Science.gov

Sample records for passage technology saving

  1. Water saving technologies flagship program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Flagship Project on Water Saving Technologies was formed under the protocol between the USDA and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China. Joint work in this flagship project was reported at the 13th Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology in ...

  2. Hydropower R&D: Recent advances in turbine passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Rinehart, Ben N.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that are often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  3. Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  5. Technologies for evaluating fish passage through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.

  6. Weight Saving Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The airplane shown below is the Beech Super King Air, an executive transport built by Beech Aircraft corporation, Wichita, Kansas. Its development was aided by the NASA computer program known as NASTRAN(Registered TradeMark) (NASA Structural Analysis), which electronically analyzes a computerized design and predicts how it will react to many different conditions of stress and strain. In this instance the program was employed in analysis of the airplane's structure and engine mounts. NASTRAN was similarly used in development of other Beech planes, such as the T-34C military trainer and the new single-engine Skipper light-plane, which is making its debut this year. At its Boulder, Colorado facility, Beech has used NASTRAN in analysis of fuel tanks for space vehicles. The company reports it has achieved cost savings and improved its design/analysis capabilities through use of the NASA program. NASTRAN and other government-generated computer programs are made available to industry through NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)(Registered TradeMark) at the University of Georgia.

  7. Saving Time with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Zimmerman, Holly

    2013-01-01

    In order to help teachers envision digital products in action in classrooms, the authors look at three examples of how teachers they know enhance learning time by employing technology efficiently. The examples include: (1) a social studies teacher who begins each class period with a three-question formative assessment using the website…

  8. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  9. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  10. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  11. Innovative technologies for fish passage: Aspects of development and implementation. Summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.J.C.

    1995-06-01

    A number of vendors of innovative systems designed to facilitate fish passage through hydroelectric facilities were interviewed for this study. They identified several significant barriers to the development and commercialization of their technologies. This study examined a number of fish passage technologies that were identified as innovative. These systems encompassed a range of new (or at least relatively untried in the sense of an established setting) and creative ideas that impinge on various points in the process of fish passage downstream. Technologies examined ranged from variations on established technologies (such as screens) to completely new and alternative systems for the generation of electricity from the potential energy of flowing water without the intervention of high head dams.

  12. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  13. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This, in

  14. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  15. Wil Wheaton: Life-Saving Technology from NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's commitment to safety in space has been saving lives on Earth for years. Rocket-powered parachutes can save entire airplanes, Apollo-era life rafts have saved hundreds of sailors, and a cardi...

  16. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  17. 78 FR 18585 - Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Technology Savings LLC's application for...

  18. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades. PMID:11460627

  19. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  20. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time. PMID:19244848

  1. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.

  2. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  3. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  4. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  5. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  6. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  8. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  9. Rescuing Writing Instruction: How To Save Time & Money with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peshe C.

    2004-01-01

    This document focuses on the writing skills of college students. The days of students sifting through piles of file cards, producing detailed outlines, and handwriting drafts have slipped into the distant past. Students write quickly and casually with the assistance of technology, and common sense dictates that technology needs to be used to teach…

  10. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods that first emerged in the mid-1970s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics, whether in humans or in animals, including poultry, are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individual or flock in the shortest time possible. Ease of use, low cost and increased information from a single test (e.g. multiplexing) are also critical areas frequently targeted for improvement. New tests and modifications of current tests are reported often, and diagnostic tests are now commonly developed by commercial companies. As one would expect, most advances in diagnostic technology are applied first to human health, and then may be adapted to animal health if practical. In the present review the trends and novel innovative technologies in primarily viral diagnostics are reviewed and the practicality of these methods and application for poultry health are discussed briefly. Also, influenza will seem to be over-represented in viral diagnostics since it is frequently used as a proof-of-concept target for novel technology due to its importance for animal and public health. Finally, the review is intended to be a brief survey of some of the innovative diagnostic technologies reported in recent years. It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned.

  11. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  12. Construction Program Saved! Partnership Revitalizes School of Applied Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlaca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Edison School of Applied Technology, a comprehensive public high school, has long had a reputation for producing top-notch crafts workers, tradespeople, project managers, estimators, and industry leaders. The school's graduates helped build the city and many currently have successful, productive careers in the public and private sectors. But…

  13. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  14. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  15. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  16. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  17. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  18. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  19. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thornton C

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  20. The impact of labor-saving technology on first birth intervals in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi; Mace, Ruth

    2002-02-01

    Across the developing world labor-saving technologies introduce considerable savings in the time and energy that women allocate to work. Hormonal studies on natural fertility populations indicate that such a reduction in energetic expenditure (rather than improved nutritional status alone) can lead to increased ovarian function. Other qualitative studies have highlighted a link between labor-saving technology and behavioral changes affecting subsequent age at marriage, which may affect fertility. This biodemographic study was designed to investigate whether these physiological and behavioral changes affect fertility at a population level by focusing on a recent water development scheme in Southern Ethiopia. The demographic consequences of a reduction in women's workload following the installation of water points, specifically the variation in length of first birth interval (time lapsed between marriage and first birth), are investigated. First birth interval length is closely associated with lifetime fertility in populations that do not practice contraception, longer intervals being associated with lower fertility. Using life tables and multivariate hazard modeling techniques a number of significant predictors of first birth interval length are identified. Covariates such as age at marriage, season of marriage, village ecology, and access to improved water supply have significant effects on variation in first birth intervals. When entered into models as a time-varying covariate, access to a water tap stand is associated with an immediate reduction in length of first birth intervals.

  1. The impact of labor-saving technology on first birth intervals in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi; Mace, Ruth

    2002-02-01

    Across the developing world labor-saving technologies introduce considerable savings in the time and energy that women allocate to work. Hormonal studies on natural fertility populations indicate that such a reduction in energetic expenditure (rather than improved nutritional status alone) can lead to increased ovarian function. Other qualitative studies have highlighted a link between labor-saving technology and behavioral changes affecting subsequent age at marriage, which may affect fertility. This biodemographic study was designed to investigate whether these physiological and behavioral changes affect fertility at a population level by focusing on a recent water development scheme in Southern Ethiopia. The demographic consequences of a reduction in women's workload following the installation of water points, specifically the variation in length of first birth interval (time lapsed between marriage and first birth), are investigated. First birth interval length is closely associated with lifetime fertility in populations that do not practice contraception, longer intervals being associated with lower fertility. Using life tables and multivariate hazard modeling techniques a number of significant predictors of first birth interval length are identified. Covariates such as age at marriage, season of marriage, village ecology, and access to improved water supply have significant effects on variation in first birth intervals. When entered into models as a time-varying covariate, access to a water tap stand is associated with an immediate reduction in length of first birth intervals. PMID:11931573

  2. Preliminary Weight Savings Estimate for a Commercial Transport Wing Using Rod-Stiffened Stitched Composite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A structural concept called pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure (PRSEUS) was developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. While PRSEUS was an enabling technology for the pressurized HWB structure, limited investigation of PRSEUS for other aircraft structures, such as circular fuselages and wings, has been done. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate the potential weight savings afforded by using the PRSEUS concept for a commercial transport wing. The study applied PRSEUS to the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program composite semi-span test article, which was sized using three load cases. The initial PRSEUS design was developed by matching cross-sectional stiffnesses for each stringer/skin combination within the wing covers, then the design was modified to ensure that the PRSEUS design satisfied the design criteria. It was found that the PRSEUS wing design exhibited weight savings over the blade-stiffened composite AST Program wing of nearly 9%, and a weight savings of 49% and 29% for the lower and upper covers, respectively, compared to an equivalent metallic wing.

  3. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  4. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  5. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  6. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  7. From here to efficiency : time lags between the introduction of new technology and the achievement of fuel savings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.; Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1999-12-03

    In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels.

  8. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

  9. Real-time data collection technologies: Enhanced decision-making and cost savings January, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, T.L.; Vu, H.Q.

    2006-07-01

    Hand-held computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and wireless communication devices are rapidly replacing traditional methods for field monitoring and data collection. Although pencil and paper remain important means of data transcription, field technicians can now use Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to record their field notes and monitoring data. As data are uploaded wirelessly from the field, decision-makers can view realtime reports and maps that identify sample locations and monitoring results. The combination of PDAs, wireless communications, and web-based GIS provides field personnel and decision-makers many benefits throughout the life cycle of a project, including improved data consistency, real-time transfer of data from field locations to centralized databases, input validation, elimination of transcription errors, and cost savings. Concerns have been expressed however, about investing in hardware, software, and training for a new technology. This paper, based on several years of experience using wireless technologies for dozens of projects, is focused specifically on two case studies. The first case study is a large lead removal site in the Midwest at which real-time data collection technologies were used throughout the project to collect thousands of data points. The second is the Hurricane Katrina/Rita emergency response requiring rapid data collection under extraordinary circumstances. At both sites, the use of real-time data collection technologies significantly improved the data management process which reduced overall costs and increased efficiency. These results could not have been achieved using traditional data collection procedures. The oral presentation will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the real-time data collection technologies, lessons learned, and planning considerations. A live demonstration, following a typical data collection scenario in which data are collected and plotted on a GIS map in near real

  10. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring

  12. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  13. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    One of the most energy intensive industries in the U.S. today is in the melting and casting of steel alloys for use in our advanced technological society. While the majority of steel castings involve low or mild carbon steel for common construction materials, highly-alloyed steels constitute a critical component of many industries due to their excellent properties. However, as the amount of alloying additions increases, the problems associated with casting these materials also increases, resulting in a large waste of energy due to inefficiency and a lack of basic information concerning these often complicated alloy systems. Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma (³) and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. Knowledge of the times and temperatures at which these detrimental phases form is imperative if a company is to efficiently produce castings of high quality in the minimum amount of time, using the lowest amount of energy possible, while producing the least amount of material waste. Anecdotal evidence from company representatives revealed that large castings frequently had to be scrapped due to either lower than expected corrosion resistance or extremely low fracture toughness. It was suspected that these poor corrosion and / or mechanical properties were directly related to the type, amount, and location of various intermetallic phases that formed during either the cooling cycle of the castings or subsequent heat treatments. However, no reliable data existed concerning either the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams or the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of the super-austenitics. The

  15. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  16. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  17. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  18. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This `was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE).

  19. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  20. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  1. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  2. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  4. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  5. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  6. Identifying new technologies that save energy and reduce costs to the Federal sector: The New Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.D.M.; Conover, D.R.; Stockmeyer, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    In 1990 the New Technology Demonstration Program (formerly the Test Bed Demonstration Program) was initiated by the US Department of Energy`s Office (DOE`s) of Federal Energy Management Programs with the purpose of accelerating the introduction of new technologies into the Federal sector. The program has since expanded into a multi-laboratory collaborative effort that evaluates new technologies and shares the results with the Federal design and procurement communities. These evaluations are performed on a collaborative basis which typically includes technology manufacturers, Federal facilities, utilities, trade associations, research institutes, and other in partnership with DOE. The end result is a range of effective technology transfer tools that provide operations and performance data on new technologies to Federal designers, building managers, and procurement officials. These tools assist in accelerating a technology`s Federal application and realizing reductions in energy consumption and costs.

  7. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  9. Research on the promotion measures to introduce new energy and energy-saving technologies with a leasing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Effects of introducing the leasing system were studied in order to promote the introduction of photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation and other new energy technologies, and phosphoric acid fuel cell, regional air conditioning and other energy efficiency-heightening technologies. Judging from the result of investigating its needs, the introduction of leasing system is most effective when the technological reliability and safety have been established with a cost differential made small, to a certain extent, from the existing energy. The introduction of leasing system is considered effective not from the point of view that, in order to reduce the initial introduction cost, the leasing system is the best measures of investment in the facilities for the introduction of new energy and energy-saving technologies, but from the point of view that the addition of leasing system as one of the preferential measures widens the user's selectivity among the debt, self-funds and leasing. The following tasks are raised for the introduction of leasing system: Determination of leasing term, Determination of insurance rate, Study of leasing for the household use, Development of leasing system as commodities fulfilling the user's needs.

  10. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  11. Auditing for energy savings: Do we really need Star Wars technology and the third decimal place?

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, T.D.

    1997-11-01

    Over the past twenty years the author has had the opportunity to review a number of commercial and industrial audits. Many seem to fall into one of two categories; sufficiently vague or too detailed. In dealing directly with customers he has found that most simply want accurate reproducible results. For a report to be meaningful to a customer and stand any chance of having its recommendations implemented, it must: (1) Reflect results based on the customer`s goals and objectives. If a customer`s reason for having the audit is to minimize energy expenditures, the report must focus on rate-released options, as well as energy improvements. For example, certain load factor or demand based rates with low charges may actually provide a disincentive to saving. Customers have purposely used additional energy or increased their peak demand in order to qualify for a lower rate. While this is not sound energy or environmental reasoning, it does meet the customer`s goal and should be addressed. (2) Reflect results based on the customer`s economic criteria. If a customer has a specific firm payback or ROI limitation, it is fruitless to include high-tech strategies or recommendations that do not conform. However, it is always best to test the firmness of their criteria. Do they really mean two years, or will they consider a three year payback? (3) Provide sufficiently accurate information (but not too detailed) for the customer to make an informed decision and assure them that the projected savings will result. Customers with a sound technical understanding of their facility, or even those with a limited technical background, are often skeptical of reports that predict results too precisely. While this may appear to be a reasonably straightforward simple task, for many it is not. The paper takes a brief look at the two types of reports (the vague and the detailed) and sees how they stack up in overall effectiveness.

  12. Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2007-06-01

    This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

  13. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  14. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  15. A Paper Chase: Technology Helps Library Save Its Collections on Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Will

    1997-01-01

    Bookkeeper, a liquid-based mass deacidification technology, may help the Library of Congress win its war against acid damage in its paper collection. The process impregnates books with magnesium oxide particles that both neutralize the acid in paper and leave an alkaline buffer behind. Describes the problem of acidic degradation and the Bookkeeper…

  16. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  17. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  18. Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zexiang; Wu, Zhengguo; Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Yiqiang; Zheng, Deyong; Wang, Siqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to rapidly liquefy sawdust using reduced quantities of solvent, was successfully carried out via microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology (MUAT) in a sulphuric acid/polyethylene glycol 400-glycerol catalytic system. The influences of some key parameters on the liquefaction yield were investigated. The results showed that compared with traditional liquefaction, the introduction of MUAT allowed the solvent dosage to be halved and shortened the liquefaction time from 60 to 20 min. The liquefaction yield reached 91% under the optimal conditions. However, the influence on the yield of some parameters such as catalyst concentration, was similar to that of traditional liquefaction, indicating that the application of MUAT possibly only intensified heat and mass transfer rather than altering either the degradation mechanism or pathway. The introduction of MUAT as a process intensification technology has good industrial application potential for woody biomass liquefaction.

  19. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  20. Engaging science communication that are time-saving for scientists using new online technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Science communication is a time consuming and challenging task. Communicating scientific results comes on top of doing science itself and the administrative work the modern day scientists have to cope with. The competition on peoples time and attention is also fierce. In order to get peoples attention and interest, it is today often required that there is a two-way communication. The audience needs and wants to be engaged, even in real-time. The skills and times required to do that is normally not included in the university curricula. In this presentation we will look at new technologies that can help scientists overcome some of those skills and time challenges. The new online technologies that has been tested and developed in other societal areas, can be of great use for research and the important science communication. We will illustrate this through an example from biodiversity, wetlands and these fields use of Earth observations. Both the scientists themselves representing different fields of research and the general public are being engaged effectively and efficiently through specifically designed online events/seminars/workshops. The scientists are able to learn from each other while also engaging in live dialogues with the audience. A cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community, where this example comes from, there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential using new online technologies and it can easily be transferred to other fields of geoscience and science in general.

  1. An innovative energy-saving in-flight melting technology and its application to glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yaochun; Watanabe, Takayuki; Yano, Tetsuji; Iseda, Toru; Sakamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Masanori; Inoue, Satoru

    2008-04-01

    The conventional method used for glass melting is air-fuel firing, which is inefficient, energy-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, an innovative in-flight melting technology was developed and applied to glass production for the purposes of energy conservation and environmental protection. Three types of heating sources, radio-frequency (RF) plasma, a 12-phase alternating current (ac) arc and an oxygen burner, were used to investigate the in-flight melting behavior of granulated powders. Results show that the melted particles are spherical with a smooth surface and compact structure. The diameter of the melted particles is about 50% of that of the original powders. The decomposition and vitrification degrees of the prepared powders decrease in the order of powders prepared by RF plasma, the 12-phase ac arc and the oxygen burner. The largest heat transfer is from RF plasma to particles, which results in the highest particle temperature (1810 °C) and the greatest vitrification degree of the raw material. The high decomposition and vitrification degrees, which are achieved in milliseconds, shorten the melting and fining times of the glass considerably. Our results indicate that the proposed in-flight melting technology is a promising method for use in the glass industry.

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  3. Review of Innovative Energy Savings Technology for the Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baek; Sohn, Il

    2014-09-01

    A review of the energy innovations for the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking route is discussed. Preheating of scrap using vertical and horizontal shafts that have been commercially successful in lowering the energy consumption to as much as 90 kWh/t reaching almost the operational limit to heating input scrap materials into the EAF is discussed. Bucket-type and twin-shell preheaters have also shown to be effective in lowering the overall power consumption by 60 kWh/t, but these have been less effective than the vertical shaft-type preheaters. Beyond the scrap preheating technologies, the utilization of waste heat of the slags from the laboratory scale to the pilot scale has shown possible implementation of a granulation and subsequent heat exchange with forced air for energy recovery from the hot slags. Novel techniques to increase metal recovery have shown that laboratory-scale testing of localized Fe concentration into the primary spinel crystals was possible allowing the separation of an Fe-rich crystal from an Fe-depleted amorphous phase. A possible future process for converting the thermal energy of the CO/CO2 off-gases from the EAF into chemical energy was introduced.

  4. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  5. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly

  7. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomaston Mills, Inc.): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  8. Amnesia in an actor: Learning and re-learning of play passages despite severe autobiographical amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Morton, John

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of an accomplished actor, whom we term AB, who suffered severe amnesia following a cardiac arrest and hypoxic brain damage, affecting medial temporal and thalamic structures. His performance on standard episodic memory tests, and on measures of retrograde amnesia, including autobiographical memory, was severely impaired. When presented with passages from plays he had not appeared in, AB showed a severe impairment at the first learning trial, but thereafter showed a 'normal' learning curve for this semantically and syntactically complex material. On being presented with passages from plays he had performed in the past, AB did not show any recognition of them whatsoever, as one might expect from his severe episodic memory impairment. However, AB showed a striking benefit (savings score) in relearning passages he had previously performed, compared with new passages, despite not having any autobiographical recall of having performed the relearned passages before. Moreover, although his initial recall performance in learning these passages was impaired compared with healthy control actors of similar age and experience, AB demonstrated the same incremental learning rate on subsequent learning trials of the passages as did the controls. We conclude that, although severely impaired at the first learning trial (on both 'new' and 'old' passages), AB was able to employ his long-established semantic and procedural skills to attempt the task, and that thereafter he showed a 'normal' rate of incremental learning from a lower baseline.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  10. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  11. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  12. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  13. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  14. Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-10-15

    We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  15. Samoan Passage Abyssal Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickett, J. B.; Voet, G.; Alford, M. H.; Girton, J. B.; Carter, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the bottom water entering the North Pacific, about 6 Sv of mostly Antarctic origin, flows northward through the Samoan Passage (SP), where previous hydrographic studies have inferred extremely strong watermass modification as it transits the complicated, narrow passage. Global-scale numerical models at best poorly resolve this critical aspect of the global ocean circulation and the processes that affect it. We are in the midst of conducting a major next-generation experiment, coupling hydrographic/lowered ADCP and microstructure profiler measurements with simultaneous high-resolution profiling moorings and detailed numerical simulations. Our goals are to: (1) quantify the flow and its pathways through the SP, and compare them to measurements made 20 years ago as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 2) quantify, with direct measurements, the turbulence and mixing the flow undergoes and the processes that lead to it, and 3) use the resulting knowledge to determine the best strategy for future monitoring of the SP. Here we present initial results from the first two of the experiment's three cruises, which have provided a detailed view of the flow magnitude, pathways and turbulence as it transits the passage's sills. Bathymetry, stratification, rotation, and inertia all play important roles in selecting the pathways taken by the flow, with the lighter layers siphoning off through the shallower sills to the west and the densest water following the deeper main eastern channel. Flows in this main channel are initially O(0.1 m/s), accelerating to > 0.4 m/s at the northernmost of the two major sills, leading to strong shears and warming of the bottom water from 0.66 to 0.72 C through mixing within the stratified overflow and entrainment of overlying water. Direct microstructure measurements show large vertical diffusivities of 10^{-4}-10^{-3} m^2/s throughout the passage and up to 10^{-2} m^2/s past the northern sill, where the flow

  16. Vapor passage fuel blockage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Faeth, W.P.

    1993-08-31

    In a method of making a system for dispensing gasoline fuel into a vehicle fuel tank, said system is described comprising a dispenser pump, a nozzle, a fuel hose connecting said dispenser pump to said nozzle for dispensing said fuel from said pump to said tank, a vapor recovery hose surrounding said fuel hose for conducting fuel vapors from the fuel tank to a storage reservoir, said fuel hose and vapor recovery hose adapted to form at least one looped low portion during dispensing of fuel into a fuel tank whereat condensed fuel vapors tend to collect in said vapor recovery passage, and a venturi means having inlet means disposed in said vapor recovery passage so as to be at said one looped low portion during said dispensing of fuel, said venturi means being so arranged that said fuel being dispensed from said pump to said tank will flow through said venturi means and create a suction at said inlet means, the improvement comprising the step of forming said inlet means to comprise a plurality of separate inlets disposed in a spaced apart relation.

