Muslim Girls Negotiate Islam in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Natasha Hakimali

    2016-01-01

    This case study investigates the experiences of Shia Ismaili Muslim girls as they encounter themselves as subjects of social studies curriculums on Islam. A postcolonial lens is used to examine differently empowered subjectivities and curricular epistimes within the high school world history context. In an effort to understand their experiences,…

  9. How Teachers Values Affect Their Evaluation of Children of Immigrants: Findings from Islamic and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Mir, Madeeha

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the implications of how teachers' views of immigrant parents predict their ratings of first-grade students' academic competence and behavioral problems. Teachers rated 191 first-grade immigrant students attending Islamic and public schools in the Northeast United States. The results showed that when teachers perceived parents…

  10. High School Students' Attitudes toward Islam and Muslims: Can a Social Studies Course Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Despite 9/11, the seemingly endless Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the possibility of Iran developing nuclear weapons capabilities, and the Arab Spring and its aftermath, the social studies curricula of high schools throughout the nation generally put little emphasis on the Middle East and Islam as the foundation for understanding vital issues that…

  11. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  12. Islamic Education in a Multicultural Society: The Case of a Muslim School in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Faisal Mohamed; Bagley, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The case study explores the ways in which a prominent, private Canadian Muslim school provides an Islamic education while negotiating its place in an integrated, socially cohesive, multicultural society. The data are derived from an in-depth qualitative investigation utilizing documentary analysis, participant observation, and interviews (N = 22).…

  13. Islamic Values and Commitment among Hausa Muslim Students: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleemi, Abdul Hamid

    This research examined two separate but related issues in Nigerian education. One, it attempted to assess the impact of Islamic and Western-type institutions upon the acquisition of religious knowledge and performance of religious duties among Hausa Muslim youth. Second, it addressed itself to measuring the religious devoutness of Muslims by…

  14. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  15. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadlbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an extensive…

  16. Education Policy Racialisations: Afrocentric Schools, Islamic Schools, and the New Enunciations of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on ideas of assemblage to examine the contingency and (in)coherence of education policy. The paper is a conceptual and thematic attempt to understand the policy terrain, broadly conceived, pertaining to opposition to the establishment of private Islamic schools in Australia and public Afrocentric schools in Canada. This opposition…

  17. Islamic Education and the UK Muslims: Options and Expectations in a Context of Multi-Locationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss Islamic philosophy of education to explain the role and aims of education for the Muslim "Ummah" (Community). It will then debate the needs of the UK Muslims with regard to the education of their children in the context of multi-locationality, and associated challenges of bringing up children while living between…

  18. Developments in stem cell research and therapeutic cloning: Islamic ethical positions, a review.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hossam E

    2012-03-01

    Stem cell research is very promising. The use of human embryos has been confronted with objections based on ethical and religious positions. The recent production of reprogrammed adult (induced pluripotent) cells does not - in the opinion of scientists - reduce the need to continue human embryonic stem cell research. So the debate continues. Islam always encouraged scientific research, particularly research directed toward finding cures for human disease. Based on the expectation of potential benefits, Islamic teachings permit and support human embryonic stem cell research. The majority of Muslim scholars also support therapeutic cloning. This permissibility is conditional on the use of supernumerary early pre-embryos which are obtained during infertility treatment in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. The early pre-embryos are considered in Islamic jurisprudence as worthy of respect but do not have the full sanctity offered to the embryo after implantation in the uterus and especially after ensoulment. In this paper the Islamic positions regarding human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning are reviewed in some detail, whereas positions in other religious traditions are mentioned only briefly. The status of human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries, including the USA and especially in Muslim countries, is discussed.

  19. Privatization of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran: One Step Forward, One Step Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Abbas Madandar; Kakia, Lida; Taghavi, Tandis

    2015-01-01

    During the last three decades in Iran, the government has had different policies on the privatization of education. After victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government closed all private schools for nearly a decade. Establishing and reopening Non-Governmental Schools (NGS) was the first action toward the privatization of education…

  20. 77 FR 73511 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Arts of Islamic Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Arts of Islamic Lands: Masterpieces... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Arts of...