  17. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  18. Volume Transport and Variability at Windward Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Johns, W. E.; Johns, E. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Gulf Stream system is fed via Atlantic inflow through the passages of the Bahamas and the Caribbean. In contrast to the large amount of research focusing on the downstream components of this system (Florida Current, Gulf Stream, Gulf Stream extension), far fewer measurements of Atlantic inflow into the Caribbean Sea through the Caribbean passages have been made. Of all of the major Caribbean passages, the volume transport and variability through Windward Passage is probably the least well understood, even though it is recognized as an important inflow channel. Between October 2003 and February 2005, a moored current meter array was deployed across the shallowest part of Windward Passage, and four hydrographic and lowered-ADCP surveys were conducted in the region. Stations were located along sections at Windward Passage and passages upstream, including passages between Cuba and Great Inagua, and Haiti and Great Inagua, and selected passages through the southern Bahamas and Turks and Caicos. Sections were also occupied downstream of Windward Passage across the axis of the Cayman Basin. The transport entering Windward Passage is highly variable, including reversals to net outflow. Transports measured during the cruises ranged from -0.3 Sv (outflow) to 9.4 Sv (inflow), with an average inflow of 3.8 Sv. Corresponding transports derived from the current meter array range from approximately -5 to 15 Sv, with an average inflow of 3.6 Sv. On average there is net inflow in the surface and thermocline layers (above ~600 m), net outflow in the intermediate layer (~700-1200 m), and a deep inflow just above the bottom. Data gathered from lowered and hull-mounted instrumentation during these surveys have helped to resolve the vertical and horizontal structure of the flow through the passage and will be used in conjunction with the hydrographic data to quantify the volumes of the different water masses flowing through the passage and their regional pathways.

  19. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  20. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  1. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  2. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  3. Maternal Mortality from Obstructed Labor: A MANDATE Analysis of the Ability of Technology to Save Lives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margo S; Griffin, Jennifer B; McClure, Elizabeth M; Jones, Bonnie; Moran, Katelin; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical interventions to significantly reduce maternal mortality from prolonged labor, obstructed labor, and prolonged obstructed labor (PL/OL/POL) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods A mathematical model-Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology ("MANDATE")-was created for SSA with estimated prevalence for PL/OL/POL and case fatality rates from hemorrhage, infection, and uterine rupture. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, the model was populated with estimated likelihoods of the current healthcare system ability to diagnose, transfer, and treat women with these conditions. Impact on maternal mortality of improved diagnosis, transfer, and delivery to relieve PL/OL/POL was assessed. Results Without current technologies, the model estimated 8,464 maternal deaths annually in SSA from these conditions. Imputing current diagnosis, transfer, and treatment of PL/OL/POL, an estimated 7,033 maternal deaths occur annually from these complications. With improved PL/OL/POL diagnosis and improved transfer, 1,700 and 740 lives could be saved, respectively. Improved diagnosis, transfer, and treatment for PL/OL/POL reduce the mortality rate to 864 maternal deaths annually, saving 6,169 lives. If improved transfusion and antibiotic use were added, only 507 women per year would die from PL/OL/POL in SSA. Conclusion In SSA, increasing diagnostics, transfer to higher care, and operative delivery could substantially reduce maternal mortality from PL/OL/POL. Synopsis A computerized model of obstructed labor in SSA was created to explore the interventions necessary to reduce maternal mortality from this condition. PMID:27031054

  4. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  5. Ownership, competition, and the adoption of new technologies and cost-saving practices in a fixed-price environment.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Orzol, S M

    2000-01-01

    Advances in medical technology have been implicated as the primary cause of rising health care expenditures. It is not yet known whether the increasing prevalence of managed care mechanisms, particularly capitation, will change substantially incentives for acquiring and using cost-increasing innovations. We examined the decisions of dialysis units (a set of providers that has faced capitation and real decreases in payment for several decades) with respect to use of cost-increasing technologies that enhance quality of care, cost-cutting practices that reduce quality of care, and amenities desired by patients that are unrelated to quality of care. We found that the dialysis payment system does not appear to have blocked access to a number of new, quality-enhancing technologies that were developed in the 1980s. However, facilities made adjustments along other valuable margins to facilitate adoption of these technologies; use of new technologies varied with numerous facility, regulatory, and case-mix characteristics including ownership, chain membership, size, market competition, and certificate of need programs. Interestingly, the trade-offs made by for-profit and nonprofit facilities when faced with fixed prices appeared quite different. For-profits tended to deliver lower technical quality of care but more amenities, while nonprofits favored technical quality of care over amenities. Our findings may have implications for the response of other types of health care providers to capitation and increasing economic constraints. PMID:11111285

  6. Average-passage flow model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  8. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage.

  9. Pyroclastic passage zones in glaciovolcanic sequences.

    PubMed

    Russell, James K; Edwards, Benjamin R; Porritt, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Volcanoes are increasingly recognized as agents and recorders of global climate variability, although deciphering the linkages between planetary climate and volcanism is still in its infancy. The growth and emergence of subaqueous volcanoes produce passage zones, which are stratigraphic surfaces marking major transitions in depositional environments. In glaciovolcanic settings, they record the elevations of syn-eruptive englacial lakes. Thus, they allow for forensic recovery of minimum ice thicknesses. Here we present the first description of a passage zone preserved entirely within pyroclastic deposits, marking the growth of a tephra cone above the englacial lake level. Our discovery requires extension of the passage-zone concept to accommodate explosive volcanism and guides future studies of hundreds of glaciovolcanic edifices on Earth and Mars. Our recognition of pyroclastic passage zones increases the potential for recovering transient paleolake levels, improving estimates of paleo-ice thicknesses and providing new constraints on paleoclimate models that consider the extents and timing of planetary glaciations.

  10. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  11. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  12. Active attenuation of propeller blade passage noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalas, J. M.; Tichy, J.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic measurements are presented to show that active cancellation can be used to achieve significant reduction of blade passage noise in a turboprop cabin. Simultaneous suppression of all blade passage frequencies was attained. The spatial volume over which cancellation occurred, however, is limited. Acoustic intensity maps are presented to show that the acoustic input to the fuselage was sufficiently non-localized so as to require more judicious selection of cancellation speaker location.

  13. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  14. The Myth About Saving Money: "IT Investments Will Save The Institution Money"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinger, Diana G.

    2005-01-01

    Claims that investing in information technology will save money for a college or university have rarely proven true. In fact, realizing the promised dollar savings is so rare in higher education that the credibility of many IT professionals has been jeopardized by making the claim. Not producing promised savings only exacerbates the sense, among…

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, John

    2014-02-20

    The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

  16. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 2: Coolant passages with trips normal and skewed to the flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modem turbine blades. This experimental program is one part of the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Initiative, which has as its overall objective the development and verification of improved analysis methods that will form the basis for a design system that will produce turbine components with improved durability. The objective of this program was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. The experimental work was broken down into two phases. Phase 1 consists of experiments conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model. A detailed discussion of these results was presented in volume 1 of a NASA Report. In Phase 2 the large scale model was modified to investigate the effects of skewed and normal passage turbulators. The results of Phase 2 along with comparison to Phase 1 is the subject of this Volume 2 NASA Report.

  17. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  18. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  19. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  20. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations.

  1. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  2. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-10-01

    As shown by the recent M w 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of M w 6.5-7.

  3. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  4. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  5. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 [1], ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to

  6. The Contribution of Passage and Non-Passage Factors to Item Performance on the SAT Reading Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stuart; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted a regression analysis to assess the contributions of passage and no-passage factors to item variance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test reading comprehension task. Results show that no-passage factors play a larger role than do passage factors, accounting for as much as three-fourths of systematic variance in item difficulty and more than…

  7. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 [1], ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to

  8. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section 3280.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section 3280.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  10. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE DURING FILTER PERTURBATION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate and cati...

  11. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" as Historiographic Metafiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaden, Barbara Z.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that what makes Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" significant and eminently teachable is that it is an accessible example of "historiographic metafiction"--bestselling postmodern novels set in the past. Notes that students find the novel "easy" and enjoyable and that teaching the novel with some of its intertexts, such as H. Melville's…

  13. Carburetor fuel feed system with bidirectional passage

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.S.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a carburetor having an air inlet, an outlet, throttling means for controlling the flow through a main air path, and a venturi for reading air velocity through the carburetor located between the throttling means and the air inlet. The improvement described here comprises a bidirectional passage between the venturi and an area downstream of the throttling means for allowing free movement of air either from the venturi to the area downstream of the throttling means or from the area downstream of the throttling means to the venturi. The direction of air movement is dependent on the pressure relationship between the venturi and the area downstream of the throttling means. A means is included for receiving metered fuel into the bidirectional passage and allowing metered fuel to blend with air moving through the bidirectional passage and meet with the main air path either at the area downstream of the throttling means or at the venturi. The means for receiving metered fuel comprises a tubular section extending into the bidirectional passage adjacent the venturi, and providing a confined area of high velocity where fuel meets with air when the flow is from the venturi to the area downstream of the throttling means.

  14. Saving Strokes with Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Inventor Dave Pelz developed a space spinoff Teacher Alignment Computer for Sunmark Preceptor Golf Ltd. which helps golfers learn proper putting aim. The light beam, reflected into the computer, measures putter alignment and lights atop the box tell the golfer he is on target or off to either side and how much. A related putting aid idea is to stroke the ball at the putter's "sweet spot," which is bracketed by metal prongs. Regular practice develops solid impacts for better putting.

  15. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  16. Visualization techniques to experimentally model flow and heat transfer in turbine and aircraft flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Louis M.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    Increased attention to fuel economy and increased thrust requirements have increased the demand for higher aircraft gas turbine engine efficiency through the use of higher turbine inlet temperatures. These higher temperatures increase the importance of understanding the heat transfer patterns which occur throughout the turbine passages. It is often necessary to use a special coating or some form of cooling to maintain metal temperatures at a level which the metal can withstand for long periods of time. Effective cooling schemes can result in significant fuel savings through higher allowable turbine inlet temperatures and can increase engine life. Before proceeding with the development of any new turbine it is economically desirable to create both mathematical and experimental models to study and predict flow characteristics and temperature distributions. Some of the methods are described used to physically model heat transfer patterns, cooling schemes, and other complex flow patterns associated with turbine and aircraft passages.

  17. The relationship between particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage and nasal passage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, J; Bascom, R; Laube, B; Swift, D L

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nasal passage characteristics on anterior particle deposition during cyclical breathing. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, adult subjects participated in this study. Nasal passage characteristics such as nostril length, width, angle, ellipticity, and minimum nasal cross-sectional area were measured. The subjects inhaled a polydisperse radioactively tagged aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter = 5.4 microns, geometric standard deviation [GSD] = 1.3) into the nose and exhaled through the mouth. The amount of radioactivity in the nose was measured immediately after inhalation and thereafter for 54 minutes. At 52.5 minutes, subjects wiped the accessible portion of the anterior nose to remove any remaining activity. The difference in activity at 52 and 54 minutes was used as a measure of activity removed during the nose wipe. Percentage of activity in the nasal passage at 52 minutes and percentage of activity removed with the nose wipe were considered surrogates for particles deposited in the anterior nasal passage. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of ellipticity of the nostrils was significantly related to particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage. These results suggest that ellipticity of the nostrils may be a determinant of the amount of particle deposition in the anterior nasal passage.

  18. Shining a Light on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted. (GR)

  19. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  20. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE SECOND FLOOR; THE STAIR RISES AT THE EAST WALL OF THE PASSAGE - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Energy conservation and savings in the food industry (citations from Food Science and Technology Abstracts). Report for Jan 1972-Nov 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hippler, R.R.

    1980-02-01

    The citations cover world-wide literature on conservation and savings in energy use for the food industry. Industries covered are dairies (including milk, cheese, cream, ice cream), breweries, meat industry, food processing plants, food warehouses, bakeries, and sugar factories. Energy savings aspects are alternate energy forms, solar drying and dehydration (including for grains and fruits), energy recycling (waste energy usage), and use of by-products for energy, such as biogas. The articles cover techniques equipment, and design for energy conservation. (Contains 95 abstracts)

  2. Runner`s hydraulic passage and blade geometry recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, L.; Richer, Y.; Genest, R.

    1995-12-31

    The geometrical recovery of a hydraulic passage or a blade (back and face) of any type of runner whether for homologation or performance upgrading purposes is possible using different techniques. All of these techniques present advantages and disadvantages; one of which, and probably the most important, is the time required for the preparation and the data acquisition on site. This is even more apparent when the runner is in its position in the power plant. The conditions on site make any type of intervention very difficult, costly and some types even unsafe. All of these facts are present regardless of the restraint in the quantity and the precision of the data that are available by other techniques. The use of a new technology, named Integrated Imagery Management System (IIMS) has proven its efficiency for this specific purpose, among others. The digital numerization of photogrammetric images allow us to produce very precise data (down to 6 {mu}m, if necessary) in order to recover the geometry of a hydraulic passage or a blade, the work on site being done in only a few hours and under almost any conditions.

  3. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  4. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  5. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City...

  6. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  7. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Using ITP Decision Tools to Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how the program's software tools and information help manufacturers save energy and money, increase productivity, and improve reliability.

  9. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises (International English Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This fact sheet provides information about the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now energy audit process, software tools, training, energy management standards, and energy efficient technologies to help U.S. companies identify energy cost savings.

  10. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholods, Jon F.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  11. Inverse design of a turbine cascade passage and DNS of a stationary and rotating serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Experimental investigations of the flow physics past a single stationary transonic turbine blade in a cascade are complicated by the periodic nature of the problem. Typically up to seven blades in a cascade are required to guarantee periodicity about the center blade that, in turn, requires large compressors at transonic speeds. One possibility to circumvent the constraint of so many blades, and allow the necessary optical access, is to place a single blade in a passage consisting of two plexiglass walls that are designed to obtain certain representative periodic flowfield characteristics. Using an optimization procedure based on the method of steepest descent and the RANS equations, the walls were designed to ensure that the Surface Isentropic Mach Number (SIMN) distribution on the blade matched the SIMN of the same blade in an infinite cascade. The experimental setup imposed an additional constraint requiring the flow remained attached along both passage walls. A robust and autonomous design method using a weighted composite cost function was developed and successfully applied. Excellent agreement was achieved between CFD of the infinite cascade SIMN, CFD of the designed double passage SIMN, and the experimentally measured SIMN. Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The serpentine passage is an ideal candidate for conducting a thorough DNS study due to its geometric simplicity but complex flow physics. The serpentine passage geometry investigated has dimensions 12pidelta x 2delta x 3pidelta and radius of curvature delta/r c = 0.5 in the curved section. Simulations of a test matrix consisting of two different Reynolds numbers, Retau = 180 and Retau = 250, subjected to two different orthogonal rotation numbers, Ro tau = 0 and Rotau = 5 was conducted. Whereas the stationary case results in a symmetric flowfield for the two U-bends constituting the passage, the effect of rotation coupled with

  12. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  13. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J.; James, Allister W.

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  14. Transplacental passage of insulin complexed to antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, W A; Yalow, R S

    1981-01-01

    The passage of plasma proteins across the placental barrier in humans is known to be highly selective. Thus, free maternal insulin has been reported not to cross the normal maternofetal barrier, although insulin-binding antibodies have been detected in newborn infants whose diabetic mothers received insulin therapy. In this report we demonstrate, with the use of a human antiserum that permits distinction between human and animal insulins, that insulin in the cord blood of each of two neonates of insulin-treated diabetic mothers was, in part, animal insulin. The higher the antibody titer of the mother the greater was the total insulin in the cord plasma and the greater was the fraction that was animal insulin. In case 1 cord plasma insulin was 0.7 unit/liter, of which 10% was animal insulin; in case 2 cord plasma insulin was 3.5 units/liter, of which 25% was animal insulin. The demonstration that antigen restricted from transplacental passage can be transferred while complexed to antibody raises the question whether such fetal exposure would induce partial or total immunologic unresponsiveness subsequently if the fetus were rechallenged with the same antigen. PMID:7027265

  15. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  16. Comparing Rasch Calibration of Passage Reading Difficulty with Spache or Dale-Chall Passage Readability Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Steven J.

    The utility and precision of scaling 200 relatively short reading passages were analyzed using a Rasch-based measurement technique as compared to readability estimates using the Spache or Dale-Chall formulas. In addition, a regression model was specified for predicting the grade level of a text a student could literally comprehend based on…

  17. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  18. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and social service…

  19. Heat transfer in serpentine flow passages with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Takamura, J.; Yamawaki, S.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    1992-06-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing heat transfer performance in a rotating serpentine flow passage of a square cross section. The test section is preceded by a hydrodynamic calming region. The test model is a blow-up (by seven times) of actual winding flow passages in rotor blades. It is concluded that the flow in the 180-deg bends exhibits strong 3D structure. The heat transfer coefficient in the bend is substantially higher than in the straight flow passages. The average heat transfer characteristics over the entire flow passage is greatly affected by flow at the 180-deg bends. Due to secondary flow induced by the Coriolis force, the heat transfer coefficient in the radially outward flow passages diminish on the leading surface, but increase on the trailing surface, with an increase in rotational speed. The trend is reversed in the radially inward flow passages.

  20. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  1. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  2. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-10-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  3. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks.

    PubMed

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ. We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p-plets (p>2) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size. PMID:26986314

  4. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ . We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p -plets (p >2 ) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  5. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  6. The Eskimos of the Northwest Passage

    PubMed Central

    Davies, L. E. C.; Hanson, S.

    1965-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during the annual survey conducted by the Federal Northern Health Services in the area of the Northwest Passage, the diet and living conditions of some 1500 Eskimos who live in this area were studied and blood and urine samples were obtained from 40-50% of this population. Hemoglobin, blood cell morphology, serum protein-bound iodine, serum proteins, serum lipids and serum total cholesterol estimations, urinalyses, and agglutination studies for brucellosis were carried out. Hemoglobin levels were in the normal range; however, increased contact with civilization appeared to be associated with lower hemoglobin levels. Eleven per cent of the Eskimos showed eosinophilia. Serum proteins were normal. Serum lipids and serum cholesterol levels were higher in Eskimo children living in a government residential school than in a comparable group living on the Barren Lands. Serum protein-bound iodine levels were in the upper euthyroid range. Diabetes mellitus occurs among Eskimos. Sporadic cases of brucellosis also occur. PMID:14246293

  7. Tectonic reconstructions for paleobathymetry in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    A minimum-complexity tectonic reconstruction, based on published and new basin opening models, depicts how the Scotia Sea grew by Cenozoic plate divergence, dismembering a Jurassic sheared margin of Gondwana. Part of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous ocean that accreted to this margin forms the core of the Central Scotia Plate, the arc plate above a trench at the eastern end of the Scotia Sea, which migrated east away from the Antarctic and South American plates. A sequence of extensional basins opened on the western edge of the Central Scotia Plate at 50-30 Ma, decoupled from the South American Plate to the northwest by slow motion on a long transform fault. Succeeding the basins, seafloor spreading started around 30 Ma on the West Scotia Ridge, which propagated northwards in the 23-17 Ma period and ceased to operate at 6 Ma. The circuits of plate motions inside and outside the Scotia Arc are joined via rotations that describe Antarctic-Central Scotia plate motion in Powell Basin until 20 Ma, and along the South Scotia Ridge thereafter. The modelled relative motion at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea is thus constrained only by the plate circuit, but nonetheless resembles that known coarsely from the geological record of Tierra del Fuego. A paleobathymetric interpretation of nine time slices in the model shows Drake Passage developing as an intermediate-depth oceanographic gateway at 50-30 Ma, with deep flow possible afterwards. Initially, this deep flow would have been made tortuous by numerous intermediate and shallow barriers. A frontal pattern resembling that in the modern Scotia Sea would have awaited the clearance of significant barriers by continuing seafloor spreading in the Scotia Sea at ~ 18.5 Ma, at Shag Rocks Passage, and after 10 Ma southeast of South Georgia.

  8. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  9. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  10. Velocity structure and transport in the Windward Islands Passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W. Douglas; Johns, William E.

    1997-03-01

    During 1991-1994, repeated measurements of current structure and water mass properties were made in the major southern passages to the Caribbean Sea between Trinidad and Dominica. A total of 10 cruises were performed in different seasons, consisting primarily of serial station occupations in the Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, and Dominica Passages. This data set is by far the most comprehensive available in these passages and better determines the mean flow and range of variability than do previous studies. The flow structure in these passages is characterized by a strong and relatively stable inflow above the thermocline (approximately the upper 100 m), and a more highly variable flow regime within and below the thermocline. Typical near-surface inflow velocities in Grenada and St Vincent passages were 40-60 cm s -1, with maximum observed currents of 90 cm s -1. Frequently, counterflows were observed below this surface layer flowing out of the Caribbean, trapped to the southern side of the passages. This subsurface counterflow appeared to be strongest and most prevalent in Grenada Passage, where outflow speeds as large as 30 cm s -1 were observed. As a result, the ensemble mean sections for the three southern passages exhibit a deep inflow concentrated in the northern and central parts of the passages, and weak outflow on the southern sides. The ensemble of measurements from this program indicate a mean transport of 9.5±3 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 through the southern passages, with a range of variability from 3 to 17 × 10 6 m 3 s -1. No clear annual cycle is apparent in the passage transports. Mean transports calculated for the individual passages were 4.7, 3.4, 0.9, and 0.5 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, respectively, for Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, and Dominica Passages, decreasing monotonically northward and indicating that Grenada and St Vincent Passages largely dominate the inflow to the southern Caribbean. Consideration of this data set, historical data, Sverdrup theory and

  11. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  12. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  13. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    calculations using these techniques are employed using data from both the sonic and hotwire anemometers, when possible. Unfortunately, direct calculations of {var_epsilon} were not possible during a part of the frontal passage because the high wind speeds concurrent with the frontal passage demand very high frequency resolution, beyond that possible with the hotwire anemometer, for direct {var_epsilon} calculations. The calculations resulting from these three techniques are presented for the cold front as a time series. Quantitative comparisons of the direct and indirect calculation techniques are also given. More detail, as well as a discussion of energy spectra, can be found in Piper & Lundquist(2004).