  1. Re-envisioning the Future: Democratic Citizenship Education and Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Smeyers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of why democratic citizenship education should be incorporated more meaningfully into Islamic education discourses in formal institutions in the Arab and Muslim world. In the Arab and Muslim world civic and national education seem to be the dominant discourses. We argue that the latter discourses are inadequate…

  2. Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Rodriguez del Pozo, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    As physicians encounter an increasingly diverse patient population, socioeconomic circumstances, religious values and cultural practices may present barriers to the delivery of quality care. Increasing cultural competence is often cited as a way to reduce healthcare disparities arising from value and cultural differences between patients and providers. Cultural competence entails not only a knowledge base of cultural practices of disparate patient populations, but also an attitude of adapting one's practice style to meet patient needs and values. Gender roles, relationship dynamics and boundaries are culture specific, and are frequently shaped by religious teachings. Consequently, religion may be conceptualised as a cultural repertoire, or dynamic tool-kit, by which members of a faith adapt and negotiate their identity in multicultural societies. The manner in which Islamic beliefs and values inform Muslim healthcare behaviours is relatively under-investigated. In an effort to explore the impact of Islam on the relationship between patients and providers, we present an Islamic bioethical perspective on cross-gender relations in the patient-doctor relationship. We will begin with a clinical scenario highlighting three areas of gender interaction that bear clinical relevance: dress code, seclusion of members of the opposite sex and physical contact. Next, we provide a brief overview of the foundations of Islamic law and ethical deliberation and then proceed to develop ethicolegal guidelines pertaining to gender relations within the medical context. At the end of this reflection, we offer some practice recommendations that are attuned to the cultural sensitivities of Muslim patient populations.

  3. Islamic views on artificial nutrition and hydration in terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Alsolamy, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from terminally ill patients poses many ethical challenges. The literature provides little information about the Islamic beliefs, attitudes, and laws related to these challenges. Artificial nutrition and hydration may be futile and reduce quality of life. They can also harm the terminally ill patient because of complications such as aspiration pneumonia, dyspnea, nausea, diarrhea, and hypervolemia. From the perspective of Islam, rules governing the care of terminally ill patients are derived from the principle that injury and harm should be prevented or avoided. The hastening of death by the withdrawal of food and drink is forbidden, but Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile, death-delaying treatment, including life support. Nutritional support is considered basic care and not medical treatment, and there is an obligation to provide nutrition and hydration for the dying person unless it shortens life, causes more harm than benefit, or is contrary to an advance directive that is consistent with Islamic law. The decision about withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from the terminally ill Muslim patient is made with informed consent, considering the clinical context of minimizing harm to the patient, with input from the patient, family members, health care providers, and religious scholars.

  4. Islamic Teachers' Perceptions of Improving Critical Thinking Skills in Saudi Arabian Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadai, Mesfer Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this explanatory sequential mixed-method study is to examine Islamic teachers' thoughts on improving critical thinking skills in elementary schools in the Southwestern province of Saudi Arabia. This study involves the collection of quantitative data and an explanation of the quantitative results with qualitative data. In the first…

  5. Exploratory Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of the Islamic Concept of Zuhd in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olohunfunmi, Ismail Abdul Fatai

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to present a clear frame work of how to practically apply the concept "Zuhd" to individual Muslim life. It is an empirical research on the Islamic concept of "Zuhd." The method that is employed in the study is qualitative approach, whereby interviews were staged, recorded and transcribed.…

  6. Sacralized Citizenship: Women Making Known Selves in an Islamic Teachers' College in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in an Islamic teachers' college in Israel and interviews with women lecturers, this article explores how the women combine education and religion to create a revitalized self and sense of belonging despite lived experiences of structural racial, national, and gender inequalities. The women's experience is understood…

  7. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  8. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  9. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra; Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies. Gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties, beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries, and infective diseases are among the most frequently mentioned properties of Aloe spp. Several activities of Aloe spp. described in traditional medicine have been the subject of recent in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Owing to the positive findings, different preparations of Aloe spp. are now present in pharmaceutical markets such as Aloe cosmetic products. On the other hand, there are many traditional therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. which have not been studied and require confirmatory experimental or clinical investigations. It is hoped that the present study could stimulate further research on the unexplored aspects of the medicinal properties of Aloe spp.

  10. The response of Islamic jurisprudence to ectopic pregnancies, frozen embryo implantation and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, I

    1987-07-01

    The opinions of the Jurisconsult of Egypt on Islamic law regarding test tube fertilization, embryo transfer and abortion are explained. Test tube babies, if not derived from the husband's sperm, are by definition, "zina" or the result of illicit sexual intercourse. This type of quasi-adultery is punishable by mere disgracing, rather than lapidation, or stoning to death. Such children cannot inherit even from the mother. Possibly, a female child may marry the husband, to be legitimized in terms of inheritance. Under Islamic law, embryo transfer is illegal insofar as it involves artificial insemination of the donor by the husband; temporary maternity by the donor is a jural concept that has no place in Islamic family law. The egg of the donor, not the surrogate mother, places the issue in the thorny area of multiple suckling. There have been no pronouncements by Islamic legal experts on euthanasia or pregnancy by in vitro fertilization of orphaned embryos. Abortion law "ijhad" in Kuwait was amended in 1982 to permit abortion where either grievous bodily harm to the mother is imminent or it is proved that the baby will suffer incurable brain damage or severe mental retardation. The decision must be approved unanimously by 3 Muslim consultant physicians presided over by an obstetrician or gynecologist, parental consent is required, and the hospital must have an obstetric-gynecological wing. There is precedent in Islamic law for saving the life of the mother where there is a clear choice of allowing either the fetus or the mother to survive. Similarly in case of miscarriage or attempted miscarriage, damages for a fetus or stillborn are less than those paid for a live birth. Penalties for therapeutic abortion, for example after exposure to German measles, have been viewed as less serious before 120 days of gestation, when the Prophet indicated that the embryo is given a soul. These ethical interpretations are worth considering for Western jurists as a source of ideas.

  11. Social Responsibility and the State's Duty to provide Healthcare: An Islamic Ethico-Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2016-12-30

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes. In this essay I reflect on a state's moral obligation to provide healthcare from the perspective of Islamic moral theology and law. I examine how Islamic ethico-legal conceptual analogues for human rights and communal responsibility, ḥuqūq al-'ibād and farḍ al-kifāyah and other related constructs might be used to advance a moral argument for healthcare provision by the state. Moving from theory to application, I next illustrate how notions of human rights and social responsibility were used by Muslim stakeholders to buttress moral arguments to support American healthcare reform. In this way, the paper advance discourses on a universal bioethics and common morality by bringing into view the concordances and discordances between Islamic ethico-legal constructs and moral arguments advanced by transnational health policy advocates. It also provides insight into applied Islamic bioethics by demonstrating how Islamic ethico-legal values might inform the discursive outputs of Muslim organizations.

  12. [The Justinian plague (part two). Influence of the epidemic on the rise of the Islamic Empire].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Fiorino, Sirio

    2012-09-01

    The Islamic Empire started its tumultuous and rapid expansion from the year 622 A.D. (the year of Mohammed's Egira). This rapid growth coincided with the epidemic spread of the bubonic plague in the Middle East. Although a first epidemic event had been documented in the year 570 A.D. (pre-Islamic phase), in the Arabic peninsula, classically according to M.W. Dols five severe episodes of plague sub-epidemics are considered in the middle-eastern geographic area: the first occurred in 627 and 628 A.D., the fifth in 716 A.D.. Anyway, we may state that at the onset of Islam the geographic region including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was involved by endemic plague. In their work, on the ground of a literature review, the Authors describe the characteristics of the epidemic phenomenon, and analyze the how the plague affected the interpretation of Prophet's Koran and Hadits. The passive attitude demonstrated by many Muslims during early Islam was not shared by all believers, since others moved towards a more soft approach, which included the behaviour of the so called moving aside , when the contagion was of concern. The epidemic plague significantly contributed to the weakening of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the rapid decline of the Persian Empire, while during the early expansion phases of Islam, it indirectly favoured the nomadic Arab tribes which, moving on desert or semi-desert territories, succeeded in escaping the contagion more easily. Subsequently, when the Arab population became sedentary, after occupying the conquered cities, this initial advantage was significantly reduced.