  14. Generation of atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-10-01

    Based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose an effective scheme for generating atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The photon losses are efficiently suppressed by engineering shortcuts to adiabatic passage in the scheme. The numerical simulation shows that the atomic NOON states can be generated with high fidelity.

  15. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  16. Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…

  17. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  18. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  19. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  20. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  1. Save Energy Now: Successful Partnership Benefits Industry's Bottom Line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the elements and benefits of the U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program's Save Energy Now initiative. Save Energy Now is part of a national campaign, ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', announced by DOE in 2005. This campaign educates the public about simple but effective energy choices, helps U.S. industry and the government reduce their energy use, and supports national goals for energy security. Through Save Energy Now, DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) helps industrial plants operate more efficiently and profitably by identifying ways to reduce energy use in key industrial process systems.

  2. Comparison of immunogenicity of cell-and egg-passaged viruses for manufacturing MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Duckhyang; Park, Kuk Jin; Lee, Hyeon; Cho, Eun Young; Kim, Mi Suk; Hwang, Mi Hui; Kim, Soo In; Ahn, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    While cell culture-based technology has been recently used for manufacturing influenza vaccines, currently available seed viruses are mostly egg-derived reassortants that are egg-adapted to achieve high virus growth in eggs. For use as viruses for cell culture-based influenza vaccine manufacturing, egg-adapted viral seeds may undergo several passages in manufacturing cell lines. However, the suitability of such cell-passaged viruses for vaccine production remains largely unelucidated. In this study, influenza viruses produced in suspension Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell cultures were compared to those produced in embryonated hen's eggs for manufacturing MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccines through comparability studies of virus productivity and vaccine immunogenicity. The results indicate no change in the amino acid sequence of the main antigens, including hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), of cell-passaged viruses after three passages in suspension MDCK cells. In lab-scale (3-L) single-use bioreactors, suspension MDCK culture supernatants inoculated with cell-passaged viruses were found to show higher virus productivity, suspension MDCK culture supernatants inoculated with egg-passaged viruses, in respect to the HA titers and HA contents determined by single radial immunodiffusion. Finally, comparable hemagglutination inhibition and influenza-specific IgG titers were determined in the mice immunized with cell culture-based vaccines produced with cell- or egg-passaged viruses. These results indicate that MDCK cell-passaged viruses from egg-adapted viruses, as well as egg-derived seed virus, are suitable for MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccine production.

  3. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  4. Bigeodesics in First-Passage Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damron, Michael; Hanson, Jack

    2016-09-01

    In first-passage percolation, we place i.i.d. continuous weights at the edges of Z^2 and consider the weighted graph metric. A distance-minimizing path between points x and y is called a geodesic, and a bigeodesic is a doubly-infinite path whose segments are geodesics. It is a famous conjecture that almost surely, there are no bigeodesics. In the 1990s, Licea-Newman showed that, under a curvature assumption on the "asymptotic shape," all infinite geodesics have an asymptotic direction, and there is a full measure set {D subset [0,2π)} such that for any {θ in D} , there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in direction {θ} . In this paper, we show that there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in any deterministic direction, assuming the shape boundary is differentiable. This rules out existence of ground state pairs for the related disordered ferromagnet whose interface has a deterministic direction. Furthermore, it resolves the Benjamini-Kalai-Schramm "midpoint problem" (Benjamini et al. in Ann Probab 31, p. 1976, 2003). under the extra assumption that the limit shape boundary is differentiable.

  5. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  6. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  7. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  8. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  9. Modeling of First-Passage Processes in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Hikaru; Sazuka, Naoya; Scalas, Enrico

    2010-03-01

    In this talk, we attempt to make a microscopic modeling the first-passage process (or the first-exit process) of the BUND future by minority game with market history. We find that the first-passage process of the minority game with appropriate history length generates the same properties as the BTP future (the middle and long term Italian Government bonds with fixed interest rates), namely, both first-passage time distributions have a crossover at some specific time scale as is the case for the Mittag-Leffler function. We also provide a macroscopic (or a phenomenological) modeling of the first-passage process of the BTP future and show analytically that the first-passage time distribution of a simplest mixture of the normal compound Poisson processes does not have such a crossover.

  10. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  11. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  12. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  13. Improved components for engine fuel savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antl, R. J.; Mcaulay, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    NASA programs for developing fuel saving technology include the Engine Component Improvement Project for short term improvements in existing air engines. The Performance Improvement section is to define component technologies for improving fuel efficiency for CF6, JT9D and JT8D turbofan engines. Sixteen concepts were developed and nine were tested while four are already in use by airlines. If all sixteen concepts are successfully introduced the gain will be fuel savings of more than 6 billion gallons over the lifetime of the engines. The improvements include modifications in fans, mounts, exhaust nozzles, turbine clearance and turbine blades.

  14. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  15. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  17. Heat transfer in serpentine passages with turbulence promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer rates and overall pressure losses were determined for serpentine passages of square cross section. The flow entered an inlet leg, turned 180 deg and then passed through an outlet leg. Results were obtained for a passage with smooth walls for three different bend geometries and the effect of turbulence promoters was investigated. Turbulence promoters between 0.6 and 15% of the passage height were tested. Local heat transfer rates are determined from thermocouple measurements on a thin electrically heated Inconel foil and pressure drop is measured along the flow path.

  18. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  19. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  20. Last-passage Monte Carlo algorithm for mutual capacitance.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Given, James A

    2006-08-01

    We develop and test the last-passage diffusion algorithm, a charge-based Monte Carlo algorithm, for the mutual capacitance of a system of conductors. The first-passage algorithm is highly efficient because it is charge based and incorporates importance sampling; it averages over the properties of Brownian paths that initiate outside the conductor and terminate on its surface. However, this algorithm does not seem to generalize to mutual capacitance problems. The last-passage algorithm, in a sense, is the time reversal of the first-passage algorithm; it involves averages over particles that initiate on an absorbing surface, leave that surface, and diffuse away to infinity. To validate this algorithm, we calculate the mutual capacitance matrix of the circular-disk parallel-plate capacitor and compare with the known numerical results. Good agreement is obtained.

  1. Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  7. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  8. 11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to southwest chamber (door blocked off on far side) on left; closet on right. - Conner Homestead, House, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

  9. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  10. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  12. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  13. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8287) to use an energy-savings performance contract (ESPC), when...

  14. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8287) to use an energy-savings performance contract (ESPC), when...

  15. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  16. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  17. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  18. [Wine and women: an overlooked passage in the Hippocratic corpus].

    PubMed

    Villard, L

    1997-01-01

    A passage taken from the Hippocratic Corpus states that at the beginning of pregnancy women say that they do not like the taste of wine. This passage should be added to evidence about wine drinking by women in Classical Greece. It shows that, contrary to previous opinion, women drank wine when they were in good health and corresponds with the notion that it was often prescribed by physicians in order to cure illness.

  19. Rural America in Passage: Statistics for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M., Ed.; And Others

    The Panel on Statistics for Rural Development Policy was established to assess the current quality and availability of data for rural development policy--a more difficult task than might first appear. Until recent decades, rural development was commonly understood to be the development of agriculture. As science and technology transformed U. S.…

  20. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  2. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  3. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  4. Remanufacturing and energy savings.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Boustani, Avid; Graves, Stephen C

    2011-05-15

    Remanufactured products that can substitute for new products are generally claimed to save energy. These claims are made from studies that look mainly at the differences in materials production and manufacturing. However, when the use phase is included, the situation can change radically. In this Article, 25 case studies for eight different product categories were studied, including: (1) furniture, (2) clothing, (3) computers, (4) electric motors, (5) tires, (6) appliances, (7) engines, and (8) toner cartridges. For most of these products, the use phase energy dominates that for materials production and manufacturing combined. As a result, small changes in use phase efficiency can overwhelm the claimed savings from materials production and manufacturing. These use phase energy changes are primarily due to efficiency improvements in new products, and efficiency degradation in remanufactured products. For those products with no, or an unchanging, use phase energy requirement, remanufacturing can save energy. For the 25 cases, we found that 8 cases clearly saved energy, 6 did not, and 11 were too close to call. In some cases, we could examine how the energy savings potential of remanufacturing has changed over time. Specifically, during times of significant improvements in energy efficiency, remanufacturing would often not save energy. A general design trend seems to be to add power to a previously unpowered product, and then to improve on the energy efficiency of the product over time. These trends tend to undermine the energy savings potential of remanufacturing.

  5. Simplification and Saving.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2013-11-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  6. Simplification and Saving

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  7. Safety Passage in the Flying Canoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Jungle Aviation and Radio Service (JAARS) delivers missionaries to remote outposts under sometimes hazardous flying conditions. A serious accident led JAARS' to initiate a crash survivability research program based on NASA technology. In 1978, JAARS sought help from Langley Research Center and was invited to participate in Langley's crashworthiness program. With assistance from Langley, JAARS developed an impact absorbing aircraft seat designed to minimize crash injury. The seat design is available to all missionary aircraft and JAARS is offering it for commercial manufacture.

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  9. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet English/Chinese describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help Chinese manufacturing enterprises reduce industrial energy intensity.

  10. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  11. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  12. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  13. Saving Our Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firehock, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an Izaak Walton League of America's Save Our Streams (SOS) program that teaches citizens how to protect streams. This organization provides activities for families, school groups, scout troops, 4-H clubs and other youth organizations. (MCO)

  14. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  15. Do not disturb the animals! or, how Con Edison saved $300,000 using a trenchless technology to renew 3,000 feet of leaking gas main at the Bronx Zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Bufe, M.

    1995-07-01

    Every leaking gas main presents a challenge. But when that leaking main follows a series of sweeping bends on its route through North America`s largest urban wildlife park, it presents a special challenge. That was the situation Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. recently faced when numerous leaks were discovered along 3,000 feet of a 95-year-old, 12-inch cast-iron main that winds through New York City`s Bronx Zoo. Con Edison knew it needed a long-term solution to this increasingly common problem. Thanks to the cooperative efforts of the utility`s operations and research departments and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Con Edison also knew about a trenchless technology that could renew the pipe with minimal impact to the environment--while saving the utility a substantial sum of money in the process. In the Paltem system, a woven polyester hose is injected with an epoxy resin and then inverted (turned inside out) into a pipe at an access pit. The liner then bonds to the inside wall of the pipe, forming a smooth, flexible and pressure-resistant lining. The process is environmentally safe, requires very little excavation and can be installed in days, rather than the weeks or months it can take to dig up and replace existing pipe.

  16. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole; Palao, Leo Kris

    2015-01-01

    70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD. PMID:26689778

  17. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole; Palao, Leo Kris

    2015-01-01

    70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD.

  18. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole; Palao, Leo Kris

    2015-01-01

    70% of the world’s freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD. PMID:26689778

  19. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  20. Simple scheme for preparing W states and cloning via adiabatic passage in ion-trap systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong-Can; Li, Hong-Cai; Lin, Xiu; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Hong; Lin, Jian-Feng; Huang, Gui-Ru

    2007-11-01

    We propose a simple protocol for the generation of W states and the implementation of phase-covariant cloning and anticloning machines via adiabatic passage in ion-trap system. In the present scheme, the system state evolves in the dark space during the whole procedure. We only use the two-level ions to act as memory and do not require the transfer quantum information from ions to the vibrational mode, which makes the system simple and robust against decoherence. Moreover, the proposal may be feasible based on current technologies.

  1. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-10-01

    In the following discussion I suggest that the reason there is no consensus on whether the passage of time is physical is that our current best theory of spacetime, general relativity, lacks such a concept. This means that the sense-experience of passage, appealed to by those who claim it is physical, cannot be properly expressed: it is not even a fact. I draw attention to work in the literature on a model of a growing, granular spacetime--arising within a proposed theory of quantum spacetime called causal set theory--that does contain the concept of passage as the coming into being or birth of atoms of spacetime. I present an example from the history of science of a sense-experience that cannot be understood within one theory but is revealed to be an important fact within a better successor theory.

  2. Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space. - Highlights: • New ways of coherent transport by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in 2D lattices. • Synthesis of exactly-solvable 2D lattices from a simple three-well model. • CTAP in 2D lattices can be exploited for quantum state transfer.

  3. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-10-01

    In the following discussion I suggest that the reason there is no consensus on whether the passage of time is physical is that our current best theory of spacetime, general relativity, lacks such a concept. This means that the sense-experience of passage, appealed to by those who claim it is physical, cannot be properly expressed: it is not even a fact. I draw attention to work in the literature on a model of a growing, granular spacetime--arising within a proposed theory of quantum spacetime called causal set theory--that does contain the concept of passage as the coming into being or birth of atoms of spacetime. I present an example from the history of science of a sense-experience that cannot be understood within one theory but is revealed to be an important fact within a better successor theory. PMID:25257658

  4. The effect of cell passage number on osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics of D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kwist, K; Bridges, W C; Burg, K J L

    2016-08-01

    Cell line passage number is an important consideration when designing an experiment. At higher passages, it is generally understood that cell health begins to decline and, when this occurs, the result can be variable data. However, there are no specific guidelines regarding optimal passage range, and this information is dependent on cell type. To explore these variabilities, low passage D1 cells were thawed (passage 3) and passaged serially until a much higher number (passage 34). Samples were taken every five passages and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and triglyceride; also, the gene expression of both adipogenic and osteogenic markers was tested. The results indicate that the growth rate of these cells did slow down after passage 30. However, expression of the osteogenic characteristics seemed to cycle, with the highest levels seen at passage 4 and 24. The adipocyte expression levels remained the same throughout the study.

  5. Passage kinetics of concentrates in dairy cows measured with carbon stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Dijkstra, J; Tamminga, S; Pellikaan, W F

    2013-12-01

    the 13C : 12C ratio varied considerably from studies based on external markers. Our results suggest that the use of 13C isotopes as digesta passage markers can provide feed component-specific K 1 estimates for concentrates and provides new insight into passage kinetics of NDF from technologically treated compound feed.

  6. FUNCTIONS OF VATA (BASED ON CHARAKA) A Passage from Vaatkalaakaleeyam

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Acharya Raghuvir Prasad

    1982-01-01

    The author has chosen 12th Chapter from the Sutra Sthana of this great epic containing 12,000 verses and passages which is replete with materials to revive the whole art of healing even if the whole medical literatures is lost. The passage puts in a nutshell the key role played by Vayu / Vata in the working of the tantra and yantra of the body. Though exploration of the humours is yet to be done by modern physiologists to explain the Ayurvedic Vata which is responsible to no less than 18 functions of the normal body mechanism PMID:22556488

  7. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  8. Flexible and experimentally feasible shortcut to quantum Zeno dynamic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Fengyang; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-10-01

    We propose and discuss a theoretical scheme to speed up Zeno dynamic passage by an external acceleration Hamiltonian. This scheme is a flexible and experimentally feasible acceleration because the acceleration Hamiltonian does not adhere rigidly to an invariant relationship, whereas it can be a more general form ∑uj (t)Hcj. Here Hcj can be arbitrarily selected without any limitation, and therefore one can always construct an acceleration Hamiltonian by only using realizable Hcj. Applying our scheme, we finally design an experimentally feasible Hamiltonian as an example to speed up an entanglement preparation passage.

  9. Emerging Technologies - Capturing Innovation with Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    ET team research results are critical to achieving 50% energy savings across U.S. buildings within the next two decades. The ET team focuses on supporting research, development, and tech-to-market opportunities of high impact technologies, or those that demonstrate potential for achieving significant energy savings cost effectively.

  10. Re-Founding Childhood Education: Passages in Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood represents the passage into and through constrained notions of spatio-temporal identity and normative constructions. The role of education is too frequently understood as the shaping of life and purpose in the service of democratic ideology. I propose another examination embracing historical anthropologies of education troubling…

  11. View looking west down a thirdfloor passage on the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west down a third-floor passage on the south side of the rotunda extension from the main corridor. The elevator opening is to the left and the windo on the right looks down the south stair in the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  13. 33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the territorial sea of the United States (unless bound for, entering or departing a U.S. port or navigating the... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the territorial sea of the United States (unless bound for, entering or departing a U.S. port or navigating the... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  15. 33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the territorial sea of the United States (unless bound for, entering or departing a U.S. port or navigating the... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  16. Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the validity and effectiveness…

  17. An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building and M Building immediately to the east. The east entrance and the south wing of the building are visible - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  18. Group vs. Individual Completions of Cloze Passages by ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabakhshi, Susan C.

    A study investigated whether group interaction in completing cloze passages resulted in better completion than individual work. An earlier analysis of cloze procedure was replicated with 41 community college students of English as a Second Language (ESL). The population was randomly divided into two samples. Each sample completed two cloze…

  19. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  20. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER FROM THE CENTRAL PASSAGE. (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTHWEST ATTIC CHAMBER FROM THE CENTRAL PASSAGE. (NOTE THE LEFT JAMB OF THE ARCHITRVE MOLDING AROUND THE DOOR. ALL OF THE SERVICE SPACES THROUGHOUT THE WOODLANDS INCLUDED THIS DEGREE OF REFINEMENT - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Interior view, secondstory passage running along the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, second-story passage running along the south side of the rotunda looking west from the main corridor. The opening to the left accesses the elevator shaft. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 7. DETAIL OF STONEWORK AND PASSAGE FROM SOUTH ROOM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF STONEWORK AND PASSAGE FROM SOUTH ROOM OF FAN HOUSE TO FAN ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Sublet Mine No. 6, Fan House, North structure, west side of Willow Creek Valley, east of County Road No. 306, 3 miles north of U.S. Highway 189, Kemmerer, Lincoln County, WY

  3. 6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN HOUSE THAT REGULATE FLOW OF AIR - Sublet Mine No. 6, Fan House, North structure, west side of Willow Creek Valley, east of County Road No. 306, 3 miles north of U.S. Highway 189, Kemmerer, Lincoln County, WY

  4. Effect of Content Instruction on Cloze Passage Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Maurice

    A study examined the use of cloze procedure as a measure of learning from content instruction. Subjects were 35 physician assistant (PA) students in a cancer prevention course and 31 education students (ED) enrolled in reading instruction courses. Cloze passages were constructed from published selections on the reading process and occupationally…

  5. LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. INTERIOR DETAIL, DINING ROOM PASSAGE AND SERVICE STAIR. THE VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, DINING ROOM PASSAGE AND SERVICE STAIR. THE VISIBLE RETRACTABLE DOOR PANEL AND ITS OPPOSING MATE, NOT VISIBLE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH, COULD BE CLOSED IN ORDER TO CREATE A DISCRETE STAGING AREA FOR SERVICE FUNCTIONS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Interior view, secondstory passage extending westward from main corridor to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, second-story passage extending westward from main corridor to rooms on the north side of the rotunda in the rotunda extension. The roof and third-floor in this area is completely missing. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Nurse Educators' Leadership Styles and Nurse Graduates' Licensure Passage Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dianna Bailey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between leadership styles of community college nurse educators in Texas and licensure passage rates of nursing community college graduates in Texas. Surveys were conducted to obtain the nurse educators' demographic data. The Multifactor Leadership…

  9. The Tyranny of Democracy: Deconstructing the Passage of Racist Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara; Necochea, Juan; Rios, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    This article examines race-based propositions and the movidas used to garner electorate support for these initiatives, which amount to the "tyranny of the majority" trampling on the rights of the minority as has happened so many times during our nation's history in the name of democracy. Specifically, the passage of Proposition 227 in California…

  10. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  11. 17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from inside security fence; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  12. 16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from Canal Street; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  13. 15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  14. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly; Olson, Jason

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  15. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene neurotoxicity - Passage effect in immortalized astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Laura L; Latham, Jackelyn D; Landis, Rory W; Song, Dong Hoon; Epstein, Tamir; Philbert, Martin A

    2016-03-01

    Age-related disturbances in astrocytic mitochondrial function are linked to loss of neuroprotection and decrements in neurological function. The immortalized rat neocortical astrocyte-derived cell line, DI-TNC1, provides a convenient model for the examination of cellular aging processes that are difficult to study in primary cell isolates from aged brain. Successive passages in culture may serve as a surrogate of aging in which time-dependent adaptation to culture conditions may result in altered responses to xenobiotic challenge. To investigate the hypothesis that astrocytic mitochondrial homeostatic function is decreased with time in culture, low passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (LP; #2-8) and high passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (HP; #17-28) were exposed to the mitochondrial neurotoxicant 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Cells were exposed in either monoculture or in co-culture with primary cortical neurons. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential, morphology, ATP production and proliferation were monitored in monoculture, and the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to buffer K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization was examined in co-cultures. In HP DI-TNC1 cells, DNB exposure decreased proliferation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly decreased mitochondrial form factor. Low passage DI-TNC1 cells effectively attenuated K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization in the presence of DNB whereas HP counterparts were unable to buffer K(+) in DNB challenge. Following DNB challenge, LP DI-TNC1 cells exhibited greater viability in co-culture than HP. The data provide compelling evidence that there is an abrupt phenotypic change in DI-TNC1 cells between passage #9-16 that significantly diminishes the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to compensate for neurotoxic challenge and provide neuroprotective spatial buffering. Whether or not these functional changes have an in vivo analog in aging brain remains to be determined. PMID:26769196

  16. Slim holes haul in savings

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, K.

    1987-07-01

    This article reports that during 1986 BP Exploration Company Ltd. successfully drilled six UK land wells with a Microdrill MD-3 ultra-slimhole drilling rig. The objective of the program was to evaluate the slimhole drilling technique, from both a technical and cost-effective viewpoint. Earlier studies indicated up to 30 percent savings in well costs compared to conventionally drilled UK land wells. The technology of drilling slim holes with small rigs is not new. For many years the mineral exploration industry has used small drilling and coring rigs. However, these rigs are not normally equipped with pressure control equipment, oilfield mud and cementing systems or the ability to run complex logs or production test. More recently, the oil industry has made efforts to adapt these rigs to slimhole oil and gas exploration, notably in Australia and Canada. The Microdrill MD-3 rig is a product of this evolution.

  17. Save More Tomorrow: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Richard H.; Benartzi, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    As firms switch from defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans, employees bear more responsibility for making decisions about how much to save. The employees who fail to join the plan or who participate at a very low level appear to be saving at less than the predicted life cycle savings rates. Behavioral explanations for this behavior…

  18. Save It! A Practical Family Kit on Saving Resources, Saving Money, and...Saving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Edmonton (Alberta). Public Affairs.

    Suggestions and practical advice are offered for all members of a family in this guide on environmental stewardship. This publication contains information on a variety of home and work related environmental concerns. The environmental consequences of daily activities are discussed and specific recommendations are offered for saving energy,…

  19. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  20. New Savings through Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  1. Lighting up Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues. (RE)

  2. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  3. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  4. Gas saving apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Guell, M. R.

    1985-09-10

    A fuel and air mixture induction system is provided for an internal combustion engine and includes a conventional air and fuel mixing carburetor for starting the engine when the latter is cold. However, when operating temperatures of the engine are reached the air and fuel induction system is operative to more thoroughly vaporize liquid fuel by pressurizing and heating not only the induction air but also the fuel and spraying the heated fuel into the heated induction air in a manner such that substantially complete fuel atomization and vaporization occurs. This pressurized fully vaporized fuel and air charge is thereafter discharged in a downstream direction into the air and fuel passage of the carburetor closely upstream from the venturi area thereof. The supply of liquid fuel to the carburetor is maintained, but the fuel flow from the carburetor float chamber is automatically reduced when the supply of vaporized fuel and air is furnished because the air and vaporized fuel is supplied to the carburetor under a low pressure thus effectively reducing the reduced venturi area pressure normally associated with a carburetor and the flow of fuel from the carburetor float chamber to the venturi area. In addition, normal opening of the throttle valves is decreased when the supply of heated air and fully vaporized fuel is supplied to the carburetor. Therefore, a smaller amount of air and fuel vapors pass through the carburetor to further reduce the vacuum at the venturi passage and thus the flow of fuel from the carburetor flow chamber into the venturi passage.

  5. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Emergency Lighting Technology Evolves To Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Explores the benefits of including high-brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for emergency systems and its use in residence halls. LED emergency lighting options and their qualifications are also highlighted.(GR)

  7. Life-Saving Space Technology Explained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric Neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee and professor of Neurology at the Medical College of Wisconsin, explains the operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) developed for use in space plant growth experiments and now adapted for use in photodynamic therapy, a technique in which light from the LEDs activates light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. The technique has been used in at least two surgeries on brain tumors. The LED project was one of several NASA exhibits at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  8. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  9. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-16

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  10. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  11. Models Support Energy-Saving Microwave Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, astronauts on the Moon encountered a small menace that created big problems: lunar dust. Similar to how tiny bits of Styrofoam behave on Earth adhering to anything they touch lunar dust sticks to spacesuits, spacecraft, tools, and equipment, and is extremely difficult to remove. The clingy nature of the substance is partly due to its electrostatic charge but is also due to its physical characteristics: The sharp, irregularly shaped grains have edges like burrs and feel like abrasive talcum powder to the touch. Not only a nuisance, Moon dust is also a potential health and safety risk. Because it is often laden with ultraviolet radiation and high iron content, it can be detrimental if it gets into the eyes or lungs. In fact, some of the particles are so small that the human body does not even detect them in order to expel them. On the Apollo missions, equipment covered with the dark-colored Moon dust suffered from the absorption of sunlight and tended to overheat. NASA has investigated tools and techniques to manage the sticky stuff, including magnets, vacuums, and shields. In 2009, Kennedy Space Center collaborated with a small business to investigate a method to harden the Moon's surface in a sense, to pave the surface so astronauts and robots could land, drive, and work without disrupting and scattering the material.

  12. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  13. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  14. Directional Gila River crossing saves construction, mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, L.A. )

    1994-12-01

    Directional drilled river crossing technology gained a new convert this fall as El Paso Natural Gas Co. (EPNG) replaced a washed out 10 3/4-in. line that crossed the Gila River and two irrigation canals near Yuma, Ariz. The 1,650-ft bore, the company's first drilled river crossing, saved both construction costs and environmental reporting and mitigation expenses. This paper reviews the planning, engineering, and equipment used to install this river pipeline crossing.

  15. Performance of fish passage structures at upstream barriers to migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunt, C.M.; Castro-Santos, T.; Haro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attraction and passage efficiency were reviewed and compared from 19 monitoring studies that produced data for evaluations of pool-and-weir, Denil, vertical-slot and nature-like fishways. Data from 26 species of anadromous and potamodromous fishes from six countries were separated by year and taxonomic family into a matrix with 101 records. Attraction performance was highly variable for the following fishway structures: pool-and-weir (attraction range = 29–100%, mean = 77%, median = 81%), vertical-slot (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 63%, median = 80%), Denil (attraction range = 21–100%, mean = 61%, median = 57%) and nature-like (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 48%, median = 50%). Mean passage efficiency was inversely related to mean attraction efficiency by fishway structure type, with the highest passage for nature-like fishways (range = 0–100%, mean = 70%, median = 86%), followed by Denil (range = 0–97%, mean = 51%, median = 38%), vertical-slot (range = 0–100%, mean = 45%, median = 43%) and pool-and-weir (range = 0–100%, mean = 40%, median = 34%). Principal components analysis and logistic regression modelling indicated that variation in fish attraction was driven by biological characteristics of the fish that were studied, whereas variation in fish passage was related to fishway type, slope and elevation change. This meta-analysis revealed that the species of fish monitored and structural design of the fishways have strong implications for both attraction and passage performance, and in most cases, existing data are not sufficient to support design recommendations. Many more fishway evaluations are needed over a range of species, fishway types and configurations to characterize, to optimize and to design new fishways. Furthermore, these studies must be performed in a consistent manner to identify the relative contributions of fish attraction and

  16. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  17. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  18. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  19. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  20. Cabin Pressure Monitors Notify Pilots to Save Lives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, San Diego-based Aviation Technology Inc. obtained an exclusive license for the technology behind the cabin pressure monitor invented at Kennedy Space Center and built its own version of the product. The Alt Alert is designed to save lives by alerting aircraft pilots and crews when cabin pressure becomes dangerously low.

  1. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The primary goal of the Oregon Screens Project was to implement 20 replacement screens projects in the John Day sub-basin and any projects identified in the Umatilla and Walla Walla sub-basins. A secondary goal is to complete a passage project, if one is identified, in any of the above sub-basins. Mid-Columbia ESU listed steelhead and USF&W listed bull trout inhabit these sub-basins and are present at most locations, along with a variety of resident fish species. We also provide assistance to our Enterprise Screen Shop, in the Grande Ronde/Imnaha sub-basins, if needed. All projects were designed and implemented under current National Marine Fisheries Service screening and passage criteria.

  2. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2005-02-01

    The primary goal of the Oregon Screens Project was to implement 20 replacement screens projects in the John Day sub-basin and any projects identified in the Umatilla and Walla Walla sub-basins. A secondary goal is to complete a passage project, if one is identified, in any of the above sub-basins. Mid-Columbia ESU listed steelhead and USF&W listed bull trout inhabit these sub-basins and are present at most locations, along with a variety of resident fish species. We also provide assistance to our Enterprise Screen Shop, in the Grande Ronde/Imnaha subbasins, if needed. All projects were designed and implemented under current National Marine Fisheries Service screening and passage criteria.

  3. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    SciTech Connect

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-11-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate.

  4. Display units for online passage retrieval: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T.R.

    1983-09-01

    Several commercial and governmental computer services now let users retrieve passages online from the full text of books, statutes, or journal articles. The display units in which the test is packaged, however, vary greatly between systems, and these units heavily influence the quality of service. Four reader problems concerning printed books - finding where subjects are discussed, assessing how important each treatment is, linking scattered treatments of the same subject, and exploiting the test's organization - all have standard solutions involving widespread, time-tested indexing strategies. All four problems reappear in computerized passage-retrieval systems. But, in each case, structural display units (those based on format) prove much less successful than functional display units (based on content) in permitting the traditional solutions to work online too. hence, functional units consistently support better access to online information than do structural units.

  5. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, C.L.; Dalton, L.B.

    1984-07-31

    Presently, information pertaining to migration and daily movement patterns of big game in relation to overland conveyors or large diameter pipelines is sparse. A literature review showed that moose, caribou, reindeer, and dall sheep will pass beneath or over large diameter pipeline systems. But no information was found relative to big game crossing coal conveyor systems. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor in Carbon County, Utah, was studied during spring 1981. Deer avoided crossing at underpass opportunities where the clearance was less than 50 cm. Clearances between 50 and 90 cm were selected for crossing. Deer passed beneath the conveyor during day and nighttime conditions and while the conveyor was either operating or idle. Recommendations are discussed for designing conveyors and pipelines to facilitate big game passage. 13 references, 2 tables.

  6. First-passage time criteria for the operation of reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aiden J.; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Akande, Kunle

    2014-11-01

    A multi-objective optimisation for reservoir operation based on expected monetary value and expected first passage-time criterion is proposed. The computations are facilitated by the algorithms of matrix analytic methods. The formal structure, classifying states as levels and phases within levels, and associated algorithms of matrix analytic methods are introduced in the context of multi-reservoir systems. The algorithms underpin the feasibility of the computations for large systems and enable the calculation of the full distribution of first passage time. A new algorithm for computing results for a seasonal model, which reduces computing time by an order of magnitude for monthly time steps is presented. The methods are illustrated for a two reservoir system, with an option of pumping additional water from a transfer scheme, in the East of England. The Pareto front of Pareto optimal policies is shown.

  7. Westward flow of Weddell Sea Bottom Water through Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, M.; Huhn, O.; Rhein, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the Polarstern cruise ANT XXIII-3 (2006) an enlarged chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) signal was found in the southern part of Drake Passage indicating the presence of recently ventilated water, presumably Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) originating from the western Weddell Sea. This WSBW leaves the Weddell Basin through gaps in the South Scotia Ridge and spreads westward along the continental slope. It reaches the 2006 section and is probably stopped by Shackleton Fracture Zone. By applying an Optimum Multiparameter Analysis (OMP) using temperature, salinity, oxygen, silicate, nitrate and δHe3 we determine the fractions of WSBW in the Drake Passage Section. The CFC age derived from the WSBW fractions indicates that there must be an additional CFC source, because the observed concentrations are higher than can be explained by the WSBW.

  8. Accretion at the periastron passage of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit

    2016-09-01

    We present high resolution numerical simulations of the colliding wind system η Carinae, showing accretion onto the secondary star close to periastron passage. Our hydrodynamical simulations include self gravity and radiative cooling. The smooth stellar winds collide and develop instabilities, mainly the non-linear thin shell instability, and form filaments and clumps. We find that a few days before periastron passage the dense filaments and clumps flow towards the secondary as a result of its gravitational attraction, and reach the zone where we inject the secondary wind. We run our simulations for the conventional stellar masses, M_1=120 {M_⊙} and M_2=30 {M_⊙}, and for a high mass model, M_1=170 {M_⊙} and M_2=80 {M_⊙}, that was proposed to better fit the history of giant eruptions. As expected, the simulations results show that the accretion processes is more pronounced for a more massive secondary star.

  9. Spoken language can have its impact on the respiratory passage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jyothi M P; D'Souza, Deepak Herald

    2010-07-01

    Spoken language, due its chronic impact, could be looked upon as one of the factors for its role, either in prevention or causation of respiratory illnesses. There will be variations in articulatory-aerodynamics and respiratory system dynamics among the spoken languages. Geographic variation of disease patterns and uncertain etiologies of some respiratory illnesses, which occur due to insult to the mucosal barrier or the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage, may be explained by the hypothesis of unhealthy language. Habituation to a particular spoken language could mask the symptoms of phonotrauma. Other respiratory illnesses could initiate from the phonotrauma by spoken language. There exist lacunae in the research of languages. Finding out the healthy language could mean relative freedom from respiratory illnesses. Healthy spoken language could relieve the stress on vocal cords and improve the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage.

  10. Effects of secondary flow on heat transfer in rotating passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John

    1990-02-01

    Secondary flow in rotating cooling passages of jet engine turbine rotors is considered. A Navier-Stokes calculation procedure for turbulent flow is used to compute flow development in a radially outward flow channel, round a sharp 180 degree bend, and in the radially inward flow channel downstream. Areas of high and low heat transfer are explained by secondary flow development and quantitative results show regions of design interest.

  11. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Gleaning Significant Facts from Passages: Theme 5, Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadway, Charles J.

    Line-by-line narrative passages such as those found in stories, poems, or magazine and newspaper articles were used in this fifth section of an eight-part series on reading skills. The purpose of "Theme 5" was to assess the ability of 9-, 13-, and 17-year-old and young adult (26-35) readers to glean those facts which support an author's main idea…

  13. Passage of a charged particle through a thin solid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, G. M.

    2015-07-01

    The inelastic collisions effect on the interaction of the projectile with a super thin solid film is considered. The wave nature of the particle and its transitions from delocalized to the strongly localized state defined many important properties of the interaction. As examples the effect of perforation the 1 nm carbon foil as well as the overwhelming passage through a thick porous layer are considered.

  14. 62. Interior view, from the passage into the kitchen chamber. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Interior view, from the passage into the kitchen chamber. The stairs up from the hall are located between these spaces and split near the top with a series of odd, v-shaped steps. These steps were configured into their present state during the 1920s restoration. The earlier steps wound up to the right with the later kitchen chamber steps awkwardly meeting at the quarter-turn. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

    1998-07-01

    The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

  16. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  17. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    SciTech Connect

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft{sup 2} of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees.

  18. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  19. Entanglement-saving channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2016-03-01

    The set of Entanglement Saving (ES) quantum channels is introduced and characterized. These are completely positive, trace preserving transformations which when acting locally on a bipartite quantum system initially prepared into a maximally entangled configuration, preserve its entanglement even when applied an arbitrary number of times. In other words, a quantum channel ψ is said to be ES if its powers ψn are not entanglement-breaking for all integers n. We also characterize the properties of the Asymptotic Entanglement Saving (AES) maps. These form a proper subset of the ES channels that is constituted by those maps that not only preserve entanglement for all finite n but which also sustain an explicitly not null level of entanglement in the asymptotic limit n → ∞. Structure theorems are provided for ES and for AES maps which yield an almost complete characterization of the former and a full characterization of the latter.

  20. Learning about saving energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to save energy in heating and cooling, electric appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.

  1. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with smooth walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Kopper, F. C.

    1990-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multi-pass, smooth-wall heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages (coolant-to-wall temperature ratio, Rossby number, Reynolds number and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio). These four parameters were varied over ranges which are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. It was found that both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs and that the effect of rotation on the heat transfer coefficients was markedly different depending on the flow direction. Local heat transfer coefficients were found to decrease by as much as 60 percent and increase by 250 percent from no rotation levels. Comparisons with a pioneering stationary vertical tube buoyancy experiment showed reasonably good agreement. Correlation of the data is achieved employing dimensionless parameters derived from the governing flow equations.

  2. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlerode, Ray; Dabashinsky, Annette; Allen, Steve

    2003-01-28

    This project is necessary to insure that replacement of fish screening devices and fishways meet current NMFS design criteria for the protection of all salmonid life stages. The mission of the fish passage program in Northeast Oregon is to protect and enhance fish populations by assisting private landowners, public landowners, irrigation districts and others by maintaining fish screening devices and fishways. These facilities reduce or eliminate fish loss associated with irrigation withdrawals, and as a result insure fish populations are maintained for enjoyment by present and future generations. Assistance is provided through state and federal programs. This can range from basic technical advice to detailed construction, fabrication and maintenance of screening and passage facilities. John Day screens personnel identified 50 sites for fish screen replacement, and one fish passage project. These sites are located in critical spawning, rearing and migration areas for spring chinook, summer steelhead and bull trout. All projects were designed and implemented to meet current NMFS criteria. It is necessary to have a large number of sites identified due to changes in weather, landowner cooperation and access issues that come up as we try and implement our goal of 21 completed projects.

  3. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2002-03-26

    The accomplishments of the John Day, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Fish Passage and Screening Programs include the following: Operation and maintenance of 364 existing fish screening devices (see Table 4), replacement of 18 outdated fish screening devices that totaled 31 rotary drums (some were multiple drum systems), 4 new screens at unscreened diversions, 26 pump intake fish screens, fabrication of components for 16 additional fish screens for the Rogue basin, construction of two fish passage structures, and participation in other activities. After the replacement or construction of 22 fish screening devices during 2001, we now have 108 screening devices that meet NMFS criteria. Funding for these projects was attained from BPA, NMFS and OWEB. The John Day Fish Passage and Screening Program focused construction efforts into new and replacement fish screening devices for these various programs throughout the state of Oregon. The program also continued to develop and implement innovative designs to meet the diverse and expanding needs for the state of Oregon. Projects completed during this report period meet the current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria. Fish species targeted for protection include ESA Listed Mid-Columbia steelhead, Columbia basin bull trout, anadromous and resident salmonids, and numerous non-game fish species. Priority project locations have been identified as the upper reaches of the Middle Fork, North Fork, South Fork and the Mainstem of the John Day River and their tributaries. These upper reaches contain critical salmon and steelhead spawning and rearing habitat.

  4. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Kopper, F. C.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multi-pass, smooth-wall heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages (coolant-to-wall temperature ratio, Rossby number, Reynolds number and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio). These four parameters were varied over ranges which are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. It was found that both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs and that the effect of rotation on the heat transfer coefficients was markedly different depending on the flow direction. Local heat transfer coefficients were found to decrease by as much as 60 percent and increase by 250 percent from no rotation levels. Comparisons with a pioneering stationary vertical tube buoyancy experiment showed reasonably good agreement. Correlation of the data is achieved employing dimensionless parameters derived from the governing flow equations.

  6. Method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Dembowski, Peter V.; Schilke, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    A method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate, particularly cooling passages of nozzles or buckets of a gas turbine, involves the hot isostatic pressing of a leachable passage insert whose surface carries the female image of the desired interior surface configuration inside the substrate followed by leaching of the insert from the substrate.

  7. Forgetting of Prose as a Function of Interpolated Passage Content and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas; And Others

    In three studies subjects read two successive passages and then were tested for retention of the first. Each passage described the characteristics of a series of entities (diseases or countries) along a series of dimensions (symptoms, cause, etc., or climate, soil type, etc.). The first passage described five diseases and was organized by name;…

  8. Text Searching Retrieval of Answer-Sentences and Other Answer-Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John

    1973-01-01

    An "answer-passage" is a passage which is either answer-providing or "answer indicative." New text searching techniques for the retrieval of answer-passages are discussed. Appendices listing thesauri, glossaries and dictionaries, syntactic joints, and connector words are included. (31 references) (Author/RS)

  9. Modeled and metered energy savings from exterior wall insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.; Parker, D.; McLain, H.; Barkaszi, S. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Millions of single-family masonry (block) houses with slab foundations exist in the southern United States. In fact, approximately 50% of Florida`s six million residences are of concrete block construction. The block walls in these homes are usually uninsulated, and the technology for retrofitting wall insulation is not well developed. Two field tests were performed--one near Phoenix, Arizona and one in Cocoa, Florida--to measure the air-conditioning energy savings and demand reduction impact of applying an exterior insulation and finish system (EEFS) to the exterior of the block wall, and gain practical experience with retrofit application techniques and costs. One field test used a {open_quotes}site-fabricated{close_quotes} insulation system, while the other field test used a commercially available system. The field tests measured a savings of 9% in Arizona and less savings in Florida, and emphasized the impact indoor temperature settings have on cooling energy savings: exterior wall insulation on block homes will produce energy savings in Florida houses only if a low cooling thermostat setting is desirable. The field tests also highlighted an improved comfort benefit from the retrofit - namely, elimination of overheating in rooms with south and west exposures. The DOE-2. ID program was used to analyze the energy savings (air-conditioning and heating) and electric demand impact of applying an EIFS. Air-conditioning energy savings were estimated to be in the range of 8% to 10% in many southern U.S. regions. A 12% savings was predicted for Phoenix, Arizona and a savings of 1% to 4% was predicted for seacoast regions, particularly in Florida. These predictions were in good agreement with the measured values. Peak hour cooling energy savings were predicted to be more uniform throughout the country, generally in the range of %8 to %12.