  13. Ground Forces Modernization in China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-11

    modernization has been improved training in strategy, tactics on the modern battle- field, and science and technology. In general, political education and...nuclear weapons, 168.". and the integration of various PLA branches. 6 . Despite the statistics on political education versus military training, the PLA...dedicated to modern military science and the practice of actual military tactics and techniques. The -." remainder of the time will be devoted to political

  14. The Rule of Law Effort in Afghanistan: A Success Story in the Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    USA 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND...Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a United States led invasion toppled the regime for providing...volunteered as the lead nation for a rule of law program. The Afghan legal system was historically a mix of civil, customary, and Islamic law. In

  15. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  16. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht (Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction), 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This quarterly annotated bibliography lists periodicals, scholarly journals, and institutions that may be of interest to modern language teachers, and provides bibliographic information for modern language reference, research, and teaching materials. In each issue, an introductory section provides background information on sources and details the…

  17. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht (Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction), 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This quarterly annotated bibliography lists periodicals, scholarly journals, and institutions that may be of interest to modern language teachers, and provides bibliographic information for modern language reference, research, and teaching materials. In each issue, an introductory section provides background information on sources and details the…

  18. Social work and the house of Islam: orienting practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2005-04-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the mainstream media coverage misrepresents the population. This article reviews the basic beliefs, practices, and values that commonly characterize, or inform, the House of Islam in the United States. The organizations that embody and sustain the Muslim communities that constitute the House of Islam are profiled, and areas of possible value conflicts are examined. The article concludes by offering suggestions for integrating the article's themes into practice settings. Particular attention is given to enhancing cultural competence and to suggestions for spiritual assessment and interventions.

  19. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  20. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  1. Contemporary Radical Islam as a Consequence of Traditional Legacies and Globalization? A Case Study of the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    movement of expressing ideological differences and discontent with the political, economic , and social condition among Muslims and inspired a...the MNLF and in 1984 the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) was established. The MILF, as the name indicates , placed more emphasis on Islam. In...second half of the twentieth century as a nonviolent movement of expressing ideological differences and discontent with the political, economic , and

  2. Highlighting Effects of Current Globalization Tenets, Namely Democracy, Capitalism, and Cultural Transformation, on the Arab Islamic Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    remaining at the bottom of the pyramid. Many counties in the Middle East fall into this later category .9 That is not to say people and cultures should...negotiation with or bullying a religious fundamentalist group would most likely be in vain. Hence, dealing with a political element alone, has a higher...Islamic Right Wing The Violent Islamic Right is more impatient than the Gradual Right, in that, groups within this category often use the art of violence

  3. Reasons on the similarity of objections with regards to gambling and speculation in Islamic finance and conventional finance.

    PubMed

    Kunhibava, Sherin

    2011-03-01

    Gambling and speculation which leads to zero-sum outcomes are prohibited in Islamic finance and condemned in conventional finance. This article explores the reasons for the similarity of objections towards gambling and speculation. Three probable reasons are explored namely the concept of stewardship in conventional thought and the concept of khalifa in Islam, Christianity and morality's influence on conventional law and finance and the concept of ethics of sacrifice and ethics of tolerance.

  4. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  5. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  6. Modern Mathematics and Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Harry L.; Kluttz, Marguerite

    This guide for parents explains the objectives of the modern mathematics being taught in the schools and discusses the teaching methods being used. A few of the elementary concepts of modern mathematics (number lines, searching for patterns, different ways of analyzing problems, number bases, and sets) are briefly explained and justifications are…

  7. Chapter 6: after Galen Late Antiquity and the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül A

    2010-01-01

    It is usually assumed that after Galen there was nothing new until the Renaissance. Contrary to this view, there were significant modifications of the inherited legacy in Late Antiquity, followed by fundamental changes within the Arabic/Islamic world. Their formative influence extends from the medieval period of transmission to the Renaissance and the 17th century. The increasing emphasis on the primacy of the brain initiated the beginnings of ventricular localization of function in Late Antiquity, which was subsequently developed into a theory and transmitted to the West via Arabic. Following the unprecedented translation movement in 9th-century Baghdad, the cumulative Greek and Hellenistic knowledge of the brain, nerves, and the senses from diverse sources were brought together in the systematic, logically unified Arabic medical compendia of encyclopedic proportions, which embody divergence from accepted views and new diagnostic observations. Their Latin versions became standard texts in medical schools. The oldest extant schematic diagrams relevant to neurology (the eye, the ventricles, the visual system, and the nerves) date from this period, and served as models for the medieval Latin West. The development of coherent descriptions of the motor and sensory systems, and related clinical disorders, by analogy with the mechanisms of hydraulic automata, foreshadows some of the explanatory methods associated with the 17th century. Furthermore, an entirely new approach resulted in a paradigm shift in theory and methodology through the experimental studies on the physics of light and vision of Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1040), who showed that what is sensed is not the object itself, but a punctate optical "image" due to light reflected from its surface to the eye. This revolutionary approach to vision destroyed the viability of the Greek tradition of holistic forms and tactile sensory impressions. Ibn al-Haytham's theory of point-to-point correspondence formed the basis of

  8. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    PubMed

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`).

  9. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results.

  10. Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC): Evaluating Scholary Journals Based on Citation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrad, Jaffar; Arastoopoor, Sholeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Citation analysis is currently one of the most widely used metrics for analyzing the scientific contribution in different fields. The Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC) aims at promoting technical cooperation among Muslim scientists and their respected centers based on these theories. It also facilitates the accessibility of knowledge and research contribution among them. This paper aims at revealing some of the outmost features of ISC databases, in order to give a fairly clear view of what it is and what are its products. The paper consists of three major parts. After an introduction about the Islamic World Science Citation Center, the paper deals with major tools and products of ISC. In the third part ISCs’ journal Submission system is presented as an automatic means, by which users can upload journals’ papers into the respected databases. Conclusion: Some complementary remarks have been made regarding the current state of ISC and its future plans. PMID:23322953

  11. A descriptive analysis of South African and Islamic abortion legislation and local Muslim community responses.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Najma

    2002-01-01

    The issue of abortion has been the subject of much debate in the recent past in South Africa. Prior to 1996 abortion legislation was punitive and therefore one with which conservative Muslims could identify. Since 1996 the law has been liberalized and replaced by a new Act. The final Constitution (1996) took a neutral stance regarding abortion. The enactment of the Choice on Termination on Pregnancy Act (1996) finally ensured this right. The Act, a critical milestone for gender equality, secured all South African women (including minors) the right to make decisions about reproduction and according to their individual beliefs. Muslim organizations participated in this abortion debate making formal but opposing submissions to Parliament. These opposing views of Muslims came as no surprise and reflect the different norms of Islamic law which varies between countries and was indicative of the interpretative duality evident in most matters of Islamic law.

  12. Both Islam and Christianity Invite to Tolerance: A Commentary on Dirk Baier.

    PubMed

    Salamati, Payman; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Koutlaki, Sofia A; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-12-01

    Baier recently published an interesting original article in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. He compared violent behavior (VB) between Christians and Muslims and concluded that religiosity was not a protecting factor against violence and that Muslim religiosity associated positively with increased VB. We appreciate the author's enormous efforts on researching such an issue of relevance to today's world. However, in our view, the article has methodological weaknesses in terms of participants, instruments, and statistical analyses, which we examine in detail. Therefore, Baier's results should be interpreted more cautiously. Although interpersonal violence may sometimes be observable among Muslims, we do not attribute these to Islam's teachings. In our opinion, both Islam and Christianity invite to tolerance, peace, and friendship. So, the comparison of such differences and the drawing of conclusions that may reflect negatively on specific religious groups need better defined research, taking into consideration other basic variables in different communities.

  13. Messaging standard requirements for electronic health records in Islamic Republic of Iran: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Foozonkhah, S; Shahmoradi, L; Mahmodabadi, A D

    2017-02-01

    The present descriptive-comparative study was conducted to give an overview of the messaging standards that are necessary for interoperable electronic health records (EHRs). We designed a preliminary model after data collection and compared the messaging standards of Health Level Seven (HL7) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The data were assessed with the Delphi technique. A comprehensive model for the messaging standards of EHRs in the Islamic Republic of Iran was presented in three pivots: structural characteristics (standard for all EHRs, XML-based and object-oriented messages, and dual model); model specifications (reference model, archetypes and classes of reference model), and general features (distinct ontology, mapping with other standards, and using reference archetypes for exchanging documents). In conclusion, we gave an overview of messaging standards for the interoperability of EHRs and experts selected ISO13606 as a suitable standard for the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  14. Creating Neoliberal Citizens in Morocco: Reproductive Health, Development Policy, and Popular Islamic Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hughes Rinker, Cortney