  10. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  11. Ozonated laundering: Radical concept claims dramatic savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1993-12-31

    An innovative commercial laundering technology that uses no hot water and no detergent holds promise of dramatic savings in energy, water, chemicals, labor, and sewage fees. Users report good results, but the conservative laundry industry is likely to be skeptical, especially in light of the powerful role played by chemical and equipment manufacturers. While ozonated laundering technology uses more electricity than conventional approaches in some applications, the reported advantages in terms of overall resource efficiency and cost savings could make it an attractive option from the perspective of end-users and utility companies alike. As yet, there are many unanswered questions about the process. There is no theoretical basis to explain how ozone cleans, and no third-party testing to verify these impressive savings. Reports from installations at two Marriott hotels, however, appear to corroborate the manufacturer`s claims. This report assesses the controversial elements of the ozonated laundering process, compiles users` comments and concerns, and reports on current research about how the process works. More independent study will be needed, however, to provide a basis for acceptance of such a radical divergence from the norm in commercial laundering.

  12. Saving all the bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific tradition of saving all the data from experiments for independent validation and for further investigation is under profound challenge by modern satellite data collectors and by supercomputers. The volume of data is beyond the capacity to store, transmit, and comprehend the data. A promising line of study is discovery machines that study the data at the collection site and transmit statistical summaries of patterns observed. Examples of discovery machines are the Autoclass system and the genetic memory system of NASA-Ames, and the proposal for knowbots by Kahn and Cerf.

  13. Fuel saving device

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, J. C.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to a fuel saving device adaptable to all types of carburetors, petrol engines and domestic or industrial burners, constituted by a solenoid generating a magnetic field which has an influence on the air-fuel mixture. Said solenoid has a red copper coil, has its axis oriented in parallel to the axis of the engine, and, periodically, in a first pre-determined direction, during the moon phase which goes from the full moon to the new moon, and in a second, opposite, direction, during the moon phase going from the new moon to the full moon. The invention finds an application in motor engine of low consumption.

  14. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  15. A scalable FPGA-based cerebellum for passage-of-time representation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Junwen; Coapes, Graeme; Mak, Terrence; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tin, Chung; Degenaar, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a critical role for sensorimotor control and learning. However dysmertria or delays in movements' onsets consequent to damages in cerebellum cannot be cured completely at the moment. To foster a potential cure based on neuroprosthetic technology, we present a frame-based Network-on-Chip (NoC) hardware architecture for implementing a bio-realistic cerebellum model with 100,000 neurons, which has been used for studying timing control or passage-of-time (POT) encoding mediated by the cerebellum. The results demonstrate that our implementation can reproduce the POT functionality properly. The computational speed can achieve to 25.6 ms for simulating 1 sec real world activities. Furthermore, we show a hardware electronic setup and illustrate how the silicon cerebellum can be adapted as a potential neuroprosthetic platform for future biological or clinical applications.

  16. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  17. Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Larkin, Iskande L V; Fowler, Vivienne F; Reep, Roger L

    2007-11-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Sirenia: Trichechidae), is an herbivorous marine mammal found within coastal areas throughout the state of Florida, which feeds on both fresh and salt water sea grasses. Manatees, like other Sirenians, are a tropical species with little tolerance for water temperatures below 20 degrees C, rely on a relatively poor nutritional food source, and have a low metabolic rate. Although manatees are hindgut fermenting herbivores, they are very efficient at extracting nutrients from the plants on which they feed. Slow passage rates of digesta have been suggested to be a factor in this increased efficiency. Two studies monitored the digesta passage times and mixing of particulate digesta within the manatee digestive tract using MicroGrits colored corncob grit as a fecal marker. Fecal samples were collected subsequently from four manatees in Study 1 and 3 manatees in Study 2, grit pieces removed, counted, and measured. The digesta passage times ranged from 6 and 10 days in Study 1, and 4.3 and 8.3 days in Study 2, supporting data presented in previous studies. When two different colored markers were administered on sequential days, minimal to no mixing was seen in recovered feces, suggesting that the digesta from a given day traveled through the tract as a bolus. Less than 1% of the marker fed was recovered and we hypothesize that perpendicular folds of the large intestine may be the major contributing factor, with pieces being retained and eventually digested. Zoo Biol 26:503-515, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Larkin, Iskande L V; Fowler, Vivienne F; Reep, Roger L

    2007-11-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Sirenia: Trichechidae), is an herbivorous marine mammal found within coastal areas throughout the state of Florida, which feeds on both fresh and salt water sea grasses. Manatees, like other Sirenians, are a tropical species with little tolerance for water temperatures below 20 degrees C, rely on a relatively poor nutritional food source, and have a low metabolic rate. Although manatees are hindgut fermenting herbivores, they are very efficient at extracting nutrients from the plants on which they feed. Slow passage rates of digesta have been suggested to be a factor in this increased efficiency. Two studies monitored the digesta passage times and mixing of particulate digesta within the manatee digestive tract using MicroGrits colored corncob grit as a fecal marker. Fecal samples were collected subsequently from four manatees in Study 1 and 3 manatees in Study 2, grit pieces removed, counted, and measured. The digesta passage times ranged from 6 and 10 days in Study 1, and 4.3 and 8.3 days in Study 2, supporting data presented in previous studies. When two different colored markers were administered on sequential days, minimal to no mixing was seen in recovered feces, suggesting that the digesta from a given day traveled through the tract as a bolus. Less than 1% of the marker fed was recovered and we hypothesize that perpendicular folds of the large intestine may be the major contributing factor, with pieces being retained and eventually digested. Zoo Biol 26:503-515, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360597

  19. Mean First Passage Time in Single File Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general scaling law of the mean first passage time (MFPT) in single file dynamics; the process where many real particles move in a channel of length L with absorbing boundaries, where the particles and the channel have about the same cross section. We derive the relation MFPT ˜ f(n)MFPTfree, here we compute the MFPT when the channel is free (all particles are absorbed, where the average is over many trajectories), n is the number of particles in the channel at initiation, f(n) is the many-particle effect and the quantity MFPTfree is the MFPT of the free particle. When at initiation the density is fixed in basic files f(n) ˜n and therefore e.g. MFPT ˜ L2.5 (basic stochastic dynamics). We also compute the MFPT in diverse files; for example, in a file with heterogeneous particles, in deterministic files, in slow files and in files with long-range interactions. When the particle density is not fixed yet scales with 1/length from the origin, f(n) < n; yet, interactions might increase (attractive) or decrease (repulsive) the many-particle effect relative to n. In slow files, MFPT ˜ L3 (in the number of jumps). We explain these valuable results with various methods and approaches, e.g., we derive a general mapping from the mean square displacement scaling law to the MFPT scaling law. We also connect the results with real life activities. Special Issue Comments: Mean first passage scaling law in single file dynamics and various particular results in files are derived in this project. The project is related to the Special Issue projects about heterogeneous files and slow files,27 expansions in files,26 files with force32 and the first passage time in files.23

  20. THE 2011 PERIASTRON PASSAGE OF THE Be BINARY {delta} Scorpii

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Stefl, S.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 {+-} 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 A line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M{sub Sun }) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the H{alpha} line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R{sub Sun }. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that {delta} Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40 Degree-Sign with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations.

  1. Detecting the Signature of Eccentric Exoplanets During Periastron Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Stephen; Gelino, Dawn; Dragomir, Diana; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Laughlin, Gregory; Mahadevan, Suvrath; von Braun, Kaspar; Wright, Jason

    2011-05-01

    Characterization of exoplanets has matured in recent years, particularly through studies of exoplanetary atmospheres of transiting planets at infra-red wavelenegths. A relatively unexplored region of exoplanet parameter space is the thermal detection of long-period eccentric planets during periastron passage. Detection of these signatures reveals important information on the albedo, radiative time constant, and heat redistribution efficiency of giant planetary atmospheres under these extreme conditions. Here we propose to monitor three such exoplanets whose orbital parameters have already been refined to great precision. The results of this study will constrain heat signatures from these planets and be used in building atmospheric models for planets which undergo large changes in flux.

  2. Optimal Stochastic Restart Renders Fluctuations in First Passage Times Universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Shlomi

    2016-04-01

    Stochastic restart may drastically reduce the expected run time of a computer algorithm, expedite the completion of a complex search process, or increase the turnover rate of an enzymatic reaction. These diverse first-passage-time (FPT) processes seem to have very little in common but it is actually quite the other way around. Here we show that the relative standard deviation associated with the FPT of an optimally restarted process, i.e., one that is restarted at a constant (nonzero) rate which brings the mean FPT to a minimum, is always unity. We interpret, further generalize, and discuss this finding and the implications arising from it.

  3. Experience of Time Passage:. Phenomenology, Psychophysics, and Biophysical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Jiří

    2005-10-01

    The experience of time's passing appears, from the 1st person perspective, to be a primordial subjective experience, seemingly inaccessible to the 3rd person accounts of time perception (psychophysics, cognitive psychology). In our analysis of the `dual klepsydra' model of reproduction of temporal durations, time passage occurs as a cognitive construct, based upon more elementary (`proto-cognitive') function of the psychophysical organism. This conclusion contradicts the common concepts of `subjective' or `psychological' time as readings of an `internal clock'. Our study shows how phenomenological, experimental and modelling approaches can be fruitfully combined.

  4. Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchon-Enrich, R.; Benseny, A.; Ahufinger, V.; Greentree, A. D.; Busch, Th; Mompart, J.

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound.

  5. Optimal Stochastic Restart Renders Fluctuations in First Passage Times Universal.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Shlomi

    2016-04-29

    Stochastic restart may drastically reduce the expected run time of a computer algorithm, expedite the completion of a complex search process, or increase the turnover rate of an enzymatic reaction. These diverse first-passage-time (FPT) processes seem to have very little in common but it is actually quite the other way around. Here we show that the relative standard deviation associated with the FPT of an optimally restarted process, i.e., one that is restarted at a constant (nonzero) rate which brings the mean FPT to a minimum, is always unity. We interpret, further generalize, and discuss this finding and the implications arising from it. PMID:27176510

  6. Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress.

    PubMed

    Menchon-Enrich, R; Benseny, A; Ahufinger, V; Greentree, A D; Busch, Th; Mompart, J

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound. PMID:27245462

  7. Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, P.; Wood, R.; Sigler, F.; Shapiro, A.; Rendon, A.

    1998-12-31

    A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold`s number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected.

  8. Fast CNOT gate via shortcuts to adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Xia, Yan; Chen, Ye-Hong; Song, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the shortcuts to adiabatic passage, we propose a scheme for directly implementing a controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. Moreover, we generalize the scheme to realize a CNOT gate in two separate cavities connected by an optical fiber. The strictly numerical simulation shows that the schemes are fast and insensitive to the decoherence caused by atomic spontaneous emission and photon leakage. In addition, the schemes can provide a theoretical basis for the manipulation of the multiqubit quantum gates in distant nodes of a quantum network.

  9. Estimation of mean first passage time for bursty gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreshtha, Mayank; Surendran, Anudeep; Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression is an intrinsically noisy process, typically, producing mRNAs and proteins in bursts. An important description of such stochastic processes can be done in terms of the mean first passage time (MFPT), i.e., the time taken by mRNAs/proteins to reach a particular threshold. We study the role of burstiness on MFPT and obtain an analytical expression for different models of transcriptional and translational bursts. Our analytical results and numerical simulations confirm that MFPT monotonically decreases with burstiness.

  10. Reliability Analysis of Systems Subject to First-Passage Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, Loren D.; Sarkani, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    An obvious goal of reliability analysis is the avoidance of system failure. However, it is generally recognized that it is often not feasible to design a practical or useful system for which failure is impossible. Thus it is necessary to use techniques that estimate the likelihood of failure based on modeling the uncertainty about such items as the demands on and capacities of various elements in the system. This usually involves the use of probability theory, and a design is considered acceptable if it has a sufficiently small probability of failure. This report contains findings of analyses of systems subject to first-passage failure.

  11. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. Tm{sup 3+}:YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm{sup 3+}:YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results.

  12. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with selected model orientation for smooth or skewed trip walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of model orientation as well as buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. Turbine blades have internal coolant passage surfaces at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil with surfaces at angles which are as large as +/- 50 to 60 degrees to the axis of rotation. Most of the previously-presented, multiple-passage, rotating heat transfer experiments have focused on radial passages aligned with the axis of rotation. Results from serpentine passages with orientations 0 and 45 degrees to the axis of rotation which simulate the coolant passages for the mid chord and trailing edge regions of the rotating airfoil are compared. The experiments were conducted with rotation in both directions to simulate serpentine coolant passages with the rearward flow of coolant or with the forward flow of coolant. The experiments were conducted for passages with smooth surfaces and with 45 degree trips adjacent to airfoil surfaces for the radial portion of the serpentine passages. At a typical flow condition, the heat transfer on the leading surfaces for flow outward in the first passage with smooth walls was twice as much for the model at 45 degrees compared to the model at 0 degrees. However, the differences for the other passages and with trips were less. In addition, the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in the rotating passage were decreased with the model at 45 degrees, compared to the results at 0 degrees. The heat transfer in the turn regions and immediately downstream of the turns in the second passage with flow inward and in the third passage with flow outward was also a function of model orientation with differences as large as 40 to 50 percent occurring between the model orientations with forward flow and rearward flow of coolant.

  13. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with selected model orientation for smooth or skewed trip walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of model orientation as well as buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. Turbine blades have internal coolant passage surfaces at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil with surfaces at angles which are as large as +/- 50 to 60 degrees to the axis of rotation. Most of the previously-presented, multiple-passage, rotating heat transfer experiments have focused on radial passages aligned with the axis of rotation. Results from serpentine passages with orientations 0 and 45 degrees to the axis of rotation which simulate the coolant passages for the mid chord and trailing edge regions of the rotating airfoil are compared. The experiments were conducted with rotation in both directions to simulate serpentine coolant passages with the rearward flow of coolant or with the forward flow of coolant. The experiments were conducted for passages with smooth surfaces and with 45 degree trips adjacent to airfoil surfaces for the radial portion of the serpentine passages. At a typical flow condition, the heat transfer on the leading surfaces for flow outward in the first passage with smooth walls was twice as much for the model at 45 degrees compared to the model at 0 degrees. However, the differences for the other passages and with trips were less. In addition, the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in the rotating passage were decreased with the model at 45 degrees, compared to the results at 0 degrees. The heat transfer in the turn regions and immediately downstream of the turns in the second passage with flow inward and in the third passage with flow outward was also a function of model orientation with differences as large as 40 to 50 percent occurring between the model orientations with forward flow and rearward flow of coolant.

  14. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  15. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  16. Magnetic cloud passage at Earth and associated substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Freeman, M. P.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to the study of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction by signal type, that is, by examining the effect in the magnetosphere of well defined interplanetary structures, is presented. Focus is on the response of the magnetosphere to interplanetary magnetic clouds. Among their properties are: the slow and smooth variation of the magnetic field vector, with fluctuation level well below common interplanetary values; the similarly well behaved bulk flow; the wide range of field and flow parameters; and the longevity of passage (1 to 2 days). If the magnetic cloud is oriented such that a long period of uninterruptedly northward pointing field is followed by a long interval of continuously southward pointing field, then the transition of the magnetosphere from a quiescent state (the 'ground state') to a very active state can be studied, the latter being sustained by continued forcing from the magnetic cloud. A synopsis of the main findings of a recent study in such an interaction is given, concentrating on the substorm activity attending the second part of cloud passage.

  17. Education in Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Towler, B.

    2011-12-01

    Historical fish migration routes linking feeding and spawning habitats have been significantly impacted by culverts, dikes, dams, and other barriers on waterways throughout the world. For example an estimated 2.5 million barriers to fish migration exist in the United States. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on removing or mitigating these barriers as an efficient mechanism to restore habitat. Effective design and implementation of these measures requires specialists with skills at the intersection of engineering, hydrology and biology. Recognizing the need for a cadre of engineers with the additional skills in hydraulics and ecohydrology needed to analyze and design solutions for enhancing fish passage in streams and rivers, the University of Massachusetts Amherst now offers a Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE) degree with a specialization in Fish Passage Engineering. The curriculum is offered in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is informed by the recommendations of the Curriculum Working Group of the Bioengineering Section of the American Fisheries Society. The curriculum is offered through the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. This presentation will describe the motivation for the degree, the content of coursework and the challenges inherent in developing an interdisciplinary education program spanning biogeosciences and engineering.

  18. High Velocity Absorption during Eta Car B's Periastron Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Krister E.; Groh, J. H.; Hillier, J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, S. P.; Okazaki, A. T.; Damineli, A.; Teodoro, M.; Weigelt, G.; Hartman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Eta Car is one of the most luminous massive stars in the Galaxy, with repeated eruptions with a 5.5 year periodicity. These events are caused by the periastron passage of a massive companion in an eccentric orbit. We report the VLT/CRIRES detection of a strong high-velocity, (<1900 km/s) , broad absorption wing in He I at 10833 A during the 2009.0 periastron passage. Previous observations during the 2003.5 event have shown evidence of such high-velocity absorption in the He I 10833 transition, allowing us to conclude that the high-velocity gas is crossing the line-of-sight toward Eta Car over a time period of approximately 2 months. Our analysis of HST/STlS archival data with observations of high velocity absorption in the ultraviolet Si IV and C IV resonance lines, confirm the presence of a high-velocity material during the spectroscopic low state. The observations provide direct detection of high-velocity material flowing from the wind-wind collision zone around the binary system, and we discuss the implications of the presence of high-velocity gas in Eta Car during periastron

  19. D Surveying & Modeling of Underground Passages in Wwi Fortifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Minto, S.; Remondino, F.

    2015-02-01

    The virtual reconstruction of subterranean structures is a suitable scenario for the integration of different geomatics techniques although narrow passages, lack of light and irregular surface can arise various problems in the data acquisition as well as processing procedures. Generally the final product is a dense and detailed 3D model, whose number of triangles increases quickly according to the complexity of the object. This complexity reduces the efficient use and dissemination of the produced information therefore innovative solutions are sought. The article presents the 3D surveying and modelling of underground passages of World War I (WWI) fortifications. After the acquisition of dense point clouds by means of terrestrial scanning (TLS), a simplification and optimization workflow is performed with the aim of generating a lightweight product that keeps the maximum amount of significant information. A continuous scene representation with a 87% triangle reduction is generated, while the final precision is preserved according to a tolerance predefined by the final user. Such 3D product can be employed as basis for reconstruction, consolidation, preservation and valorisation of the WWI tunnels.

  20. Effects of Drake Passage on a strongly eddying global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viebahn, Jan P.; Heydt, Anna S.; Le Bars, Dewi; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2016-05-01

    The climate impact of ocean gateway openings during the Eocene-Oligocene transition is still under debate. Previous model studies employed grid resolutions at which the impact of mesoscale eddies has to be parameterized. We present results of a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean model with a closed Drake Passage and compare with results of the same model at noneddying resolution. An analysis of the pathways of heat by decomposing the meridional heat transport into eddy, horizontal, and overturning circulation components indicates that the model behavior on the large scale is qualitatively similar at both resolutions. Closing Drake Passage induces (i) sea surface warming around Antarctica due to equatorward expansion of the subpolar gyres, (ii) the collapse of the overturning circulation related to North Atlantic Deep Water formation leading to surface cooling in the North Atlantic, and (iii) significant equatorward eddy heat transport near Antarctica. However, quantitative details significantly depend on the chosen resolution. The warming around Antarctica is substantially larger for the noneddying configuration (˜5.5°C) than for the eddying configuration (˜2.5°C). This is a consequence of the subpolar mean flow which partitions differently into gyres and circumpolar current at different resolutions. We conclude that for a deciphering of the different mechanisms active in Eocene-Oligocene climate change detailed analyses of the pathways of heat in the different climate subsystems are crucial in order to clearly identify the physical processes actually at work.

  1. First Passage Times, Lifetimes, and Relaxation Times of Unfolded Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Sengupta, Anirvan M.; Levy, Ronald M.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of proteins in the unfolded state can be quantified in computer simulations by calculating a spectrum of relaxation times which describes the time scales over which the population fluctuations decay to equilibrium. If the unfolded state space is discretized, we can evaluate the relaxation time of each state. We derive a simple relation that shows the mean first passage time to any state is equal to the relaxation time of that state divided by the equilibrium population. This explains why mean first passage times from state to state within the unfolded ensemble can be very long but the energy landscape can still be smooth (minimally frustrated). In fact, when the folding kinetics is two-state, all of the unfolded state relaxation times within the unfolded free energy basin are faster than the folding time. This result supports the well-established funnel energy landscape picture and resolves an apparent contradiction between this model and the recently proposed kinetic hub model of protein folding. We validate these concepts by analyzing a Markov state model of the kinetics in the unfolded state and folding of the miniprotein NTL9 (where NTL9 is the N -terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9), constructed from a 2.9 ms simulation provided by D. E. Shaw Research.

  2. Time domain responses of hydraulic bushing with two flow passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-02-01

    Hydraulic bushings are commonly employed in vehicle suspension and body sub-frame systems to control motion, vibration, and structure-borne noise. Since literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled bushing prototype which accommodates a combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements is first designed, constructed and instrumented. Step-up and step-down responses of several typical fluid-filled bushing configurations are measured along with steady harmonic time histories of transmitted force and internal pressures. To analyze the experimental results and gain physical insights into the hydraulic bushing system, lumped system models of bushings with different design features are developed, and analytical expressions of transmitted force and internal pressure responses are derived by using the convolution method. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of hydraulic element parameters. System parameters are successfully estimated for both harmonic and step responses using theory and measurements, and the dynamic force measurements are analyzed using analytical predictions. Finally, some nonlinearities of the system are also observed, and the fluid resistance of flow passage is found to be the most nonlinear element.

  3. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  4. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  5. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  6. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  7. Effect of passage number on cellular response DNA-damaging agents: cell survival and gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Wolschak, G.E.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of different passage numbers on plating efficiency, doubling time, cell growth, and radiation sensitivity was assessed in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Changes in gene expression after UV or {gamma}-ray irradiation at different passage numbers were also examined. The SHE cells were maintained in culture medium for up to 64 passages. Cells were exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or 254-m UV radiation. Differential display of cDNAs and Northern blots were used for the study of gene expression. With increasing passage number, SHE cells demonstrated decreased doubling time, increased plating efficiency, and a decreased yield in the number of cells per plate. Between passages 41 and 48 a ``crisis`` period was evident during which time cell growth in high serum (20%) was no longer optimal, and serum concentrations were reduced (to 10%) to maintain cell growth. Sensitivity to ionizing radiation was no different between early- and intermediate-passage cells. However, after UV exposure at low passages (passage 3), confluent cells were more sensitive to the killing effects of UV than were log-phase cells. At intermediate passages (passages 43, 48), confluent cells were slightly more radioresistant- than were log-phase cells. By passage 64, however, both confluent and log-phase cells showed similar patterns of UV sensitivity. Expression of {gamma}-actin, PCNA, and p53 transcripts did not change following UV exposure. p53 mRNA was induced following {gamma}-ray exposure of the intermediate (passage 45) epithelial cells. Differential display, however, revealed changes in expression of several transcripts following exposure to ionizing and ultraviolet radiations. The observed differences in radiation sensitivity associated with increasing passage number may be influenced by radiation-induced gene expression. We are conducting experiments to identify these genes.

  8. Improving efficiency, securing savings.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The NHS in England could save £1 bn annually if all NHS acute Trustsachieved the median level of estates and facilities running costs, the second (and 'final') report by Lord Carter and his team into the 'productivity and efficiency' of acute NHS Trusts across England, published on 5 February,suggests. As HEJ, editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, Lord Carter's team'songoing recent discussions with senior personnel working in a range of disciplines at 32 NHS Trusts--which followed dialogue with an initial 22 Trusts--identified 'unwarranted variation' in the use of resources ranging from staff to land and buildings on such a scale that effectively addressing this 'variation' could, the DH-commissioned team says, potentially reduce by £5 bn annually the NHS in England's costs. PMID:27132300

  9. Small investments, huge savings.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ewen

    2015-03-01

    Writing on behalf of the Building & Engineering Services Association (B&ES), Ewen Rose, an experienced journalist specialising in building engineering services, reports on a number of presentations at October's IHEEM Healthcare Estates 2014 conference where the focus was very much on how healthcare estates and facilities and healthcare engineering teams can save energy and cut carbon emissions through more efficient monitoring, and, if necessary, subsequent adjustment, of key HVAC plant. Among the key conclusions were that basic energy efficiency measures could 'shave millions of pounds from NHS estates' running costs', and that hospitals and other healthcare buildings face both 'an air-conditioning legal crisis', and a growing threat from outdoor air pollution. PMID:26268023

  10. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

  11. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Joe

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

  12. Advanced distillation saves energy and capital

    SciTech Connect

    Lestak, F.; Collins, C.

    1997-07-01

    Although new separation methods are continuously being explored, distillation remains the most frequently used separation process. It is well known that distillation is both energy intensive and inefficient. Compared to conventional column sequences, one particular configuration--the fully thermally coupled distillation column--can save significant amounts of energy by reducing thermodynamic losses. In such a setup, a number of columns (typically two) are linked together through vapor and liquid streams without reboilers or condensers between the columns. One practical application of the fully thermal coupled column has been known for a long time. However, lack of design experience and fear of operational and control problems, have prevented its widespread use to date. In addition to energy savings, divided-wall columns can save capital costs, by reducing the number of column shells, reboilers and condensers. The divided-wall column can be applied with real benefits in a variety of refinery, gas separation and chemical processes. Generally, the technology should be considered in any ternary (three-component) separation, as a possible low-cost alternative to conventional schemes. Generic guidelines for the use of divided-wall columns are discussed. The application of the divided-wall column for natural gas liquids separation is also presented.

  13. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, Jerald R.

    2014-06-13

    In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was

  14. Fuel savings potential of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, J.B. Jr.; Sievers, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) Program is directed at developing new technology for highly loaded, multibladed propellers for use at Mach 0.65 to 0.85 and at altitudes compatible with the air transport system requirements. Advanced turboprop engines offer the potential of 15 to 30 percent savings in aircraft block fuel relative to advanced turbofan engines (50 to 60 percent savings over today's turbofan fleet). The concept, propulsive efficiency gains, block fuel savings and other benefits, and the program objectives through a systems approach are described. Current program status and major accomplishments in both single rotation and counter rotation propeller technology are addressed. The overall program from scale model wind tunnel tests to large scale flight tests on testbed aircraft is discussed.

  15. Women's Time, Labour-Saving Devices and Rural Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Hazel R.; Browne, Angela W.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of cereal mills in Gambian villages affected the lives of women and their communities in terms of women's access to the technology, the time and energy it saves, its sustainability, and their level of control. The energy saved enabled greater participation in the community, but they were still constrained by illiteracy and poverty.…

  16. Looking at IT through a New Lens: Achieving Cost Savings in a Fiscally Challenging Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claffey, George F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments must cut costs and justify expenditures in the face of shrinking budgets. To promote greater cost savings, it is important to look at IT through a new "lens." This article discusses four broad categories that can be evaluated to determine if IT resource alignment is appropriate and if savings can be achieved…

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid passage of intravenous magnesium sulfate in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Tramèr, M R; Tassonyi, E

    1997-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a neuroprotective potential of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Only limited information about the passage of MgSO4 to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is available in neurosurgical patients. However, with regard to the clinical relevance of magnesium's neuroprotective properties, quantitative data about its CSF passage are needed. The present study aims to assess the amount and the time course of magnesium's CSF passage in neurosurgical patients. To this end, 20 patients undergoing general anesthesia for neurosurgery and needing CSF drainage were included. Patients received an i.v. bolus of 60 mg/kg MgSO4. The increase in plasma and CSF magnesium concentration were measured 30, 90, and 240 min after the end of the MgSO4 infusion. These values were compared with the baseline levels taken before the start of the MgSO4 infusion. Thus, each patient served as his or her own control. Values are expressed as means +/- SD. The plasma magnesium levels were measured as follows: baseline, 0.74 +/- 0.12 mM; at 30 min, 1.24 +/- 0.1 mM (p < 0.01); at 90 min, 0.95 +/- 0.15 mM (p < 0.01), and at 240 min, 0.82 +/- 0.14 mM (p < 0.05). The CSF magnesium levels were measured as follows: baseline, 0.95 +/- 0.11 mM; at 30 min, 1.00 +/- 0.15 mM (NS); at 90 min, 1.10 +/- 0.17 mM (p < 0.01); and at 240 min, 1.13 +/- 0.19 mM (p < 0.001). We concluded that a bolus of 60 mg/kg of MgSO4 leads at least after 90 min to a significant increase in the CSF magnesium concentration. Moreover, the increase in plasma and CSF magnesium concentration is not parallel. Thus, plasma magnesium concentration cannot be used to predict the changes in CSF concentrations.

  18. The 2011 Periastron Passage of the Be Binary δ Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.; Gandet, T. L.; Eversberg, T.; Reinecke, N.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M ⊙) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R ⊙. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations. This paper is partially based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii, the 2.2 m MPG telescope operated at ESO/La Silla under program IDs 086.A-9019 and 087.A-9005, the IAC80 telescope in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide

  19. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  20. Repeated readings and science: Fluency with expository passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated readings to a fluency criterion (RRFC) for seven students with disabilities using science text. The study employed a single subject design, specifically, two multiple probe multiple baselines across subjects, to evaluate the effects of the RRFC intervention. Results indicated that students met criterion (200 or more correct words per minute with 2 or fewer errors) on four consecutive passages. A majority of students displayed accelerations to correct words per minute and decelerations to incorrect words per minute on successive initial, intervention readings suggesting reading transfer. Students' reading scores during posttest and maintenance out performed pre-test and baseline readings provided additional measures of reading transfer. For a relationship to comprehension, students scored higher on oral retell measures after meeting criterion as compared to initial readings. Overall, the research findings suggested that the RRFC intervention improves science reading fluency for students with disabilities, and may also indirectly benefit comprehension.

  1. First-Passage Times in d -Dimensional Heterogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccario, G.; Antoine, C.; Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many theoretical studies of the mean first-passage time (MFPT), most neglect the diffusive heterogeneity of real systems. We present exact analytical expressions for the MFPT and residence times of a pointlike particle diffusing in a spherically symmetric d -dimensional heterogeneous system composed of two concentric media with different diffusion coefficients with an absorbing inner boundary (target) and a reflecting outer boundary. By varying the convention, e.g., Itō, Stratonovich, or isothermal, chosen to interpret the overdamped Langevin equation with multiplicative noise describing the diffusion process, we find different predictions and counterintuitive results for the residence time in the outer region and hence for the MFPT, while the residence time in the inner region is independent of the convention. This convention dependence of residence times and the MFPT could provide insights about the heterogeneous diffusion in a cell or in a tumor, or for animal and insect searches inside their home range.

  2. Adiabatic passage with spin locking in Tm3+:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Winter, M. F.; Tongning, R. C.; Lauro, R.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Chanelière, T.; Le Gouët, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    In low-concentration Tm3+:YAG, we observe efficient adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) of thulium nuclear spin over flipping times much longer than T2. Efficient ARP with long flipping time has been observed in monoatomic solids for decades and has been analyzed in terms of spin temperature and of the thermodynamic equilibrium of a coupled spin ensemble. In low-concentration impurity-doped crystals the spin temperature concept may be questioned. A single spin model should be preferred since the impurity ions are weakly coupled together but interact with the numerous off-resonant matrix ions that originate the spin-spin relaxation. The experiment takes place in the context of quantum information investigation, involving impurity-doped crystals, spin hyperpolarization by optical pumping, and optical detection of the spin evolution.

  3. Detectability of Exoplanet Periastron Passage in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2011-11-01

    Characterization of exoplanets has matured in recent years, particularly through studies of exoplanetary atmospheres of transiting planets at infrared wavelengths. The primary source for such observations has been the Spitzer Space Telescope but these studies are anticipated to continue with the James Webb Space Telescope. A relatively unexplored region of exoplanet parameter space is the thermal detection of long-period eccentric planets during periastron passage. Here we describe the thermal properties and albedos of long-period giant planets along with the eccentricities of those orbits which allow them to remain within the habitable zone. We further apply these results to the known exoplanets by calculating temperatures and flux ratios for the IRAC passbands occupied by warm Spitzer, considering both low and high thermal redistribution efficiencies from the perspective of an observer. We conclude with recommendations on which targets are best suited for follow-up observations.

  4. Multiphoton Raman Atom Optics with Frequency-Swept Adiabatic Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David; Kinast, Joseph; Stoner, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometry is a promising candidate for future inertial navigators, gravitational wave detectors, and measurements of fundamental physical constants. The sensitivity of this technique, however, is often limited by the small momentum separations created between interfering atom wave packets (typically ~ 2 ℏk) . We address this issue using light-pulse atom optics derived from stimulated Raman transitions and frequency-swept adiabatic rapid passage (ARP). In experiments, these Raman ARP atom optics have generated up to 30 ℏk photon recoil momenta in an acceleration-sensitive atom interferometer, thereby enhancing the phase shift per unit acceleration by a factor of 15. Since this approach forgoes evaporative cooling and velocity selection, it could enable large-area atom interferometry at higher data rates, while also lowering the atom shot-noise-limited measurement uncertainty.

  5. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    PubMed

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  6. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  7. Perspective: Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage: The status after 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Klaas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Shore, Bruce W.

    2015-05-01

    The first presentation of the STIRAP (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) technique with proper theoretical foundation and convincing experimental data appeared 25 years ago, in the May 1st, 1990 issue of The Journal of Chemical Physics. By now, the STIRAP concept has been successfully applied in many different fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. In this article, we comment briefly on the initial motivation of the work, namely, the study of reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited small molecules, and how this initial idea led to the documented success. We proceed by providing a brief discussion of the physics of STIRAP and how the method was developed over the years, before discussing a few examples from the amazingly wide range of applications which STIRAP now enjoys, with the aim to stimulate further use of the concept. Finally, we mention some promising future directions.

  8. Unique Meteorological Data During Hurricane Ike's Passage Over Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Gunnar; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2009-06-01

    Hurricane Ike passed over the Houston, Tex., metropolitan area during the early morning of 13 September 2008. Although Ike had been rated only a category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale at landfall near Galveston, Tex., the storm's widespread damage to urban trees, many lacking proper trimming, knocked out the area's power distribution system; for some customers, power was only restored a month later. The hurricane's path after landfall (Figure 1a) went north through Galveston Bay and Baytown. The city of Houston—with its economically important ship channel—experienced the less severe western eye wall, the tight circulation with maximum wind speeds around the hurricane'ps center. The eye's passage was recorded between 3:00 and 4:30 A.M. Central Standard Time (CST; Figures 1a and 1c). It had maintained its unusually large diameter of 35-40 kilometers in its first hours after landfall.

  9. Effect of dephasing on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P.A.; Vitanov, N.V.; Bergmann, K.

    2004-12-01

    This work explores the effect of phase relaxation on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The study is based on the Liouville equation, which is solved analytically in the adiabatic limit. The transfer efficiency of STIRAP is found to decrease exponentially with the dephasing rate; this effect is stronger for shorter pulse delays and weaker for larger delays, since the transition time is found to be inversely proportional to the pulse delay. Moreover, it is found that the transfer efficiency of STIRAP in the presence of dephasing does not depend on the peak Rabi frequencies at all, as long as they are sufficiently large to enforce adiabatic evolution; hence increasing the field intensity cannot reduce the dephasing losses. It is shown also that for any dephasing rate, the final populations of the initial state and the intermediate state are equal. For strong dephasing all three populations tend to (1/3)

  10. DETECTABILITY OF EXOPLANET PERIASTRON PASSAGE IN THE INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2011-11-01

    Characterization of exoplanets has matured in recent years, particularly through studies of exoplanetary atmospheres of transiting planets at infrared wavelengths. The primary source for such observations has been the Spitzer Space Telescope but these studies are anticipated to continue with the James Webb Space Telescope. A relatively unexplored region of exoplanet parameter space is the thermal detection of long-period eccentric planets during periastron passage. Here we describe the thermal properties and albedos of long-period giant planets along with the eccentricities of those orbits which allow them to remain within the habitable zone. We further apply these results to the known exoplanets by calculating temperatures and flux ratios for the IRAC passbands occupied by warm Spitzer, considering both low and high thermal redistribution efficiencies from the perspective of an observer. We conclude with recommendations on which targets are best suited for follow-up observations.

  11. Fast passage dynamic nuclear polarization on rotating solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Hovav, Yonatan; Vega, Shimon; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Feintuch, Akiva

    2012-11-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has proven to be a very powerful way to improve the signal to noise ratio of NMR experiments on solids. The experiments have in general been interpreted considering the Solid-Effect (SE) and Cross-Effect (CE) DNP mechanisms while ignoring the influence of sample spinning. In this paper, we show experimental data of MAS-DNP enhancements of 1H and 13C in proline and SH3 protein in glass forming water/glycerol solvent containing TOTAPOL. We also introduce a theoretical model that aims at explaining how the nuclear polarization is built in MAS-DNP experiments. By using Liouville space based simulations to include relaxation on two simple spin models, {electron-nucleus} and {electron-electron-nucleus}, we explain how the basic MAS-SE-DNP and MAS-CE-DNP processes work. The importance of fast energy passages and short level anti-crossing is emphasized and the differences between static DNP and MAS-DNP is explained. During a single rotor cycle the enhancement in the {electron-electron-nucleus} system arises from MAS-CE-DNP involving at least three kinds of two-level fast passages: an electron-electron dipolar anti-crossing, a single quantum electron MW encounter and an anti-crossing at the CE condition inducing nuclear polarization in- or decrements. Numerical, powder-averaged, simulations were performed in order to check the influence of the experimental parameters on the enhancement efficiencies. In particular we show that the spinning frequency dependence of the theoretical MAS-CE-DNP enhancement compares favorably with the experimental 1H and 13C MAS-DNP enhancements of proline and SH3.

  12. Fast passage dynamic nuclear polarization on rotating solids.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Umit; Hovav, Yonatan; Vega, Shimon; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Feintuch, Akiva

    2012-11-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has proven to be a very powerful way to improve the signal to noise ratio of NMR experiments on solids. The experiments have in general been interpreted considering the Solid-Effect (SE) and Cross-Effect (CE) DNP mechanisms while ignoring the influence of sample spinning. In this paper, we show experimental data of MAS-DNP enhancements of (1)H and (13)C in proline and SH3 protein in glass forming water/glycerol solvent containing TOTAPOL. We also introduce a theoretical model that aims at explaining how the nuclear polarization is built in MAS-DNP experiments. By using Liouville space based simulations to include relaxation on two simple spin models, {electron-nucleus} and {electron-electron-nucleus}, we explain how the basic MAS-SE-DNP and MAS-CE-DNP processes work. The importance of fast energy passages and short level anti-crossing is emphasized and the differences between static DNP and MAS-DNP is explained. During a single rotor cycle the enhancement in the {electron-electron-nucleus} system arises from MAS-CE-DNP involving at least three kinds of two-level fast passages: an electron-electron dipolar anti-crossing, a single quantum electron MW encounter and an anti-crossing at the CE condition inducing nuclear polarization in- or decrements. Numerical, powder-averaged, simulations were performed in order to check the influence of the experimental parameters on the enhancement efficiencies. In particular we show that the spinning frequency dependence of the theoretical MAS-CE-DNP enhancement compares favorably with the experimental (1)H and (13)C MAS-DNP enhancements of proline and SH3.

  13. Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Zuowei; Likhtman, Alexei E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations and measure the mean first-passage time τ(z) for the free end to reach a certain distance z away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of τ(z) are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulation results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations leads us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more.

  14. Large deviations of Rouse polymer chain: First passage problem.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Zuowei; Likhtman, Alexei E

    2015-11-28

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate several analytical methods of solving first passage (FP) problem for the Rouse model, a simplest model of a polymer chain. We show that this problem has to be treated as a multi-dimensional Kramers' problem, which presents rich and unexpected behavior. We first perform direct and forward-flux sampling (FFS) simulations and measure the mean first-passage time τ(z) for the free end to reach a certain distance z away from the origin. The results show that the mean FP time is getting faster if the Rouse chain is represented by more beads. Two scaling regimes of τ(z) are observed, with transition between them varying as a function of chain length. We use these simulation results to test two theoretical approaches. One is a well known asymptotic theory valid in the limit of zero temperature. We show that this limit corresponds to fully extended chain when each chain segment is stretched, which is not particularly realistic. A new theory based on the well known Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed, where dynamics is projected onto the minimal action path. The new theory predicts both scaling regimes correctly, but fails to get the correct numerical prefactor in the first regime. Combining our theory with the FFS simulations leads us to a simple analytical expression valid for all extensions and chain lengths. One of the applications of polymer FP problem occurs in the context of branched polymer rheology. In this paper, we consider the arm-retraction mechanism in the tube model, which maps exactly on the model we have solved. The results are compared to the Milner-McLeish theory without constraint release, which is found to overestimate FP time by a factor of 10 or more. PMID:26627948

  15. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  16. Saving Energy and Money: A Lesson in Computer Power Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Hua, David

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students will develop an understanding of the economic impact of technology by estimating the cost savings of power management strategies in the classroom. Students will learn how to adjust computer display settings to influence the impact that the computer has on the financial burden to the school. They will use mathematics to…

  17. OpenADR Specification to Ease Saving Power in Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2016-07-12

    A new data model developed by researchers at the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and their colleagues at other universities and in the private sector will help facilities and buildings save power through automated demand response technology, and advance the development of the Smart Grid. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/04/27/openadr-specification/

  18. OpenADR Specification to Ease Saving Power in Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A new data model developed by researchers at the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and their colleagues at other universities and in the private sector will help facilities and buildings save power through automated demand response technology, and advance the development of the Smart Grid.

  19. Save With Solar, Fall 1998, Vol. 1, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Eiffert, P.

    1998-12-30

    This issue of Save with Solar highlights awards for federal renewable energy projects in FY 1998, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative, a special exhibition in New York City featuring solar technologies, PV systems working in Volcanoes National Park, and PV Super ESPC contracts.

  20. OpenADR Specification to Ease Saving Power in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    A new data model developed by researchers at the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and their colleagues at other universities and in the private sector will help facilities and buildings save power through automated demand response technology, and advance the development of the Smart Grid. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/04/27/openadr-specification/

  1. OpenADR Specification to Ease Saving Power in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-24

    A new data model developed by researchers at the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and their colleagues at other universities and in the private sector will help facilities and buildings save power through automated demand response technology, and advance the development of the Smart Grid.

  2. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  3. Behaviour and Locomotor Activity of a Migratory Catostomid during Fishway Passage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana T.; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z.; W. Dawson, Jeffery; Katopodis, Christos; J. Cooke, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  4. Human respiratory epithelial cells from nasal turbinate expressed stem cell genes even after serial passaging.

    PubMed

    Ruszymah, B H I; Izham, B A Azrul; Heikal, M Y Mohd; Khor, S F; Fauzi, M B; Aminuddin, B S

    2011-12-01

    Current development in the field of tissue engineering led to the idea of repairing and regenerating the respiratory airway through in vitro reconstruction using autologous respiratory epithelial (RE). To ensure the capability of proliferation, the stem cell property of RE cells from the nasal turbinate should be evaluated. Respiratory epithelial cells from six human nasal turbinates were harvested and cultured in vitro. The gene expression of FZD-9 and BST-1 were expressed in passage 2 (P2) and passage 4 (P4). The levels of expression were not significant between both passages. The RE cells exhibit the stem cell properties, which remains even after serial passaging.

  5. Upstream dispersal of an invasive crayfish aided by a fish passage facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Loughman, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    Fish passage facilities for reservoir dams have been used to restore habitat connectivity within riverine networks by allowing upstream passage for native species. These facilities may also support the spread of invasive species, an unintended consequence and potential downside of upstream passage structures. We documented dam passage of the invasive virile crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen, 1870), at fish ladders designed for upstream passage of American eels, Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817), in the Shenandoah River drainage, USA. Ladder use and upstream passage of 11 virile crayfish occurred from 2007–2014 during periods of low river discharge (<30 m3s–1) and within a wide range of water temperatures from 9.0–28.6 °C. Virile crayfish that used the eel ladders were large adults with a mean carapace length and width of 48.0 mm and 24.1 mm, respectively. Our data demonstrated the use of species-specific fish ladders by a non-target non-native species, which has conservation and management implications for the spread of aquatic invasive species and upstream passage facilities. Specifically, managers should consider implementing long-term monitoring of fish passage facilities with emphasis on detection of invasive species, as well as methods to reduce or eliminate passage of invasive species. 

  6. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana T; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z; Dawson, Jeffery W; Katopodis, Christos; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  7. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  8. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  10. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  11. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, (English/Russian Fact Sheet) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Russian brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  12. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  13. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises in China (International Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help Chinese manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  14. Measuring radiology's value in time saved.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-10-01

    Because radiology has historically not measured its added value to patient care and thus not communicated it in easily understood terms to all stakeholders, the specialty must correct this to prepare for the eventual transition from the current fee-for-service payment schedule to new value-based reimbursement systems. Given the increasing risk for marginalization, radiologists need to engage clinicians and managers to map the processes and associated costs of episodes of patient care to identify areas for providing and improving integrated diagnostic information and to measure the value thereof. In such time-driven, activity-based costing practices, radiologists should highlight how proper investments in the information generated by imaging and how radiologists' associated consultative and coordination of services can save greater resources downstream, especially in the nonrenewable resource of physician time, an increasingly scarce health care resource. Using physician time in the most efficient way will be a key element for decreasing health care costs at the aggregate level. Therefore, expressing radiology's contribution in terms of downstream physician time saved is a metric that can be easily understood by all stakeholders. In a conceptual framework centered on value, the specialty of radiology must focus more on its most important product, actionable information, rather than on imaging technologies themselves. Information, unlike imaging technologies, does not depreciate with time but rather increases in value the more it is used.

  15. Measuring radiology's value in time saved.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-10-01

    Because radiology has historically not measured its added value to patient care and thus not communicated it in easily understood terms to all stakeholders, the specialty must correct this to prepare for the eventual transition from the current fee-for-service payment schedule to new value-based reimbursement systems. Given the increasing risk for marginalization, radiologists need to engage clinicians and managers to map the processes and associated costs of episodes of patient care to identify areas for providing and improving integrated diagnostic information and to measure the value thereof. In such time-driven, activity-based costing practices, radiologists should highlight how proper investments in the information generated by imaging and how radiologists' associated consultative and coordination of services can save greater resources downstream, especially in the nonrenewable resource of physician time, an increasingly scarce health care resource. Using physician time in the most efficient way will be a key element for decreasing health care costs at the aggregate level. Therefore, expressing radiology's contribution in terms of downstream physician time saved is a metric that can be easily understood by all stakeholders. In a conceptual framework centered on value, the specialty of radiology must focus more on its most important product, actionable information, rather than on imaging technologies themselves. Information, unlike imaging technologies, does not depreciate with time but rather increases in value the more it is used. PMID:23025865

  16. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)—a high average and/or low variance return—increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes. PMID:20352013

  17. Saved By A Weather Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on Jan. 2, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis Clements was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from hi...

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  19. Quick, save the ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.

    1993-05-17

    Last December, after an all-out, nearly $500 million development effort, an Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) plant in Louisiana was the first world-scale US facility to start pumping out HFC 134a, an alternative to CFC12, the chemical that accounts for more than 50% of CFC use. The saga of 134a is an object lesson in how a global crisis can compel governments and companies to transform technology far faster than either thought possible. With deadlines for phasing out CFCs closing in, ICI and its rivals, Du Pont and Elf, developed technology speedily by constructing factories even while their choice molecules were still being tested. ICI slashed the time it takes to commercialize a technology from the industry norm of more than a decade to only five years. If companies are forced to act on environmental issues, they do it.

  20. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  1. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  2. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  3. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  4. 12 CFR 390.307 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Savings account. 390.307 Section 390.307 Banks... Savings Associations § 390.307 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 390.290, a tax and loan account, a note account, a United...

  5. 12 CFR 390.307 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Savings account. 390.307 Section 390.307 Banks... Savings Associations § 390.307 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 390.290, a tax and loan account, a note account, a United...

  6. 12 CFR 390.307 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Savings account. 390.307 Section 390.307 Banks... Savings Associations § 390.307 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 390.290, a tax and loan account, a note account, a United...

  7. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a note account,...

  8. 12 CFR 161.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Savings account. 161.42 Section 161.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 161.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  9. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a note account,...

  10. 12 CFR 161.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Savings account. 161.42 Section 161.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 161.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  11. 12 CFR 161.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Savings account. 161.42 Section 161.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 161.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  12. Woodwaste saves Louisiana-Pacific $164 million a year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Louisiana Pacific is reported to be producing 74% of its total energy requirements from woodwaste. The company is saving the equivalent of more than five million barrels of oil a year with its waste conversion systems using bark, sawdust and sanderdust. The new generating facilities, scheduled to go online next year, will save an additional half-million barrels of oil a year. The company is already looking at new ways to further reduce its dependence on nonrenewable energy sources. One promising technology is wood gasification.

  13. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    LBL,

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two sky conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.

  14. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  15. Establishment of Human Ultra-Low Passage Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Using Spheroids from Fresh Surgical Specimens Suitable for In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Satyajit; Langan, Russell C.; Mullinax, John E.; Koizumi, Tomotake; Xin, Hong-Wu; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Anderson, Andrew J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Rudloff, Udo; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) holds the third highest incidence and cancer related mortality rate among men and women in the United States. Unfortunately, there has been little progression made in the treatment of this deadly disease once it has spread beyond the colon. It has been hypothesize that colon cancer stem cells are implicated in CRC carcinogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. One of the difficulties in testing these hypotheses is the current use of established high-passage cancer cell lines. Long term, high-passage established cell lines have cells with stem like properties as they propagate almost indefinitely. These cells are thought to be different than the original cancer stem cells in fresh tumors. In order to investigate cancer stem cells, and molecularly profiling tumors with high fidelity to the original primary tumor, one needs to establish suitable primary ultra-low passage cell lines from fresh surgical specimens. Here we report the establishment of tumor initiating colon cancer ultra-low passage cell lines by a combination of gentle mechanical, enzymatic dissociation, spheroid formation, and followed by two generation xenografts from fresh tumors obtained at time of operation. Tumors generated were characterized by morphology, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and by gene expression. In the future, such a technology can be used to produce expeditiously enough material to test for mutations, genetic signatures and molecular subtyping readily available for clinical therapeutic decision making. PMID:22606209

  16. Apparent Time Passage and Music Preference by Music and Nonmusic Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Jane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines how popular music preference in listening exercises influences apparent time passage in a study involving 80 University of Texas, Austin, music and nonmusic major undergraduate students. Shows no significant relationship between music preference and apparent time passage. Finds no significant differences attributable to level of music…

  17. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  18. 33 CFR 151.2015 - Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from the mandatory requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from the mandatory requirements? 151.2015 Section 151.2015 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2015 Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2015 - Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from the mandatory requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from the mandatory requirements? 151.2015 Section 151.2015 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2015 Is a vessel in innocent passage exempt from...

  20. Using Necessary Information to Identify Item Dependence in Passage-Based Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldonado, Angela Argo; Svetina, Dubravka; Gorin, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Applications of traditional unidimensional item response theory models to passage-based reading comprehension assessment data have been criticized based on potential violations of local independence. However, simple rules for determining dependency, such as including all items associated with a particular passage, may overestimate the dependency…

  1. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  2. Crossing the Threshold Mindfully: Exploring Rites of Passage Models in Adventure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Rites of passage models, drawing from ethnographic descriptions of ritualized transition, are widespread in adventure therapy programmes. However, critical literature suggests that: (a) contemporary rites of passage models derive from a selective and sometimes misleading use of ethnographic materials, and (b) the appropriation of initiatory…

  3. A novel method for imaging sites of paracellular passage of macromolecules in epithelial sheets.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan F; Schmauder, Ralf; Krug, Susanne M; Gebert, Andreas; Schumann, Michael

    2016-05-10

    Understanding the dynamics of intestinal barrier function is key to elucidating oral delivery routes of therapeutics as well as to understanding various diseases that involve the mucosal immune system. Passage of macromolecules across barrier-forming epithelia is classically analyzed by means of various tracer flux measurements. This approach averages over contributions from many cells and lacks labeling of passage-sites. Thus, abundance and nature of involved cells have remained unidentified. We present a novel method that allowed for optical analysis of passage of various macromolecules on large-scale and single-cell level. To achieve tracking of passage loci in epithelia at submicrometer resolution we used biotinylated and fluorescent macromolecules that bind to basolateral membranes pre-labeled with cell-adherent avidin. We applied this method to epithelial cell lines and isolated mucosae in order to 3-dimensionally determine barrier leak properties over time. Tracer passage was found in all epithelia examined. However, it was infrequent, strikingly inhomogeneous, depended on culture duration and tightness of the monolayer. Stimulating passage with barrier-perturbing agents increased the number of leaks exposition time-dependently in cell lines and explanted mucosae. After stepwise opening of the paracellular passage pathway, integrated tracer-signal measured by our assay strictly correlated to simultaneously performed standard fluxes. Thus, our assay allows for the study of transepithelial macromolecule passage in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26995760

  4. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 7025). We received one... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... the America's Cup World Series (ACWS) sailing vessel racing event. DATES: This rule is effective...

  5. 77 FR 46087 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Original Minor License. b. Project No.: 14066-002. c. Date filed: May 25, 2012. d. Applicant: Inside..., Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O. Box 210149, 12480 Mendenhall Loop Road,...

  6. A novel method for imaging sites of paracellular passage of macromolecules in epithelial sheets.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan F; Schmauder, Ralf; Krug, Susanne M; Gebert, Andreas; Schumann, Michael

    2016-05-10

    Understanding the dynamics of intestinal barrier function is key to elucidating oral delivery routes of therapeutics as well as to understanding various diseases that involve the mucosal immune system. Passage of macromolecules across barrier-forming epithelia is classically analyzed by means of various tracer flux measurements. This approach averages over contributions from many cells and lacks labeling of passage-sites. Thus, abundance and nature of involved cells have remained unidentified. We present a novel method that allowed for optical analysis of passage of various macromolecules on large-scale and single-cell level. To achieve tracking of passage loci in epithelia at submicrometer resolution we used biotinylated and fluorescent macromolecules that bind to basolateral membranes pre-labeled with cell-adherent avidin. We applied this method to epithelial cell lines and isolated mucosae in order to 3-dimensionally determine barrier leak properties over time. Tracer passage was found in all epithelia examined. However, it was infrequent, strikingly inhomogeneous, depended on culture duration and tightness of the monolayer. Stimulating passage with barrier-perturbing agents increased the number of leaks exposition time-dependently in cell lines and explanted mucosae. After stepwise opening of the paracellular passage pathway, integrated tracer-signal measured by our assay strictly correlated to simultaneously performed standard fluxes. Thus, our assay allows for the study of transepithelial macromolecule passage in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  8. Examining the Effect of Computer-Based Passage Presentation on Reading Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jennifer; Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    To examine the impact of transitioning 4th grade reading comprehension assessments to the computer, 219 fourth graders were randomly assigned to take a one-hour reading comprehension assessment on paper, on a computer using scrolling text to navigate through passages, or on a computer using paging text to navigate through passages. This study…

  9. Using Passage Structure as an Aid to Summarizing Social Studies Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.

    1984-01-01

    Problems that students may have because of their unfamiliarity with the passage structures used in many social studies textbooks are discussed. Passage structures are defined as certain rhetorical structures such as compare/constrast, general/specific, and sequence. A teaching strategy for helping students overcome these difficulties is included.…

  10. 33 CFR 110.245 - Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. 110.245 Section 110.245 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Vieques Passage...

  11. 33 CFR 110.245 - Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. 110.245 Section 110.245 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Vieques Passage...

  12. 33 CFR 110.245 - Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. 110.245 Section 110.245 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and Vieques Sound, near Vieques Island, P.R. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Vieques Passage...

  13. Comparison of Methods for Demonstrating Passage of Time When Using Computer-Based Video Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Spencer, Galen P.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Two different video-based procedures for presenting the passage of time (how long a step lasts) were examined. The two procedures were presented within the framework of video prompting to promote independent multi-step task completion across four young adults with moderate intellectual disability. The two procedures demonstrating passage of the…

  14. Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Who Are Emergent Readers to Comprehend Passages of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Hudson, Melissa E.; Wood, Alyson Leah

    2013-01-01

    A modified system of least intrusive prompting was used to teach middle school students with moderate intellectual disability who were emergent readers to comprehend short passages of text. Text passages were summaries of the chapters of age-appropriate novels rewritten for a beginning reading level. Time delay was used to teach the participants…

  15. Introducing Intertextuality-Aware Instruction as a Novel Approach of Teaching Reading Passages in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of intertextuality-aware instruction of reading passages on a sample of intermediate EFL learners of both genders. First, the intertextuality deployed through the reading passages of the study's course-book was focused inspired by Fairclough's (192) framework in terms of genre,…

  16. The Technical Properties of Science Content Maze Passages for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Semmelroth, Carrie; Allison, Jennifer; Fritsch, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The use of Curriculum-Based Measures is rapidly expanding to the middle school level, where maze passages are frequently used to monitor progress in reading. At secondary grade levels, the focus of reading is on reading to learn, especially in the content areas. Therefore, we were interested in developing maze passages based on grade-level science…

  17. Time-to-Passage Judgments in Nonconstant Optical Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Hecht, Heiko

    1995-01-01

    The time until an approaching object will pass an observer (time to passage, or TTP) is optically specified by a global flow field even in the absence of local expansion or size cues. Kaiser and Mowafy have demonstrated that observers are in fact sensitive to this global flow information. The present studies investigate two factors that are usually ignored in work related to TTP: (1) non-constant motion functions and (2) concomitant eye rotation. Non-constant velocities violate an assumption of some TTP derivations, and eye rotations may complicate heading extraction. Such factors have practical significance, for example, in the case of a pilot accelerating an aircraft or executing a roll. In our studies, a flow field of constant-sized stars was presented monocularly on a large screen. TIP judgments had to be made on the basis of one target star. The flow field varied in its acceleration pattern and its roll component. Observers did not appear to utilize acceleration information. In particular, TTP with decelerating motion were consistently underestimated. TTP judgments were fairly robust with respect to roll, even when roll axis and track vector were decoupled. However, substantial decoupling between heading and track vector led to a decrement in performance, in both the presence and the absence of roll.

  18. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Patel, Dimki R; Lepore, Bryan W; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2009-03-19

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the beta-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  19. On the Triggering of Quasars During First Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Merger induced quasar {QSO} activity is commonly invoked as a principal mechanism responsible for the growth of central super-massive black holes {SMBHs} and concurrent evolution of their host galaxies. Despite the apparent successes of such models in reproducing global populations and distributions, fundamental questions surrounding the fueling of SMBHs remain untested. In particular, theoretical treatments predict that the the evolution of the BHs during a merger is determined by their host galaxy's bulge component. We will test this observationally by imaging 10 early-stage merging pairs of galaxies where one galaxy is in a quasar phase and the other is not. By selecting a sample of merging galaxies after first close passage but before final coalescence, we may study the early stages of the merger and precisely determine the properties of the progenitors. This allows a unique 1-to-1 comparison of the QSO-host and companion galaxy that cannot be attained with any other sample. In this manner, we will establish whether quasar triggering is sensitive to the host galaxy morphology. Analysis of the morphologies and stellar masses will also equip us to tackle other key questions related to quasar evolution and triggering. The proposed imaging will constrain the stellar masses of each galaxy to characterize the merger mass ratios that trigger QSO activity. Lastly, comparisons of the SMBH to the host bulge mass, at this intermediate stage, will offer new insights into the path SMBHs take on their way to the Magorrian relation.

  20. First Passage Time for Random Walks in Heterogeneous Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S.; Lee, D.-S.; Kahng, B.

    2012-08-01

    The first passage time (FPT) for random walks is a key indicator of how fast information diffuses in a given system. Despite the role of FPT as a fundamental feature in transport phenomena, its behavior, particularly in heterogeneous networks, is not yet fully understood. Here, we study, both analytically and numerically, the scaling behavior of the FPT distribution to a given target node, averaged over all starting nodes. We find that random walks arrive quickly at a local hub, and therefore, the FPT distribution shows a crossover with respect to time from fast decay behavior (induced from the attractive effect to the hub) to slow decay behavior (caused by the exploring of the entire system). Moreover, the mean FPT is independent of the degree of the target node in the case of compact exploration. These theoretical results justify the necessity of using a random jump protocol (empirically used in search engines) and provide guidelines for designing an effective network to make information quickly accessible.

  1. Abell 1201: A Minor Merger at Second Core Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Owers, Matt; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Couch, Warrick J.

    2012-06-01

    We present an analysis of the structures and dynamics of the merging cluster Abell 1201, which has two sloshing cold fronts around a cooling core, and an offset gas core approximately 500 kpc northwest of the center. New Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal a region of enhanced brightness east of the offset core, with breaks in surface brightness along its boundary to the north and east. This is interpreted as a tail of gas stripped from the offset core. Gas in the offset core and the tail is distinguished from other gas at the same distance from the cluster center chiefly by having higher density, hence lower entropy. In addition, the offset core shows marginally lower temperature and metallicity than the surrounding area. The metallicity in the cool core is high and there is an abrupt drop in metallicity across the southern cold front. We interpret the observed properties of the system, including the placement of the cold fronts, the offset core, and its tail in terms of a simple merger scenario. The offset core is the remnant of a merging subcluster, which first passed pericenter southeast of the center of the primary cluster and is now close to its second pericenter passage, moving at ~= 1000 km s-1. Sloshing excited by the merger gave rise to the two cold fronts and the disposition of the cold fronts reveals that we view the merger from close to the plane of the orbit of the offset core.

  2. Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He++ component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the effect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

  3. On the theory of current passage via an ideal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Elesin, V. F.

    2015-01-15

    An analytic solution to the problem of current passage via an ideal insulator in the case of monopolar hole injection has been found. The current-voltage (J-V) characteristics have been obtained for the first time in a broad range of parameters (insulator length, hole concentrations at boundaries, temperature, etc.) and applied voltages. It is shown that the Mott-Gurney quadratic J-V relation is valid only in a certain interval of currents between J{sub 1} and J{sub 2}. For J < J{sub 1}, the current linearly depends on voltage V to within V{sup 3} terms. A new mode has been found for J > J{sub 2}, where the J-V characteristic also becomes linear because the insulator is completely filled with injected holes. The integration constants are determined in the entire range of parameters and currents. Analytic expressions for the spatial electric-field and hole-concentration distributions are derived.

  4. Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a CME Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Roseamry M.; Hurley, Dana M.; Farrell, William M.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system will produce an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. Laboratory experiments have shown that the sputter yield can be noticeably increased in the case of a good insulating surface. It is now known that the solar wind composition is highly dependent on the origin of the particular plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind. fast wind. solar energetic particle (SEP) population. and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into its various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. The heavy ion component, especially the He(++) component, greatly enhances the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced, most notably during a coronal mass ejection. To simulate the etfect on the lunar exosphere of a CME passage past the Moon, we ran a Monte Carlo code for the species Na, K, Mg and Ca.

  5. First-passage times, mobile traps, and Hopf bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Justin C; Xie, Shuangquan; Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    2014-12-01

    For a random walk on a confined one-dimensional domain, we consider mean first-passage times (MFPT) in the presence of a mobile trap. The question we address is whether a mobile trap can improve capture times over a stationary trap. We consider two scenarios: a randomly moving trap and an oscillating trap. In both cases, we find that a stationary trap actually performs better (in terms of reducing expected capture time) than a very slowly moving trap; however, a trap moving sufficiently fast performs better than a stationary trap. We explicitly compute the thresholds that separate the two regimes. In addition, we find a surprising relation between the oscillating trap problem and a moving-sink problem that describes reduced dynamics of a single spike in a certain regime of the Gray-Scott model. Namely, the above-mentioned threshold corresponds precisely to a Hopf bifurcation that induces oscillatory motion in the location of the spike. We use this correspondence to prove the uniqueness of the Hopf bifurcation.

  6. Properties of cometary crystalline silicate before and after perihelion passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline silicate is sometimes observed in comets as an 11.3-micron resonant emission feature, and may be used for probing the early solar nebula. Because the formation of the crystalline silicate requires high temperature, they are thought to be born from amorphous silicate at the inner region, and then transported toward the outer regions where comets were born. This transportation can produce the difference in the crystalline fraction in the cometary silicate dust between two dynamical types of comets, Oort-cloud comets (OCs) and Ecliptic comets (ECs), due to the different heliocentric distances of their birth places. The study of peak wavelengths in crystalline features is important to investigate the conditions of the crystalline silicate formation as well. Thus far, we don't have enough OC samples, while we have observed several ECs. Fortunately, we can observe three comets in this semester. In particular, C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a bright sungrazing comet, and we might expect possible splitting and exposing of pristine materials inside the nucleus after its perihelion passage. Observations at pre- and post-perihelion provide us precious information on the dust evolution of the comet. The comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), along with two other comets, is an unparalleled target for this study.

  7. ABELL 1201: A MINOR MERGER AT SECOND CORE PASSAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Chengjiun; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Owers, Matt; Couch, Warrick J.

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of the structures and dynamics of the merging cluster Abell 1201, which has two sloshing cold fronts around a cooling core, and an offset gas core approximately 500 kpc northwest of the center. New Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal a region of enhanced brightness east of the offset core, with breaks in surface brightness along its boundary to the north and east. This is interpreted as a tail of gas stripped from the offset core. Gas in the offset core and the tail is distinguished from other gas at the same distance from the cluster center chiefly by having higher density, hence lower entropy. In addition, the offset core shows marginally lower temperature and metallicity than the surrounding area. The metallicity in the cool core is high and there is an abrupt drop in metallicity across the southern cold front. We interpret the observed properties of the system, including the placement of the cold fronts, the offset core, and its tail in terms of a simple merger scenario. The offset core is the remnant of a merging subcluster, which first passed pericenter southeast of the center of the primary cluster and is now close to its second pericenter passage, moving at {approx_equal} 1000 km s{sup -1}. Sloshing excited by the merger gave rise to the two cold fronts and the disposition of the cold fronts reveals that we view the merger from close to the plane of the orbit of the offset core.

  8. Bladed disc crack diagnostics using blade passage signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanachi, Houman; Liu, Jie; Banerjee, Avisekh; Koul, Ashok; Liang, Ming; Alavi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    One of the major potential faults in a turbo fan engine is the crack initiation and propagation in bladed discs under cyclic loads that could result in the breakdown of the engines if not detected at an early stage. Reliable fault detection techniques are therefore in demand to reduce maintenance cost and prevent catastrophic failures. Although a number of approaches have been reported in the literature, it remains very challenging to develop a reliable technique to accurately estimate the health condition of a rotating bladed disc. Correspondingly, this paper presents a novel technique for bladed disc crack detection through two sequential signal processing stages: (1) signal preprocessing that aims to eliminate the noises in the blade passage signals; (2) signal postprocessing that intends to identify the crack location. In the first stage, physics-based modeling and interpretation are established to help characterize the noises. The crack initiation can be determined based on the calculated health monitoring index derived from the sinusoidal effects. In the second stage, the crack is located through advanced detrended fluctuation analysis of the preprocessed data. The proposed technique is validated using a set of spin rig test data (i.e. tip clearance and time of arrival) that was acquired during a test conducted on a bladed military engine fan disc. The test results have demonstrated that the developed technique is an effective approach for identifying and locating the incipient crack that occurs at the root of a bladed disc.

  9. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  10. Emergence of simian virus 40 variants during serial passage of plaque isolates.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Tirrell, S M

    1982-05-01

    Three serial passage series of simian virus 40 (SV40) in CV-1 cells were initiated by infection directly from the same wild-type plaque isolate, three series were initiated by infection with another plaque isolate, and two series were initiated with each of two other plaque isolates. Aberrant SV40 genomes were not detected in any of the passage series until after the fifty undiluted passage, and each series generated a different array of variant genomes. The results show that the variants were not present in the original plaque isolates but, instead, were randomly generated during subsequent high-input multiplicity passages. Although many of the aberrant viral genomes in each passage series contained reiterations of the SV40 origin of replication and some also contained host cell sequences, there was no indication that SV40 is predisposed toward generating any particular variant.

  11. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  12. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-29

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  13. Novel Approaches to Examine Passage, Student, and Question Effects on Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amanda C; Davis, Nicole; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Cho, Sun-Joo; Toste, Jessica R; Street, James; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-02-01

    Reading comprehension is influenced by sources of variance associated with the reader and the task. To gain insight into the complex interplay of multiple sources of influence, we employed crossed random-effects item response models. These models allowed us to simultaneously examine the degree to which variables related to the type of passage and student characteristics influenced students' (n = 94; mean age = 11.97 years) performance on two indicators of reading comprehension: different types of comprehension questions and passage fluency. We found that variables related to word recognition, language, and executive function were influential across various types of passages and comprehension questions and also predicted a reader's passage fluency. Further, an exploratory analysis of two-way interaction effects was conducted. Results suggest that understanding the relative influence of passage, question, and student variables has implications for identifying struggling readers and designing interventions to address their individual needs.

  14. Temperature distribution in internally heated walls of heat exchangers composed of nonnuclear flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Low, George M

    1951-01-01

    In the walls of heat exchangers composed of noncircular passages, the temperature varies in the circumferential direction because of local variations of the heat-transfer coefficients. A prediction of the magnitude of this variation is necessary in order to determine the region of highest temperature and in order to determine the admissible operating temperatures. A method for the determination of these temperature distributions and of the heat-transfer characteristics of a special type of heat exchanger is developed. The heat exchanger is composed of polygonal flow passages and the passage walls are uniformly heated by internal heat sources. The coolant flow within the passages is assumed to be turbulent. The circumferential variation of the local heat-transfer coefficients is estimated from flow measurements made by Nikuradse, postulating similarity between velocity and temperature fields. Calculations of temperature distributions based on these heat-transfer coefficients are carried out and results for heat exchangers with triangular and rectangular passages are presented.

  15. Raytheon: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    In 2003, Raytheon Company upgraded the efficiency of the compressed air system at its Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Massachusetts, to save energy and reduce costs. Worn compressors and dryers were replaced, a more sophisticated control strategy was installed, and an aggressive leak detection and repair effort was carried out. The total cost of these improvements was $342,000; however, National Grid, a utility service provider, contributed a $174,000 incentive payment. Total annual energy and maintenance cost savings are estimated at $141,500, and energy savings are nearly 1.6 million kWh. This case study was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program.

  16. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  18. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  19. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  20. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  1. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  2. Strategic Plan for Technology: West Ottawa School District. Presented by the Technology Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Ottawa Public Schools, Holland, MI.

    This document is a strategic plan for the implementation of technology in the West Ottawa School District (Holland, Michigan). Developed in response to the passage of a bond issue with funding for educational technology in 1990, the plan proposes to support all aspects of the educational process, using technology not only as a tool for…

  3. Dyebath reuse saves money and reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Bergenthal, J.; Eapen, J.; Tawa, A.; Tincher, W.

    1984-10-01

    The article discusses an evaluation of the potential for wastewater recycle or reuse in textile finishing mills. Over a dozen recycle technologies were evaluated in six separate mills. Results of these preliminary studies showed that most of the recycle technologies were technically feasible, but only a few were cost effective: synthetic size recovery and reuse, caustic recovery and reuse, direct wastewater reuse (e.g., countercurrent washing), and direct dyebath reuse. The last-mentioned was singled out for further study because it was seen as having several advantages: low capital cost for implementation, substantial processing cost savings, significant environmental benefits, and the potential for widespread use in the industry. It is estimated that about half of all textile dyeing is performed by batch operations, including most knit fabric, hosiery, and yarn, along with substantial amounts of carpet and some woven fabric. Dyebath reuse technology was first developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology about 10 years ago, but few mills have adopted it to date.

  4. Future of Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    Using automation to free up controllers for more strategic management of air traffic is one approach being studied by NASA as it seeks to boost airspace system capacity and efficiency, thereby saving fuel. Heinz Erzberger, a NASA Ames Research Center senior scientist, says the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) has been studied for several years. It could increase efficiency 15% by providing optimal routes that cut airlines direct operating costs. A 25% increase in landings on existing runways could follow an important benefit. AAC is one of the efforts to be reviewed by the Joint Planning and Development Organization, an FAA-led initiative by six federal agencies to redesign the U.S. air transportation system by 2025. The main goal is to triple air traffic capacity within 20 years to avert the sort of gridlock that would make fuel consumption only one of many travel nightmares. The automated system approach would allow aircraft to fly optimal trajectories. A trajectory would be defined in the standard three dimensions and eventually include the fourth, time. The management of air traffic by the data-linked exchange of trajectories would start at high altitude and eventually move down to lower altitudes. The automated concept is an outgrowth of the type of tools developed by NASA for use by FAA controllers in managing traffic flows over the years, including ones that optimize routings for the best fuel burn. But AAC would push automation further to reduce workload so controllers can focus on "solving strategic control problems, managing traffic flow during changing weather and ... other unusal events." One key component, the automated trajectory server (ATS), is a ground systems that would rely on software to manage flight path requests from aircrews and controllers. But, Erzberger acknowledges, "The FAA's current plan for upgrades to air traffic services does not include [allowing] the future ground system to issue separation-critical clearances of trajectory changes

  5. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  6. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine.

  7. Rosetta Mission Status: Toward and From Perihelion Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the deployment and subsequent touchdown of its Philae Lander on the surface of comet C67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014, the Rosetta spacecraft has left bound orbits around the comet and passed a number of milestones contributing to further achieving the science return goals of the mission. It performed two very close flybys in February and March of this year, allowing for the collection of data and high-resolution images of the nucleus and its close environment at a time of increasing cometary activity. Such increase in activity actually led to orbiter operational issues as the star tracker navigation was seriously impacted by the presence of dust particles, and since then the spacecraft had to be moved further away from the nucleus so as to guarantee its safety. This has meant a complete redesign of the operational scheme for the mission, whose science planning implementation is now being uplinked to the spacecraft much closer to execution onboard, with the Flight Dynamics team defining trajectories as late and as close as possible to the comet. In addition to science data acquired from the northern hemisphere of the comet while it progresses toward perihelion, attempts are being made to communicate with the Lander since renewed signal with Philae was obtained in mid-June. The aim is to be able to achieve as much of the Long Term Science goals as possible during the remaining lifetime of the Lander, albeit within the orbiter safety constraints. With perihelion within reach, orbiter science of the southern hemisphere is taking on more importance, and the combination of such science with continued Lander contact attempts will mark Rosetta's passage across the perihelion for C67P.

  8. Microvascular endothelium and pericytes: high yield, low passage cultures.

    PubMed

    Carson, M P; Haudenschild, C C

    1986-06-01

    Cultured microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) have become a valuable model for studies of microvascular physiology and pathology. Most current techniques involve manual removal of undesirable cell types or cloning, require one to several months, and yield high population doubling level cultures derived from a relatively small sample of the original population. We have devised a technique to more rapidly produce larger numbers of MEC. This method provided primary cultures consisting predominantly of MEC within 1 wk. The technique involves selective aspiration of gray matter from the bovine cerebral cortex followed by homogenization, sieving, enzymatic dissociation, and then dense plating (10(4) to 10(5) vessel fragments/cm2) onto gelatin- or fibronectin-coated plastic. Typical yields were 0.1 to 0.5 X 10(6) fragments/g of aspirated gray matter. The optimal culture medium for these cells was 15% equine plasma derived serum, 20% conditioned medium, 2% retinal extract, 60% fresh medium, and 500 micrograms/ml heparin. Cells attached within 24 h, well-spread colonies were present within 1 to 2 d, and cultures approached confluence within 2 to 3 d. Alkaline phosphatase staining confirmed the microvascular origin of the material plated. Morphology, Factor VIII-related antigen staining and 1,1'-dioctacecyl-3,3,3'3,-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate acetylated low density lipoprotein uptake suggested that MEC predominated. Cultures could be passaged and additionally purified by sequential exposure to pancreatin and trypsin-EDTA. Pancreatin selectively removed MEC colonies leaving a relatively homogeneous pericyte population. The relative ease with which such cultures can be produced should facilitate the in vitro study of brain microvascular function and may also provide insights useful for growing MEC from other vascular beds.

  9. Duroquinone reduction during passage through the pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said H; Bongard, Robert D; Dawson, Christopher A; Siegel, David; Roerig, David L; Merker, Marilyn P

    2003-11-01

    The lungs can substantially influence the redox status of redox-active plasma constituents. Our objective was to examine aspects of the kinetics and mechanisms that determine pulmonary disposition of redox-active compounds during passage through the pulmonary circulation. Experiments were carried out on rat and mouse lungs with 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone [duroquinone (DQ)] as a model amphipathic quinone reductase substrate. We measured DQ and durohydroquinone (DQH2) concentrations in the lung venous effluent after injecting, or while infusing, DQ or DQH2 into the pulmonary arterial inflow. The maximum net rates of DQ reduction to DQH2 in the rat and mouse lungs were approximately 4.9 and 2.5 micromol. min(-1).g dry lung wt(-1), respectively. The net rate was apparently the result of freely permeating access of DQ and DQH2 to tissue sites of redox reactions, dominated by dicumarol-sensitive DQ reduction to DQH2 and cyanide-sensitive DQH2 reoxidation back to DQ. The dicumarol sensitivity along with immunodetectable expression of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the rat lung tissue suggest cytoplasmic NQO1 as the dominant site of DQ reduction. The effect of cyanide on DQH2 oxidation suggests that the dominant site of oxidation is complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. If one envisions DQ as a model compound for examining the disposition of amphipathic NQO1 substrates in the lungs, the results are consistent with a role for lung NQO1 in determining the redox status of such compounds in the circulation. For DQ, the effect is conversion of a redox-cycling, oxygen-activating quinone into a stable hydroquinone.

  10. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  11. AEDOT technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    Most commercial buildings designed today will use more energy and cost more to operate and maintain than necessary. If energy performance were considered early in building design, 30% to 60% of the energy now used in new commercial buildings could be saved cost-effectively. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings; the tools for doing so simply do not yet exist. Computer technology can help design teams consider energy performance as an integral part of the design process. This technology could enable designers to produce much more energy-efficient buildings without increasing the costs of building design. Recognizing this, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The aim of the project is to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these potentially large energy savings. The success of the AEDOT project depends largely on the ability to develop energy design-support tools that can be integrated into comprehensive building design environments so that all parts of the design process willbe supported. Energy, just one consideration among many in building design, must be considered in a context that includes visual, acoustic, and structural aspects; accessibility; thermal comfort; indoor air quality; cost; and other factors associated with the quality, acceptability, and performance of a building. Advanced computer-aided design support environments will need to integrate tools from many different domains and provide access to the vast amounts of data that designers need to apply these tools and to make informed decisions.

  12. Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Chad; New, Joshua Ryan; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-01-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

  13. Optimization of the axial compressor flow passage to reduce the circumferential distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, G.; Kolmakova, D.; Shklovets, A.; Ermakov, A.

    2015-08-01

    This work is motivated by the necessity to reduce the effects of the flow circumferential distortion in the flow passage of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE). In previous research, the authors have proposed the approaches to decrease of the flow circumferential distortion arising from the mid-support racks of GTE compressor and having a negative impact on the blade rows, located upstream. In particular, the idea of introducing the circumferentially non-uniform blade pitch and profile stagger angle of guide vanes located in front of the support was contributed in order to redistribute the flow and decrease the dynamic stresses in the rotor wheel of the same stage. During the research presented in this paper, another principal of reduction of the flow circumferential distortion was chosen. Firstly, the variants of upgrading the existing support racks were found. Secondly, the new design of support was offered. Both the first and the second version of the support design variation took into account the availability of technological and structural limitations associated with the location of oil pipes, springs and others elements in the support racks. Investigations of modified design showed that the support with altered racks provides a reduction of dynamic stresses by 20% at resonance with the most dangerous harmonic, and the new design of support can give the decrease of 30%.

  14. First-passage-probability analysis of active transport in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwright, David A.; Harrison, Andrew W.; Waigh, Thomas A.; Woodman, Philip G.; Allan, Victoria J.

    2012-09-01

    The first-passage-probability can be used as an unbiased method for determining the phases of motion of individual organelles within live cells. Using high speed microscopy, we observe individual lipid droplet tracks and analyze the motor protein driven motion. At short passage lengths (<10-2μm), a log-normal distribution in the first-passage-probability as a function of time is observed, which switches to a Gaussian distribution at longer passages due to the running motion of the motor proteins. The mean first-passage times () as a function of the passage length (L), averaged over a number of runs for a single lipid droplet, follow a power law distribution ˜Lα, α>2, at short times due to a passive subdiffusive process. This changes to another power law at long times where 1<α<2, corresponding to sub-ballistic superdiffusive motion, an active process. Subdiffusive passive mean square displacements are observed as a function of time, r2˜tβ, where 0<β<1 at short times again crossing over to an active sub-ballistic superdiffusive result 1<β<2 at longer times. Consecutive runs of the lipid droplets add additional independent Gaussian peaks to a cumulative first-passage-probability distribution indicating that the speeds of sequential phases of motion are independent and biochemically well regulated. As a result we propose a model for motor driven lipid droplets that exhibits a sequential run behavior with occasional pauses.

  15. Classification of collected trot, passage and piaffe based on temporal variables.

    PubMed

    Clayton, H M

    1997-05-01

    The objective was to determine whether collected trot, passage and piaffe could be distinguished as separate gaits on the basis of temporal variables. Sagittal plane, 60 Hz videotapes of 10 finalists in the dressage competitions at the 1992 Olympic Games were analysed to measure the temporal variables in absolute terms and as percentages of stride duration. Classification was based on analysis of variance, a graphical method and discriminant analysis. Stride duration was sufficient to distinguish collected trot from passage and piaffe in all horses. The analysis of variance showed that the mean values of most variables differed significantly between passage and piaffe. When hindlimb stance percentage was plotted against diagonal advanced placement percentage, some overlap was found between all 3 movements indicating that individual horses could not be classified reliably in this manner. Using hindlimb stance percentage and diagonal advanced placement percentage as input in a discriminant analysis, 80% of the cases were classified correctly, but at least one horse was misclassified in each movement. When the absolute, rather than percentage, values of the 2 variables were used as input in the discriminant analysis, 90% of the cases were correctly classified and the only misclassifications were between passage and piaffe. However, the 2 horses in which piaffe was misclassified as passage were the gold and silver medallists. In general, higher placed horses tended toward longer diagonal advanced placements, especially in collected trot and passage, and shorter hindlimb stance percentages in passage and piaffe.

  16. Laterality of bolus passage through the pharynx in patients with unilateral medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Mikushi, Shinya; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Baba, Mikoto; Tohara, Haruka; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2014-02-01

    Laterality of bolus passage in the pharynx is often seen in patients with medullary infarction. We evaluated the dominant side of bolus passage in the pharynx and investigated the factors that cause the passage to dominantly occur on the affected side. Forty-one patients (35 men and 6 women, 64 ± 9 years) with unilateral medullary infarction participated in this study. Bolus passage of 4 mL of thick liquid was evaluated in 3 regions (oropharyngeal, thyropharyngeal, and cricopharyngeal) and classified into 4 patterns (dominantly on the unaffected side [UAS], on both sides without clear laterality [BS], dominantly on the affected side [AS], and nonpassage of the bolus [NP]) by videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing. The bolus passages were as follows: UAS, BS, and AS occurred in 2, 32, and 7 patients in the oropharyngeal region; UAS, BS, and AS occurred in 5, 20, and 16 patients in the thyropharyngeal region; and UAS, BS, AS, and NP occurred in 11, 9, 10, and 11 patients in the cricopharyngeal region, respectively. In the thyropharyngeal region, the proportion of patients in whom the swallowing reflex occurred when the bolus was in the oropharynx and the proportion of patients with unilateral pharyngeal constrictor paralysis were greater in patients whose bolus passage was AS than in patients whose passage was BS. This suggests that the bolus predominantly passed through the affected side of the thyropharyngeal portion because of the asymmetry of pharyngeal contraction during swallowing in the early period after onset.

  17. First passage time analysis of animal movement and insights into the functional response.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Lewis, Mark A; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2009-01-01

    Movement plays a role in structuring the interactions between individuals, their environment, and other species. Although movement models coupled with empirical data are widely used to study animal distribution, they have seldom been used to study search time. This paper proposes first passage time as a novel approach for understanding the effect of the landscape on animal movement and search time. In the context of animal movement, first passage time is the time taken for an animal to reach a specified site for the first time. We synthesize current first passage time theory and derive a general first passage time equation for animal movement. This equation is related to the Fokker-Planck equation, which is used to describe the distribution of animals in the landscape. We illustrate the first passage time method by analyzing the effect of territorial behavior on the time required for a red fox to locate prey throughout its home range. Using first passage time to compute search times, we consider the effect of two different searching modes on a functional response. We show that random searching leads to a Holling type III functional response. First passage time analysis provides a new tool for studying how animal movement may influence ecological processes. PMID:18825463

  18. A generalized one-dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.

  19. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  20. Savings, remittances, and return migration.

    PubMed

    Merkle, L; Zimmermann, K F

    1992-01-01

    "We use a data set of immigrants to West Germany to simultaneously study both savings and remittances which we relate to individual characteristics, economic variables, migration experiences and remigration plans. Section 2 discusses the basic hypotheses and explains the data. Section 3 presents the empirical study and Section 4 summarizes." The results suggest that "savings and remittances of migrants can be well explained by remigration plans and economic as well as demographic variables. However, the planned future duration of residence in Germany has a negative and significant effect only on remittances."