    2015-01-01

    Self-governance and responsibility are two traits associated with neoliberal citizenship in scholarly and popular discourses, but little of the literature on this topic focuses on North Africa. My goal, in this article, is not only to fill this void but also to complicate understandings of neoliberalism through an examination of the relationship between reproductive health care, development policy, and popular Islamic beliefs in Morocco. My discussion is based on fieldwork in Rabat, Morocco, which included observations in health clinics, interviews with patients and staff, and visits to patients' homes. By analyzing the childbearing and childrearing practices of Moroccan women who visited the clinics, I pose that neoliberal logic cannot be predefined or understood as a monolithic concept. I demonstrate that women were active in their own governance and accountable for their reproductive behaviors, but they did so because of their understandings of what Islam says about fertility and motherhood.

  15. "Women do what they want": Islam and permanent contraception in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krehbiel Keefe, Susi

    2006-07-01

    Based on fieldwork in Ugweno, Tanzania, this research explores a case that contradicts popular understandings and representations of Muslim African women-specifically with respect to reproduction and family planning. Building on case studies of women who articulate their motivations regarding contraceptive use in general, and sterilization in particular, I argue that religious (and, in this case, Islamic) values and reasoning are fashioned pragmatically. The study was based on in-depth, unstructured and open-ended interviews with 40 women (20 of whom had been sterilized), as well as men, religious leaders and hospital workers. Women (and men) in Ugweno construct reproductive lives that challenge overly deterministic understandings of the relationship between religion and contraceptive practices. It was found that perceptions of Islamic rules about family planning are inconsistent. Individuals are able to define their own approach by manipulating the rules and resisting them.

  16. Islam, sexuality, and the marginal positioning of Pengkids and their girlfriends in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuenmei

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the lived experiences of the Pengkids and their girlfriends in the deprived district of the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, this article examines transgender practices and women's same-sex desires within the local contexts of urbanization and political Islam. This article questions the assumed marginal positions of transgender practices and same-sex desires in society, and provides a nuanced understanding of the politics of identity, gender, sexuality and religion involved in a Muslim country. While the Muslim-Malay sexual minorities are increasingly subjected to the threats of moral policing in Malaysia, Pengkid has become a new identity marker for the marginalized sexual subject framed by the Islamic discourse of this country.

  17. Experience of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Panahi, F; Asadollahi, R; Asadollahi, M; Hasani-Bafarani, A

    2012-12-04

    Gonu, the second tropical cyclone of the 2007 northern Indian ocean cyclone season, affected Oman, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and the Islamic Republic of Iran. This report examines the effects of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran where it approached on its path on 6 June 2007 and reviews the actions taken before, during and after the cyclone. The incident highlighted the need for a special protocol to be prepared for all types of natural disasters. Responsible organizations should train their personnel according to the prepared protocols and service packages. Among the important lessons learned were the need for early warning, proper community involvement, access to essential data for risk analysis, special attention to safety of infrastructures, coordination and command integrity.

  18. The Concept of Qailulah (Midday Napping) from Neuroscientific and Islamic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tumiran, Mohd Amzari; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Kabir, Nurul; Zulkifli, Mohd Yakub; Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan

    2015-08-13

    Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.

  19. INDUCED ABORTION FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: IS IT CRIMINAL OR JUST ELECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Albar, Mohammed A.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Induced Abortion for social reasons is spreading all over the world. It is estimated that globally 50 million unborn babies are killed annually, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 pregnant women and the suffering of millions. The complications of illegal abortion are very serious. Abortion is still used in many countries as a means of family planning. The medical reasons for abortion are limited and con-sti-tute a small proportion of all abortion cases. This paper discusses the different views on abortion, its history, its evolution over time, and the present legal circumstances. The emphasis is on the situation in Islamic countries and the effect of Islamic Fatwas on abortion. PMID:23008648

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad