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Sample records for passion fruit peel

  1. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  2. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A study with the yellow passion fruit peel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies’ adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruit peel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P = 0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P = 0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P = 0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments. PMID:23088514

  4. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  5. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  6. Sequential extraction of flavonoids and pectin from yellow passion fruit rind using pressurized solvent or ultrasound.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Caroline G; Rodrigues, Tigressa Hs; E Silva, Lorena Ma; Ribeiro, Paulo Rv; de Brito, Edy S

    2018-03-01

    Passion fruit rind (PFR) represents 90% of the total fruit weight and is wasted during juice processing. Passion fruit rind is known to contain flavonoids and pectin. An alternative use for this fruit juice industrial residue is to obtain these compounds. This study aimed to verify the influence of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) or ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoid and pectin in a sequential process. The PSE using ethanol at 60:40 (v/v) yielded a total polyphenol content of 4.67 g GAE kg -1 PFR, orientin-7-O-glucoside (1.57 g kg -1 PFR) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (2.44 g kg -1 PFR). Pectin yield was 165 g kg -1 PFR, either in PSE or UAE. Pectin characterization indicates that the pectic structure has basically homogalacturonans and galacturonate followed by a galacturonic acid ester unit, with methylation degree of 70%. With this study it can be concluded that mixtures of alcohols with water favor the extraction of bioactive compounds of passion fruit peel. Both PSE and UAE were effective in sequentially extracting flavonoids and pectin. The preferred solvent is ethanol due to its lower toxicity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Study on the technology of compound enzymatic hydrolysis of whole passion fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-xia; Duan, Zhen-hua; Kang, Chao; Zhu, Xiang-hao; Li, Ding-jin

    2017-12-01

    Fresh Whole Passion Fruit was used as raw material, The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of Passion Fruit by Complex enzyme were studied, The effects of enzyme dosage, Enzyme ratio(cellulose: pectinase), pH, temperature and time on the hydrolysis were investigated by single-tests and orthogonal tests, the hydrolysis indicators of single-factor tests and orthogonal tests were juice yield. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Passion Fruit by Complex enzyme were enzyme dosage 0.12%, Enzyme ratio 5:1, hydrolysis temperature 50°C, pH4.0 and time 3.5 h. Under such conditions, juice yield of Passion Fruit was 92.91%.

  8. Determination and isolation of a thioesterase from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) that hydrolyzes volatile thioesters.

    PubMed

    Tapp, Edward J; Cummins, Ian; Brassington, David; Edwards, Robert

    2008-08-13

    Volatile organosulfur compounds (VOSCs) are high impact aroma chemicals characteristic of tropical fruits which are active as both free thiols and the respective thioesters. Using a simple and sensitive colorimetric enzyme assay, a thioesterase activity toward VOSCs has been identified in ripening purple passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis Sims). The assay was based on determining the release of free thiols from 2-methyl-3-furanthiol acetate using Ellman's reagent. The major thioesterase in the fruit was found to be a wall-bound protein in the mesocarp. The extracted enzyme activity was purified 150-fold and shown to be associated with a 43 kDa monomeric serine hydrolase which was selectively labeled with a fluorophosphonate suicide probe. MS-MS sequencing identified the thioesterase as a class 13 glycoside hydrolase, most similar to pectin acetylesterase, an enzyme involved in cell wall modifications in the peel of a number of fruit. Our results suggest that cell wall hydrolases in tropical fruit may have additional useful roles in biotransforming VOSCs.

  9. HS-GC-MS-O analysis and sensory acceptance of passion fruit during maturation.

    PubMed

    Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2017-07-01

    The odor-active compounds of the conventional yellow passion fruit influence the aroma during ripeness and the acceptance of the juice. HS-GC-MS and GC-OSME analysis and sensory acceptance of the conventional passion fruit from different stages of ripeness were studied to characterize the aroma of the fruit and, aroma and flavor of the juice. Ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and propyl acetate showed high odoriferous importance in the passion fruit from the 1/3 yellow skin color. C is -3-hexen-1-ol and diethyl carbonate plus the odor-active compounds from the 1/3 yellow skin color showed high odoriferous importance in the 2/3 yellow skin color, and butyl acetate and alpha-terpineol plus the same odor-active compounds from 2/3 were the most important for the 3/3 yellow skin color. There was difference in the aroma and flavor of the juices, with higher acceptance means for the passion fruit from the 3/3 yellow skin color. The passion fruit volatile compounds peak area, odoriferous intensity and sensory acceptance of the juices increased during ripeness, indicating that the conventional passion fruit characteristic aroma is completely expressed when the fruit reaches the whole maturation, at the 3/3 yellow skin color.

  10. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  11. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  12. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  13. Characterization and distribution of a Potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodiness disease in Uganda

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the incidence and etiology of viral infection on passion fruit in Uganda. Viral disease symptoms, including those characteristic of Passion fruit woodiness disease (PWD), were observed in producing areas with an overall mean infection level of 27%. Electron microscopic observati...

  14. The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Kurita, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Sai, Masahiko; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to prevent photoageing is receiving increasing attention. We have previously identified piceatannol and scirpusin B, which is a dimer of piceatannol, as strong antioxidants that are present in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In the present study, the effects of passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B on human keratinocytes were investigated. The passion fruit seed extract and piceatannol upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that piceatannol is an active component of the passion fruit seed extract in keratinocytes. The pretreatment with piceatannol also suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the keratinocytes. In addition, the transfer of the medium from the UVB-irradiated keratinocytes to non-irradiated fibroblasts enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and this MMP-1 induction was reduced when the keratinocytes were pretreated with piceatannol. These results suggest that piceatannol attenuates the UVB-induced activity of MMP-1 along with a reduction of ROS generation in keratinocytes. Thus, piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract containing high amounts of piceatannol are potential anti-photoageing cosmetic ingredients.

  15. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  16. Quality evaluation of frozen guava and yellow passion fruit pulps by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamar, Priscila D; Caramês, Elem T S; Poppi, Ronei J; Pallone, Juliana A L

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the application of near infrared spectroscopy as a green, quick, and efficient alternative to analytical methods currently used to evaluate the quality (moisture, total sugars, acidity, soluble solids, pH and ascorbic acid) of frozen guava and passion fruit pulps. Fifty samples were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and reference methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models to relate the NIR spectra and the reference values. Reference methods indicated adulteration by water addition in 58% of guava pulp samples and 44% of yellow passion fruit pulp samples. The PLS models produced lower values of root mean squares error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), and coefficient of determination above 0.7. Moisture and total sugars presented the best calibration models (RMSEP of 0.240 and 0.269, respectively, for guava pulp; RMSEP of 0.401 and 0.413, respectively, for passion fruit pulp) which enables the application of these models to determine adulteration in guava and yellow passion fruit pulp by water or sugar addition. The models constructed for calibration of quality parameters of frozen fruit pulps in this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate calibration technique could be applied to determine the quality of guava and yellow passion fruit pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  18. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  19. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  20. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fontenele, Rafaela S.; Abreu, Rayane A.; Lamas, Natalia S.; Alves-Freitas, Dione M. T.; Vidal, Andreza H.; Melo, Fernando L.; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P.; Campos, Magnolia A.; Ribeiro, Simone G.

    2018-01-01

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae: passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus. Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12–30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891–921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7–3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Passiflora edulis. PMID:29614801

  1. Sequential high pressure extractions applied to recover piceatannol and scirpusin B from passion fruit bagasse.

    PubMed

    Viganó, Juliane; Aguiar, Ana C; Moraes, Damila R; Jara, José L P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Passion fruit seeds are currently discarded on the pulp processing but are known for their high piceatannol and scirpusin B contents. Using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), these highly valuable phenolic compounds were efficiently extracted from defatted passion fruit bagasse (DPFB). PLE was performed using mixtures of ethanol and water (50 to 100% ethanol, w/w) as solvent, temperatures from 50 to 70°C and pressure at 10MPa. The extraction methods were compared in terms of the global yield, total phenolic content (TPC), piceatannol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The DPFB extracts were also compared with those from non-defatted passion fruit bagasse (nDPFB). Identification and quantification of piceatannol were performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that high TPC and piceatannol content were achieved for the extracts obtained from DPFB through PLE at 70°C and using 50 and 75% ethanol as the solvent. The best PLE conditions for TPC (70°C, 75% ethanol) resulted in 55.237mgGAE/g dried and defatted bagasse, whereas PLE at 70°C and 50% ethanol achieved 18.590mg of piceatannol/g dried and defatted bagasse, and such yields were significantly higher than those obtained using conventional extraction techniques. The antioxidant capacity assays showed high correlation with the TPC (r>0.886) and piceatannol (r>0.772). The passion fruit bagasse has therefore proved to be a rich source of piceatannol and PLE showed high efficiency to recover phenolic compounds from defatted passion fruit bagasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optimization of the acceptance of prebiotic beverage made from cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Marina Cabral; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Afonso, Marcos Rodrigues Amorim

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes. A 2(2) central composite rotatable design was used, which produced 9 formulations, which were then evaluated using different concentrations of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernel, passion fruit juice, oligofructose, and 3% sugar. The use of response surface methodology to interpret the sensory data made it possible to obtain a formulation with satisfactory acceptance which met the criteria of bifidogenic action and use of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernels by using 14% oligofructose and 33% passion fruit juice. As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels, which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  < .05) higher crude fiber (2.58%), fat (9.74%), ash (2.49%), and carbohydrate (71.57%) compared with Citrus maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p  < .05) higher in the peel extract. The mineral composition revealed the order Ca > Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  6. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island.

    PubMed

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Stanislas, Giovédie; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-12-01

    Much attention is paid to the beneficial action of fruits against obesity-related oxidative stress. This study evaluated nutritional and antioxidant properties of banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple from Réunion French Island. Results showed that total amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin C and carotenoids were 7.7-67.3g glucose equivalent, 4.7-84.9mg ascorbic acid equivalent and 26.6-3829.2μg β-carotene equivalent/100g fresh weight, respectively. Polyphenols were detected as the most abundant antioxidants (33.0-286.6mg gallic acid equivalent/100g fresh weight) with the highest content from passion fruit. UPLC-MS analysis led to identify epigallocatechin and quercetin derivatives from banana and litchi, ferulic, sinapic, syringic and gallic acids from pineapple and mango, and piceatannol from passion fruit. Polyphenol-rich extracts protected red blood cells and preadipose cells against oxidative stress. Altogether, these findings highlight nutritional benefits of French tropical fruits and their possible interest to improve antioxidant capacities of the body during obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit rind (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener) for edible coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayati, Puspita, Rifka Intan; Fajrin, Vika Latifiana

    2018-02-01

    One of fruit preservation method is by applying the edible coating. Rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener), which is kind of waste, can be utilized as edible coating through pectin extraction process. The purposes of this work were to determine the suitable solvent for the pectin extraction and techniques for applying the produced edible coating on strawberry, to produce edible coating from the pectin, and the test the performance of the edible coating which was applied to strawberries. Pectin from passion fruit rind was collected through conventional extraction method using two types of solvent, i.e. acetic acid solution and hydrochloric acid solution with concentration of 0.01 N, 0.015 N, 0.02 N, 0.025 N, and 0.03 N. The results showed that chloric acid solution was more suitable for the pectin extraction from passion fruit. Maximum yield of 30.78% was obtained at hydrochloric acid concentration of 0.02 N. Obtained pectin from the extraction was then processed into the edible coating by adding plasticizers and calcium chloride dihydrate. Storability of the coated strawberry was observed to measure the performance of the edible coating

  8. Study of the Thermal Polymerization of Linseed and Passion Fruit Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. V. V.; Loureiro, N. P. D.; Fonseca, P. S.; Macedo, J. L.; Santos, M. L.; Sales, M. J.

    2008-08-01

    Researches involving ecofriendliness materials are growing up, as well as, a current interest in developing materials from inexpensive and renewable resources. Vegetable oils show a number of excellent properties, which could be utilized to produce valuable polymeric materials. In this work is described the synthesis of polymeric materials from linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis) and their characterization by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy. The TG curve shows that those polymeric materials present two stages of decomposition. DSC plots of the vegetable oils showed some endothermic and exothermic transitions which are not present in the DSC curves corresponding to oil-based polymers. The Raman spectra of the polymers indicate declining of absorbance in the region of C = C stretching (˜1600 cm-1). This absorption was used to estimate the degree of polymerization (79% and 67.5% for linseed and passion fruit oils, respectively)

  9. The role of red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) to improvement blood lipid levels of hyperlipidaemia male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins Involved in Peel Senescence in Harvested Mandarin Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taotao; Zhang, Jingying; Zhu, Hong; Qu, Hongxia; You, Shulin; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata), a non-climacteric fruit, is an economically important fruit worldwide. The mechanism underlying senescence of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. In this study, a gel-based proteomic study followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes involved in peel senescence in harvested mandarin “Shatangju” fruit stored for 18 days. Over the course of the storage period, the fruit gradually senesced, accompanied by a decreased respiration rate and increased chlorophyll degradation and disruption of membrane integrity. Sixty-three proteins spots that showed significant differences in abundance were identified. The up-regulated proteins were mainly associated with cell wall degradation, lipid degradation, protein degradation, senescence-related transcription factors, and transcription-related proteins. In contrast, most proteins associated with ATP synthesis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species were significantly down-regulated during peel senescence. Three thioredoxin proteins and three Ca2+ signaling-related proteins were significantly up-regulated during peel senescence. It is suggested that mandarin peel senescence is associated with energy supply efficiency, decreased antioxidant capability, and increased protein and lipid degradation. In addition, activation of Ca2+ signaling and transcription factors might be involved in cell wall degradation and primary or secondary metabolism. PMID:27303420

  11. Effect of Passion Fruit Seed Extract Rich in Piceatannol on the Skin of Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Morita, Minoru; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Sai, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk. Skin hydration and other parameters on the face were assessed at 0, 4, and 8 wk by using specialized equipment. Furthermore, questionnaire interviews were conducted regarding the physical condition of subjects at 0, 4, and 8 wk. The results showed that consumption of passion fruit seed extract led to significant increases in the moisture content of human skin after 4 and 8 wk compared with that before the trial. The amount of transepidermal water loss decreased over time, although the differences were not significant. Moreover, a stratified analysis of subjects with moisture values of ≤200 μS revealed increased moisture content in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, the results of questionnaires showed significant reductions in "perspiration" and "fatigue" in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. These results indicate that oral intake of passion fruit seed extract that is rich in piceatannol could improve the moisture of dry skin and reduce fatigue.

  12. Report on the development of putative functional SSR and SNP markers in passion fruits.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Zirlane Portugal; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2017-09-06

    Passionflowers Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata are diploid, outcrossing and understudied fruit bearing species. In Brazil, passion fruit cultivation began relatively recently and has earned the country an outstanding position as the world's top producer of passion fruit. The fruit's main economic value lies in the production of juice, an essential exotic ingredient in juice blends. Currently, crop improvement strategies, including those for underexploited tropical species, tend to incorporate molecular genetic approaches. In this study, we examined a set of P. edulis transcripts expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis, (the passion fruit's main bacterial pathogen that attacks the vines), aiming at the development of putative functional markers, i.e. SSRs (simple sequence repeats) and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). A total of 210 microsatellites were found in 998 sequences, and trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most frequent (31.4%). Of the sequences selected for designing primers, 80.9% could be used to develop SSR markers, and 60.6% SNP markers for P. alata. SNPs were all biallelic and found within 15 gene fragments of P. alata. Overall, gene fragments generated 10,003 bp. SNP frequency was estimated as one SNP every 294 bp. Polymorphism rates revealed by SSR and SNP loci were 29.4 and 53.6%, respectively. Passiflora edulis transcripts were useful for the development of putative functional markers for P. alata, suggesting a certain level of sequence conservation between these cultivated species. The markers developed herein could be used for genetic mapping purposes and also in diversity studies.

  13. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  14. Pseudohyperglycemia: Effects of Unwashed Hand after Fruit Peeling or Handling on Fingertips Blood Glucose Monitoring Results.

    PubMed

    Olamoyegun, M A; Oloyede, T; Adewoye, O G; Abdulkarim, S O; Adeleke, A A

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand. Fifty apparently healthy nondiabetes volunteers were enrolled. Capillary BG samples were collected from the fingertips after peeling or handling apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and pawpaw, followed by no hand washing for 1 h, cleaning the fingertip with alcohol swab once, five times, and washing hand thoroughly with tap water and drying. These samples were then analyzed with two different glucose meters. The mean BG values, measured from fingertip blood samples after peeling, and handling any of the fruits followed by no hand washing were significantly high, even after cleaning fingertip with a swab of alcohol once. However, there were no significant difference in BG levels measured after peeling and handling fruits followed by hand washing and the level of BG before peeling and handling fruits. Handling of peeled fruits with no hand washing with tap water is associated with overestimation of capillary BG (Pseudohyperglycemia) monitored with glucose meters.

  15. Changes in alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Su, Jing; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin

    2007-04-01

    Arabinose is one of the most dynamic cell wall glycosyl residues released during fruit ripening, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-Arab) are major glycosidases that may remove arabinose units from fruit cell wall polysaccharides. To find out whether alpha-Arab plays important roles in banana fruit softening, the enzyme activities in peel and pulp, fruit firmness, respiration rate and ethylene release rate were assayed during banana softening. The results showed that alpha-Arab activities in banana pulp and peel increased slightly at the beginning of storage and reached their maxima when the fruit firmness decreased drastically, alpha-Arab activity increased by more than ten folds in both pulp and peel during ripening and alpha-Arab activities were higher in pulp than in peel. Treatment of banana fruits with ethylene absorbent postponed the time of reaching of its maxima of respiration and ethylene, enhanced the firmness of pup and decreased alpha-Arab activity in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that alpha-Arab induced the decrease of fruit firmness and played an important role in banana fruit softening, and its activity was regulated by ethylene.

  16. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  18. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μM Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 μM Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photoacoustic technique applied to ethylene emission in passion fruit seedlings: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, T.; Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; de Oliveira, J. G.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that plants respond to mechanical perturbation, such as swaying in the wind, touching or brushing, by a reduction in stem length and an increase in stem diameter. Brushing provides a tactile or thigmic stimulation of the plant growing points and undergo physiological and developmental changes that increase stress tolerance. One of the main hormones released by brushing plants is thought to be ethylene, a plant hormone difficult to trace and monitor because it is a gas. The emission rate of ethylene was monitored using a photoacoustic spectrometer based on the infrared absorption of the line 10P12 and 10P14 of CO2 LASER. In response to the brushing treatment, seedlings of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis L.) showed a increase in the ethylene emission. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of brushing on the ethylene emission rate of passion fruit seedlings.

  1. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes.

  2. Effects of dehydration methods on quality characteristics of yellow passion fruit co-products.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neiton C; Duarte, Claudio R; Barrozo, Marcos As

    2017-11-01

    The production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or under-used, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) co-products and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pectin. The content of phenolics and flavonoids increased after dehydration in all techniques investigated and the process temperatures directly affected the ascorbic acid content. Microwave dehydration showed the best results for most bioactive compounds analyzed, if performed in suitable process conditions. However, the highest levels of pectin content were obtained by freeze-drying and convective dehydration. This study reinforces the importance of the adequate use of passion fruit co-products due to the high levels of bioactive compounds in this material. Microwave dehydration presented the best results, which indicates the potential use of this technique for a better exploitation of fruit co-products. Larger quantities of pectin were extracted from samples dehydrated through methodologies with long-time process and low temperatures, such as convective drying and freeze-drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Activity and contents of polyphenolic antioxidants in the whole fruit, flesh and peel of three apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi; Borges, Graciele da Silva Campelo; Copetti, Cristiane; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Fett, Roseane

    2009-03-01

    The concentration of polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols and anthocyanins, and the antioxidant activity in apples (Malus domestica Borkh) seem to differ with cultivar, maturity stage, environmental conditions and the part of the fruit. In this work, the total phenolic, flavanol and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were measured in the flesh, whole fruit and peel from apple cultivars Fuji, Epagri COOP24 and Epagri F5P283 cultivated in Southern Brazil. Total phenolic content assayed by Folin-Ciocalteu method, flavanol by modified p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method, anthocyanin content by pH differential method and antioxidant activity measured using ABTS assay. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test and correlation analysis were performed. Within each cultivar, the total phenolic, flavanol and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity were highest in the peels, followed by the whole fruit and the flesh. In the peel, whole fruit and flesh the Epagri F5P283 apple had the highest total phenolic contents and the highest total antioxidant activity, while that Epagri COOP24 was highest in flavanols and anthocyanins. Total phenolic content was positively associated with total antioxidant activity in flesh, whole fruit and peel. These results demonstrate that phenolic compounds have a significant contribution to the total antioxidant activity which varies considerably depending of the part of the fruit and of the apple cultivar analyzed.

  4. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.

  5. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  6. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  7. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  8. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, Liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  9. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum' a novel taxon from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of abnormal proliferation of shoots resulting in formation of witches’ broom growths were observed in diseased plants of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Brazil. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified in polymerase chain reactions containing template DNAs...

  10. Survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcêz, Renata Maia; Chaves, Alexandre Levi Rodrigues; Eiras, Marcelo; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; de Azevedo Filho, Joaquim Adelino; da Silva, Leonardo Assis; Colariccio, Addolorata

    2015-01-01

    Passion fruit woodiness may be caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in Brazil. To assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, was monitored. Dissemination of CABMV was determined analyzing golden passion fruit plants monthly for 18 months by PTA-ELISA. Seasonality and aphid fauna diversity was determined by identification of the captured species using yellow sticky, yellow water-pan and green tile traps. Population composition of the aphid species was determined using the descriptive index of occurrence, dominance and general classification and overlap of species in the R program. Analyses of species grouping afforded to recognize 14 aphid species. The genus Aphis represented 55.42 % of the species captured. Aphid species formed two distinct clusters, one of which was characterized by the diversity of polyphagous species that presented high potential to spread CABMV. The low abundance and diversity of aphid species did not interfere negatively in the CABMV epidemiology. The genus Aphis, particularly Aphis fabae/solanella and A. gossypii, was crucial in the spread of CABMV in passion fruit orchards in the eastern State of São Paulo.

  11. Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Devi Ramaiya, Shiamala; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah; King, Wong Sing; Shaffiq Sahrir, Muhd Arif

    2013-03-30

    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp). Purple and Yellow P. edulis had significantly higher total sugar, 142.85 ± 0.17 g kg⁻¹ and 139.69 ± 0.12 g kg⁻¹, respectively, than other cultivars. Glucose and fructose content were higher in juice from vine-ripened fruits of Purple, Frederick and Yellow P. edulis, P. quadrangularis and P. maliformis. Sucrose content was significantly higher in juice of non-vine-ripened fruits of P. edulis (Pink) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA were significantly higher in vine-ripened Purple and Yellow P. edulis; ranges were 0.22-0.33 g kg⁻¹, 342.80-382.00 mg gallic acid equivalent L⁻¹ and 409.13-586.70 µmol Trolox L⁻¹, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, the main variables - °Brix, total sugar, glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA - formed the characteristics for the group comprising Purple and Yellow P. edulis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, TAA and TPC were quantified in passion fruit juices. Variation of the above variables in juices of Passiflora depends on the cultivar and ripeness. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses Provide Insights into the Occurrence of Peel Roughing Disorder on Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Peng; Li, Fei-Fei; Xiong, Jiang; Cao, Xiong-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Chuan; Zhang, Zi-Mu; Cao, Shang-Yin; Xie, Shen-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Roughing disorder (RD) is a significant quality barrier in citrus fruit, prevalent on easy-peeling mandarins. As RD is not yet well-understood, this study aimed to examine the changes and synergic molecular processes involved in peel RD. Peel with RD was induced by severely defruiting Satsuma mandarin trees. Morphology observations, RNA-sequencing, and targeted and untargeted metabolic analyses were conducted. The results showed that the primary metabolites of sugars, organic acids and amino acids are dramatically changed in RD peel. The RD peel was always characterized by higher magnesium content during development. Comparative transcriptome profiling was performed for CK and RD peels at 30, 80, and 170 days after full bloom (DAFB) which represented fruit at cell division stage, cell enlargement stage and fruit maturity stage, respectively. Physiological and molecular biological evidence suggested that the month after full bloom is a crucial stage for RD initiation. A total of 4,855 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RD peel, relative to CK peel were detected at cell division stage, about 2 to 4-fold more than other stages had. Among the differentially expressed transcription factors, the bHLH family were affected most by RD, and six bHLH transcription factors functionally involved in GA metabolism were assessed to associate with RD occurrence. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that RD significantly altered starch and GA metabolism in peel. Higher starch content and hydrolysed chain status were found in RD peel at cell division stage. RD occurrence on the peel was influenced significantly by GA, especially abundant GA before July. These changes may mean a significant alteration in sink strength of RD peel. The findings of this study provide insights into the emergence, development and molecular mechanisms of RD. PMID:29163622

  13. Passion fruit-like nano-architectures: a general synthesis route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, D.; David, J.; Luin, S.; Voliani, V.

    2017-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructures have demonstrated a number of intriguing features for both medicine and catalysis. However, accumulation issues have prevented their clinical translation, while their use in catalysis has shown serious efficiency and stability hurdles. Here we introduce a simple and robust synthetic protocol for passion fruit-like nano-architectures composed by a silica shell embedding polymeric arrays of ultrasmall noble metal nanoparticles. These nano-architectures show interesting features for both oncology and catalysis. They avoid the issue of persistence in organism thanks to their fast biodegradation in renal clearable building blocks. Furthermore, their calcination results in yolk-shell structures composed by naked metal or alloy nanospheres shielded from aggregation by a silica shell.

  14. Passion fruit-like nano-architectures: a general synthesis route

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, D.; David, J.; Luin, S.; Voliani, V.

    2017-01-01

    Noble metal nanostructures have demonstrated a number of intriguing features for both medicine and catalysis. However, accumulation issues have prevented their clinical translation, while their use in catalysis has shown serious efficiency and stability hurdles. Here we introduce a simple and robust synthetic protocol for passion fruit-like nano-architectures composed by a silica shell embedding polymeric arrays of ultrasmall noble metal nanoparticles. These nano-architectures show interesting features for both oncology and catalysis. They avoid the issue of persistence in organism thanks to their fast biodegradation in renal clearable building blocks. Furthermore, their calcination results in yolk-shell structures composed by naked metal or alloy nanospheres shielded from aggregation by a silica shell. PMID:28256565

  15. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml).

  16. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B

    PubMed Central

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  17. Passion fruit by-product and fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth and folate production by starter and probiotic cultures in fermented soymilk.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti; Bedani, Raquel; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-11-16

    Two starter cultures (Streptococcus (St.) thermophilus ST-M6 and TA-40) and five probiotic strains (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Lb. fermentum PCC, and Lb. reuteri RC-14) were used to ferment different soymilk formulations supplemented with passion fruit by-product and/or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) with the aim of increasing folate concentrations. Growth and folate production of individual strains were evaluated and the results used to select co-cultures. Both St. thermophilus ST-M6 and TH-4 were the best folate producers and were able to increase the folate content of all soymilk formulations when used alone or in co-culture with lactobacilli strains, especially in the presence of both passion fruit by-product and FOS. Thus, passion fruit by-product and FOS could be used as dietary ingredients to stimulate the folate production by selected bacterial strains during the fermentation of soymilk. It was also shown that vitamin production by microorganisms is strain-dependent and may also be influenced by nutritional and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Begin at the beginning: A BAC-end view of the passion fruit (Passiflora) genome.

    PubMed

    Santos, Anselmo Azevedo; Penha, Helen Alves; Bellec, Arnaud; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2014-09-26

    The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical crop of economic importance both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The juice is also used in concentrate blends that are consumed worldwide. However, very little is known about the genome of the species. Therefore, improving our understanding of passion fruit genomics is essential and to some degree a pre-requisite if its genetic resources are to be used more efficiently. In this study, we have constructed a large-insert BAC library and provided the first view on the structure and content of the passion fruit genome, using BAC-end sequence (BES) data as a major resource. The library consisted of 82,944 clones and its levels of organellar DNA were very low. The library represents six haploid genome equivalents, and the average insert size was 108 kb. To check its utility for gene isolation, successful macroarray screening experiments were carried out with probes complementary to eight Passiflora gene sequences available in public databases. BACs harbouring those genes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridizations and unique signals were detected for four BACs in three chromosomes (n=9). Then, we explored 10,000 BES and we identified reads likely to contain repetitive mobile elements (19.6% of all BES), simple sequence repeats and putative proteins, and to estimate the GC content (~42%) of the reads. Around 9.6% of all BES were found to have high levels of similarity to plant genes and ontological terms were assigned to more than half of the sequences analysed (940). The vast majority of the top-hits made by our sequences were to Populus trichocarpa (24.8% of the total occurrences), Theobroma cacao (21.6%), Ricinus communis (14.3%), Vitis vinifera (6.5%) and Prunus persica (3.8%). We generated the first large-insert library for a member of Passifloraceae. This BAC library provides a new resource for genetic and genomic studies, as well as it represents a valuable tool for future whole genome

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Na-Hypochlorite and Heating on the Mycobiota Associated with Fruits or Juice of Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly. PMID:24039477

  20. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of cucumber fruit peels reveal a developmental increase in terpenoid glycosides associated with age-related resistance to Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Mansfeld, Ben N; Colle, Marivi; Kang, Yunyan; Jones, A Daniel; Grumet, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, infects cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. An age-related resistance (ARR) to this pathogen was previously observed in fruit of cultivar ‘Vlaspik’ and shown to be associated with the peel. Young fruits are highly susceptible, but develop resistance at ~10–12 days post pollination (dpp). Peels from resistant (16 dpp) versus susceptible (8 dpp) age fruit are enriched with genes associated with defense, and methanolic extracts from resistant age peels inhibit pathogen growth. Here we compared developing fruits from ‘Vlaspik’ with those of ‘Gy14’, a line that does not exhibit ARR. Transcriptomic analysis of peels of the two lines at 8 and 16 dpp identified 80 genes that were developmentally upregulated in resistant ‘Vlaspik’ 16 dpp versus 8 dpp, but not in susceptible ‘Gy14’ at 16 dpp. A large number of these genes are annotated to be associated with defense and/or specialized metabolism, including four putative resistance (R) genes, and numerous genes involved in flavonoid and terpenoid synthesis and decoration. Untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on extracts from 8 and 16 dpp ‘Vlaspik’ and ‘Gy14’ fruit peels using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of the metabolomes identified 113 ions uniquely abundant in resistant ‘Vlaspik’ 16 dpp peel extracts. The most abundant compounds in this group had relative mass defects consistent with terpenoid glycosides. Two of the three most abundant ions were annotated as glycosylated nor-terpenoid esters. Together, these analyses reveal potential mechanisms by which ARR to P. capsici may be conferred. PMID:28580151

  1. Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Garg, Munish; Lata, Kusum; Satija, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration50 (IC50) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  2. Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Munish; Lata, Kusum; Satija, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Results: Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration50 (IC50) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Conclusion: Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids. PMID:26997725

  3. A novel pyrrole alkaloid from the fruit peels of Strychnos nux-blanda.

    PubMed

    Sichaem, Jirapast; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2017-01-01

    A novel pyrrole alkaloid, strychnuxin (1), along with five known compounds (2-6) was isolated from the fruit peels of Strychnos nux-blanda. The structures of all the isolated compounds (1-6) were fully characterised using spectroscopic data, as well as comparison with the previous literature data. Moreover, all isolated compounds were assessed for their α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

  4. MYBs affect the variation in the ratio of anthocyanin and flavanol in fruit peel and flesh in response to shade.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanfen; Bu, Yufen; Hao, Suxiao; Wang, Yaru; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-03-01

    Fruit pigment accumulation, which represents an important indicator of nutrient quality and appearance value, is often affected by low light under rain, cloud, fog and haze conditions during the veraison period. It is not known whether continuous low light interferes with the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in veraison fruit. In this paper, we measured pigments and the transcriptional level of genes related to secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoid biosynthesis in the peel and flesh of Malus crabapple 'Radiant' fruit in response to normal light and shade from 10th July to 30th August. The results showed crosstalk between the flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the involvement of key transcription factors such as McMYB4, McMYB7, McMYB10, and McMYB16 in the regulation of the ratio of anthocyanins and flavanols, which accounted for the different colouration of the fruit peel and flesh under shade conditions. A model is proposed for the regulation of the flavonoid pathway in the peel and flesh of 'Radiant' fruit based on our study results. Moreover, the molecular mechanism for 'Radiant' fruit colouration provides reference information for understanding the light regulatory mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and for designing the next generation of apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)—‘McIntosh’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Mutsu’—were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of ‘McIntosh’ and the flesh of ‘Mutsu’. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  6. Food peeling: conventional and new approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling is an important unit operation in food processing that prepares fruits and vegetables for subsequent processes through removal of inedible or undesirable rind or skin. This chapter covers an exhaustive discussion on advancement in peeling technologies of fruits and vegetables from different ...

  7. Isolation and Screening of Pectinolytic Fungi from Orange (Citrus nobilis Tan.) and Banana (Musa acuminata L.) Fruit Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amilia, K. R.; Sari, S. L. A.; Setyaningsih, R.

    2017-04-01

    Pectinase is the one of most important enzyme which is used in food industry such as fruit and vegetable juice extraction, oil extraction and fermentation of coffee, cocoa and tea. Pectinase can be produced by microorganism such as bacteria and fungi. Fungi are known as potent producer of pectinase. This research was conducted to isolate and screen of the pectinolytic fungi from rotten orange and banana fruit peels. This research succeeded to isolate 10 fungal isolates from rotten orange peels and 5 fungal isolates from rotten banana peels. These isolates were screened in pectinolytic activities based on clear zone formation on pectic medium which is stained by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The screening result showed that fungal isolates which showed pectinolytic activity were O2, O3, O4, O7, O8, O10, B3, and B5. Based on morphological characters, pectinolytic fungi were identified as Fusarium O4 and O10, Penicillium O2, Aspergillus O3, O7, B3 and B5 and Trichoderma O8. The highest pectinolytic activity was showed by Penicillium O2 which was isolated from orange peel.

  8. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r = 0.99) and eucalyptus (r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale. PMID:28458692

  9. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus agglomerata ) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary ( r = 0.99) and eucalyptus ( r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  10. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    PubMed

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L(-1) of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox-oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  12. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted. In this study, green (immature) untreated banana fruit were subjected to treatment with 10 μL L−1 of ethylene for 24 h. After ethylene treatment, treated and untreated fruit were stored at 20 or 30 °C for 24 h. Fruit peel tissues were then sampled after 0 and 1 day of storage, and peel color and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on the fruit peels after 1 day of storage. In total, 413 common proteins were identified and quantified from two biological replicates. Among these proteins, 91 changed significantly in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments. Cluster analysis on these 91 proteins identified 7 groups of changed proteins. Ethylene treatment and storage at 20 °C induced 40 proteins that are correlated with pathogen resistance, cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, allergens and ribosomal proteins, and it repressed 36 proteins that are associated with fatty acid and lipid metabolism, redox–oxidative responses, and protein biosynthesis and modification. Ethylene treatment and storage at 30 °C induced 32 proteins, which were mainly similar to those in group 1 but also included 8 proteins in group 3 (identified as chitinase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1, cysteine synthase, villin-2, leucine-transfer RNA ligase, CP47

  13. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

  14. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  15. The structure of the fruit peel in two varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae) before and after storage.

    PubMed

    Konarska, Agata

    2013-06-01

    The structure of fruit peel of two apple varieties 'Szampion' and 'Jonagold' was investigated using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were taken immediately after harvest and after 6-month controlled atmosphere storage. The Szampion and Jonagold fruit differed in terms of the surface type, number of lenticels, thickness of the cuticular epithelium, height of epidermal cells and thickness of the hypodermis as well as the amount of crystalline wax and the number of microcracks formed on the fruit surface. The 6-month storage resulted in fruit weight loss, increased numbers and depth of microcracks, thickening of the amorphous wax layer and enhanced production of platelet forms of crystalline wax, which filled the microcracks abundantly. Compared with Jonagold, the Szampion fruit exhibited a fewer lenticels, a bigger number of microcracks, smaller amounts of crystalline wax and more substantial weight loss. The apple varieties studied had a reticulate-lamellate cuticle, and at harvest, the epidermal and hypodermal cells contained numerous amyloplasts filled with starch grains, which were not found after the storage period. Additionally, after storage, the cell protoplasts in the apple peel displayed a disorganised structure, and their vacuoles contained fragments of cell membranes, intravacuolar precipitates and deposits, and spherical bodies. The results may facilitate better understanding of changes occurring in fruits of Szampion and Jonagold during storage and help choose the best storage conditions to reduce loss of weight and prevent impairment of fruit quality.

  16. Preharvest factors related to sensory profile of Passiflora setacea nectars, a wild passion fruit from Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Mariana Veras Oliveira; de Lacerda de Oliveira, Lívia; Melo, Lauro; Costa, Ana Maria

    2018-05-08

    Passiflora setacea D.C is a passion fruit species native from Brazilian savannah characterized by naturally sweet sensory characteristics. Sensory quality of the pulp can be affected by growing environment. The effect of training systems (trellis or espalier), seasons (the weather conditions in periods of drought and rain) and addition of seeds to the juice (25%) were evaluated, with emphasis on the sensory quality of Passiflora setacea nectars. Training systems of P. setacea plantation did not influence flavor or aroma of nectars. Season had an effect on texture attributes. Although training system and season had impact on pH, TSS, TA, polyphenolics and condensed tannins content, these environment factors had no influence on acceptance. Seeds addition had a negative effect on overall liking. Frequency of consumption of passion fruit and functional food did not influence nectar preference whereas being neophilic or having higher level of knowledge about functional foods favored greater acceptance of P. setacea nectars. Passiflora setacea nectar is a potential functional beverage, due its bioactive contents. Training system and season had no influence on acceptance as isolated factors. However, there was an interaction between these factors, which could be considered to market projection, as well as the addition of seeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  18. Effect of storage temperature on physico-chemical and sensory attributes of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Kundan; Pathak, K A; Shukla, Rohit; Bharali, Rinku

    2011-08-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory quality of juice from purple passion fruit under different storage temperature and time were assessed. The maximum loss in fruit weight was recorded under room temperature (25 ± 1°C) followed by at 11 ± 1°C. There was an increase in juice percentage up to 9 and 13 days under room temperature and storage at 11 ± 1°C respectively. The optimum flavour in juice was up to 5 days at 25 ± 1°C and up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A significant reduction in sourness was recorded on 5th day under all treatments and the scores for sourness became almost constant after 17 days. The maximum increase in the mean scores of sweetness on 5th day was observed at 25 ± 1°C followed by at 11 ± 1°C. The optimum level of juice sweetness was maintained up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. Total soluble solids content increased in initial stage followed by reduction. There was a reduction in the titrable acidity up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A decreasing trend in the reducing and non-reducing sugar of passion fruit was observed under all the treatments. Fruits stored at 25 ± 1°C, developed off-flavour in juice after 5 days, while storage at 8 ± 1°C produced no off-flavor even up to 21 days. Fruits can be stored for 5 days only at 25 ± 1°C as the overall sensory quality of juice reduced significantly afterwards, while juice maintained the optimum overall quality up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C.

  19. Delayed response to cold stress is characterized by successive metabolic shifts culminating in apple fruit peel necrosis.

    PubMed

    Gapper, Nigel E; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Lee, Jinwook; Buchanan, David A; Leisso, Rachel S; Fei, Zhangjun; Qu, Guiqin; Giovannoni, James J; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Nicolaï, Bart M; Mattheis, James P; Watkins, Christopher B; Rudell, David R

    2017-04-21

    Superficial scald is a physiological disorder of apple fruit characterized by sunken, necrotic lesions appearing after prolonged cold storage, although initial injury occurs much earlier in the storage period. To determine the degree to which the transition to cell death is an active process and specific metabolism involved, untargeted metabolic and transcriptomic profiling was used to follow metabolism of peel tissue over 180 d of cold storage. The metabolome and transcriptome of peel destined to develop scald began to diverge from peel where scald was controlled using antioxidant (diphenylamine; DPA) or rendered insensitive to ethylene using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) beginning between 30 and 60 days of storage. Overall metabolic and transcriptomic shifts, representing multiple pathways and processes, occurred alongside α-farnesene oxidation and, later, methanol production alongside symptom development. Results indicate this form of peel necrosis is a product of an active metabolic transition involving multiple pathways triggered by chilling temperatures at cold storage inception rather than physical injury. Among multiple other pathways, enhanced methanol and methyl ester levels alongside upregulated pectin methylesterases are unique to peel that is developing scald symptoms similar to injury resulting from mechanical stress and herbivory in other plants.

  20. Stability of functional compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and pasteurized orange passion fruit (Passiflora caerulea) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; Facco, Elizete Maria Pesamosca; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate differences in the stability of physicochemical and color parameters, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in fresh and pasteurized juice of orange passion fruit, respectively cold stored (8 °C) during 0-4 or during 0-15 days. The results showed that in the physicochemical analysis, no significant differences were observed comparing pasteurized and fresh juice during storage. The pasteurized juice showed higher concentrations of color parameters, phenolic compounds (15% more of retention for days 0 and 4), epigallocatechin gallate (40% in day 0 and 27% in day 4), lycopene (142% for day 0 and 39% for day 4), total carotenoids (114% in day 0 and 8% in day 4) and antioxidant capacity (12% in day 0 and 7% in day 4).; already fresh juice retained more values of quercetin (79% in day 0 and 245% in day 4), α-carotene (57% in day 4), β-carotene and provitamin A (80% of retention in day 4). Therefore, the pasteurization processing was positive in orange passion fruit juice and improved the accessibility of most bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores.

  2. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores. PMID:26023857

  3. Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents.

  4. Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  5. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  6. Trace matrix solid phase dispersion using a molecular sieve as the sorbent for the determination of flavonoids in fruit peels by ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wan; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Pang, Xiao-Qing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly selective trace matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, was proposed for extracting flavonoids from orange fruit peel matrices. Molecular sieve SBA-15 was applied for the first time as a solid support in trace MSPD. Parameters, such as the type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, and elution pH, were optimized in detail. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing a powdered fruit peel sample (25 mg) into 25mg of SBA-15 and then eluting the target analytes with 500 μL of methanol. A satisfactory linearity (r(2) > 0.9990) was obtained, and the calculated limits of detection reached 0.02-0.03 μg/mL for the compounds. The results showed that the method developed was successfully applied to determine the content of flavonoids in complex fruit peel matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    PubMed

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of flour from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Veras, Vivian Saraiva; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; de Paula, Maria do Livramento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Uchôa, Lilian Raquel Alexandre; Gaspar, Maria Wendiane Gueiros; Cunha, Maria da Conceição do Santos Oliveira; Serra, Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira; Carvalho, Carolina Maria de Lima; Costa, Edmara Chaves; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The single or combined use of herbal and dietary products with medications has shown benefits in the metabolic modulation of carbohydrates, in the restoring of the function of pancreatic beta cells, and in insulin resistance. To analyze the effect of the use of flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on the glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2. An open, prospective, randomized clinical trial was undertaken with 54 participants over an eight-week period. The participants from the case group were advised to ingest 12 g of the flour, three times daily; before breakfast, lunch and dinner. After eight weeks of use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, we did not identify significant statistical differences in the values for capillary blood glucose ( p  = 0.562), fasting blood glucose ( p  = 0.268) or glycated hemoglobin ( p  = 0.229) between the study groups. In the case group, we identified an increase (29.6%-37%) of the people with normal HbA1 c ; however, this did not have statistical relevance ( p  = 0.274). Based in our findings, we believe it is important to extend the time of exposure to the intervention and increase the rigor in the monitoring of adherence in future studies on this topic. Only in this way will we be able to make confident inferences in relation to the use of flour made from the rind of theyellow passion fruit as a therapeutic tool for glycemic and/or metabolic control in persons with DM 2. In the sample in question, the use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, over an eight-week period, did not improve the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration: U1111.1187.3616. Registered 6 September, retrospectively registered, in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry.

  9. Investigation of fruit peel extracts as sources for compounds with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khonkarn, Ruttiros; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruit peel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM/mg and the highest ferric ion reduction activity via FRAP assay was from its methanol fraction with an EC value of 20.2mM/mg. Importantly, using both assays, these fractions had a higher antioxidant activity than butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. It was shown that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel had the highest polyphenolic content with a gallic acid equivalent of 2.3mg/mL. The results indicate that the polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts. Interestingly, the hexane fraction of coconut peel showed a potent cytotoxic effect on KB cell line by MTT assay (IC(50)=7.7 microg/mL), and no detectable cytotoxicity toward normal cells. We concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel is a promising resource for potential novel antioxidant agents whereas the hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.

  11. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  12. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  13. Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

    2013-02-13

    The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of α-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality.

  14. Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Lam, Su Shiung; Liew, Rock Keey; Cheng, Chin Kui; Rasit, Nazaitulshila; Ooi, Chee Kuan; Ma, Nyuk Ling; Ng, Jo-Han; Lam, Wei Haur; Chong, Cheng Tung; Chase, Howard A

    2018-05-01

    Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7-47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m 2 /g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jane; Ferreira, Magno Antonio; Farah, Michel Eid; de Carvalho, André Maia; Alves Ferreira, Raquel Eustaquio; de Moraes Filho, Milton Nunes; Souza Lima-Filho, Acácio Alves; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Ferreira, Eber; Peris, Cristiane; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether natural dyes facilitate posterior hyaloid detachment (posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) and retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in human eyes. Open-sky vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid and ILM removal was performed in 86 human cadaveric eyes. After core vitrectomy, 11 different dyes were injected into the vitreous cavity to aid hyaloid detachment and ILM removal. The dyes were allowed to settle on the macula for 5 minutes after PVD and were removed by mechanical aspiration. Intraocular forceps were used for ILM peeling, which was confirmed by light microscopy of the peeled tissue. Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) extract and 10 additional dyes from plants or animal sources were tested: pomegranate (Punica granatum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria), paprika (Capiscum annuum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), old fustic (Maclura tinctoria), and grape (Vitis vinifera). The dyes facilitated PVD and ILM peeling. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, logwood (H. campechianum), cochineal (D. coccus), and old fustic (M. tinctoria) facilitated PVD in all cases; dye-assisted PVD was compared with triamcinolone-assisted PVD performed previously in a comparative model. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, cochineal (D. coccus), and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) showed the best capability for ILM staining; dye-assisted ILM removal was compared with the ILM peeling guided by indocyanine green staining performed previously in a comparative model. Light microscopy confirmed the ILM removal in all cases. Anthocyanin dye of the acai fruit (E. oleracea) and the dyes from cochineal (D. coccus) and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) resulted in the best capability for posterior hyaloid and ILM staining in human cadaveric eyes and may be a useful tool for

  16. Banana fruit pulp and peel involved in antianxiety and antidepressant effects while invigorate memory performance in male mice: Possible role of potential antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noreen; Muneer, Aqsa; Ullah, Najeeb; Zaman, Aqal; Ayaz, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-stress and memory enhancing effects of banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp and peel extract in male mice. Locally bred albino Wistar mice were divided into control and 2 test groups (n=10). Control rats received drinking water while test groups were treated with banana fruit pulp (600 mg/kg; oral administration) and extract of banana peel (400mg/kg; oral administration). Behavioral activities of animals were monitored 14 days post administration of banana pulp and peel extract. Depression-like symptoms were measured by forced swimming test (FST). Anxiety like behavior was monitored using light-dark activity (LDA) test and plus maze activity (PMA) test and memory functions of rats were assessed by morris water maze (MWM) test. Following 2 weeks animals were decapitated and brain was removed for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In the present study both banana peel and pulp increased the time spent in light box and open arm, suggesting anxiolytic effects. A significant decrease in immobility time was observed in FST in both banana pulp and peel treated animals suggesting antidepressant like effects. Moreover, learning and memory assessed by MWM showed decrease in time to reach platform in both short term and long term memory test suggested increased memory function in both banana pulp and peel treated animals as compared to control animals. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) greater in banana pulp and peel treated animals than control. It is concluded that both banana pulp and peel have anti-anxiety, antidepressant effect as well as strengthen the memory possibly via its antioxidant mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended that supplementation of banana could be taken a vital role in stress (anxiety and depression) relief and increased in memory function possibly by phyto-antioxidants.

  17. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  18. A Study on the Expression of Genes Involved in Carotenoids and Anthocyanins During Ripening in Fruit Peel of Green, Yellow, and Red Colored Mango Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Karanjalker, G R; Ravishankar, K V; Shivashankara, K S; Dinesh, M R; Roy, T K; Sudhakar Rao, D V

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangiferaindica L.) fruits are generally classified based on peel color into green, yellow, and red types. Mango peel turns from green to yellow or red or retain green colors during ripening. The carotenoids and anthocyanins are the important pigments responsible for the colors of fruits. In the present study, peels of different colored cultivars at three ripening stages were characterized for pigments, colors, and gene expression analysis. The yellow colored cultivar "Arka Anmol" showed higher carotenoid content, wherein β-carotene followed by violaxanthin were the major carotenoid compounds that increased during ripening. The red colored cultivars were characterized with higher anthocyanins with cyanidin-3-O-monoglucosides and peonidin-3-O-glucosides as the major anthocyanins. The gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR showed the higher expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes viz. lycopene-β-cyclase and violaxanthin-de-epoxidase in yellow colored cv. Arka Anmol, and the expression was found to increase during ripening. However, in red colored cv. "Janardhan Pasand," there is increased regulation of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including transcription factors MYB and basic helix loop. This indicated the regulation of the anthocyanins by these genes in red mango peel. The results showed that the accumulation pattern of particular pigments and higher expression of specific biosynthetic genes in mango peel impart different colors.

  19. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  20. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc < 6.3%) rapid-set to ultrarapid-set high-methoxyl pectins at starch-adjusted yields of 11-21 g/100 g. However, despite similar high molecular weight fractions and galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratios, their average molecular weight was markedly reduced by a characteristic, almost monodisperse fraction of 16000-19000. Expanded galactans, indicated by galactose/rhamnose ratios of 15-24 mol/mol, probably represented arabinogalactan side-chain fragments withstanding hot-acid extraction at pH 1.5 and 2.0, as implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  1. Activity of cycloartane-type triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca fruit peel against Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    PubMed

    Silva, A A S; Morais, S M; Falcão, M J C; Vieira, I G P; Ribeiro, L M; Viana, S M; Teixeira, M J; Barreto, F S; Carvalho, C A; Cardoso, R P A; Andrade-Junior, H F

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca (banana) fruit peel used traditionally to treat leishmaniasis. The compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the peel of the banana fruit by column chromatography. The chemical structure of compounds was determined by (1)H and (13)C - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was measured in RAW 264.7 cells and LLC-MK2. Leishmanicidal activity against L. infantum chagasi promastigotes was performed by the MTT colorimetric method and activity against amastigotes was assayed in mammalian cells using in situ ELISA method. Five compounds were identified, consisting of three triterpenes: cycloeucalenone, 31-norcyclolaudenone and 24-methylene-cicloartanol and a mixture of two sterols: beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. With the exception of cycloeucalenone, all compounds showed statistically similar activity against promastigote to pentamidine. While, acting against amastigotes, excluding 31-norcyclolaudenone, other compounds showed activity similar to amphotericin B. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This study partially confirms the use of Musa paradisiaca in folk medicine against leishmaniasis. Further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking thermal degradation on passion fruit juice through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marcia Valeria L; Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Canuto, Kirley Marques; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Narain, Narendra; de Brito, Edy Sousa

    2017-03-15

    Thermal food processing mainly aims to control microorganism in order to extend its shelf life. However, it may induce chemical and nutritional changes in foodstuff. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled to multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effect of different thermal processing conditions (85 and 140°C for 4; 15; 30; and 60s) on the passion fruit juice using an Armfield pasteurizer. Through this approach it was possible to identify the changes in the juice composition. The temperature and the time lead to a hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose. Additionally, juice submitted to 140°C for 60s results in the degradation of the sucrose and the formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF). Despite no novel chemical marker has been identified, the 1 H NMR chemometrics approach may contribute in the choice of the temperature and time to be employed in the juice processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Passion fruit hulls particleboard: the effect of urea formaldehyde level on physical and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswanto, A. H.; Sucipto, T.; Adlina, E.; Prabuningrum, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the suitability of Passion Fruit Hulls (PFH) as a raw material particleboard with variants of urea formaldehyde adhesive content (UF). In this research, PFH particles filtered by sieve in size of 10 mesh to throw dust particles. Furthermore, the particles dried until reaches of 5% moisture content. Levels of UF adhesive was using comprise of 10%, 12% and 14%. Hot pressing conducted at 120°C temperature for 10 minutes at a pressure of 30 kg/cm2. The results showed that in moisture content for 10% adhesive level, almost all the parameters such as thickness swelling, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) that produced did not fulfiled the standard. The 14% adhesive level produced of the best of PFH particleboard.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C.; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A.; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E.

    2017-01-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening. PMID:28425468

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes.

    PubMed

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E

    2017-04-20

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C.; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A.; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E.

    2017-04-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  7. Individual phenolic response and peroxidase activity in peel of differently sun-exposed apples in the period favorable for sunburn occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-11-15

    Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Variation Underlies Differences in ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR17 Activity in Fruit Peel Degreening1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenyun; Hu, Yanan; Lv, Yuanda; Sun, Yaqiang; Shen, Fei; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Through natural or human selection, many fleshy fruits have evolved vivid external or internal coloration, which often develops during ripening. Such developmental changes in color are associated with the biosynthesis of pigments as well as with degreening through chlorophyll degradation. Here, we demonstrated that natural variation in the coding region of the gene ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ERF17) contributes to apple (Malus domestica) fruit peel degreening. Specifically, ERF17 mutant alleles with different serine (Ser) repeat insertions in the coding region exhibited enhanced transcriptional regulation activity in a dual-luciferase reporter assay when more Ser repeats were present. Notably, surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the number of Ser repeats affected the binding activity of ERF17 to the promoter sequences of chlorophyll degradation-related genes. In addition, overexpression of ERF17 in evergreen apples altered the accumulation of chlorophyll. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ERF17 has been under selection since the origin of apple tree cultivation. Taken together, these results reveal allelic variation underlying an important fruit quality trait and a molecular genetic mechanism associated with apple domestication. PMID:29431631

  9. Antioxidant activity of apple peels.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-01-29

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0

  10. Facile and scalable synthesis of magnetite/carbon adsorbents by recycling discarded fruit peels and their potential usage in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Shuangshuang; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, apple, banana and orange peels were used as precursor compounds for the mass production of magnetite/carbon adsorbents. A so-called "soak-calcination" procedure was employed by firstly soaking these waste fruit peels in FeCl 3 aqueous solutions and secondly calcining these precursors in the nitrogen atmosphere to yield final magnetite/carbon composites. This approach is quite simple and effective to synthesize carbon-based adsorbents on an industrial scale. The as-produced adsorbents feature the merits of appropriate ferromagnetism (>4emug -1 ), high adsorption capacity (several hundreds of milligrams per gram for adsorption of methyl blue, Congo red, rhodamine B and Cr 6+ ions), and good regenerability (>85%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in sweet passion fruit fields.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cláudia Inês; Bordon, Natali Gomes; da Rocha Filho, Léo Correia; Garófalo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees' body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee's body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production.

  12. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  14. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    PubMed

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  16. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Effects of size and thermophilic pre-hydrolysis of banana peel during anaerobic digestion, and biomethanation potential of key tropical fruit wastes.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Mary Jesuyemi; Charnnok, Boonya; Saritpongteeraka, Kanyarat; Chaiprapat, Sumate

    2017-10-01

    Methane production potential of tropical fruit wastes, namely lady-finger banana peel, rambutan waste and longan waste were compared using BMP assay and stoichiometric modified Buswell and Mueller equation. Methane yields based on volatile solid (VS) were in the order of ground banana peel, chopped banana peel, chopped longan waste, and chopped rambutan waste (330.6, 268.3, 234.6 and 193.2 mLCH 4 /gVS) that corresponded to their calculated biodegradability. In continuous operations of banana peel digestion at feed concentrations based on total solid (TS) 1-2%, mesophilic single stage digester run at 20-day hydraulic retention time (20-day HRT) failed at 2%TS, but successfully recovered at 1.5%TS. Pre-hydrolysis thermophilic reactor (4-d HRT) was placed as pre-treatment to mesophilic reactor (20-d HRT). Higher biogas (with an evolution of H 2 ) and energy yields were obtained and greater system stability was achieved over the single stage digestion, particularly at higher solid feedstock. The best performance of two stage digestion was 68.5% VS destruction and energy yield of 2510.9kJ/kgVS added at a feed concentration of 2%TS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were β-amyrin (15.87%), α-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), γ-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were β-amyrin (23.39%), γ-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

  19. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Activities of Spray-dried Pitaya Fruit Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yangyang; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Pitaya commonly known as dragon fruit is very popular in China due to its intense color, constituent minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant properties. In the present study, physiochemical properties and antioxidant activities of fruit powder from two pitaya cultivars (namely red flesh and white flesh) and fruit peel were observed. Compared with the fruit powder of fruit flesh, the fruit powder made from fruit peel showed a higher antioxidant activity. The current study provides insights to produce spray-dried pitaya fruit powders that could potentially be used as functional food ingredients in various food fields.

  20. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract.

    PubMed

    Pitz, Heloisa da S; Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B; Voytena, Ana Paula L; Affonso, Regina C L; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C D; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract.

  3. The Power of Passion in Entrepreneurship Education: Entrepreneurial Role Models Encourage Passion?

    PubMed Central

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    This study of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) centers on the impact of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial passion, which also is expected to influence entrepreneurial intention. Based on 426 individuals recruited primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveals the significant direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. These effects were found to be stronger following multimedia presentation of entrepreneurial stories, confirming the fruitful spillover effects of the innovative educational use of computers on entrepreneurial intentions among nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social learning theory, this study confirms both the positive impact of entrepreneurial role models and significant short-term effects of web-based multimedia in the context of EE. This narrative approach is shown to be an effective pedagogical instrument in enhancing individual orientation toward entrepreneurship to facilitate entrepreneurial intention. This study identifies the great potential of these pioneering methods and tools, both for further research in the academic community and for entrepreneurship educators who hope to promote entrepreneurial intention in aspiring entrepreneurs. The findings are also relevant for policy makers designing effective instruments to achieve long-term goals. PMID:29877516

  4. The Power of Passion in Entrepreneurship Education: Entrepreneurial Role Models Encourage Passion?

    PubMed

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2017-07-01

    This study of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) centers on the impact of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial passion, which also is expected to influence entrepreneurial intention. Based on 426 individuals recruited primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveals the significant direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. These effects were found to be stronger following multimedia presentation of entrepreneurial stories, confirming the fruitful spillover effects of the innovative educational use of computers on entrepreneurial intentions among nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social learning theory, this study confirms both the positive impact of entrepreneurial role models and significant short-term effects of web-based multimedia in the context of EE. This narrative approach is shown to be an effective pedagogical instrument in enhancing individual orientation toward entrepreneurship to facilitate entrepreneurial intention. This study identifies the great potential of these pioneering methods and tools, both for further research in the academic community and for entrepreneurship educators who hope to promote entrepreneurial intention in aspiring entrepreneurs. The findings are also relevant for policy makers designing effective instruments to achieve long-term goals.

  5. Green way genesis of silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peels waste and its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor cell line studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathan, Kiruthika; Thirunavukkarasu, Somanathan

    2017-04-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) opens a new path to kill and prevent various infectious diseases and also tumor. In this study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peel waste (pomegranate, orange, banana and apple (POBA)). The primarily nanoparticles formation has been confirmed by the color change. The synthesized SNP were analyzed by various physicochemical techniques such as UV- Visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of SNP was confirmed by its absorbance peak observed at 430 nm in UV-Visible spectrum. Further, the obtained SNP were identified by XRD and TEM, respectively to know the crystalline nature and size and shape of the particles. The activities of SNP were checked with human pathogens (Salmonella, E.coli and Pseudomonas), plant pathogen (Fusarium) and marine pathogen (Aeromonas hydrophila) and also studied the scavenging effect and anticancer properties against MCF-7 cell lines. This studies proves that the SNP prepared from fruit waste peel extract approach appears extremely fast, cost efficient, eco-friendly and alternative for conventional methods of SNP synthesis to promote the usage of these nanoparticles in medicinal application.

  6. Passion for a cause, passion for a creed: on ideological passion, identity threat, and extremism.

    PubMed

    Rip, Blanka; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-06-01

    Passion energizes and directs both peaceful and violent ideologically inspired movements. The type of ideological passion that underlies people's political or religious commitment was proposed to moderate the effect of social identity-threatening circumstances on their choice of activist tactics. Ideological passion was defined as a strong inclination toward a loved, valued, and self-defining cause, ideology, or group in which people invest considerable time and energy. Harmonious ideological passion was expected to promote peaceful activism and nonviolence partly because it is anchored in a strong and secure sense of identity-one that facilitates nondefensiveness in identity-threatening circumstances. Obsessive ideological passion, in contrast, was expected to engender hatred and aggressive extremism in identity-threatening circumstances partly because it is anchored in a strong, but insecure, sense of identity. Results from 2 studies, conducted with nationalist activists (N = 114) and devout Muslims (N = 111), supported these hypotheses. Implications for the motivation/passion and intergroup literatures are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-30

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF), ranging from 1,209.3-1,354.5, 711.7-881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7-785.5, 301.3-499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 2.57-2.77 and 1.54-1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8-80.9% and 66.8-76.5% in peels, and 51.9-60.1% and 43.4-49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  8. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  9. Application of exogenous ethylene inhibits postharvest peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0' was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene effectively inhibited ...

  10. Defense response in non-genomic model species: methyl jasmonate exposure reveals the passion fruit leaves' ability to assemble a cocktail of functionally diversified Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors and recruit two of them against papain.

    PubMed

    Botelho-Júnior, Sylvio; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Lemos, Francisco J A; Perdizio, Viviane A; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Monteiro, Leandro R; Filho, Mauri L; Jacinto, Tânia

    2014-08-01

    Multiplicity of protease inhibitors induced by predators may increase the understanding of a plant's intelligent behavior toward environmental challenges. Information about defense mechanisms of non-genomic model plant passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in response to predator attack is still limited. Here, via biochemical approaches, we showed its flexibility to build-up a broad repertoire of potent Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in response to methyl jasmonate. Seven inhibitors (20-25 kDa) were purified from exposed leaves by chromatographic techniques. Interestingly, the KTIs possessed truncated Kunitz motif in their N-terminus and some of them also presented non-consensus residues. Gelatin-Native-PAGE established multiple isoforms for each inhibitor. Significant differences regarding inhibitors' activity toward trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed, indicating functional polymorphism. Despite its rarity, two of them also inhibited papain, and such bifunctionality suggests a recruiting process onto another mechanistic class of target protease (cysteine-type). All inhibitors acted strongly on midgut proteases from sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (a lepidopteran insect) while in vivo assays supported their insecticide properties. Moreover, the bifunctional inhibitors displayed activity toward midgut proteases from cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (a coleopteran insect). Unexpectedly, all inhibitors were highly effective against midgut proteases from Aedes aegypti a dipteran insect (vector of neglected tropical diseases) opening new avenues for plant-derived PIs for vector control-oriented research. Our results reflect the KTIs' complexities in passion fruit which could be wisely exploited by influencing plant defense conditions. Therefore, the potential of passion fruit as source of bioactive compounds with diversified biotechnological application was strengthened.

  11. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

    2012-04-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.

  12. Separation and characterization of polyphenolics from underutilized byproducts of fruit production (Choerospondias axillaris peels): inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins against glycolysis enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Zhai, Yuxin; McClements, David Julian; Liu, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins were isolated from the peel of Choerospondias axillaris fruit, which is a waste product of the food processing industry. Compositional analysis indicated that the proanthocyanidins had extension units mainly consisting of epicatechin gallate or epicatechin, and terminal units mainly consisting of catechin. Numerous polymeric forms of the molecules were detected, including monomers, dimers, and trimers. Certain fractions exhibited strong α-amylase or α-glucosidase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, their inhibitory activities depended on their degree of polymerization and galloylation. For example, the most bioactive fraction had α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values) of 541 and 3.1 μg mL(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates that proanthocyanidins from C. axillaris peels can inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro and may therefore serve as antidiabetic ingredients in functional or medical foods.

  13. Characterization of phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of different fruit part from lemon (Citrus limon Burm.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Lu, Juanfang; Qun, Junping; Jiao, Bining

    2017-04-01

    Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of different fruit part including peel, pulp, juice, whole fruit and seed from five lemon cultivars (Feiminailao, Cuningmeng Limeng, Pangdelusaningmeng, Beijingningmeng) were investigated. Caffeic acid (9.31-741.4 μg/g FW) and chlorogenic acid (2.7-527.5 μg/g FW) were the dominant phenolic acid in fruit tested, Pangdelusaningmeng (PD) and Limeng peels with the highest contents, respectively. Hesperidin was the predominant flavanone (10.27-3315 μg/g FW), Cuningmeng (CN) peels with the highest level. PD peels had rich rutin, CN seeds had rich eriocitrin. Nobiletin was the main polymethoxylated flavonoids identified, PD with the highest level. CN peels contained rich tangeretin. Overall, peels and whole fruit had significantly higher level of phenolics than other fruit parts, and seeds were good source of flavonoids. PD and CN not only contained higher level of phenolic, but also presented higher antioxidant capacity than other cultivars tested, and are of great value for human nutrition.

  14. [The space of passion].

    PubMed

    Gori, R

    1990-01-01

    The figures and speech of passion are clinically polymorphous and heterogeneous: from the baroque of the mystical ecstasy, the iconophily of religious and political ideologies, the collector's usual fetishism and the paranoiac insanity of hatred to the passions of knowing and loving. These are at the same time a passion for life as well as for self-destruction, for showing oneself as well for not knowing oneself, for representing oneself as well as for non representing oneself. Passion bares the impossible of mourning, its real point that gives a boost to the continual work. Passion confronts us to the essence of the being, to its fundamental distress. The being, whose shadow is projecting itself on the object of the passion, gives a name and a face to that object, and receives back its marks. That explains why passion is always accompanied by suffering. Moreover, passion is suffering according to its etymology: until the XVIth century, the word "passionate" meant somebody who suffered physically. The nature of the object of the passion (a relic, a part of a sentence, an indication, the track of an object or any other subject) changes nothing to the structure of the speech of passion.

  15. The antifungal properties of a 2S albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds involve plasma membrane permeabilization and ultrastructural alterations in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Agizzio, Ana Paula; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2006-10-01

    Different types of antimicrobial proteins were purified from plant seeds, including chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins. It has become clear that these groups of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants from microbial infection. Recent results from our laboratory have shown that the defense-related proteins from passion fruit seeds, named Pf1 and Pf2 (which show sequence homology with 2S albumins), inhibit fungal growth and glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2S albumins from passion fruit seeds induce plasma membrane permeabilization and cause morphological alterations in yeast cells. Initially, we used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in S. cerevisiae cells. When viewed with a confocal laser microscope, S. cervisiae cells showed strong SYTOX Green fluorescence in the cytosol, especially in the nuclei. 2S albumins also inhibited glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by S. cerevisiae cells, which indicates a probable impairment of fungal metabolism. The microscopical analysis of the yeast cells treated with 2S albumins demonstrated several morphological alterations in cell shape, cell surface, cell wall and bud formation, as well as in the organization of intracellular organelles. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenylfuranocoumarin-HMGA-flavonol glucoside conjugates and other constituents of the fruit peels of Citrus hystrix and their anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Seeka, Chonticha; Sutthivaiyakit, Pakawadee; Youkwan, Juthamanee; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Sutthivaiyakit, Somyote

    2016-07-01

    Sixteen compounds including dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid conjugates and dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid/1-O-flavonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside conjugates, together with other dihydroxyprenylfuranocoumarins conjugates, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit peels of Citrus hystrix. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity, but only one compound possessing a 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-6,8,3'-trimethoxyflavonol nucleus in the prenylfuranocoumarin-HMGA conjugate showed strong activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deficit irrigation and maturation stage influence quality and flavonoid composition of 'Valencia' orange fruit.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Filipa S; Di Stefano, Vita; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Effects of continuous deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments (50% ETc) in comparison with full irrigation (CI, 100% ETc) were investigated during 'Valencia' orange fruit maturation. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify hesperidin, narirutin, tangeritin, nobiletin, didymin and neoeriocitrin in the fruit juice and peel. No significant effect of irrigation was found on yield, juice soluble solids or acidity. Juice color was not influenced by irrigation or harvest date, whereas peel color increased during maturation and was more pronounced in CI and PRD fruits. Juice acidity reached a peak in May, while soluble solids increased linearly throughout maturation. Hesperidin was the major flavanone detected during maturation, with concentrations 200-fold higher in the fruit peel than in the juice. In the peel, narirutin, didymin and neoeriocitrin decreased while hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin increased with maturation. Narirutin synthesis in the orange fruit was insensitive to irrigation strategy. In fruit peels, PRD and DI induced the decline of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin only in June, whereas in the juice, deficit irrigation treatments induced an increase in hesperidin and didymin. These results suggest that deficit irrigation, in particular the conditions imposed with PRD, may cause a significant accumulation shift of total flavonoids from the fruit peel into the juice, with a positive impact on juice quality and nutritional value. Fruit compositional changes during maturation also suggest that late harvest can improve fruit palatability and nutritional quality under the cultural and environmental conditions of this study. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  20. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction.

    PubMed

    Masci, Alessandra; Coccia, Andrea; Lendaro, Eugenio; Mosca, Luciana; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Pomegranate is a functional food of great interest, due to its multiple beneficial effects on human health. This fruit is rich in anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which exert a protective role towards degenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to optimize the extraction procedure, from different parts of the fruit, to obtain extracts enriched in selected polyphenols while retaining biological activity. Whole fruits or peels of pomegranate cultivars, with different geographic origin, were subjected to several extraction methods. The obtained extracts were analyzed for polyphenolic content, evaluated for antioxidant capacity and tested for antiproliferative activity on human bladder cancer T24 cells. Two different extraction procedures, employing ethyl acetate as a solvent, were useful in obtaining extracts enriched in ellagic acid and/or punicalagins. Antioxidative and antiproliferative assays demonstrated that the antioxidant capability is directly related to the phenolic content, whereas the antiproliferative activity is to be mainly attributed to ellagic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional Control of Regreening and Degreening in Citrus Peel Segments 1

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Albert

    1983-01-01

    A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed. Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO3− and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening. Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO3, but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media. Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations. PMID:16663202

  3. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M.; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N.; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10–12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size. PMID:26528543

  4. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  5. Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel oranges were sorted into four groups under ultraviolet (UV) illumination in commercial packinghouse black light rooms based upon the amount of fluorescence visible on each fruit to determine if fluorescence was predictive of peel quality. The groups corresponded to fruit with: 1) no fluorescen...

  6. Teaching with Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerelyn

    2007-01-01

    Teachers will always have to deal with uniform standards and test-related expectations. Beyond that, they need to build a community in which students experience their passion for the subjects they teach and their passion to raise them up. Students need to see teachers' passions--it gives them proof that teachers enjoy learning. Bonding with…

  7. Stomatal Density and Responsiveness of Banana Fruit Stomates

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara E.; Brun, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf. It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. Images PMID:16656239

  8. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P < 0.001), tumour incidence by 24 % (P < 0.05), and lengthened latency by 8 days (P > 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are

  9. Obstacles to oedipal passion.

    PubMed

    Kulish, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Many new theoretical and technical developments have extended our understandings of triangular conflicts in the psychoanalytic setting. Yet until recently psychoanalysis has lacked theoretical concepts for passion and, most particularly, for oedipal passion. Contemporary psychoanalytic understandings of the nature of oedipal passion help explain why it is both difficult to articulate and why it continues to be "forgotten". The author argues that individual resistances to oedipal passions reappear and are reinforced in collective theories that distance us from oedipal issues. She presents two clinical cases that illustrate enactments around, and resistances to, oedipal passions within both analyst and patient.

  10. Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-06-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

  11. Volatile aroma components and antioxidant activities of the flavedo peel extract of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata).

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-04-01

    The flavedo peel extracts of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) fruits were extracted using steam distillation (SD) or a cold-press (CP) system. Volatile aroma content and composition were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and each compound was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the extracts were monoterpene hydrocarbons (91.75-93.75%[709.32-809.05 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]) including limonene (43.08-45.13%[341.46-379.81 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), γ-terpinene (27.88-29.06%[219.90-245.86 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), and p-cymene (8.13-11.02%[61.47-97.22 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]). The extraction process used was determined to be a decisive factor that affects the composition of key citrus aroma components, as well as the antioxidant activities of the Shiikuwasha fruit. Antioxidant capabilities of the extracts were examined by assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The cold-press extraction system may better retain the total phenolic content of the flavedo peel and display superior antioxidant activities, compared to the steam distillation extraction method. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a type of small citrus fruit, and has been used as raw material for beverage and food additive productions in Japan. It had a unique aroma composition in which the limonene content of its peels is lower than that of other commonly known citrus peels. The present study detailed the volatile aroma composition, as well as antioxidant capabilities of Shiikuwasha peel extracts of different extraction methods, that are cold-press and steam distillation methods. The results of this study may provide a basis for selection of Shiikuwasha peel extracts in food industry for citrus flavor production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Antioxidative and anticholinesterase activity of Cyphomandra betacea fruit.

    PubMed

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products.

  13. Antioxidative and Anticholinesterase Activity of Cyphomandra betacea Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210

  14. Evaluation of Amazon fruits: chemical and nutritional studies on Borojoa sorbilis.

    PubMed

    Rabelo Rodrigues, Francimilton; de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fernandes Amaral, Ana Claudia; Pinto Ferreira, José Luiz; da Silva Carneiro, Carla; Rocha de Andrade Silva, Jefferson

    2018-01-31

    Borojoa sorbilis (Ducke) is an Amazonian species with edible fruits that are widely consumed by the local population, but little studied and not yet economically explored. Thus the aim of this study was to describe the chemical composition, volatile compounds, nutritional aspects and antioxidant activity of the fruit pulp and peel of B. sorbilis. Headspace solid-phase microextraction, using polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) fiber, resulted in the identification of 59 substances in the pulp and peel of B. sorbilis fruits after analysis of the chromatograms obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using polar and nonpolar columns. Esters were the most abundant. Moisture, lipids, protein, dietary fiber, ash, carbohydrate, total energy value, titratable acid, soluble solids and pH were measured. Protein amount, fat content and antioxidant activity were low in both pulp and peel. Carbohydrate content was 179.2 and 134.9 g kg -1 in pulp and peel, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical characteristics, flavor and nutritional aspects of B. sorbilis fruit, which is essential to its economic exploitation. The high energy value associated with the carbohydrate content, plus the low fat content, contribute to a possible use of B. sorbilis fruits as a food supplement. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Reflective mulch enhances ripening and health compounds in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    PubMed

    Kaneshima, Tai; Myoda, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Various antimicrobial constituents of camu-camu fruit were isolated. Acylphloroglucinol (compound 1) and rhodomyrtone (compound 2) were isolated from the peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit, while two other acylphloroglucinols (compounds 3 and 4) were obtained from camu-camu seeds. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectrophotometric methods. Compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed to be new acylphloroglucinols with different substituents at the C7 or C9 position of 2, and were named myrciarone A and B, respectively. Compound 3 was determined to be isomyrtucommulone B. This is the first report of the isolation of 3 from a natural resource. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1, 3, and 4 were similar to those of 2, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were either similar to or lower than that of kanamycin. These results suggest that the peel and seeds of camu-camu fruit could be utilized for therapeutic applications.

  17. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  18. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?

    PubMed

    Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

    2009-03-01

    Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (P<0.01) and CYP3A4 2.3-fold (P<0.05). Of the tested constituents, only 10 microM bergamottin and 200 microM naringenin induced MDR1 mRNA levels 2.9- and 4.0-fold, respectively (P<0.01 for both), and CYP3A4 mRNA levels 3.2- and 15.6-fold (P<0.01 for both), respectively. Western blot analysis and rhodamine 123 uptake experiments partly confirmed these findings on the protein and the functional level. In summary, GFJ containing no peel extract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein.

  19. Passionate Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent; Brighouse, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Passionate leadership is about energy, commitment, a belief that every child can learn and will learn, a concern with social justice and the optimism that people can make a difference. The authors argue that passion survives and prospers and is a moral driving force in ensuring children becoming all they can become. That brings them to the other…

  20. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (Citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Marc; Speck, Thomas; Seidel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Pomelos (Citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which—inter alia—serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. It protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. The main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. In order to investigate the influence of the water content on the energy dissipation capacity, drop weight tests were conducted with fresh and with freeze-dried peel samples. Based on the coefficient of restitution it was found that freeze-drying markedly reduces the relative energy dissipation capacity of the peel. Measuring the transmitted force during impact furthermore indicated a transition from a uniform collapse of the foam-like tissue to a progressive collapse due to water extraction. Representing the peel by a Maxwell model illustrates that freeze-drying not only drastically reduces the damping function of the dashpots but also stiffens the springs of the model. PMID:26543566

  2. Nondestructive Determination of Cu Residue in Orange Peel by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Huiqin; Huang, Lin; Liu, Muhua; Chen, Tianbing; Yang, Ping; Yao, Mingyin

    2015-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging tool with rapid, nondestructive, green characteristics in qualitative or quantitative analyses of composition in materials. But LIBS has its shortcomings in detect limit and sensitivity. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange, which is one of famous fruits from Jiangxi of China, was analyzed. In view of LIBS's limit, it is difficult to determinate heavy metals in natural fruits. In this work, nine orange samples were pretreated in 50-500 μg/mL Cu solution, respectively. Another one orange sample was chosen as a control group without any pollution treatment. Previous researchers observed that the content of heavy metals is much higher in peel than in pulp. So, the content in pulp can be reflected by detecting peel. The real concentrations of Cu in peels were acquired by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). A calibration model of Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 was constructed between LIBS intensity and AAS concentration by six samples. The correlation coefficient of the two models is also 0.95. All of the samples were used to verify the accuracy of the model. The results show that the relative error (RE) between predicted and real concentration is less than 6.5%, and Cu I 324.7 line has smaller RE than Cu I 327.4. The analysis demonstrated that different characteristic lines decided different accuracy. The results prove the feasibility of detecting heavy metals in fruits by LIBS. But the results are limited in treated samples. The next work will focus on direct analysis of heavy metals in natural fruits without any pretreatment. This work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31460419) and Major Project of Science and Technology of Jiangxi, China (No. 20143ACB21013)

  3. Terpene Down-Regulation in Orange Reveals the Role of Fruit Aromas in Mediating Interactions with Insect Herbivores and Pathogens1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens. PMID:21525333

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  5. Effect of Debagging Time on Pigment Patterns in the Peel and Sugar and Organic Acid Contents in the Pulp of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Qinguan’ Apple Fruit at Mid and Late Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chenjuan; Ma, Changqing; Zhang, Juan; Jing, Shujuan; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of debagging time on color and flavor / taste compounds in the non-red apple cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ and red cultivar ‘Qinguan’ at mid and late stages of fruit development. Debagging briefly improved the red color in both cultivars, the peel of ‘Golden Delicious’ presenting pale-pink hue. However, rapid anthocyanin accumulation occurred in apple peel at a specific time (after 179 days after flowering (DAF) in ‘Qinguan’) and was unaltered by debagging time in the red cultivar ‘Qinguan’. Furthermore, untimely debagging had a detrimental effect on the content of anthocyanin. All sugars increased and organic acids decreased in apple pulp at mid to late stages of development. Bagging treatment reduced the content of most sugars and organic acids, as well as, the overall total. However, glucose and citric acid contents were higher in bagged fruit than non-bagged fruit; the maximum occurred in T7 treatment that was no-debagging at DAF 159 / 196 (‘Golden delicious’ / ‘Qinguan’), i.e., 24.35 and 0.07 mg g-1 FW in ‘Golden delicious’, and 38.86 and 0.06 mg g-1 FW in ‘Qinguan’, respectively. In a word, bagging treatment can alter the pattern of peel color development in apple fruit; however, it remains difficult to alter the timing of rapid anthocyanin accumulation as it is regulated solely by development. Moreover, bagging treatment reduced the total accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and even the over total in pulp, but increased the glucose and citric acid contents in apple pulp. PMID:27788164

  6. When passion makes the heart grow colder: the role of passion in alternative goal suppression.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Jocelyn J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2013-01-01

    Quality of goal engagement and alternative goal suppression were investigated in this research. Integrating the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) with goal-systems theory (Kruglanski et al., 2002), we hypothesized that obsessive passion--associated with recurrent goal-conflicts--would predict greater alternative goal suppression (i.e., goal-shielding) than would harmonious passion--characterized by effective synthesis of the passionate activity with other life domains. Results from 5 laboratory studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, participants' dispositional measures of harmonious and obsessive passion were correlated with an implicit measure of goal-shielding. Obsessive (but not harmonious) passion predicted the suppression of alternative goals and the progressive inhibition of unfamiliar goals. In Study 2, we extended these findings by demonstrating the interrelation between quality of goal engagement and goal-commitment such that goal-shielding effects were enhanced, but only for goals in conflict with other life domains (vs. well-integrated goals). In Study 3, the causal influence of passion on goal-shielding was supported via an experimental manipulation of passion. In Study 4, we replicated and extended Studies 1 and 3 by experimentally demonstrating that obsessive (but not harmonious) passion is a mindset conducive to the development of inhibitory links with alternative goals. Study 5 explored the psychological costs associated with repeated unconscious goal suppression by examining its effects on the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Collectively, the present results suggest that the qualitative distinction between obsessive and harmonious passion has implications for the goal-shielding effect and for subsequent self-regulatory behavior.

  7. Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

    2004-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. History, Passion, and Performance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kay N

    2017-04-01

    History, Passion, and Performance was chosen as the theme for the 75th anniversary of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) kickoff. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses has a long history created by passionate, dedicated members. This article highlights historical foundations of the Association, describes the occupational health nurse's passion to drive quality care for workers and discusses future professional and organizational challenges.

  10. Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel.

    PubMed

    Chuyen, Hoang V; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Parks, Sophie E; Nguyen, Minh H

    2017-03-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, similar to the other components, is discarded, although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot-air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. Hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 μg g−1 and 13 μg g−1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 μg g−1 and 0.27 μg g−1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and β-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170

  12. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  13. Association between a parent's brand passion and a child's brand passion: a moderated moderated-mediation model.

    PubMed

    Gilal, Faheem Gul; Zhang, Jian; Gilal, Naeem Gul; Gilal, Rukhsana Gul

    2018-01-01

    Both marketing scholars and brand managers have noted the importance of brand passion. They have increasingly emphasized how brand passion influences consumers' psychological states and behaviors. In contrast, an almost negligible effort has been made to study whether the individual's brand passion can be transferred to others. Using consumer socialization theory and emotional contagion theory as a lens, this study explores whether airline brand passion can be transferred from a parent to a child. To this end, a convenience sample of (N = 202) parent-child dyads was utilized to test the moderated moderated-mediation hypotheses. The results provide evidence that parents' airline passion can be translated into the child's airline passion via emotional contagion for daughters who live with their parents but not those who live independently of their parents. Similarly, parents' airline passion can be transferred to sons regardless of their geographical distance. The implications, limitations, and agendas for future research are discussed in depth.

  14. Gene Expression and Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Surface Tissues1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Mandel, Tali; Rogachev, Ilana; Feldberg, Liron; Lotan, Ofra; Yativ, Merav; Wang, Zhonghua; Jetter, Reinhard; Venger, Ilya; Adato, Avital; Aharoni, Asaph

    2008-01-01

    The cuticle, covering the surface of all primary plant organs, plays important roles in plant development and protection against the biotic and abiotic environment. In contrast to vegetative organs, very little molecular information has been obtained regarding the surfaces of reproductive organs such as fleshy fruit. To broaden our knowledge related to fruit surface, comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses were carried out on peel and flesh tissues during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. Out of 574 peel-associated transcripts, 17% were classified as putatively belonging to metabolic pathways generating cuticular components, such as wax, cutin, and phenylpropanoids. Orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SHINE2 and MIXTA-LIKE regulatory factors, activating cutin and wax biosynthesis and fruit epidermal cell differentiation, respectively, were also predominantly expressed in the peel. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a flame ionization detector identified 100 metabolites that are enriched in the peel tissue during development. These included flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, and amyrin-type pentacyclic triterpenoids as well as polar metabolites associated with cuticle and cell wall metabolism and protection against photooxidative stress. Combined results at both transcript and metabolite levels revealed that the formation of cuticular lipids precedes phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression patterns of reporter genes driven by the upstream region of the wax-associated SlCER6 gene indicated progressive activity of this wax biosynthetic gene in both fruit exocarp and endocarp. Peel-associated genes identified in our study, together with comparative analysis of genes enriched in surface tissues of various other plant species, establish a springboard for future investigations of plant surface biology. PMID:18441227

  15. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  16. Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Hakim, I A; Harris, R B; Ritenbaugh, C

    2000-01-01

    Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. The principal sources of d-limonene are the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon. The present case-control study was designed to determine the usual citrus consumption patterns of an older Southwestern population and to then evaluate how this citrus consumption varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In this Arizona population, 64.3% and 74.5% of the respondents reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the predominant varieties of citrus consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% of all subjects reporting citrus peel use. We found no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.32] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.31) and skin SCC. However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. This is the first study to explore the relationship between citrus peel consumption and human cancers. Our results show that peel consumption, the major source of dietary d-limonene, is not uncommon and may have a potential protective effect in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to more completely evaluate the interrelationships between peel intake, bioavailability of d-limonene, and other lifestyle factors.

  17. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  18. Passion for Academics and Problematic Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Alexander T; Razon, Selen; Saville, Bryan K; Tokac, Umit; Judge, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, p<.001), and disordered eating (β = .17, p < .001) but was not associated with sleep deprivation (β = .07, p = .15). Harmonious passion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = -.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = -.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = -.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics.

  19. Passion for Academics and Problematic Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    BUREAU, ALEXANDER T.; RAZON, SELEN; SAVILLE, BRYAN K.; TOKAC, UMIT; JUDGE, LAWRENCE W.

    2017-01-01

    According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students’ passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, p<.001), and disordered eating (β = .17, p < .001) but was not associated with sleep deprivation (β = .07, p = .15). Harmonious passion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = −.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = −.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = −.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics. PMID:28515838

  20. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  1. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg⁻¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹.

  2. Exercising with Passion: Initial Validation of the Passion Scale in Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parastatidou, Irini S.; Doganis, Georgios; Theodorakis, Yannis; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the researchers in the study was to psychometrically evaluate Passion Scale scores (Vallerand et al., 2003) in exercise. Self-report data were collected from two samples of Greek exercise participants. Sample 1 (n = 217) provided data on the Passion Scale and the self-determination theory variables of perceived autonomy support by…

  3. Role of smartphone addiction in gambling passion and schoolwork engagement: a Dualistic Model of Passion approach.

    PubMed

    Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Ugwu, Leonard I; Ugwu, Dorothy I

    There are growing concerns that seem to suggest that students no longer engage in school-related activities as they ought to. Recent observation has revealed that students now spend excessive time participating in Internet gambling with their smartphone during school period. This trend could have far-reaching consequences on their schoolwork engagement and by extension, academic performance. Drawing on the Dualistic Model of Passion, this study therefore, examined the mediatory role of smartphone addiction in the gambling passion-schoolwork engagement relation. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Male undergraduates ( N  = 278) of a large public university in Nigeria who engage in Internet gambling participated in the study. They completed self-report measures of gambling passion, smartphone addiction, and schoolwork engagement. Results showed that harmonious gambling passion was not related to smartphone addiction whereas it was positively related to schoolwork engagement. Obsessive gambling passion had positive and negative relations with smartphone addiction and schoolwork engagement, respectively. Smartphone addiction was negatively related to schoolwork engagement and mediated only the obsessive gambling passion-schoolwork engagement relation but not that between harmonious gambling passion and schoolwork engagement. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by carbohydrate encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Evelyn B; Vidallon, Mark Louis P; Mendoza, David Joram R; Reyes, Charisse T

    2016-11-01

    Betalains, which are red-purple and yellow pigments, are ideal alternatives to synthetic colorants as they possess strong coloring potential and excellent health-contributing properties. However, the instability of betalains toward normal storage and biological conditions, in addition to the limited number of betalain sources, impedes their food application and diminishes their bioactivities. This study aimed to evaluate the health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by encapsulation in maltodextrin-gum Arabic and maltodextrin-pectin matrices. Encapsulation in maltodextrin-gum Arabic and maltodextrin-pectin matrices afforded dry betalain powders after lyophilization. Optical microscopy imaging showed that the betalain powders consisted of matrix-type and shard-like microparticles. ABTS antioxidant assay revealed that maltodextrin-gum Arabic-betalain (MGB) and maltodextrin-pectin-betalain (MPB) microparticles possessed higher antioxidant capacities (195.39 ± 8.63 and 201.76 ± 4.06 µmol Trolox g -1 microparticles respectively) than the non-encapsulated betalain extract (151.07 ± 2.57 µmol Trolox g -1 extract). Duck embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vascular irritation assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of encapsulated betalains was five- to six-fold higher than that of non-encapsulated betalains (P ≤ 0.05). Antiangiogenic activity, as evaluated by duck embryo CAM assay, was enhanced two- to four-fold by carbohydrate encapsulation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inducing activity of betalains was likewise improved four- to five-fold. The study showed that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and GST-inducing activities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels were enhanced through carbohydrate encapsulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Ethylene biosynthesis and perception during ripening of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Alos, E; Martinez-Fuentes, A; Reig, C; Mesejo, C; Rodrigo, M J; Agustí, M; Zacarías, L

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain insights into the controversial ripening behavior of loquat fruits, in the present study we have analyzed the expression of three genes related to ethylene biosynthesis (ACS1, ACO1 and ACO2), two ethylene receptors (ERS1a and ERS1b), one signal transduction component (CTR1) and one transcription factor (EIL1) in peel and pulp of loquat fruit during natural ripening and also in fruits treated with ethylene (10μLL -1 ) and 1-MCP (10μLL -1 ), an ethylene action inhibitor. In fruits attached to or detached from the tree, a slight increase in ethylene production was detected at the yellow stage, but the respiration rate declined progressively during ripening. Accumulation of transcripts of ethylene biosynthetic genes did not correlate with changes in ethylene production, since the maximum accumulation of ACS1 and ACO1 mRNA was detected in fully coloured fruits. Expression of ethylene receptor and signaling genes followed a different pattern in peel and pulp tissues. After fruit detachment and incubation at 20°C for up to 6days, ACS1 mRNA slightly increased, ACO1 experienced a substantial increment and ACO2 declined. In the peel, these changes were advanced by exogenous ethylene and partially inhibited by 1-MCP. In the pulp, 1-MCP repressed most of the changes in the expression of biosynthetic genes, while ethylene had almost no effects. Expression of ethylene perception and signaling genes was barely affected by ethylene or 1-MCP. Collectively, a differential transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthetic genes operates in peel and pulp, and support the notion of non-climacteric ripening in loquat fruits. Ethylene action, however, appears to be required to sustain or maintain the expression of specific genes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  7. Antioxidant activity of apples--an impact of maturity stage and fruit part.

    PubMed

    Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Tuszyński, Tadeusz

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many studies have been oriented towards improving methods and efficiency of antioxidants recovery from different fruit and their wastes.The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant potential of apple seeds and peel, which constitute the fruit industry wastes, and compare it to apple flesh. Antioxidant activity of apples at different maturity and storage stage were analysed too. The Idared and the Šampion cultivars of apples were used in the study. Antioxidant activity was estimated using ABTS and DPPH assays, and polyphenols profile was determined by HPLC method. Seeds of analysed apple cultivars were characterised by a significantly higher antioxidant capacity and by higher concentrations of polyphenols analysed when compared to their peel and flesh. There were present two predominant compounds: phloridzin in seeds (84% and 72%) and quercetin glycosides in peels (54% and 38%, Idared and Šampion cultivars, respectively). No quercetin glycosides in seeds were found. The capacity to scavenge an ABTS radical, but not DPPH, decreased during ripening of apples, while cold storage resulted in enhanced antioxidant potential. It can be concluded that unripe apples together with apple seeds and peel (fruit industry wastes) constitute a valuable source of polyphenols.

  8. Control of rotting and browning of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew after harvested by sulphur dioxide treatment under various storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chitbanchong, W; Sardsud, V; Whangchai, K; Koslanund, R; Thobunluepop, P

    2009-11-15

    The experiment of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew, untreated (control) and treated with SO2 treatment were stored under 2 +/- 2 and 7 +/- 2 degrees C for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were studied. The treatment of fresh longan fruit with SO2 fumigation combined with the suitable storage condition improved the overall longan fruit quality, especially on inner and outer peel tissue and aril color than no SO2 treatment. Treatment stabilizes peel color with no subsequent loss of color during storage (fruit color were bright-yellowish color). When the fruit showed during SO2 treatment, increasing of storage duration and temperatures, the dark color of inner and outer peel of longan fruit was appeared, this was correlated with the increasing of PPO activity. The activity of PPO enzyme in control fruit (no SO2 treatment) gradually lower than SO2 treatments. Fruit exposed to cool storage temperature (2 degrees C) exhibited a lower PPO enzymatic activity compared to those kept in high storage temperature (7 degrees C). Moreover, PPO enzymatic activity significantly increased over the storage durations The additional SO2 treatment no subsequent loss of weight of longan fruit during storage. However, the sulphite residues could detect immediately after SO2 treatment in all part of longan fruit, especially on aril tissue. The SEM evaluation found that the surface cracking was also impair the physiological function of the cuticle and increasing water permeability, which may cause water soaking at the inner side of the peel. The injured cell would accelerate the oxidation of phenolic substances and the oxidative products resulted in dark color of inner and outer peel.

  9. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (Annona muricata), mango (Mangifera indica) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) pulps from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    von Breymann, Juliana; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in them. Sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. Tests included pH determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteria count, total and fecal most probable number and the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the product. Fruit pulp's pH ranged between 3,1 and 3,9, and the microbiological counts obtained were relatively low except for one industry. None of the samples analyzed presented total or fecal coliforms. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three samples, all of them coming from industry C. Low microbiological counts obtained may be due to the addition of preserving substances and to the pasteurization of some of the products; lack of these two elements may allow the presence of dangerous bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes.

  11. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    PubMed

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSD<5.05) and recovery (93.94-103.06%) and satisfactory results obtained. The sugars content varied across micropropagated plants in vitro, plants regenerated after cryostorage, growing trees in vivo, and fruit peel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between a parent’s brand passion and a child’s brand passion: a moderated moderated-mediation model

    PubMed Central

    Gilal, Faheem Gul; Zhang, Jian; Gilal, Naeem Gul; Gilal, Rukhsana Gul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Both marketing scholars and brand managers have noted the importance of brand passion. They have increasingly emphasized how brand passion influences consumers’ psychological states and behaviors. In contrast, an almost negligible effort has been made to study whether the individual’s brand passion can be transferred to others. Methods Using consumer socialization theory and emotional contagion theory as a lens, this study explores whether airline brand passion can be transferred from a parent to a child. To this end, a convenience sample of (N = 202) parent-child dyads was utilized to test the moderated moderated-mediation hypotheses. Results The results provide evidence that parents’ airline passion can be translated into the child’s airline passion via emotional contagion for daughters who live with their parents but not those who live independently of their parents. Similarly, parents’ airline passion can be transferred to sons regardless of their geographical distance. The implications, limitations, and agendas for future research are discussed in depth. PMID:29695938

  13. Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2013-12-31

    Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products.

  14. Banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kindo, A J; Tupaki-Sreepurna, A; Yuvaraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes. The growth from the primary isolation medium was taken and inoculated onto the pieces of double-autoclaved ripe banana peel pieces in a sterile glass Petri dish with some moisture (sprinkles of sterile distilled water). A few sterile coverslips were placed randomly inside the Petri dish for the growing fungus to stick on to it. The plates were kept at room temperature and left undisturbed for 15-20 days. At a time, one coverslip was taken out and placed on a slide with lactophenol cotton blue and focused under the microscope to look for fruit bodies. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica, Chaetomium murorum, Nattrassia mangiferae and Schizophyllum commune were identified by characteristic features from growth on banana peel culture. Banana peel culture is a cheap and effective medium resembling the natural substrate of fungi and is useful for promoting characteristic reproductive structures that aid identification.

  15. Proteomic analysis of peel browning of 'Nanguo' pears after low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Sheng, Lei; Wang, Long; Cheng, Shun-Chang; Ji, Shu-Juan

    2017-06-01

    Postharvest ripening of the 'Nanguo' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) can be impeded by low-temperature storage. However, pears after long-term refrigeration are prone to peel browning when returned to room temperature conditions. This study investigated the browning mechanism of 'Nanguo' pear stored at a low temperature by analysing the differentially expressed proteins between healthy fruit and fruit with peel browning. The results showed that 181 proteins underwent statistically significant changes. A categorisation of the disparately accumulated proteins was performed using gene ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'metabolic process', 'cellular process', 'catalytic activity', and 'binding' proteins were the most affected after low-temperature storage. Further analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins, which are related to peel browning, are primarily involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, linoleic acid pathways, fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, glutathione metabolism pathway, photosynthesis pathway, oxidative phosphorylation pathway, and glycolysis pathway. This study reveals that there are variations in key proteins in 'Nanguo' pear after low-temperature storage, and the identification of these proteins will be valuable in future functional genomics studies, as well as provide protein resources that can be used in the efforts to improve pear quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Associations between a Leader's Work Passion and an Employee's Work Passion: A Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of emotional contagion and goal content, this study explored the positive associations between a leader's work passion and employees' work passion. This study investigated 364 employees and their immediate leaders from China, constructed a moderated mediation model, and used SPSS-PROCESS in conjunction with the Johnson-Neyman technique to analyze the data. The results showed that a leader's work passion was transferred to employees via emotional contagion, and the contagion process was moderated by leader–employee goal content congruence. This study provides a potential way to stimulate employees' work passion from the perspective of leader–employee interactions. Moreover, the limitations of the study and potential topics for future research are discussed. PMID:28894430

  17. Associations between a Leader's Work Passion and an Employee's Work Passion: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of emotional contagion and goal content, this study explored the positive associations between a leader's work passion and employees' work passion. This study investigated 364 employees and their immediate leaders from China, constructed a moderated mediation model, and used SPSS-PROCESS in conjunction with the Johnson-Neyman technique to analyze the data. The results showed that a leader's work passion was transferred to employees via emotional contagion, and the contagion process was moderated by leader-employee goal content congruence. This study provides a potential way to stimulate employees' work passion from the perspective of leader-employee interactions. Moreover, the limitations of the study and potential topics for future research are discussed.

  18. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2018-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  1. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.

    PubMed

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-12-28

    The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.

  3. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation - after Tazortene, hydroquinone, and salicylic acid chemical peels Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ... after treatment with hydroquinone, TCA chemical peel, and salicylic acid chemical peel. Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ...

  4. Passion and Burnout in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Maley, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on passion and burnout has shown that teachers, including college faculty, who show high levels of harmonious passion toward their work experience lower burnout than teachers who have high levels of obsessive passion. In the present study, we extended this line of research to college students. We found that students who were…

  5. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  6. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport. PMID:28265245

  7. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport.

  8. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  9. CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2008-01-01

    Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia'. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLDalpha1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLDgamma1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLDalpha1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLDgamma1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLDalpha1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLDgamma1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLDgamma1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus.

  10. Expression of three sHSP genes involved in heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    He, Li-hong; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jian-fei; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-07-01

    Banana fruit is highly susceptible to chilling injury. In previous research it was shown that heat pretreatment of banana fruit at 38 °C for 3 days before storage at a chilling temperature of 8 °C for 12 days prevented increases in visible chilling injury index, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content and also decreases in lightness and chroma, indicating that heat pretreatment could effectively alleviate chilling injury of banana fruit. However, little is known about the role of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in postharvest chilling tolerance of banana fruit. In the present study, three cytosolic sHSP expression profiles in peel and pulp tissues of banana fruit during heat pretreatment and subsequent chilled storage (8 °C) were investigated in relation to heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance. Three full-length cDNAs of cytosolic sHSP genes, including two class I sHSP (CI sHSP) and one class II sHSP (CII sHSP) cDNAs, named Ma-CI sHSP1, Ma-CI sHSP2 and Ma-CII sHSP3 respectively, were isolated and characterised from harvested banana fruit. Accumulation of Ma-CI sHSP1 mRNA transcripts in peel and pulp tissues and Ma-CII sHSP3 mRNA transcripts in peel tissue increased during heat pretreatment. Expression of all three Ma-sHSP genes in peel and pulp tissues was induced during subsequent chilled storage. Furthermore, Ma-CI sHSP1 and Ma-CII sHSP3 mRNA transcripts in pulp tissue and Ma-CI sHSP2 mRNA transcripts in peel and pulp tissues were obviously enhanced by heat pretreatment at days 6 and 9 of subsequent chilled storage. These results suggested that heat pretreatment enhanced the expression of Ma-sHSPs, which might be involved in heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance of banana fruit. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  12. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  13. Regulation of cuticle formation during fruit development and ripening in 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqiu; Sun, Li; Xie, Li; He, Yizhong; Luo, Tao; Sheng, Ling; Luo, Yi; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2016-02-01

    Fruit cuticle, which is composed of cutin and wax and biosynthesized during fruit development, plays important roles in the prevention of water loss and the resistance to pathogen infection during fruit development and postharvest storage. However, the key factors and mechanisms regarding the cuticle biosynthesis in citrus fruits are still unclear. Here, fruit cuticle of 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) was studied from the stage of fruit expansion to postharvest storage from the perspectives of morphology, transcription and metabolism. The results demonstrated that cutin accumulation is synchronous with fruit expansion, while wax synthesis is synchronous with fruit maturation. Metabolic profile of fruits peel revealed that transition of metabolism of fruit peel occurred from 120 to 150 DAF and ABA was predicted to regulate citrus wax synthesis during the development of Newhall fruits. RNA-seq analysis of the peel from the above two stages manifested that the genes involved in photosynthesis were repressed, while the genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax, cutin and lignin were significantly induced at later stages. Further real-time PCR predicted that MYB transcription factor GL1-like regulates citrus fruits wax synthesis. These results are valuable for improving the fruit quality during development and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  15. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1–MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1–MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  16. The impact of fruit and soybean by-products and amaranth on the growth of probiotic and starter microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Albuquerque, M A C; Biscola, Vanessa; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-07-01

    The ability of different fruit by-products, okara, and amaranth flour, to support the growth of probiotic and non-probiotic strains was evaluated. The tests were conducted with three commercial starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus), ten probiotic strains (seven Lactobacillus spp. and three Bifidobacterium spp. strains), and two harmful bacteria representative of the intestinal microbiota (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens). In vitro fermentability assays were performed using a modified MRS broth supplemented with different fruits (acerola, orange, passion fruit, and mango), and soy (okara) by-products or amaranth flour. Orange and passion-fruit by-products were the substrates that most promoted the growth of bacterial populations, including pathogenic strains. On the other hand, the acerola by-product was the substrate that showed the highest selectivity for beneficial bacteria, since the E. coli and Cl. perfringens populations were lower in the presence of this fruit by-product. Although the passion fruit by-product, okara, and amaranth stimulated the probiotic strains, the growth of the pathogenic strains studied was higher compared to other substrates. Different growth profiles were verified for each substrate when the different strains were compared. Although pure culture models do not reflect bacterial interaction in the host, this study reinforces the fact that the ability to metabolize different substrates is strain-dependent, and acerola, mango, and orange by-products are the substrates with the greatest potential to be used as prebiotic ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Morales-Montelongo, Ana L; Mondragón-Jacobo, Candelario; Herrera-Hernández, Guadalupe; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia

    2010-08-01

    Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these

  18. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  19. Passionate Friendships among Adolescent Sexual-Minority Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined friendships that are emotionally passionate yet lack sexual activity among 18- to 25-year-old sexual-minority women. Found that passionate friendships contained more characteristics of romantic friendships than conventional friendships. Same-sex passionate friendships were initiated at earlier ages than same-sex conventional friendships,…

  20. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  1. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    PubMed Central

    Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rahimi, Roja; Samadi, Nasrin; Heidari, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Mohammadamin; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Soltani, Saba; Pourvaziri, Ali; Amin, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin) is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE). Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent. PMID:28852445

  2. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  3. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by cultivar.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Burgos, Ema C; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hernández-García, Francisca; Cárdenas-López, José L; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-02-01

    Some studies have reported that different parts of the pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agents and thus might be proposed as a safe natural alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannin content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compound responsible for such antimicrobial activity. Because the pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with the type of cultivar (sweet, sour-sweet and sour), pomegranates may also differ with respect to their antimicrobial capacity. The extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity, as well as the highest punicalagins (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In the results obtained from both antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour-sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that ellagic acid content has a significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts investigated. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a good source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, and may represent an alternative to antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminated fruits and vegetables cause global health problems and reduced economic productivity resulting in significant loss to food industry. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, punicalins (PC: a and ß) punicalagins (PG: a and ß) and ell...

  5. Passion: Does one scale fit all? Construct validity of two-factor passion scale and psychometric invariance over different activities and languages.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Parker, Philip; Morin, Alexandre J S; Carbonneau, Noémie; Jowett, Sophia; Bureau, Julien S; Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frédéric; Salah Abduljabbar, Adel; Paquet, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    The passion scale, based on the dualistic model of passion, measures 2 distinct types of passion: Harmonious and obsessive passions are predictive of adaptive and less adaptive outcomes, respectively. In a substantive-methodological synergy, we evaluate the construct validity (factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) of Passion Scale responses (N = 3,571). The exploratory structural equation model fit to the data was substantially better than the confirmatory factor analysis solution, and resulted in better differentiated (less correlated) factors. Results from a 13-model taxonomy of measurement invariance supported complete invariance (factor loadings, factor correlations, item uniquenesses, item intercepts, and latent means) over language (French vs. English; the instrument was originally devised in French, then translated into English) and gender. Strong measurement partial invariance over 5 passion activity groups (leisure, sport, social, work, education) indicates that the same set of items is appropriate for assessing passion across a wide variety of activities--a previously untested, implicit assumption that greatly enhances practical utility. Support was found for the convergent and discriminant validity of the harmonious and obsessive passion scales, based on a set of validity correlates: life satisfaction, rumination, conflict, time investment, activity liking and valuation, and perceiving the activity as a passion.

  6. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  8. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    PubMed

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance.

  9. CsPLDα1 and CsPLDγ1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLDα1 and CsPLDγ1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLDα1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLDγ1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLDα1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLDγ1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLDα1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLDγ1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLDγ1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLDα1 and CsPLDγ1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus. PMID:18799715

  10. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Andrés, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

  11. The essential oil from Citrus limetta Risso peels alleviates skin inflammation: In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Shilpa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Bawankule, Dnyaneshawar Umrao

    2018-02-15

    Citrus fruit peels are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin disorders but it lacks proper pharmacological intervention. Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae) is an important commercial fruit crops used by juice processing industries in all continents. Ethnopharmacological validation of an essential oil isolated from its peels may play a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. To evaluate the chemical and pharmacological (in-vitro and in-vivo) profile of essential oil isolated from Citrus limetta peels (Clp-EO) against skin inflammation for its ethnopharmacological validation. Hydro-distilled essential oil extracted from Citrus limetta peels (Clp-EO) was subjected to gas chromatography (GC) analysis for identification of essential oil constituents and its anti-inflammatory evaluation through in vitro and in vivo models. Chemical fingerprint of Clp-EO revealed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbon and limonene is the major component. Pre-treatment of Clp-EO to the macrophages was able to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in LPS-induced inflammation as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. In in-vivo study, topical application of Clp-EO was also able to reduce the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear thickness, ear weight, lipid peroxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokines production and ameliorate the histological damage in the ear tissue. In-vitro and in-vivo toxicity study indicate that it is safe for topical application on skin. These findings suggested the preventive potential of Clp-EO for the treatment of inflammation linked skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics in the concentrations of health-promoting compounds: lupeol, mangiferin and different phenolic acids during postharvest ripening of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Vithana, Mekhala Dk; Singh, Zora; Johnson, Stuart K

    2018-03-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) is renowned for its pleasant taste and as a rich source of health beneficial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in concentrations of health-promoting compounds, namely ascorbic acid, carotenoids, antioxidants, lupeol, mangiferin, total phenols and individual phenolic acids, as well as ethylene production and respiration rates during climacteric ripening in 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mango fruit. The climacteric ethylene and respiration peaks were noted on the third day of the fruit ripening period. The concentrations of total carotenoids in the pulp, total antioxidants in both pulp and peel, and total phenols of the peel, lupeol and mangiferin were significantly elevated, whereas the concentration of ascorbic acid declined during post-climacteric ripening. Gallic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids were identified as the major phenolic acids in both pulp and peel of 'Kensington Pride' and 'R2E2' mangoes. The concentrations of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, ferulic and caffeic acids) also increased during the post-climacteric phase. The concentrations of all phenolic compounds were several-fold higher in the peel than pulp. Mangoes at post-climacteric ripening phase offer the highest concentrations of health-promoting compounds. Peel, at this stage of fruit ripening, could be exploited as a good source for extraction of these compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Teachers with a Passion for the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Patricia H.; Benson, Tammy R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe commonalities among teachers who have sustained passion for the teaching profession, identify ways to instill a similar passion in teacher education candidates, and encourage teacher educators to maintain and model an enthusiastic passion. The authors present the results of a study that consisted of…

  14. Adsorbent material based on passion-fruit wastes to remove lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) from metal-contaminated waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Flores, Gaby; Castillo-Herrera, Alberto; Gurreonero-Fernández, Julio; Obeso-Obando, Aída; Díaz-Silva, Valeria; Vejarano, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of passion-fruit shell (PFS) biomass as adsorbent material to remove heavy metals from contaminated waters. Model mediums were used, which were composed of distilled water and the respective metal: lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu), with a dose of 10g of dry PFSbiomass per liter of medium. The residual concentration of each metal was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). A good adsorption capacity was exhibited by this agro industrial waste, achieving removal levels of 96,93 and 82% for Pb, Cr and Cu, respectively. In addition, the results obtained showed an adequate fit to the Freundlich model (R2 > 0.91), on the basis of which, the following values of adsorption capacity (k: 1.7057, 0.6784, 0.3302) and adsorption intensity (n: 0.6869, 2.3474, 1.0499), for Pb, Cr and Cu respectively, were obtained. Our results suggest that Pb, Cr and Cu ions can be removed by more than 80% by using this agro industrial waste, which with a minimum treatment could be used as an adsorbent material in the treatment of metal-contaminated waters.

  15. Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

    2004-08-01

    The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2,714-11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. Kinetic analyses made with Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ritchie second-order and modified Ritchie second-order models showed better fits with modified Ritchie second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich (Sips equation) model best defined the experimental equilibrium data among the three isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) tested. Taking a particular metal concentration, the optimum dose and pH required for the maximum metal removal was established. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl.

  16. Chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna

    2014-02-01

    Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Peel LTP (Pru p 3)--the major allergen of peach--is methylated. A proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Marilena; Martelli, Giuseppe; Grossi, Gerarda; Padula, Maria Carmela; Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obsessive Passion: A Compensatory Response to Unsatisfied Needs.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Daniel; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Verner-Filion, Jérémie; Laurent, François-Albert; Forest, Jacques; Paquet, Yvan

    2017-04-01

    The present research investigated the role of two sources of psychological need satisfaction (inside and outside a passionate activity) as determinants of harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion. Four studies were carried out with different samples of young and middle-aged adults (e.g., athletes, musicians; total N = 648). Different research designs (cross-sectional, mixed, longitudinal) were also used. Results showed that only a rigid engagement in a passionate activity (OP) was predicted by low levels of need satisfaction outside the passionate activity (in an important life context or in life in general), whereas both OP and a more favorable and balanced type of passion, HP were positively predicted by need satisfaction inside the passionate activity. Further, OP led to negative outcomes, and HP predicted positive outcomes. These results suggest that OP may represent a form of compensatory striving for psychological need satisfaction. It appears important to consider two distinct sources of need satisfaction, inside and outside the passionate activity, when investigating determinants of optimal and less optimal forms of activity engagement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Through Another's Eyes: Gifted Education and the Romance of Passion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Felice

    2000-01-01

    This article questions the notion of passion in gifted education and discusses how the romanticized interpretation of passion has so diluted the concept that it has been rendered meaningless. Different aspects of passion are explored, different ways people communicate their passions are described, and strategies for fostering passion are provided.…

  20. Passion in the performing arts: clarifying active occupational participation.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Rachel; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J

    2012-01-01

    Active participation in daily occupations is a vital part of everyday life, social participation and healthy life long human development; however, enablers of active participation are not well understood. Passion, a strong tendency towards an activity that a person finds meaningful and spends a lot of time doing, is a potential enabler. Accordingly, it is important to understand how an individual's passion for a specific occupation plays out across the occupational life course. To explore the experience of passion across the life course of older adults involved in the performing arts. Seven older adults involved in, or retired from, the performing arts, who consider themselves passionate about their occupation. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore, through interviews with older adults, passion for performing arts across the life course. Emerging themes supported development of an initial theoretical framework explicating active participation and passion. It centers on passion as an enabler of occupational participation through different modes, and suggests barriers to that enablement process. Findings suggest that passion has an important role in continued active participation in an occupation; however, barriers, such as social and financial, can derail the pursuit of a passionate occupation.

  1. On passion and sports fans: a look at football.

    PubMed

    Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854

  3. Characterization of a polyhydroxyalkanoate obtained from pineapple peel waste using Ralsthonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Vega-Castro, Oscar; Contreras-Calderon, Jose; León, Emilson; Segura, Almir; Arias, Mario; Pérez, León; Sobral, Paulo J A

    2016-08-10

    Agro-industrial waste can be the production source of biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The aim of this study was to produce and characterize Polyhydroxyalkanoates produced from pineapple peel waste fermentation processes. The methodology includes different pineapple peel waste fermentation conditions. The produced biopolymer was characterized using FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. The best fermentation condition for biopolymer production was obtained using pH 9, Carbon/Nitrogen 11, carbon/phosphorus 6 and fermentation time of 60h. FTIR analyzes showed PHB group characteristics, such as OH, CH and CO. In addition, GC-MS showed two monomers with 4 and 8 carbons, referred to PHB and PHBHV. H(1) NMR analysis showed 0.88-0.97 and 5.27ppm signals, corresponding to CH3 and CH, respectively. In conclusion, polyhydroxyalkanoate production from pineapple peels waste is an alternative for the treatment of waste generated in Colombia's fruit industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Passion in breast cancer survivors: examining links to emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shaunna M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Vallerand, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    This study (1) identified the activities that breast cancer survivors report as passionate; (2) examined whether levels of passion differed based on the types of passionate activities reported and; (3) examined the association between harmonious and obsessive passion and emotional well-being. Early post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 177) reported passionate physical activities as most prevalent, and reported higher harmonious passion scores compared to women reporting relaxing and social leisure activities. Harmonious passion was associated with higher positive affect and lower cancer worry. Obsessive passion was linked to higher negative affect, cancer worry, and posttraumatic growth. Passion is important for enhanced well-being.

  5. Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Olivas, G I; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2005-01-01

    The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have living tissue, they undergo enzymatic browning, texture decay, microbial contamination, and undesirable volatile production, highly reducing their shelf life if they are in any way wounded. Edible coatings can be used to help in the preservation of minimally processed fruits, providing a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide, improving mechanical handling properties, carrying additives, avoiding volatiles loss, and even contributing to the production of aroma volatiles.

  6. Passionate women and passionate men: sex differences in accounting for angry and weeping episodes.

    PubMed

    Egerton, M

    1988-03-01

    This experiment tests a rule-role model of accounting for angry aggression. The hypothesis, derived from Averill's (1984) rule model of anger, is that people with stronger norms against aggression will account for their own angry aggression by interpreting it as passion, that is as externally caused and uncontrollable, more than people with weaker norms against aggression. It was also hypothesized that sex role would affect interpretations. Women are believed to have stronger norms against aggression. Would they therefore account for angry aggression by presenting it as externally caused and uncontrollable more than men. Subjects (n = 45, 23F and 22M), were asked to evaluate an angry incident as if they had taken part in it themselves. Women judged more normative conflict about the episode than men, but had low consensus in using passion schemas (identified by multiple regression). Men had high consensus in using passion schemas. A control condition in which the protagonist wept was carried out (n = 43, 21F and 22M). In this condition there was some consensus among women in using a passion scheme but none among men. It must be concluded that sex role constrains the appropriateness of the accounting strategy used.

  7. Passion, self-esteem, and the role of comparative performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stenseng, Frode; Dalskau, Lina Harvold

    2010-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the paradoxical behavior of obsessively passionate individuals: they tend to continue involvement in their passion activity despite reporting the activity as a source of ill-being. We suggested that elevated self-esteem in activity engagement could be one such persistence-promoting factor. In Study 1, we found that obsessively passionate individuals reported lower levels of global self-esteem compared with harmoniously passionate individuals, whereas they reported similar levels of activity-related self-esteem. We suggest that this indicates that obsessively passionate individuals try to compensate for low global self-esteem by utilizing self-esteem contingencies in their passion activity. Study 2 showed that activity-related self-esteem among obsessively passionate individuals was found to be strongly related to comparative performance evaluations, whereas no such relationship was found among harmoniously passionate individuals. We suggest that self-esteem contingencies related to comparative performance criteria represent a persistence-promoting factor among obsessively passionate individuals.

  8. A Politics of Passion in Education: The Foucauldian Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by what is seen as a missing analysis in the discussions about passion and affect in education, this essay attempts to clarify and provide a context for understanding the contribution of Foucault in the discourse of passion. In particular, the author traces the politics of passion in Foucault's work. A "politics of passion" is the…

  9. Peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilknur, Turna; Demirtaşoğlu, Melda; Akarsu, Sevgi; Lebe, Banu; Güneş, Ali Tahsin; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2006-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin. To date, several cases have been described with different clinical features called peeling skin syndrome. Previous reports describe two types (type A and type B) of peeling skin syndrome, both of which show generalized desquamation, sparing palms and soles. We report a 23-year old man who has been classified as neither type A nor type B, and whose history, clinical features and histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of peeling skin syndrome. In addition, the desquamation pattern in our patient was different from that of both types because our case's palms and soles were involved too.

  10. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application.

  11. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IAD value at harvest as a predictor for ‘Anjou’ fruit storage performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anjou pears produced in the PNW are single picked and can have considerable fruit maturity variability at harvest. Assessment of chlorophyll in and several mm below the peel using differential absorbance (IAD) is a means to identify populations of fruit of varying maturity within single trees. Thi...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P S; Bird, C; Robinson, S P

    2001-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. Banana flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from banana fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in banana flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in banana peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of banana fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development.

  14. Lay Theories of Passion in the Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J. I.; Bailis, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to study students' beliefs about passion and its influence on academic performance and experiences, and determine whether these beliefs depend on harmonious or obsessive passion. In Study 1, participants estimated passion scores for the most successful, average and least successful students in university. In Study 2, participants…

  15. Passion and intrinsic motivation in digital gaming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Khoo, Angeline; Liu, Woon Chia; Divaharan, Shanti

    2008-02-01

    Digital gaming is fast becoming a favorite activity all over the world. Yet very few studies have examined the underlying motivational processes involved in digital gaming. One motivational force that receives little attention in psychology is passion, which could help us understand the motivation of gamers. The purpose of the present study was to identify subgroups of young people with distinctive passion profiles on self-determined regulations, flow dispositions, affect, and engagement time in gaming. One hundred fifty-five students from two secondary schools in Singapore participated in the survey. There were 134 males and 8 females (13 unspecified). The participants completed a questionnaire to measure harmonious passion (HP), obsessive passion (OP), perceived locus of causality, disposition flow, positive and negative affects, and engagement time in gaming. Cluster analysis found three clusters with distinct passion profiles. The first cluster had an average HP/OP profile, the second cluster had a low HP/OP profile, and the third cluster had a high HP/OP profile. The three clusters displayed different levels of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Cluster analysis, as this study shows, is useful in identifying groups of gamers with different passion profiles. It has helped us gain a deeper understanding of motivation in digital gaming.

  16. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  17. Chemical Peel

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical peel: Your doctor will use a brush, cotton ball, gauze or sponge to apply a chemical ... medium chemical peel: Your doctor will use a cotton-tipped applicator or gauze to apply a chemical ...

  18. CE-UV for the characterization of passion fruit juices provenance by amino acids profile with the aid of chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Passos, Heloisa Moretti; Cieslarova, Zuzana; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2016-07-01

    A separation method was developed in order to quantify free amino acids in passion fruit juices using CE-UV. A selective derivatization reaction with FMOC followed by MEKC analysis was chosen due to the highly interconnected mobilities of the analytes, enabling the separation of 22 amino acids by lipophilicity differences, as will be further discussed. To achieve such results, the method was optimized concerning BGE composition (concentrations, pH, and addition of organic modifier) and running conditions (temperature and applied voltage). The optimized running conditions were: a BGE composed by 60 mmol/L borate buffer at pH 10.1, 30 mmol/L SDS and 5 % methanol; running for 40 min at 23°C and 25 kV. The method was validated and applied on eight brands plus one fresh natural juice, detecting 12 amino acids. Quantification of six analytes combined with principal component analysis was capable to characterize different types of juices and showed potential to detect adulteration on industrial juices. Glutamic acid was found to be the most concentrated amino acid in all juices, exceeding 1 g/L in all samples and was also crucial for the correct classification of a natural juice, which presented a concentration of 22 g/L. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  1. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  2. Distribution of apple fruit epidermal non-polar metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple peel epidermis provides a resilient protective barrier against external stimuli while, also, comprising much of what is considered as fruit appearance and related phenotypic components. This dynamic structure is subject to many changes throughout the production and supply chain that can impac...

  3. Carbon-Based Fe₃O₄ Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-05-06

    Carbon-based Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites (C/Fe₃O₄ NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe₃O₄ NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity ( R ² > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1⁻100, 0.12⁻0.55, and 0.39⁻1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe₃O₄ NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits.

  4. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-08-01

    Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001). This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  5. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10. PMID:26664417

  6. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  7. On the costs and benefits of gaming: the role of passion.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J; Donahue, Eric G; Lavigne, Geneviève L

    2009-06-01

    The dualistic model of passion defines passion as a strong inclination toward a self-defining activity that a person likes and values and in which he or she invests time and energy. The model proposes two distinct types of passion: harmonious and obsessive passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive outcomes respectively. In the present research, we were interested in assessing both the negative and positive consequences that can result from gaming. Participants (n = 222) were all players involved in massively multiplayer online games. They completed an online survey. Results from a canonical correlation revealed that both harmonious and obsessive passion were positively associated with the experience of positive affect while playing. However, only obsessive passion was also positively related to the experience of negative affect while playing. In addition, only obsessive passion was positively related to problematic behaviors generally associated with excessive gaming, the amount of time spent playing, and negative physical symptoms. Moreover, obsessive passion was negatively related to self-realization and unrelated to life satisfaction. Conversely, harmonious passion was positively associated with both types of psychological well-being. This general pattern of results suggests that obsessive passion for gaming is an important predictor of the negative outcomes of gaming, while harmonious passion seems to account for positive consequences. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion.

  8. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life.more » The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.« less

  9. Cadmium distribution in field-grown fruit trees

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    The effect of soil applied Cd on Cd distribution in and growth of five species of fruit trees was investigated. Cadmium was applied at three rates (0, 5, and 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil) as CdSO{sub 4} to orchard plots established at two pH levels, low (5.5) and high (6.5). Five fruit tree types were planted: Gala apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) budded on M.26 (dwarfing) or MM.111 (semistandard) rootstocks, Redskin peach (Prunus persica L.) on Lovell rootstock, Stanley plum (Prunus domestica L.) on Myrobalon rootstock, and Seckel pear (Pyrus communis L.) on seedling rootstock. The trees were grown for 6more » yr, 7 yr in the case of pear, and leaf, bark, wood, fruit, and root Cd concentrations were monitored. Gala apple on both rootstocks accumulated very small concentrations of Cd, usually 0.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} dry wt. in all tissues tested. Peach and plum were intermediate in Cd accumulation, but both still relatively low. Seckel pear had high Cd concentrations in all tissues including fruit flesh and peel. Pear leaf Cd concentrations were 2.0 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from the 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil Cd application after 5 yr. Pear fruit peel and flesh showed elevated, although nonsignificant, Cd concentrations with increased Cd applied. There was little difference between bark and wood tissue Cd concentrations independent of tree type. Root Cd concentrations were highest for pear followed by peach and plum, and lowest in apple.« less

  10. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  11. Passionate Intensity and the Educational Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    The educational process and passionate intensity are forces that are often at odds in society. Passionate intensity is a force that introduces turmoil and threatens those social processes that depend on reason and independent thought. In contrast, the educational process seeks to develop coping skills to limit dependence on others and promote…

  12. Social identity, passion and well-being in university students, the mediating effect of passion.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Lisbona, Ana; Palací, Francisco José; Martín-Aragón, Maite

    2014-11-14

    Research on positive emotions associated with the performance of an activity, such as work or study, has increased exponentially in recent years. Passion is understood as an attitude and intense emotion in the performance of an activity, and it has shown both positive and negative consequences for well-being. A link between social identity and positive emotions through social category membership has been described. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between social identity, the dimensions of passion and the positive impact on university responses. A quasi-experimental design was used on a sample of 266 university students from different Spanish universities (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Universidad Miguel Hernández and Universidad de Alicante). Descriptive analyzes were performed on the study's variables using SPSS 18. Structural equation modeling was carried out with AMOS 18 and the mediational analysis with MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). The results show that the identity of the studies had an indirect effect on positive responses mediated by passion for the studies (RMSEA = .07; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; TLI = .92). It is observed that the harmonious and obsessive dimensions of passion differ in the mediating effect on happiness and satisfaction with studies. Practical and theoretical implications for well-being are discussed.

  13. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  14. Gene expression and metabolism preceding soft scald, a chilling injury of 'Honeycrisp' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel S; Gapper, Nigel E; Mattheis, James P; Sullivan, Nathanael L; Watkins, Christopher B; Giovannoni, James J; Schaffer, Robert J; Johnston, Jason W; Hanrahan, Ines; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2016-10-12

    'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage. Fruit from nine 'Honeycrisp' apple orchards that would eventually develop different incidences of soft scald between 4 and 8 weeks of cold air storage were used to contrast and determine differential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes during storage. Untargeted metabolic profiling revealed changes in a number of distinct pathways preceding and concurrent with soft scald symptom development, including elevated γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), 1-hexanol, acylated steryl glycosides, and free p-coumaryl acyl esters. At harvest, levels of sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid acyl esters were relatively higher in peel of fruit that did not later develop the disorder. RNA-seq driven gene expression profiling highlighted possible involvement of genes and associated metabolic processes with soft scald development. These included elevated expression of genes involved in lipid peroxidation and phenolic metabolism in fruit with soft scald, and isoprenoid/brassinosteroid metabolism in fruit that did not develop soft scald. Expression of other stress-related genes in fruit that developed soft scald included chlorophyll catabolism, cell wall loosening, and lipid transport while superoxide dismutases were up-regulated in fruit that did not develop the disorder. This study delineates the sequential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes preceding soft scald symptom development. Changes were differential depending on susceptibility of fruit to the disorder and could be attributed to

  15. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    PubMed Central

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K.; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1). PMID:26787622

  16. Passion for Teaching: A Perspective for South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampa, Seake Harry

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into passion for teaching, a complex and demanding profession. Three relevant themes emerged: (1) choosing teaching as a profession; (2) growing the passion for teaching; and (3) sustaining passion for teaching. An interpretive study was conducted during which fieldworkers (Bachelor of Education and…

  17. Polyphenol and Ellagitannin Constituents of Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and Chemical Variability at Different Stages of Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciane Dias; Barbosa, João Marcos Gonçalves; Ribeiro da Silva, Antonio Jorge; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Santos, Suzana Costa

    2017-02-15

    A new ellagitannin named cauliflorin (1), seven known hydrolyzable tannins (2-8), and six known phenolics (9-14) were isolated from jabuticaba. Compounds 2-8 had not been previously isolated from M. cauliflora fruits. The jabuticaba fruit was analyzed at four developmental stages for ellagitannins 1, 3, 7, and 8, phenolic acids 11 and 12, anthocyanins, organic acids, and sugars via HPLC-UV-DAD and NMRq. The content of ellagitannins and organic acids declined during fruit development, whereas at full ripeness sugar and anthocyanin levels underwent a sharp increase and were mainly constituted by fructose and cyanidin-3-O-glucose, respectively. Ellagitannins' profile varied considerably among fruit tissues, with pedunculagin (3), castalagin (7), and vescalagin (8) mostly concentrated in jabuticaba seeds, whereas cauliflorin (1) and anthocyanins accumulated in the peels. Changes in jabuticaba's phenolic compound contents were mostly influenced by fruit part (peel, pulp, and seed) rather than by degree of ripeness.

  18. Viscous peeling with capillary suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gunnar; Lister, John

    2014-11-01

    If an elastic tape is stuck to a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous fluid and then peeled off by pulling at a small angle to the horizontal, then both viscous and capillary forces affect the peeling speed (McEwan and Taylor, 1966). If there is no capillary meniscus (e.g. if the peeling is due to viscous fluid being injected under the tape), then the peeling speed is given by a Cox-Voinov-like law, and is an increasing function of the peeling angle. We show that, with a meniscus present, the effect of the capillary forces is to suck down the tape, reducing the effective peeling angle and hence the peeling speed. When surface tension dominates and the peeling speed tends to zero, the system transitions to a new state whose time-evolution can be described by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical calculations. Similar results hold for the peeling-by-bending of elastic beams, with ``angle'' replaced by ``curvature'' (i.e. bending moment).

  19. The Relationship between Intimacy Change and Passion: A Dyadic Diary Study.

    PubMed

    Aykutoğlu, Bülent; Uysal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    In the current study we investigated the association between intimacy and passion by testing whether increases in intimacy generates passion (Baumeister and Bratslavsky, 1999). Furthermore, we examined whether there are partner effects in intimacy change and passion link. Couples ( N = 75) participated in a 14-day long diary study. Dyadic multilevel analyses with residualized intimacy change scores showed that both actors' and partners' intimacy change positively predicted actor's passion. However, analyses also showed that residualized passion change scores positively predicted intimacy. Although these findings provide some empirical evidence for the intimacy change model, in line with the previous research (Rubin and Campbell, 2012), they also suggest that it is not possible to discern whether intimacy increment generates passion or passion increment generates intimacy.

  20. The Relationship between Intimacy Change and Passion: A Dyadic Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Aykutoğlu, Bülent; Uysal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    In the current study we investigated the association between intimacy and passion by testing whether increases in intimacy generates passion (Baumeister and Bratslavsky, 1999). Furthermore, we examined whether there are partner effects in intimacy change and passion link. Couples (N = 75) participated in a 14-day long diary study. Dyadic multilevel analyses with residualized intimacy change scores showed that both actors’ and partners’ intimacy change positively predicted actor’s passion. However, analyses also showed that residualized passion change scores positively predicted intimacy. Although these findings provide some empirical evidence for the intimacy change model, in line with the previous research (Rubin and Campbell, 2012), they also suggest that it is not possible to discern whether intimacy increment generates passion or passion increment generates intimacy. PMID:29312093

  1. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE-/- mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE-/- mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.

  2. Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kinya; Mifune, Yuki; Morita, Kaori; Ishitsuka, Souichi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  6. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of 'Huangguan' Pear.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of 'Huangguan' pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect 'Huangguan' pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70-1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear.

  7. The Role of Passion for Teaching in Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonneau, Noemie; Vallerand, Robert J.; Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of passion in teachers' burnout symptoms, work satisfaction, and perceptions of positive student classroom behaviors. The dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) proposes 2 types of passion: harmonious and obsessive. In previous studies, harmonious passion has been shown to lead to…

  8. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple. PMID:27766161

  9. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple.

  10. A simple protocol for protein extraction of recalcitrant fruit tissues suitable for 2-DE and MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Braun, Gordon; Bevis, Eric; Doncaster, Kristen

    2006-08-01

    Fruit tissues are considered recalcitrant plant tissue for proteomic analysis. Three phenol-free protein extraction procedures for 2-DE were compared and evaluated on apple fruit proteins. Incorporation of hot SDS buffer, extraction with TCA/acetone precipitation was found to be the most effective protocol. The results from SDS-PAGE and 2-DE analysis showed high quality proteins. More than 500 apple polypeptides were separated on a small scale 2-DE gel. The successful protocol was further tested on banana fruit, in which 504 and 386 proteins were detected in peel and flesh tissues, respectively. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several protein spots from apple and banana peels were cut from 2-DE gels, analyzed by MS and have been tentatively identified. The protocol described in this study is a simple procedure which could be routinely used in proteomic studies of many types of recalcitrant fruit tissues.

  11. Potentiality of a fruit peel (banana peel) toward abatement of fluoride from synthetic and underground water samples collected from fluoride affected villages of Birbhum district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Roy, Arunabha

    2018-06-01

    Contamination of underground water with fluoride (F) is a tremendous health hazard. Excessive F (> 1.5 mg/L) in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. A fixed-bed column experiments were carried out with the operating variables such as different initial F concentrations, bed depths, pH and flow rates. Results revealed that the breakthrough time and exhaustion time decrease with increasing flow rate, decreasing bed depth and increasing influent fluoride concentration. The optimized conditions are: 10 mg/L initial fluoride concentration; flow rate 3.4 mL/min, bed depth 3.5 and pH 5. The bed depth service time model and the Thomas model were applied to the experimental results. Both the models were in good agreement with the experimental data for all the process parameters studied except flow rate, indicating that the models were appropriate for removal of F by natural banana peel dust in fix-bed design. Moreover, column adsorption was reversible and the regeneration was accomplished by pumping of 0.1 M NaOH through the loaded banana peel dust column. On the other hand, field water sample analysis data revealed that 86.5% fluoride can be removed under such optimized conditions. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that natural banana peel dust is an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.

  12. The efficacy of passion fruit juice as an endodontic irrigant compared with sodium hypochlorite solution: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jayahari, Nidhin Kumar; Niranjan, Nandini T; Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2014-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of several concentrations of two forms of passion fruit juice (PFJ) in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare the antibacterial property of PFJ with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an intracanal irrigant. Two types of PFJs, aqueous and alcohol extracts, were prepared and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was performed with both the extracts against E. faecalis. Two concentrations of each extract were selected from the results given by the MIC test and subjected to a broth dilution test (BDT) for nine different time periods. After each time period, samples were inoculated in brain-heart infusion agar plates for 24 h at 37°C and results were compared statistically. The MIC test showed that E. faecalis was sensitive to PFJ extracts at various concentrations. The results of the BDT showed a negative growth of E. faecalis by PFJ alcohol 20% at 30 min, PFJ aqueous 20% at 1 h, NaOCl 2.5% at 10 min and NaOCl 5.25% at 1 min. NaOCl showed a much better antibacterial efficacy than PFJ. The PFJ alcoholic and aqueous extracts had an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. As PFJ shows promising results, further research in this field could lead to much better results as compared to NaOCl. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  14. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  15. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula.

  16. Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-09-29

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  17. Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias axillaris peels and fleshes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects, but comprehensive information on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its fruits is still lacking. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than those of flesh. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS(2) ) analysis revealed that (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•) )-scavenging ability. PP showed a significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL(-1) to HepG2 cells and 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL(-1) to Caco-2 cells respectively. This is the first detailed report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Characterization of carotenoid profiles in goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits at various ripening stages and in different plant tissues by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Etzbach, Lara; Pfeiffer, Anne; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    Carotenoid profiles of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits differing in ripening states and in different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, and calyx of ripe fruits) were investigated by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Out of the 53 carotenoids detected, 42 were tentatively identified. The carotenoid profile of unripe fruits is dominated by (all-E)-lutein (51%), whereas in ripe fruits, (all-E)-β-carotene (55%) and several carotenoid fatty acid esters, especially lutein esters esterified with myristic and palmitic acid as monoesters or diesters, were found. In overripe fruits, carotenoid conversion products and a higher proportion of carotenoid monoesters to diesters compared to ripe fruits were observed. Overripe fruits showed a significant decrease in total carotenoids of about 31% due to degradation. The observed conversion and degradation processes included epoxidation, isomerization, and deesterification. The peel of ripe goldenberries showed a 2.8 times higher total carotenoid content of 332.00 µg/g dw compared to the pulp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Passion, Trait Self-Control, and Wellbeing: Comparing Two Mediation Models Predicting Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Briki, Walid

    2017-01-01

    Research has found that passion and trait self-control represented key determinants of wellbeing. Yet, no study to date has attempted to investigate the mediating influences of trait self-control and passion for accounting for the relationships between passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (dependent variable). Using different frameworks, such as the dualistic model of passion and the neo-socioanalytic theory, the present study proposed two mediation models, considering either trait self-control (model 1) or passion (model 2) as the mediating variable. Five hundred nine volunteers from the United States (326 females and 183 males; M age = 31.74, SD age = 11.05, from 18 to 70 years old), who reported being passionate about a specific activity (e.g., fishing, swimming, blogging; M passion = 5.94, SD passion = 0.89), answered questionnaires assessing harmonious and obsessive passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (measured through hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing scales). Preliminary analyses revealed that both models were significant ( model 1: absolute GoF = 0.366, relative GoF = 0.971, outer model GoF = 0.997, inner model GoF = 0.973, R 2 = 18.300%, p < 0.001; model 2: absolute GoF = 0.298; relative GoF = 0.980; outer model GoF = 0.997; inner model GoF = 0.982; R 2 = 12.111%, p < 0.001). Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between harmonious passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing, and no relationships of obsessive passion with trait self-control and wellbeing. Mediation analyses revealed that trait self-control significantly mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and wellbeing (i.e., partial mediation, VAF = 33.136%). Harmonious passion appeared to significantly mediate the positive effect of trait self-control on wellbeing; however, the size of the mediating effect indicated that (almost) no mediation would take place (i.e., VAF = 11.144%). The present study is the first to examine the relationships between passion

  20. Obsessive passion: a dependency associated with injury-related risky behaviour in dancers.

    PubMed

    Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50(fs); 50(ms); Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence.

  1. Carbon-Based Fe3O4 Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based Fe3O4 nanocomposites (C/Fe3O4 NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe3O4 NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity (R2 > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1–100, 0.12–0.55, and 0.39–1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe3O4 NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits. PMID:29734765

  2. Passion and Motivation for Studying: Predicting Academic Engagement and Burnout in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Childs, Julian H.; Hayward, Jennifer A.; Feast, Alexandra R.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the dualistic model of passion has investigated harmonious and obsessive passion in many domains. However, few studies have investigated passion for studying and the role passion for studying plays in student engagement and well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between harmonious and obsessive passion for…

  3. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  4. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  5. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  6. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of ‘Huangguan’ Pear

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect ‘Huangguan’ pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70–1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear. PMID:28149298

  7. Why do young adults develop a passion for Internet activities? The associations among personality, revealing "true self" on the Internet, and passion for the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Leman Pinar; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the associations of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) for Internet activities with Eysenckian personality dimensions in a sample of 421 university students. Results show that psychoticism correlates positively with both HP and OP; extroversion correlates positively with HP only; and neuroticism has no correlation with passion for Internet activities. Additionally, the study examines participants' tendency to express their "true self" on the Internet, and the results reveal that this tendency has a positive association with psychoticism, neuroticism, and both types of passion for the Internet. Moreover, the relationship between psychoticism and passion (both harmonious and obsessive) is mediated by the tendency to express true self on the Internet. The results were interpreted from the media dependency perspective.

  8. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  10. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopy for the evaluation of molecular perturbations induced in fruit lipids by cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoluzza, A.; Bottura, G.; Filippetti, P.; Tosi, M. R.; Vasina, M.; Pratella, G. C.; Folchi, A.; Gallerani, G.

    1994-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy (Raman, FT-IR-ATR) has been applied for the first time to the study of the mechanism of chilling stress and the monitoring of the best operative conditions for cold storage of fruit. In particular, this work deals with some results of the application of vibrational spectroscopy to the molecular characterization of lipidic extracts of fruits (apples and pears, pulp and peel) stored at low temperatures. The results have been obtained in a cooperative interdisciplinary research project performing experiments on fruits for one year cycles under different storage conditions of temperature (0°C, 8°C) and atmosphere (normal, controlled). The Raman spectra, useful for the evaluation of the transition temperature and the cooperative effect in the fruit membrane lipids, were masked by the strong resonance spectrum of carotenoids. The lipid unsaturation, the natural response to cold storage, was evaluated in the FT-IR-ATR spectra and expressed as the "total" unsaturation degree R = I{3012 cm -1}/{2858 cm -1}. The results on pulp and peel lipids have shown that the R value, higher in the pulps than peels, is dependent on the storage temperature and time. The increase in R is correlated with the higher fruit resistance to the chilling stress. Furthermore, the FT-IR spectra of the outer part of the fruits stored at 8°C show modifications of the carbonylic band at 1738 cm -1 (esteric group) such as the appearance of two other bands at 1715 and 1700 cm -1 increasing in intensity with storage time. These new components can be considered as molecular markers of the onset of a hydrolysis reaction and also of a partial peroxidation of the acylic unsaturated chains.

  12. A Successful Creative Process: The Role of Passion and Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Louis, Ariane C.; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The creative process refers a sequence of thoughts and actions leading to a novel, adaptive production (Lubart, 2000). It demands love, time, and devotion; therefore, creators are passionate toward their creative work. The Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) defines passion as a strong inclination for a self-defining activity that…

  13. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China.

  14. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships.

  15. The dominant allele Aft induces a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Catola, Stefano; Castagna, Antonella; Santin, Marco; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Mazzucato, Andrea; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The introgression of the A ft allele into domesticated tomato induced a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation, while the hp - 1 allele negatively influenced the response of flavonoid biosynthesis to UV-B. Introgression of the dominant allele Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) from Solanum chilense induces anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. UV-B radiation can influence plant secondary metabolism regulating the expression of several genes, among which those involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated whether post-harvest UV-B treatment could up-regulate flavonoid production in tomato fruits and whether the Aft allele could affect flavonoid biosynthesis under UV-B radiation. Mature green fruits of an anthocyanin-rich tomato mutant line (SA206) and of its wild-type reference, cv. Roma, were daily subjected to post-harvest UV-B treatment until full ripening. Up-regulation of CHS and CHI transcription by UV-B treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in the peel of cv. Roma. Conversely, UV-B decreased the total flavonoid content and CHS transcript levels in the SA206 peel. SA206 being a double mutant containing also hp-1 allele, we investigated also the behavior of hp-1 fruit. The decreased peel flavonoid accumulation and gene transcription in response to UV-B suggest that hp-1 allele is involved in the marked down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis observed in SA206 fruit. Interestingly, in SA206, UV-B radiation promoted the synthesis of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin by increasing F3'5'H and DFR transcription, but it decreased rutin production, suggesting a switch from flavonols to anthocyanins. Finally, although UV-B radiation does not reach the inner fruit tissues, it down-regulated flavonoid biosynthesis in the flesh of both genotypes. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that the presence of the functional Aft allele, under UV-B radiation, redirects

  16. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl₃), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl₃ and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel.

  17. Passion, Trait Self-Control, and Wellbeing: Comparing Two Mediation Models Predicting Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Briki, Walid

    2017-01-01

    Research has found that passion and trait self-control represented key determinants of wellbeing. Yet, no study to date has attempted to investigate the mediating influences of trait self-control and passion for accounting for the relationships between passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (dependent variable). Using different frameworks, such as the dualistic model of passion and the neo-socioanalytic theory, the present study proposed two mediation models, considering either trait self-control (model 1) or passion (model 2) as the mediating variable. Five hundred nine volunteers from the United States (326 females and 183 males; Mage = 31.74, SDage = 11.05, from 18 to 70 years old), who reported being passionate about a specific activity (e.g., fishing, swimming, blogging; Mpassion = 5.94, SDpassion = 0.89), answered questionnaires assessing harmonious and obsessive passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (measured through hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing scales). Preliminary analyses revealed that both models were significant (model 1: absolute GoF = 0.366, relative GoF = 0.971, outer model GoF = 0.997, inner model GoF = 0.973, R2 = 18.300%, p < 0.001; model 2: absolute GoF = 0.298; relative GoF = 0.980; outer model GoF = 0.997; inner model GoF = 0.982; R2 = 12.111%, p < 0.001). Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between harmonious passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing, and no relationships of obsessive passion with trait self-control and wellbeing. Mediation analyses revealed that trait self-control significantly mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and wellbeing (i.e., partial mediation, VAF = 33.136%). Harmonious passion appeared to significantly mediate the positive effect of trait self-control on wellbeing; however, the size of the mediating effect indicated that (almost) no mediation would take place (i.e., VAF = 11.144%). The present study is the first to examine the relationships between passion, trait

  18. Determination of optimum harvest maturity and physico-chemical quality of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Kheng, Tee Yei; Ding, Phebe; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2012-01-15

    A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening. Rastali banana fruit exhibited a climacteric rise with the peaks of both CO(2) and ethylene production occurring simultaneously at day 3 after ripening was initiated and declined at day 5 when fruits entered the senescence stage. De-greening was observed in both of the harvesting weeks with peel turned from green to yellow, tissue softening, and fruits became more acidic and sweeter as ripening progressed. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the main sugars found while malic, citric and succinic acids were the main organic acids found in the fruit. Rastali banana harvested at weeks 11 and 12 can be considered as commercial harvest period when the fruits have developed good organoleptic and quality attributes during ripening. However, Rastali banana fruit at more mature stage of harvest maturity taste slightly sweeter and softer with higher ethylene production which also means the fruits may undergo senescence faster than fruit harvested at week 11. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  20. Development of a kolanut peeling device.

    PubMed

    Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

    2014-10-01

    A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm.

  1. Pursuing Personal Passion: Learner-Centered Research Mentoring.

    PubMed

    Phillips, William R

    2018-01-01

    New researchers often face difficulty finding and focusing research questions. I describe a new tool for research mentoring, the Pursuing Personal Passion (P3) interview, and a systematic approach to help learners organize their curiosity and develop researchable questions aligned with their personal and professional priorities. The learner-centered P3 research interview parallels the patient-centered clinical interview. This paper reviews experience with 27 research mentees over the years 2009 to 2016, using the P3 approach to identify their initial research topics, classify their underlying passions and track the evolution into their final research questions. These researchers usually identified one of three personal passions that provided lenses to focus their research: problem, person, or process. Initial research topics focused on: problem (24%, 6), person (48%, 12) and process (28%, 7). Final research questions evolved into: problem (20%, 5), person (32%, 8) and process (48%, 12). Identification of the underlying passion can lead researchers who start with one general topic to develop it into very different research questions. Using this P3 approach, mentors can help new researchers focus their interests into researchable questions, successful studies, and organized programs of scholarship.

  2. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  3. Protein changes in the albedo of citrus fruits on postharvesting storage.

    PubMed

    Lliso, Ignacio; Tadeo, Francisco R; Phinney, Brett S; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Talón, Manuel

    2007-10-31

    In this work, major protein changes in the albedo of the fruit peel of Murcott tangor (tangerine x sweet orange) during postharvest ageing were studied through 2D PAGE. Protein content in matured on-tree fruits and in fruits stored in nonstressing [99% relative humidity (RH) and 25 degrees C], cold (99% RH and 4 degrees C), and drought (60% RH and 25 degrees C) conditions was initially determined. Protein identification through MS/MS determinations revealed in all samples analyzed the occurrence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), actin, ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPase), citrus salt-stress associated protein (CitSap), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), and a cysteine proteinase (CP) of the papain family. The latter protein was identified in two different gel spots, with different molecular mass, suggesting the simultaneous presence of the proteinase precursor and its active form. While Mn SOD, actin, ATPase, and CitSap were unchanged in the assayed conditions, TCTP and APX were downregulated during the postharvest ageing process. Ageing-induced APX repression was also reversed by drought. CP contents in albedo, which were similar in on- and off-tree fruits, were strongly dependent upon cold storage. The active/total CP protein ratio significantly increased after cold exposure. This proteomic survey indicates that major changes in protein content in the albedo of the peel of postharvest stored citrus fruits are apparently related to the activation of programmed cell death (PCD).

  4. The use of principal component and cluster analysis to differentiate banana peel flours based on their starch and dietary fibre components.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Ismail, Noryati; Alkarkhi, Abbas Fadhl Mubarek; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2010-08-01

    Banana peel flour (BPF) prepared from green or ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for their total starch (TS), digestible starch (DS), resistant starch (RS), total dietary fibre (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that only 1 component was responsible for 93.74% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fibre components that differentiated ripe and green banana flours. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters (green and ripe bananas) to indicate difference in behaviours according to the stages of ripeness based on starch and dietary fibre components. We concluded that the starch and dietary fibre components could be used to discriminate between flours prepared from peels obtained from fruits of different ripeness. The results were also suggestive of the potential of green and ripe BPF as functional ingredients in food.

  5. The Use of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis to Differentiate Banana Peel Flours Based on Their Starch and Dietary Fibre Components

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Saifullah; Ismail, Noryati; Alkarkhi, Abbas Fadhl Mubarek; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2010-01-01

    Banana peel flour (BPF) prepared from green or ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for their total starch (TS), digestible starch (DS), resistant starch (RS), total dietary fibre (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that only 1 component was responsible for 93.74% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fibre components that differentiated ripe and green banana flours. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters (green and ripe bananas) to indicate difference in behaviours according to the stages of ripeness based on starch and dietary fibre components. We concluded that the starch and dietary fibre components could be used to discriminate between flours prepared from peels obtained from fruits of different ripeness. The results were also suggestive of the potential of green and ripe BPF as functional ingredients in food. PMID:24575193

  6. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    PubMed

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  7. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  8. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  9. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  10. Sugar reduction in fruit nectars: Impact on consumers' sensory and hedonic perception.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denize; Galhardo, Juliana; Ares, Gastón; Cunha, Luís M; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-05-01

    Sugar sweetened beverages are one of the main sources of added sugar in the diet. Therefore, sugar reduction in these products could contribute to the prevention of various negative health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the present work aimed to study consumer sensory and hedonic perception towards sugar reduction in fruit nectars. Five sequential difference thresholds for added sugar in three fruit nectars (passion fruit, orange/passion fruit and orange/pomegranate) were determined based on consumer perception. In each test, difference thresholds were estimated using survival analysis based on the responses of 50 consumers to six paired-comparison tests. Each pair was composed of two samples, a control nectar and a sample that was reduced in added sugar from the control. Consumers were asked to try each of the samples in each pair and to indicate which was sweeter. Then, consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of nectar samples was evaluated for each nectar using a 9-point hedonic scale and a check-all-that-apply question. Difference thresholds were estimated in 4.20%-8.14% of the added sugar concentration of the nectars. No significant differences in overall liking were detected for fruit nectars with 20% sugar reduction. However, large heterogeneity in consumer hedonic reaction towards sugar reduction was found, which should be taken into account in the design of sugar reduction programs. Consumer hedonic reaction towards sugar reduction was product dependent. Results from the present work reinforce the idea that gradual sugar reduction in sugar sweetened beverages is a feasible strategy that could contribute to reduce the sugar intake of the population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Children's Passion for Learning in Six Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige

    2013-01-01

    Passion for learning (PFL) in children is a phenomenon that is little understood. The experience of PFL was studied with phenomenological and qualitative modes of inquiry. Case studies of six domains (acting, reading, filmmaking, spelling, math, and preaching) describe how the passion developed using the voices of children and parents. Their…

  12. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  13. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  14. Reverse Correlating Love: Highly Passionate Women Idealize Their Partner’s Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E.

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization—evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner’s facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

  15. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  16. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  18. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  19. Passion in sport: on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Jowett, Sophia; Vallerand, Robert J; Gonahue, Eric G; Lorimer, Ross

    2008-10-01

    Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N=157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach-athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N=106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach-athlete relationship positively predicted coaches' subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion.

  20. [Chemical peels and management of skin aging].

    PubMed

    Pelletier-Louis, M-L

    2017-10-01

    Chemical peels are an alternative and/or a complementary treatment to the surgical procedures for skin aging. The purpose of this article is to specify the procedures and the indications of the three principal types of chemical peels: alpha-hydroxy acids, trichloracetic acid, phenol-croton oil peel. The clinical examination will determine the depth of the lesions to treat and will take into consideration counter-indications and specific limits to each patient. Chemical peel is a four step procedure: pre-peel preparation, peeling itself, recovery phase and maintenance phase. The preparation is a very important phase which requires a thorough knowledge of cosmetics. This preparation can extend to any medical or surgical treatment for aging skin. Various techniques of peelings: superficial, medium, deep, combined and mosaïc peel will be detailed. These procedures require a rigorous training and a distinct learning curve. The follow up will be specified as well as the management of the possible complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Qualitative Inquiry into Community College Students' Perceptions of Teacher Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeger, Elizabeth Bradford

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the value of passionate teaching and about passionate teachers. This qualitative phenomenological study examines how community college students perceive passionate teaching. The research results identify qualities of learning intimacy: caring, quality of instruction, zest, and discipline expertise and passionate…

  2. One-Year Prospective Study on Passion and Gambling Problems in Poker Players.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, Adèle; Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2018-06-01

    The concept of passion is relevant to understanding gambling behaviours and gambling problems. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the absence and development of gambling problems; however, only one study has specifically considered poker players. Using a longitudinal design, this study aims to determine the influence, 1 year later, of two forms of passion-harmonious and obsessive-on gambling problems in poker players. A total of 116 poker players was recruited from across Quebec, Canada. The outcome variable of interest was participants' category on the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, and the predictive variable was the Gambling Passion Scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors of at-risk poker players 1 year later. Obsessive passion at baseline doubled the risk of gambling problems 1 year later (p < 0.01); for harmonious passion, there was no association. Number of gambling activities, drug problems, and impulsivity were also associated with at-risk gambling. This study highlights the links between obsessive passion and at-risk behaviours among poker players. It is therefore important to prevent the development of obsessive passion among poker players.

  3. Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Ilakya, S; Anitha, S L; Sabarima, S Pooja; Priya, B

    2017-01-01

    Four factors three level face centered central composite response surface design was employed in this study to investigate and optimize the effect of process variables (liquid-solid (LS) ratio (10:1-20:1ml/g), pH (1-2), sonication time (15-30min) and extraction temperature (50-70°C)) on the maximum extraction yield of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) peel by ultrasound assisted extraction method. Numerical optimization method was adapted in this study and the following optimal condition was obtained as follows: Liquid-solid ratio of 15:1ml/g, pH of 1.6, sonication time of 24min and temperature of 60°C. The optimal condition was validated through experiments and the observed value was interrelated with predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Why do young people consume marijuana? Extending motivational theory via the Dualistic Model of Passion.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Arterberry, Brooke J; Bonar, Erin E; Bohnert, Kipling M; Walton, Maureen A

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated an extended model of motivation for consuming marijuana by combining motivational theory and the dualistic model of passion. An online sample of 524 young, frequent marijuana consumers (M age = 24; 88% male; M past-30-days =21; Mode=31; 50% used 25-31 days) self-administered several questionnaires including the Marijuana-Harmonious and Obsessive Passion Scale and the Marijuana Motives Measure. Intercorrelations among the obsessive and harmonious passion and motives subscales were small-to-medium. A canonical correlation analysis revealed that obsessive passion was significantly positively associated with coping and conformity motives, while controlling for marijuana use, other motives, and harmonious passion scores. Additionally, harmonious passion was significantly positively associated with expansion, social, enhancement, and coping motives, while controlling for marijuana use and obsessive passion scores. A second canonical correlation analysis revealed that, when motive and passion subscales were included as independent predictors of recent marijuana use and related consequences, high obsessive passion and coping motives emerged as significant predictors of recent use and related consequences. Moreover, high harmonious passion and using less for conformity motives emerged as significant predictors of recent marijuana use. These results demonstrate that passion is related to, but not a proxy for, previously established motives for marijuana use and that, when examined simultaneously, both types of passion predict recent consumption but appear to differentiate whether one will experience use-related consequences. Researchers and clinicians could evaluate whether addressing obsessive passion and coping motives reduces or ameliorates negative outcomes associated with consumption.

  5. Measurement Invariance of the Passion Scale across Three Samples: An ESEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J. I.; Gunnell, Katie E.; Mosewich, Amber D.; Bailis, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Sport and exercise psychology researchers rely on the Passion Scale to assess levels of harmonious and obsessive passion for many different types of activities (Vallerand, 2010). However, this practice assumes that items from the Passion Scale are interpreted with the same meaning across all activity types. Using exploratory structural equation…

  6. The French, German, and Spanish sound of eating fresh fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Ana M; Arce-Lopera, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    A set of onomatopoeic expressions for eating fruits and vegetables is compared across subjects whose native language is Spanish, French, or German. Subjects chose the onomatopoeia that best represented the sound of eating a fruit or vegetable (celery, banana, strawberry, passion fruit, mango, apple, orange, and tomato). Results show there are onomatopoeias that have a higher frequency of response in one language compared to the others. Thus, it is possible to assume that depending on the language there is a better way to express haptic and auditory information associated to fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, and considering the three languages, results show there are three categories of responses based on the relative strength of the material (strong and medium strength, and soft). Thus, there is some consistency in the onomatopoeias that represent the sound of eating a fruit or a vegetable. To conclude, results differ by language, but they are consistent within a category of sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Domenico; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Saija, Antonella; Ginestra, Giovanna; Speciale, Antonio; Chirafisi, Joselita; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith; Narbad, Arjan; Faulds, Craig B

    2010-07-28

    Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso) is a less commercialized Citrus fruit, mainly used for its essential oil extracted from the peel. Bergamot peel (BP) represents about 60% of the processed fruits and is regarded as primary waste. However, it contains good amounts of useful compounds, such as pectins and flavonoids. Many of the bioactivities of Citrus flavonoids appear to impact vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we report the protective effect of two flavonoid-rich extracts from BP (endowed with radical-scavenging properties and lacking genotoxic activity) against alterations in cell modifications induced by the pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as demonstrated by monitoring intracellular levels of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, reduced and oxidized glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and the activation status of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Thus, BP appears to be a potential source of natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory phytocomplexes to be employed as ingredients of nutraceutical products or functional foods.

  8. Understanding the cognitive and motivational underpinnings of sexual passion from a dualistic model.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Bernard-Desrosiers, Léa; Guilbault, Valérie; Rajotte, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    Sexual passion has always been conceptualized as a one-dimensional phenomenon that emerges from interactions with partners. Drawing from the literature on passionate activities, sexual passion was defined in terms of its intrapersonal motivational and cognitive components and examined from a dualistic perspective. More specifically, in 5 studies, we investigated how 2 types of sexual passion, harmonious and obsessive, can lead to clearly distinct subjective, relational, and cognitive outcomes. Study 1 validated a scale measuring harmonious and obsessive sexual passion, and showed that each type of sexual passion leads to common, but also distinct, subjective consequences during sexual activity engagement for both singles and romantically engaged individuals. Studies 2 and 3 differentiated the constructs of harmonious and obsessive sexual passion from competing constructs existing in the literature and provided evidence for its predictive validity regarding various relational outcomes, including relationship sustainability over time. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 investigated the cognitive consequences of each type of sexual passion by showing how they reflect distinct levels of integration of sexual and relational representations, and how they can lead to biased processing of sexual information (Study 4) and conflict with ongoing sex-unrelated goals (Studies 5a and 5b). Overall, the present series of studies provides a new look at sexual passion from a motivational and cognitive intrapersonal perspective that is not restricted to interpersonal ramifications with partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  10. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Biochars with excellent Pb(II) adsorption property produced from fresh and dehydrated banana peels via hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Chen, Honggang; Xi, Junting; Yao, Denghui; Zhou, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Lu, Xiangyang

    2017-05-01

    Fresh and dehydrated banana peels were used as biomass feedstock to produce highly effective sorbent biochars through a facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach with 20%vol phosphoric acid as the reaction medium. The elemental ratio of oxygen content of the two as-prepared biochars were about 20%, and the FT-IR analysis confirmed the existence of abundant surface functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl which greatly enhanced the adsorption performance. The sorbents showed excellent lead clarification capability of 359mg·g -1 and 193mg·g -1 for dehydrated and fresh banana peels based biochars, respectively. The change of the CO/OCO and the appearance of PbO/PbOC on the surface after adsorption confirmed that the ion exchange might be the dominant mechanism. The dehydration and pulverization pre-treatment and the addition of phosphoric acid can benefit the formation of those functional groups and hydrothermal carbonization can be a promising method to transfer biomass like fruit peels into biochars with excellent adsorption performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the dualistic model of passion using a novel quadripartite approach: A look at physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Verner-Filion, Jérémie; Gaudreau, Patrick; Bailis, Daniel S; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J

    2018-03-10

    Passion research has focused extensively on the unique effects of both harmonious passion and obsessive passion (Vallerand, 2015). We adopted a quadripartite approach (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) to test whether physical and psychological well-being are distinctly related to subtypes of passion with varying within-person passion combinations: pure harmonious passion, pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In four studies (total N = 3,122), we tested whether passion subtypes were differentially associated with self-reported general health (Study 1; N = 1,218 undergraduates), health symptoms in video gamers (Study 2; N = 269 video game players), global psychological well-being (Study 3; N = 1,192 undergraduates), and academic burnout (Study 4; N = 443 undergraduates) using latent moderated structural equation modeling. Pure harmonious passion was generally associated with more positive levels of physical health and psychological well-being compared to pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In contrast, outcomes were more negative for pure obsessive passion compared to both mixed passion and non-passion subtypes. This research underscores the theoretical and empirical usefulness of a quadripartite approach for the study of passion. Overall, the results demonstrate the benefits of having harmonious passion, even when obsessive passion is also high (i.e., mixed passion), and highlight the costs associated with a pure obsessive passion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Passion Scale.

    PubMed

    Chamarro, Andrés; Penelo, Eva; Fornieles, Albert; Oberst, Ursula; Vallerand, Robert J; Fernández-Castro, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Passion has been shown to be involved in psychological processes that emerge in diverse human activities like physical activity and sports, work, leisure, videogaming, pathological gambling, and interpersonal relationships. We aimed to present evidence of validity and internal consistency of the Passion Scale in Spanish based on the Dualistic Model of Passion, comprising harmonious and obsessive dimensions. The sample comprised 1,007 participants (350 females and 657 males), aged 16-65 (Md= 30.0 years). Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), measurement invariance and Multiple-Cause-Multiple-Indicator models (MIMIC) were used. Fit for the ESEM 2-factor solution was acceptable. Near full or partial measurement invariance across sex, type of activity, and age was supported. Relationships between both harmonious and obsessive dimensions and the external variables considered (age, sex, and criterion items) reasonably replicated those found in previous studies. Both scale scores showed adequate internal consistency (α = .81). Empirical evidence for the validity and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Passion Scale is satisfactory and reveals that the scale is comparable to the English and French versions. Therefore, the Passion Scale can be used in research conducted in Spanish.

  15. Comparison of tissue deterioration of ripening banana fruit (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) under chilling and non-chilling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, Carlos E

    2018-03-08

    In fleshy fruits, induced programmed cell death (PCD) has been observed in heat-treated tomato, and in ethylene-treated and low-temperature exposure in immature cucumber. No other fleshy fruit has been evaluated for chilling-injury-induced PCD, especially mature fruit with full ripening capacity. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate the presence of PCD processes during the development of low-temperature-induced physiopathy of banana fruit. Exposure of fruit to 5 °C for 4 days induced degradative processes similar to those occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. Nuclease from banana peel showed activity in both DNA substrates and RNA substrates. No exclusive low-temperature-induced proteases and nucleases were observed. DNA of chilled peel showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing during overripening. This study shows that exposure to low temperatures did not induce a pattern of degradative processes that differed from that occurring during ripening and overripening of non-chilled fruit. DNA showed earlier signs of degradation and higher levels of DNA tailing. Nuclease activity analysis showed bifunctionality in both chilled and non-chilled tissue and no chilling-exclusive protease and nuclease. Fleshy fruit might use their available resources on degradative processes and adjust them depending on environmental conditions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Is love passion an addictive disorder?

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2010-09-01

    Inquiry regarding the relationship between passionate love and addiction has long been a topic of intense debate. Recent advances in neurobiology now allow for an examination between these two states. After describing the clinical distinctions between "love passion," "love addiction," and "sex addiction," we compare clinical, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging data on love, passion, pathological gambling (PG) and substance dependence. There are no recognized definitions or diagnostic criteria for "love addiction," but its phenomenology has some similarities to substance dependence: euphoria and unrestrained desire in the presence of the love object or associated stimuli (drug intoxication); negative mood, anhedonia, and sleep disturbance when separated from the love object (drug withdrawal); focussed attention on and intrusive thoughts about the love object; and maladaptive or problematic patterns of behavior (love relation) leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with pursuit despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Limited animal and human studies suggest that brain regions (e.g., insula, anterior cingulated [ACC], orbitofrontal [OFC]) and neurotransmitters (dopamine) that mediate substance dependence may also be involved with love addiction (as for PG). Ocytocin (OT), which is implicated in social attachment and mating behavior, may also be involved in substance dependence. There are no data on the epidemiology, genetics, co-morbidity, or treatment of love addiction. There are currently insufficient data to place some cases of "love passion" within a clinical disorder, such as "love addiction," in an official diagnostic nomenclature or to firmly classify it as a behavioral addiction or disorder of impulse control. Further clinical and scientific studies are needed to improve our understanding and treatment of this condition. For these studies, we propose new criteria for evaluating addiction to love.

  17. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after two weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high quality fungal sequenc...

  18. Beyond Passion: Maximizing on Lessons Learned to Better Serve African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phalen, Earl Martin

    2013-01-01

    A passion to ensure the educational and life success of all children, particularly young African American men, has propelled my work for all of my professional life. Although following one's passion can make for a fulfilling life, passion is not enough to create a successful and sustainable nonprofit organization. Like many leaders in the…

  19. Passion at a Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Don

    In 1984, Abner Shimony invented the expression, “passion at a distance,” to characterize the distinctive relationship of two entangled quantum mechanical systems [1]. It is neither the local causality of pushes, pulls, and central forces familiar from classical mechanics and electrodynamics, nor the non-local causality of instantaneous or just superluminal action at a distance that would spell trouble for relativity theory. This mode of connection of entangled systems has them feeling one another's presence and properties enough to ensure the strong correlations revealed in the Bell experiments, correlations that undergird everything from superfluidity and superconductivity to quantum computing and quantum teleportation, but not in a way that permits direct control of one by manipulation of the other. Intended to echo Aristotle's distinguishing of “potentiality” from “actuality” as different senses of “being,” Shimony's “passion at a distance” is all about tendency and propensity, not the concreteness whose misplacement in realm of the physical was lamented by Alfred North Whitehead.

  20. Passion at a Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Don

    In 1984, Abner Shimony invented the expression, "passion at a distance," to characterize the distinctive relationship of two entangled quantum mechanical systems [1]. It is neither the local causality of pushes, pulls, and central forces familiar from classical mechanics and electrodynamics, nor the non-local causality of instantaneous or just superluminal action at a distance that would spell trouble for relativity theory. This mode of connection of entangled systems has them feeling one another's presence and properties enough to ensure the strong correlations revealed in the Bell experiments, correlations that undergird everything from superfluidity and superconductivity to quantum computing and quantum teleportation, but not in a way that permits direct control of one by manipulation of the other. Intended to echo Aristotle's distinguishing of "potentiality" from "actuality" as different senses of "being," Shimony's "passion at a distance" is all about tendency and propensity, not the concreteness whose misplacement in realm of the physical was lamented by Alfred North Whitehead.

  1. Tretinoin peel: a critical view*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary. PMID:29186249

  2. Tretinoin peel: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.

  3. Determination of free, esterified, glycosylated and insoluble-bound phenolics composition in the edible part of araticum fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart.) and its by-products by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Henrique Silvano; Pereira, Gustavo Araujo; de Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2018-04-15

    Phenolics present in the free, esterified, glycosylated and insoluble-bound forms of araticum pulp, peel and seed were for the first time characterized and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and antioxidant activities from araticum fruit followed the order peel > pulp > seed. Overall, insoluble-bound and esterified phenolics were the dominant forms of phenolics from araticum fruit parts and the highest contributors to their antioxidant activities. Extracts were found to contain contrasting levels of phenolics that were specific to each fruit part. From 10 phenolics quantified in araticum fruit, catechin and epicatechin were the major ones from pulp and peel, whereas seed displayed caffeic acid, catechin and epicatechin as its main phenolics. Araticum fruit was found to provide a good source of phenolics, and the full exploitation of this fruit may find applications in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-10-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

  5. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

  6. Control of bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice during chilling by nonorganic and organic appled, orange, and potato peel powders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice by nine fruit and vegetable peel powders prepared from store-bought conventional (nonorganic) and organic apples, oranges, and potatoes was investigated. The powders were mixed into rice at 10% (wt/wt) along with heat ...

  7. Free love? On the relation between belief in free will, determinism, and passionate love.

    PubMed

    Boudesseul, Jordane; Lantian, Anthony; Cova, Florian; Bègue, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Is love possible if we are not free? Some philosophers consider that true love is necessarily free, while others think that the nature of love makes it incompatible with a certain type of freedom. Here, we explored the relationship between feelings of passionate love, belief in free will and determinism across three online studies. In Study 1 (N=257), participants who believed strongly in free will (or determinism) expressed stronger passionate love. In Study 2 (N=305), we again found a positive association between belief in free will (or determinism) and passionate love, although the passionate love-determinism relationship seems more conditional. Finally, Study 3 (N=309) confirmed the relationship between belief in free will and passionate love but not between belief in determinism and passionate love. These findings, along with a meta-analysis, suggest that both beliefs in free will and determinism are compatible with passionate love. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences.

    PubMed

    Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.

  9. Passion for an activity and quality of interpersonal relationships: the mediating role of emotions.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Houlfort, Nathalie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Donahue, Eric G

    2010-06-01

    Our purpose in this research was to investigate the role of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) for a given activity in the quality of interpersonal relationships experienced within the context of that activity in 4 studies. Study 1 demonstrated that a harmonious passion was positively associated with the quality of interpersonal relationships within the context of the passionate activity, whereas an obsessive passion was unrelated to it. Furthermore, in line with the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001), results also showed that positive emotions experienced at work fully mediated the relation between harmonious passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Obsessive passion was not associated with positive emotions. Study 2 replicated the results from Study 1 while controlling for trait extraversion. Also, in Study 2, we examined the negative mediating role of negative emotions between obsessive passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Finally, Studies 3 and 4 replicated the results of Study 2 with prospective designs and with objective ratings of interpersonal relationships quality. Implications for the dualistic model of passion and the broaden-and-build theory are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Passion for work and emotional exhaustion: the mediating role of rumination and recovery.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Eric G; Forest, Jacques; Vallerand, Robert J; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Crevier-Braud, Laurence; Bergeron, Eliane

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present research is to present a model pertaining to the mediating roles of rumination and recovery experiences in the relationship between a harmonious and an obsessive passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) for work and workers' emotional exhaustion. Two populations were measured in the present research: namely elite coaches and nurses. Study 1's model posits that obsessive passion positively predicts rumination about one's work when being physically away from work, while harmonious passion negatively predicts ruminative thoughts. In turn, rumination is expected to positively contribute to emotional exhaustion. The results of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2. In addition, in the model of Study 2, obsessive passion was expected to undermine recovery experiences, while harmonious passion was expected to predict recovery experiences. In turn, recovery experiences were expected to protect workers from emotional exhaustion. Results of both studies provided support for the proposed model. The present findings demonstrate that passion for work may lead to some adaptive and maladaptive psychological processes depending on the type of passion that is prevalent. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Passion for leisure activity contributes to pain experiences during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Courbalay, Anne; Deroche, Thomas; Brewer, Britton

    2017-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the levels of obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion for a suspended leisure activity contribute to pain catastrophizing and pain intensity in patients undergoing the rehabilitation process. The secondary aim was to examine whether the levels of passion associated with a maintained leisure activity offset the contribution of having a leisure activity suspended to pain intensity and catastrophizing. Ninety-one outpatients from functional rehabilitation units (Mage=37, SD=13.44 years) completed measures of pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, and passion about valued leisure activities (one they were prevented from practicing and one they remained able to practice). Correlation analysis showed that the level of OP for a suspended valued leisure activity was positively associated with pain catastrophizing and pain intensity. Results showed that pain catastrophizing mediated the relationship between this level of passion and pain intensity. The levels of harmonious passion and OP for a maintained valued leisure activity did not offset the contribution of OP for a suspended leisure activity to pain-related outcomes. When prevented from practicing a valued leisure activity, only OP contributes to the prediction of pain catastrophizing and pain intensity. The contribution of pain catastrophizing provides a potential explanation for why the level of OP for a suspended leisure activity is related to pain intensity ratings. The benefits of maintaining a valued leisure activity during rehabilitation do not seem sufficient to counterbalance the maladaptive effects of being prevented from the practice of a previous/another valued leisure activity.

  12. Exercise motivational regulations and exercise addiction: The mediating role of passion.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael; Maher, Anthony

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims The study explored the mediating role of forms of passion in the relationship between motivational regulations in exercise and exercise addiction (EA). Methods A total of 485 university students (368 males and 117 females; M age  = 20.43, SD = 3.21) completed a questionnaire measuring the frequency and intensity of exercise, motivational regulations in exercise, passion for exercise, and EA. Controlling the effects of age, frequency, and intensity of practice, the relationships between the study variables were examined though a path analysis. Results Both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation showed positive association with EA. The forms of motivation with greatest predictive power for EA were introjected and integrated regulations. Both forms of motivation had positive direct and indirect effects through obsessive passion (OP) on EA; however, integrated regulation also showed negative indirect effects through harmonious passion on EA. Conclusions Both forms of passion and, especially, OP, seem to affect how motivational regulations are associated with EA. These findings clarify the association found in previous studies between self-determined forms of motivation and EA.

  13. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

  14. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1–MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  15. Application of the Passionate Attachment Model to Recreational Use of MDMA/Ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Those who are not addicted to ecstasy, but who use it persistently over time, could be viewed as having a "passionate attachment" to a highly valued activity. To evaluate the associations of obsessive and harmonious passion with psychological and behavioral aspects of ecstasy consumption, we recruited a community sample of ecstasy users to complete a modified version of the Passion Scale (Vallerand et al. 2003) and other questionnaires assessing their substance use history, self-efficacy to refuse ecstasy, and use of ecstasy to cope with worries and problems. Both Obsessive and Harmonious passion scores were negatively correlated with self-efficacy to refuse ecstasy and positively correlated with using ecstasy to cope with worries and problems. The findings also provided partial support for our hypotheses that scores on the Obsessive Passion subscale would be associated with number of times participants had used ecstasy, the frequency of use, and the typical number of pills consumed. Participants agreed more strongly with statements indicative of Harmonious Passion to consume ecstasy, but Harmonious subscale scores were not associated with several measures of consumption. As a supplemental measure, the modified questionnaire could provide a more comprehensive picture of the psychology of one's ecstasy use.

  16. On the role of passion for work in burnout: a process model.

    PubMed

    Vallerand, Robert J; Paquet, Yvan; Philippe, Frederick L; Charest, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present research was to test a model on the role of passion for work in professional burnout. This model posits that obsessive passion produces conflict between work and other life activities because the person cannot let go of the work activity. Conversely, harmonious passion is expected to prevent conflict while positively contributing to work satisfaction. Finally, conflict is expected to contribute to burnout, whereas work satisfaction should prevent its occurrence. This model was tested in 2 studies with nurses in 2 cultures. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 1 (n=97) provided support for the model with nurses from France. In Study 2 (n=258), a prospective design was used to further test the model with nurses from the Province of Quebec over a 6-month period. Results provided support for the model. Specifically, harmonious passion predicted an increase in work satisfaction and a decrease in conflict. Conversely, obsessive passion predicted an increase of conflict. In turn, work satisfaction and conflict predicted decreases and increases in burnout changes that took place over time. The results have important implications for theory and research on passion as well as burnout.

  17. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María-Jesús; Alquezar, Berta; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. The peel of Citrus fruit accumulates large amounts of ABA during maturation. To understand the regulation of ABA biosynthesis in Citrus, two full-length cDNAs (CsNCED1 and CsNCED2) encoding NCEDs were isolated and characterized from the epicarp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Expression of the CsNCED1 gene increased in the epicarp during natural and ethylene-induced fruit maturation, and in water-stressed leaves, in a pattern consistent with the accumulation of ABA. The second gene, CsNCED2, was not detected in dehydrated leaves and, in fruits, exhibited a differential expression to that of CsNCED1. Taken together, these results suggests that CsNCED1 is likely to play a primary role in the biosynthesis of ABA in both leaves and fruits, while CsNCED2 appears to play a subsidiary role restricted to chromoplast-containing tissue. Furthermore, analysis of 9-cis-violaxanthin and 9'-cis-neoxanthin, as the two possible substrates for NCEDs, revealed that the former was the main carotenoid in the outer coloured part of the fruit peel as the fruit ripened or after ethylene treatment, whereas 9'-cis-neoxanthin was not detected or was in trace amounts. By contrast, turgid and dehydrated leaves contained 9'-cis-neoxanthin but 9-cis-violaxanthin was absent. Based on these results, it is suggested that 9-cis-violaxanthin may be the predominant substrate for NCED in the peel of Citrus fruits, whereas 9'-cis-neoxanthin would be the precursor of ABA in photosynthetic tissues.

  19. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  20. Optimization of free radical scavenging capacity and pH of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel by Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putranto, A. W.; Dewi, S. R.; Puspitasari, Y.; Nuriah, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel, a by-product of juice processing, contains a high antioxidant that can be used for nutraceuticals. Hence, it is important to extract and investigate its antioxidant stability. The aim of this study was to optimize the free radical scavenging capacity and pH of H. polyrhizus peel extract using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The extraction of H. polyrhizus peel was done by using green-Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)-assisted extraction method. Factors optimized were electric field strength (kV/cm) and extraction time (seconds). The result showed that the correlation between responses (free radical-scavenging capacity and pH) and two factors was quadratic model. The optimum conditions was obtained at the electric field strength of 3.96 kV/cm, and treatment time of 31.9 seconds. Under these conditions, the actual free radical-scavenging capacity and pH were 75.86 ± 0.2 % and 4.8, respectively. The verification model showed that the actual values are in accordance with the predicted values, and have error rate values of free radical-scavenging capacity and pH responses were 0.1% and 3.98%, respectively. We suggest to extract the H. polyrhizus peel using a green and non-thermal extraction technology, PEF-assisted extraction, for research, food applications and nutraceuticals industry.

  1. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Neighbors, Clayton; Christina Hove, M.; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Method: Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Results: Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults’ passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention. PMID:26402355

  2. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  3. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anil K; Yadav, Devendra K; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  4. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Anil K.; Yadav, Devendra K.; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity. PMID:28584761

  5. Exercise Addiction in Athletes and Leisure Exercisers: The Moderating Role of Passion.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Ricardo; Parastatidou, Irini S; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Recently, empirical research has linked obsessive passion to the etiology of exercise addiction, and the conceptual reason behind the fact that the latter is more prevalent in athletes than leisure exercisers has been challenged. The aim of this study was to determine the link between exercise addiction and harmonious passion, obsessive passion, and dedication to sports, in the context of athletic levels. Method A sample comprised of low- and high-level competitive athletes and non-competitive leisure exercisers (n = 313) was examined, in a cross-sectional design, in which participants completed the Spanish validated versions of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Sicilia, Alías-García, Ferriz, & Moreno-Murcia, 2013) and Passion Scale (Chamarro et al., 2015). Results Obsessive passion and dedication to sports emerged as strong predictors of exercise addiction. Competitive athletes scored higher than leisure exercisers on all measures. Athletes competing at low and high levels only differed in dedication to their sports from each other. Team-sports athletes reported greater harmonious and obsessive passions, and dedication to sports, but not different exercise addictions, than people taking part in individual sports. Conclusions The concept of exercise addiction is not a plain and independent construct and may not reflect a psychological dysfunction in the athletic population. Athletes could interpret exercise addiction screening-items differently from non-athletes. Athletes in team sports report greater passion and dedication than those practicing individual sports.

  6. Exercise Addiction in Athletes and Leisure Exercisers: The Moderating Role of Passion

    PubMed Central

    de la Vega, Ricardo; Parastatidou, Irini S.; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Recently, empirical research has linked obsessive passion to the etiology of exercise addiction, and the conceptual reason behind the fact that the latter is more prevalent in athletes than leisure exercisers has been challenged. The aim of this study was to determine the link between exercise addiction and harmonious passion, obsessive passion, and dedication to sports, in the context of athletic levels. Method A sample comprised of low- and high-level competitive athletes and non-competitive leisure exercisers (n = 313) was examined, in a cross-sectional design, in which participants completed the Spanish validated versions of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Sicilia, Alías-García, Ferriz, & Moreno-Murcia, 2013) and Passion Scale (Chamarro et al., 2015). Results Obsessive passion and dedication to sports emerged as strong predictors of exercise addiction. Competitive athletes scored higher than leisure exercisers on all measures. Athletes competing at low and high levels only differed in dedication to their sports from each other. Team-sports athletes reported greater harmonious and obsessive passions, and dedication to sports, but not different exercise addictions, than people taking part in individual sports. Conclusions The concept of exercise addiction is not a plain and independent construct and may not reflect a psychological dysfunction in the athletic population. Athletes could interpret exercise addiction screening-items differently from non-athletes. Athletes in team sports report greater passion and dedication than those practicing individual sports. PMID:27363466

  7. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  8. A Passion for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah L., Ed.; McVay, Scott, Ed.

    This book, celebrating teachers and teaching, contains the artistry and wisdom of 42 teachers who have remained passionate about classroom teaching for many years. Chapter 1, "Beginnings," includes "The First Day of School" (Richard A. Lawson), "Sustaining the Wonder of Teaching" and "Harvest Home," (Bettye T. Spinner), "The Call to Teach,"…

  9. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

  10. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  11. How do passion for video games and needs frustration explain time spent gaming?

    PubMed

    Mills, Devin J; Milyavskaya, Marina; Mettler, Jessica; Heath, Nancy L; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2018-04-01

    Research applying self-determination theory and the dualistic model of passion (DMP) has shown video games may satisfy basic psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy, and relatedness) and be identified as a passion. The DMP distinguishes between healthy or harmonious passion and problematic or obsessive passion (OP), with the latter reflecting an overreliance towards one's passion to obtain needs satisfaction. The experience of daily obstructions to needs satisfaction, or needs frustration (NF), may facilitate such an overreliance. This study explored how NF and both types of passion explain the amount of time that university students spend gaming. The overall association between NF and time spent gaming was not significant. However, for video game users with low levels of OP for gaming, there was a significant negative association between NF and time spent gaming. Additionally, evidence of a mutually reinforcing association between NF and OP for gaming indicates that a vicious cycle exists, whereby a strong OP for gaming predicts and is reinforced by greater NF. The theoretical implications are discussed. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  12. A Passion for Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    This article profiles James Sewrey, founder of the Percussive Arts Society. A passionate percussionist who's spent more than 60 years teaching at all levels from kindergarten through university, Sewrey was called out of retirement in 2007 to serve as adjunct professor of percussive studies at Wisconsin Lutheran College. As a founding member of the…

  13. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rolim, P M; Fidelis, G P; Padilha, C E A; Santos, E S; Rocha, H A O; Macedo, G R

    2018-03-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.

  14. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, P.M.; Fidelis, G.P.; Padilha, C.E.A.; Santos, E.S.; Rocha, H.A.O.; Macedo, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20–85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells. PMID:29513789

  15. Passion and coping: relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

  16. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. Available evidence

  17. Relationship between passion and motivation for gaming in players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Héctor; Chamarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Xavier; Vallerand, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Passion represents one of the factors involved in online video gaming. However, it remains unclear how passion affects the way gamers are involved in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationships between passions and motivations for online game playing. A total of 410 MMORPG players completed an online questionnaire including motives for gaming and the Passion Scale. Results indicated that passionate gamers were interested in relating with others through the game and exhibited a high degree of interest in discovery of the game, gaining leadership and prestige but little interest in escape from reality. However, some differences were observed with respect to the role of the two types of passion in the different types of motivation. Specifically, harmonious passion (HP) predicted higher levels of exploration, socialization, and achievement, in that order, while obsessive passion (OP) predicted higher levels of dissociation, achievement, and socialization. The present findings suggest that HP and OP predict different ways of engaging in MMORPGs and confirm that passion is a useful construct to help understand different motivational patterns demonstrated by MMORPG players.

  18. Comprehensive comparative analysis of volatile compounds in citrus fruits of different species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng; Xie, Yunxia; Liu, Cuihua; Chen, Shilin; Hu, Shuangshuang; Xie, Zongzhou; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2017-09-01

    The volatile profiles of fruit peels and juice sacs from 108 citrus accessions representing seven species were analyzed. Using GC-MS 162 and 107 compounds were determined in the peels and juice sacs, respectively. In the peels, monoterpene alcohols were accumulated in loose-skin mandarins; clementine tangerines and papedas were rich in sesquiterpene alcohols, sesquiterpenes, monoterpene alcohols and monoterpene aldehydes. β-pinene and sabinene were specifically accumulated in 4 of 5 lemon germplasms. Furthermore, concentrations of 34 distinctive compounds were selected to best represent the volatile profiles of seven species for HCA analysis, and the clustering results were in agreement with classic citrus taxonomy. Comparison of profiles from different growing seasons and production areas indicated that environmental factors play important roles in volatile metabolism. In addition, a few citrus germplasms that accumulated certain compounds were determined as promising breeding materials. Notably, volatile biosynthesis via MVA pathway in C. ichangensis 'Huaihua' was enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sharing her passion with others.

    PubMed

    Henze, Tonja Marie

    2013-10-22

    Tonja Marie Henze, MS, CMAR, RLATg, Facilities Coordinator, Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Ms. Henze talks about the joys and challenges of her job and realizing the importance of speaking out about her passion for laboratory animal care.

  20. Effect of chemical peeling on photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photo-aged skin. We assessed the photo-chemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid in distilled water at the right back of ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks for glycolic acid, salicylic acid and 10% trichloroacetic acid, and every 4 weeks for 35% trichloroacetic acid for a total of 18 weeks after the establishment of photo-aged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B range light three times a week for 14 weeks at a total dose of 6.66 J/cm(2) . Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of p53 expression and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also in the non-treated area. Peeling suppressed retention of p53-positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid could serve tumor prevention by removing photo-damaged cells. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits using their own byproducts: looking for integral exploitation.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Zavala, J F; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; González-Aguilar, G A

    2010-10-01

    Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible.

  2. Examining antecedents and consequences of gambling passion: the case of gambling on horse races.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  3. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  4. Video gamers of League of Legends: The role of passion in abusive use and in performance.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Enric; Chamarro, Andrés

    2016-03-02

    There is growing concern about the addictive potential of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPG). The Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) is a new genre, poorly studied but very popular, in which performance holds priority over immersion. The aim of the current study was to explore the influence of passion both on abuse and performance, using the dualistic model of passion. A total of 369 participants completed an online questionnaire that included problematic use and the Passion Scale. From players' nicknames, performance statistics were obtained. The results show that harmonious passion is a protector from negative consequences. On the other hand, obsessive passion predicts negative consequences and use of videogames for evasion. Obsessive passion also predicts better performance. These results suggest that distinguishing the two kinds of passion is important because they influence vulnerability to developing maladaptive behaviors and also players' performance.

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of 20% glycolic peel, 15% lactic peel, and topical 20% vitamin C in constitutional type of periorbital melanosis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Surabhi; Sahu, Priyadarshini; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Khetri, Sneh

    2016-12-01

    Periorbital Melanosis (POM) is a very common esthetic condition, yet there is no definite treatment modality. Topical therapy is the mainstay of treatment which includes chemical peels, vitamin C, and other depigmenting agents. To compare clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 20% glycolic acid peels, 15% lactic acid peels, and topical 20% vitamin C in treatment of constitutional type of POM in Indian patients. Ninety patients of constitutional POM were enrolled for 12 weeks. The patients were distributed into three groups. One-third of patients underwent 3-weekly GA peel, another one-third underwent 3-weekly lactic peel, and rest applied vitamin C daily. Clinical improvement was assessed objectively using POM grading. Patient's and physicians global assessment along with patient's global tolerance was also evaluated. More than 50% improvement in POM was observed in 73.34% of patients on GA peel, 56.67% on lactic peel, and 26.67% on vitamin C. On comparing improvement with respect to duration of therapy, GA peel was significantly more effective than lactic peel from 12 weeks onward, while it was more effective than vitamin C from 6 weeks onward. Lactic peel was more effective than vitamin C from 6 weeks onward. Physician and patient global assessment was excellent with glycolic peel followed by lactic peel and vitamin C. The incidence of adverse effect was maximum with GA peel followed by lactic peel and vitamin C. Glycolic peel was best among the three modalities, although it was associated with increased rate of side effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Singing it for "us": Team passion displayed during national anthems is associated with subsequent success.

    PubMed

    Slater, Matthew J; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K

    2018-05-01

    The present research examined the link between passion displayed by team members during the singing of national anthems at UEFA Euro 2016 and team performance in the tournaments' 51 games. Drawing on social identity theorising, we hypothesised a positive relationship between passion and performance. Consistent with this hypothesis, results showed that teams that sang national anthems with greater passion went on to concede fewer goals. Moreover, results provided evidence that the impact of passion on the likelihood of winning a game depended on the stage of the competition: in the knockout stage (but not the group stage) greater passion was associated with a greater likelihood of victory. Extending recent reviews that highlight the importance of social identity processes in sporting contexts, these results suggest that team members' identity-based expression of passion for the collective can be an important predictor of subsequent performance.

  7. LLNL Scientist is Passionate About Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Butlin, Becky

    With a lifelong passion for problem-solving and a love of production, Becky Butlin has helped lead the National Ignition Facility Target Fabrication Team through obstacles and challenges for the past six years.

  8. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    PubMed

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  10. A passion for research.

    PubMed

    Haidrani, Layla

    2016-11-18

    When and why did you develop an interest in research? It was a passion of mine during my PhD studies at the University of Florida in the United States and continued to be a major priority as a junior faculty member at the University of California in San Francisco. I was one of the first researchers into pain in children.

  11. Comparison between 1% tretinoin peeling versus 70% glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of female patients with melasma.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Shahingohar, Anahita; Siadat, Amir Hossein

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is an irregular brownish pigmentation observed on the faces of young to middle-aged women, especially of Asian races, which may contribute to various emotional disturbances. Although not any favorable treatment being approved yet, one appropriate approach is peeling by glycolic acid 70% (GA 70%). Considering the efficiency of Tretinoin in lower concentrations as over-the-counter lightening agents, peelings with higher strength Tretinoin may effectively relieve the pigmentation (melasma) sooner than other topical therapies. The main purpose was to compare the efficiency and complications of GA 70% with Tretinoin 1% peeling. A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial performed on 63 female patients with bilateral melasma. One facial side was treated by drug A (GA 70%) and the opposite side by agent B (Tretinoin 1%) peeling for four sessions with 2-week intervals. Descending changes in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, patients' discomfort and untoward complications following peeling all were evaluated and compared during the research period. The efficiency of Tretinoin 1% peelings in declining the MASI score (treatment of melasma) was similar to GA 70%, as well as the rare unwanted complications of them. However, the patients' discomfort following procedures as expressed by their own, was significantly lower with Tretinoin 1% compared to GA 70% peeling. The cases' satisfaction with the intervention was statistically similar to each other. Furthermore, we experienced almost the equal times of beginning the therapeutic responses in both groups.

  12. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05, chi-square test). However, the most commonly identified allergens were mostly cosmetic-unrelated allergens. The frequency of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  13. Chemical Peeling: A Useful Tool in the Office.

    PubMed

    Truchuelo, M; Cerdá, P; Fernández, L F

    2017-05-01

    Chemical peeling is a common treatment in cosmetic dermatology. A peel that has been used for many years is trichloroacetic acid. Its adverse effects have for a long time been a major limitation. We present a practical review of the characteristics, mechanisms of action, indications, and complications of superficial chemical peels and of peeling with trichloroacetic acid. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Liu, Xixia; Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing; Yuan, Debao

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits.

  16. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits. PMID:29253879

  17. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  19. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling vs no peeling for Macular Hole-induced Retinal Detachment (MHRD): a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Liu, Xinquan; Zheng, Lijun; Cui, Hongping

    2015-06-20

    we conducted our meta-analysis of published studies to assess existing evidence about the efficacy and safety of vitrectomy with ILM peeling vs. that of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling for Macular hole-induced retinal detachment. Databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI, were searched to identify studies comparing outcomes following vitrectomy with ILM peeling and that with no ILM peeling for macular hole-induced retinal detachment. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1. Six comparative studies comprising 180 eyes were identified. It was indicated that the rate of retinal reattachment (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95 % Confidence interval (CI):1.35 to 6.78; P = 0.007) and macular hole closure (OR = 6.74, 95 % CI:3.26 to 13.93; P < 0.001) after initial surgery was higher and the rate of recurrent retinal detachment (OR = 0.08, 95 % CI:0.02 to 0.30; P = 0.0002) was lower in the group of vitrectomy with ILM peeling than that in the group of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling. However, the improved BCVA (Weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.14, 95 % CI: -0.20 to 0.47; P = 0.42) and the rate of postoperative complications were similar between the two groups. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling is an efficient and safe procedure for macular hole-induced retinal detachment.

  20. Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.

  1. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  2. The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

  3. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Work with Passion: How To Do What You Love for a Living. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy

    This book seeks to help people connect their emotions with their daily tasks and interactions. It attempts this connection by clarifying for the reader his or her passions. Each chapter unfolds as a "Passion Secret." There are ten passion secrets: (1) The first step to power is clarity; (2) Powerful people do not want to be like anyone…

  5. Reawakening Your Passion for Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Richard; McKee, Annie; Goleman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Five strategies can help people find meaning in work and renew their passion: (1) taking a short- or long-term break; (2) finding a development program; (3) creating reflective structures (spiritual, meditative, or other); (4) working with a coach; and (5) seeking new meaning in familiar territory. (SK)

  6. Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Fruits Using Their Own Byproducts: Looking for Integral Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Zavala, JF; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; González-Aguilar, GA

    2010-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible. PMID:21535513

  7. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  8. [Chemical and biological evaluation of ripe banana peel].

    PubMed

    Ranzani, M R; Sturion, G L; Bicudo, M H

    1996-12-01

    Chemical and biological evaluation of ripe banana peel was conducted, aiming its potential use as a source of dietary fiber in human nutrition. Two types of flour were prepared from banana peel: a) untreated (UT), using washed and dried peel; b) treated (SMB), using peel treated with sodium metabisulfite and citric acid, in attempt to minimize the darkening of the flour. As expected, banana peel flour revealed to be an important source of fiber (NDF), corresponding about 32% of its dried weight. The addition of this flour to a basal casein diet lowered its protein digestibility and increased the fecal bulk of the rats, which are the known effects of dietary fiber. However, it did not alter the protein quality, since there was no difference in the PER values of the diets studied; in addition, the growth of the rats fed diets containing banana peel did not differ from those fed control diet. These results suggest the feasibility of technological studies aiming the development of food products with banana peel. Besides, biological assays should be realized in the elucidation of its effects in food intake and biochemical parameters.

  9. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Examination of the Relationship between Passion, Perfectionism and Burnout in Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Ebru; Çepikkurt, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out with the goal of examining the relationship between athletes' passion and perfectionism levels and athlete burnout, and to determine to what extent passion and perfectionism scores predict burnout experienced by athletes. A total of 267 athletes, located in various parts of Turkey and competing in various branches of…

  11. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T 2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Nazir, Alia; Munir, Saeeda; Mahmood, Tariq; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Farzana Latif; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17-25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R 2 relaxivity (225 mM(-1) s(-1)). Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The bio-SPIONs developed are highly favorable for various biomedical applications without risking interference from potentially toxic reagents.

  12. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Nazir, Alia; Munir, Saeeda; Mahmood, Tariq; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Farzana Latif; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17–25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R2 relaxivity (225 mM−1 s−1). Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The bio-SPIONs developed are highly favorable for various biomedical applications without risking interference from potentially toxic reagents. PMID:27570452

  13. Bio-speckle assessment of bruising in fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, M.; Baldwin, G.; Rabal, H.; Cap, N.; Arizaga, R.; Trivi, M.

    2003-07-01

    The dynamic speckle patterns or bio-speckle is a phenomenon produced by laser illumination of active materials, such as a biological tissue. Fruits, even hard peel ones, show a speckle activity that can be related to maturity, turgor, damage, aging, and mechanical properties. In this case, we suggest a bio-speckle technique as a potential methodology for the study of impact on apples and the analysis of bruises produced by them. The aim is to correlate physical properties of apples with quality factors using a non-contact and non-invasive technique.

  14. On the Determinants and Outcomes of Passion for Playing Pokémon Go

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Gábor; Zsila, Ágnes; Vallerand, Robert J.; Böthe, Beáta

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular smartphone game. Despite the increasing popularity of this augmented reality game, to date, no studies have investigated passion for playing Pokémon Go. On the theoretical basis of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP), our goal was to investigate the associations between Pokémon Go playing motives, passion, and impulsivity. A total of 621 Pokémon Go players participated in the study (54.9% female; Mage = 22.6 years, SDage = 4.4). It was found that impulsivity was more strongly associated with obsessive passion (OP) than with harmonious passion (HP). HP was associated with adaptive motives (i.e., outdoor activity, social, recreation, and nostalgia), while OP was associated with less adaptive motives (i.e., fantasy, escape, boredom, competition, and coping). Therefore, in line with the DMP, HP and OP for playing Pokémon Go can predict an almost perfectly distinguished set of adaptive or maladaptive playing motives, and OP has a noteworthy relationship with impulsivity as a determinant. PMID:29599735

  15. On the Determinants and Outcomes of Passion for Playing Pokémon Go.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Zsila, Ágnes; Vallerand, Robert J; Böthe, Beáta

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular smartphone game. Despite the increasing popularity of this augmented reality game, to date, no studies have investigated passion for playing Pokémon Go. On the theoretical basis of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP), our goal was to investigate the associations between Pokémon Go playing motives, passion, and impulsivity. A total of 621 Pokémon Go players participated in the study (54.9% female; M age = 22.6 years, SD age = 4.4). It was found that impulsivity was more strongly associated with obsessive passion (OP) than with harmonious passion (HP). HP was associated with adaptive motives (i.e., outdoor activity, social, recreation, and nostalgia), while OP was associated with less adaptive motives (i.e., fantasy, escape, boredom, competition, and coping). Therefore, in line with the DMP, HP and OP for playing Pokémon Go can predict an almost perfectly distinguished set of adaptive or maladaptive playing motives, and OP has a noteworthy relationship with impulsivity as a determinant.

  16. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  17. Passionate scholarship 2001-2010: a vision for making academe safer for joyous risk-takers.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Kathleen T

    2010-01-01

    What is passionate scholarship? According to students and graduates from a nursing doctoral program interviewed 10 years ago, passionate scholars must risk committing to a personally meaningful and socially relevant topic close to the heart. This insight spawned a string of exploratory inquiries and educational interventions in search of the "ideal conditions" that foster passionate scholarship. Updating the findings of that original study published in Advances in Nursing Science in 2001, this article describes a 3-year, faculty development initiative. Beyond increasing scholarly productivity, the findings suggest that turning faculty groups into communities of scholarly caring can make academic environments safer for passionate risk-takers.

  18. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid phase microextraction applied to the analysis of organophosphorus insecticides in fruits.

    PubMed

    Fytianos, K; Raikos, N; Theodoridis, G; Velinova, Z; Tsoukali, H

    2006-12-01

    Trace amounts of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were determined in various fruits by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). Sampling from the headspace enhanced method selectivity, whereas at the same time improved fiber life time and method sensitivity. Diazinon, parathion, methyl parathion, malathion and fenithrothion were determined in various fruits: more than 150 samples of 21 types of fruits were studied. SPME-GC-NPD provided a useful and very efficient analytical tool: method linearity ranged from 1.2 to 700 ng/ml. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.03 to 3 ng/ml and 0.12 to 10 ng/ml respectively, values well below the residue limits set by the EU. Less than 2% of the samples were found positive containing amounts higher than the EU limits. The effect of fruit peeling and washing was also investigated.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Epstein-Barr virus activation by Citrus fruits, a cancer chemopreventor.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Okuda, Y; Mukainaka, T; Tsuruta, A; Okuda, M; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    1999-05-24

    To search useful compounds in Citrus fruit for cancer chemoprevention, we carried out a primary screening of extracts of fruit peels and seeds from 78 species of the genus Citrus and those from two Fortunella and one Poncirus species, which were closely related to the genus Citrus. These Citrus extracts inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) as a useful screening method for anti-tumor promoters. Our results indicated that Citrus containing substances may be inhibit susceptibility factors involved in the events leading to the development of cancer.

  2. Adaptive neuro-heuristic hybrid model for fruit peel defects detection.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Marcin; Połap, Dawid

    2018-02-01

    Fusion of machine learning methods benefits in decision support systems. A composition of approaches gives a possibility to use the most efficient features composed into one solution. In this article we would like to present an approach to the development of adaptive method based on fusion of proposed novel neural architecture and heuristic search into one co-working solution. We propose a developed neural network architecture that adapts to processed input co-working with heuristic method used to precisely detect areas of interest. Input images are first decomposed into segments. This is to make processing easier, since in smaller images (decomposed segments) developed Adaptive Artificial Neural Network (AANN) processes less information what makes numerical calculations more precise. For each segment a descriptor vector is composed to be presented to the proposed AANN architecture. Evaluation is run adaptively, where the developed AANN adapts to inputs and their features by composed architecture. After evaluation, selected segments are forwarded to heuristic search, which detects areas of interest. As a result the system returns the image with pixels located over peel damages. Presented experimental research results on the developed solution are discussed and compared with other commonly used methods to validate the efficacy and the impact of the proposed fusion in the system structure and training process on classification results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing the work passion of Chinese community health service workers: an investigation in five provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After the implementation of new healthcare reform, Chinese government paid increasing attention to developing community health service (CHS). The current focus is mainly on cultivating community general practitioners but paying less attention to the working status and occupational demands of in-service CHS workers. Work passion is playing an important role for medical workers. With work passion, CHS workers’ team will become more stable and more effective, ensuring the sustainable development of CHS system. At present, the work passion of CHS workers is relatively low. Studying on influencing factors of work passion of CHS workers, promoting their work passion, and making them keep enthusiasm for work are significant. Methods A total of 100 CHS organizations were sampled randomly in 10 cities from 5 Chinese provinces for this study. A total of 3450 CHS workers from these CHS institutions took part in the surveys. Questionnaires were used to collect data, including socio-demographic information, work passion and opinion on influencing causes, and work-related satisfaction. Pearson chi-square statistical method was used to identify the factors related to CHS workers’ work passion. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the significant factors that influence CHS workers’ work passion. Results A total of 38.77% of those who accomplished the questionnaire expressed that they didn’t have passion for current work. The related factors that influence CHS workers’ work passion are (1) socio-demographic factors such as age, and years of employment, and (2) other work-related factors such as learning and training opportunities, compensation packages, work stress, and personal development opportunities. CHS workers were most dissatisfied with the balance between remuneration and workload, job promotion opportunities. Conclusions Based on the results, the government should concern for CHS workers’ working status and work-related demands, pay

  4. Factors influencing the work passion of Chinese community health service workers: an investigation in five provinces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenni; Bai, Xue; Min, Rui; Tang, Changmin; Fang, Pengqian

    2014-05-01

    After the implementation of new healthcare reform, Chinese government paid increasing attention to developing community health service (CHS). The current focus is mainly on cultivating community general practitioners but paying less attention to the working status and occupational demands of in-service CHS workers. Work passion is playing an important role for medical workers. With work passion, CHS workers' team will become more stable and more effective, ensuring the sustainable development of CHS system. At present, the work passion of CHS workers is relatively low. Studying on influencing factors of work passion of CHS workers, promoting their work passion, and making them keep enthusiasm for work are significant. A total of 100 CHS organizations were sampled randomly in 10 cities from 5 Chinese provinces for this study. A total of 3450 CHS workers from these CHS institutions took part in the surveys. Questionnaires were used to collect data, including socio-demographic information, work passion and opinion on influencing causes, and work-related satisfaction. Pearson chi-square statistical method was used to identify the factors related to CHS workers' work passion. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the significant factors that influence CHS workers' work passion. A total of 38.77% of those who accomplished the questionnaire expressed that they didn't have passion for current work. The related factors that influence CHS workers' work passion are (1) socio-demographic factors such as age, and years of employment, and (2) other work-related factors such as learning and training opportunities, compensation packages, work stress, and personal development opportunities. CHS workers were most dissatisfied with the balance between remuneration and workload, job promotion opportunities. Based on the results, the government should concern for CHS workers' working status and work-related demands, pay more attention and meet their demands for

  5. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT S+ assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Descartes' Passions of the soul--seeds of psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Joy; Deshauer, Dorian; Grof, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Rene Descartes (1596-1650), often called the 'father of modern philosophy', aimed at rooting all knowledge in certainty so that our understanding of the world could progress without error. To achieve this, he needed at least one sure thing on which to build. Starting with the most basic knowledge, the fact of his own existence--cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am), he systematically proceeded to explain the world. Such systematic understanding would be accessible to anyone who applied the Cartesian method, and in turn would lead to a good life. Descartes' Passions of the Soul was written according to his method of certainty and fits in with a meticulously refined worldview. It is one of the first systematic treatises to explain a wide array of emotions, both normal and abnormal. Based on the Cartesian dualistic model of mind and body, the work helps ground a long medical tradition of separating 'rational' consciousness from emotions. For Descartes, emotions arose from two sources, the intellect and the body (Passions of the Soul and Passions of the Body). The more subtle 'Passions of the Soul' were viewed as superior to coarser and often-troublesome emotions taking root in the body. It is interesting to note the absence of clarity, however, in Descartes' division of intellectual emotions from bodily emotions, perhaps revealing an enduring weakness in the dualistic model itself. The work grapples with the multi-causal nature of psychopathology and brings out complex interactions between temperament and life experience. While modern neuroscience makes ever-tighter associations between physiology and experience, many of the basic scientific challenges we face today are outlined in this 350-year-old book.

  7. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  8. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Histological case-control study of peeling-induced skin changes by different peeling agents in surgically subcutaneous undermined skin flaps in facelift patients.

    PubMed

    Gonser, P; Kaestner, S; Jaminet, P; Kaye, K

    2017-11-01

    A histological evaluation of peeling-induced skin changes in subcutaneous undermined preauricular facial skin flaps of nine patients was performed. There were three treatment groups: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 25%, TCA 40% and phenol/croton oil; one group served as control. Two independent evaluators determined the epidermal and dermal thickness and the depth of necrosis (micrometre). The percentual tissue damage due to the peeling was calculated, and a one-sample t-test for statistical significance was performed. On the basis of the histomorphological changes, peeling depth was classified as superficial, superficial-partial, deep-partial and full thickness chemical burn. The histological results revealed a progression of wound depth for different peeling agents without full thickness necrosis. TCA peels of up to 40% can be safely applied on subcutaneous undermined facial skin flaps without impairing the vascular patency, producing a predictable chemical burn, whereas deep peels such as phenol/croton oil peels should not be applied on subcutaneous undermined skin so as to not produce skin slough or necrosis by impairing vascular patency. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  11. Catching fire and spreading it: A glimpse into displayed entrepreneurial passion in crowdfunding campaigns.

    PubMed

    Li, Junchao Jason; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Kotha, Suresh; Fisher, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Crowdfunding is an emerging phenomenon that enables entrepreneurs to solicit financial contributions for new projects from mass audiences. Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion and emotional contagion theory, the authors examined the importance of displayed entrepreneurial passion when seeking resources in a crowdfunding context. They proposed that entrepreneurs' displayed passion in the introductory video for a crowdfunding project increases viewers' experienced enthusiasm about the project (i.e., passion contagion), which then prompts them to contribute financially and to share campaign information via social-media channels. Such sharing further facilitates campaign success. In addition, the authors proposed that perceived project innovativeness strengthens the positive effect of displayed passion on social-media exposure and the funding amount a project garners. They first tested their hypotheses in 2 studies using a combination of survey and archival data from the world's 2 most popular crowdfunding platforms: Indiegogo (Study 1) and Kickstarter (Study 2). They then conducted an experiment (Study 3) to validate the proposed passion contagion process, and the effect of displayed entrepreneurial passion at the individual level. Findings from these 3 studies significantly supported their hypotheses. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Passionate Utterance and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores Stanley Cavell's notion of "passionate utterance", which acts as an extension of/departure from (we might read it as both) J. L. Austin's theory of the performative. Cavell argues that Austin having made the revolutionary discovery that truth claims in language are bound up with how words perform, then gets bogged by convention…

  13. FT-IR and DFT study of lemon peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, K. V.; Likhter, A. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Experimental FT-IR spectra of lemon peel are registered in the 650 - 3800 cm-1 range. The influence of peel artificial and natural dehydration on its vibrational spectrum is studied. The colored outer surface of lemon peel is proved not to have a significant impact on FT-IR spectrum. It is determined that only dehydration processes affect the FT-IR vibrational spectrum of the peel when a lemon is stored for 28 days under natural laboratory conditions. Polymer molecule models for dietary fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, as well as hesperidin - flavonoid glycoside, and free moisture cluster are developed within the framework of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical method. By implementing supramolecular approach, modeling of the vibrational FT-IR spectrum of lemon peel is carried out and its detailed theoretical interpretation is presented.

  14. Effect of refrigerated storage on probiotic viability and the production and stability of antimutagenic and antioxidant peptides in yogurt supplemented with pineapple peel.

    PubMed

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2015-09-01

    Fruit by-products are good resources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, which may function as growth nutrients for probiotic bacteria. This research aimed at evaluating effects of pineapple peel powder addition on the viability and activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC393), and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (ATCC BAA52) in yogurts throughout storage at 4°C for 28d. Plain and probiotic yogurts supplemented with or without pineapple peel powder or inulin were prepared. The probiotic counts in supplemented yogurts at 28d of storage ranged from 7.68 and 8.03 log cfu/g, one log cycle higher compared with nonsupplemented control yogurt. Degree of proteolysis in synbiotic yogurts was significantly higher than plain yogurts and increased substantially during storage. Crude water-soluble peptide extract of the probiotic yogurt with peel possessed stronger antimutagenic and antioxidant activities [evaluated measuring reducing power and scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and hydroxyl radicals] than control and maintained during storage. Pineapple peel, a by-product of juice production, could be proposed as a prebiotic ingredient in the manufacture of yogurts with enhanced nutrition, and functionality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering d-limonene synthase down-regulation in orange fruit induces resistance against the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa through enhanced accumulation of monoterpene alcohols and activation of defence.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Kava, Vanessa; Latorre-García, Lorena; da Silva, Geraldo J; G Pereira, Rosana; Glienke, Chirlei; Ferreira-Maba, Lisandra S; Vicent, Antonio; Shimada, Takehiko; Peña, Leandro

    2018-03-24

    Terpene volatiles play an important role in the interactions between specialized pathogens and fruits. Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, is associated with crop losses in different citrus-growing areas worldwide. The pathogen may infect the fruit for 20-24 weeks after petal fall, but the typical hard spot symptoms appear when the fruit have almost reached maturity, caused by fungal colonization and the induction of cell lysis around essential oil cavities. d-Limonene represents approximately 95% of the total oil gland content in mature orange fruit. Herein, we investigated whether orange fruit with reduced d-limonene content in peel oil glands via an antisense (AS) approach may affect fruit interaction with P. citricarpa relative to empty vector (EV) controls. AS fruit showed enhanced resistance to the fungus relative to EV fruit. Because of the reduced d-limonene content, an over-accumulation of linalool and other monoterpene alcohols was found in AS relative to EV fruit. A global gene expression analysis at 2 h and 8 days after inoculation with P. citricarpa revealed the activation of defence responses in AS fruit via the up-regulation of different pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, probably as a result of enhanced constitutive accumulation of linalool and other alcohols. When assayed in vitro and in vivo, monoterpene alcohols at the concentrations present in AS fruit showed strong antifungal activity. We show here that terpene engineering in fruit peels could be a promising method for the development of new strategies to obtain resistance to fruit diseases. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Short-term UV-B exposure induces metabolic and anatomical changes in peel of harvested lemons contributing in fruit protection against green mold.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, V E; Interdonato, R; Cerioni, L; Albornoz, P; Ramallo, J; Prado, F E; Hilal, M; Rapisarda, V A

    2016-06-01

    UV-B radiation (UVBR) is a small fraction of the solar spectrum from 280 to 315nm. UVBR produces photomorphogenic acclimation responses in plants, modulating their cellular structure and physiology. Here, changes in the peel of harvested lemons after short time exposure to UVBR were analyzed and its potential effects against fungal infection were studied. In the flavedo, UVBR treatment induced variations in the respiratory profiles and increased the phenolic compound contents. Final products of the flavonoid pathway (flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins) increased more markedly than their precursors (flavanones and dihydroflavonols). The increased accumulation of soluble phenolics in the flavedo of treated lemons is associated with the high antioxidant activity found in the flavedo of these samples. Supporting the biochemical determinations, anatomical observations showed abundant intravacuolar deposits of phenolic compounds and an increase in the cell wall thickness in UVBR-treated samples. Metabolic and anatomical modifications associated to UVBR improved natural defenses against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mold disease. Our results suggest that mature postharvest lemons exposed to the artificial radiation showed phenotypic plasticity, allowing an acclimation response to UVBR which confers fruit resistance to pathogens. Thus, combination of UVBR with other treatments could represent an important improvement to control postharvest diseases on citrus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ternent, Laura; Vale, Luke; Boachie, Charles; Burr, Jennifer M; Lois, Noemi

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is cost-effective compared with no peeling for patients with an idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness macular hole. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed alongside a randomised controlled trial. 141 participants were randomly allocated to receive macular-hole surgery, with either ILM peeling or no peeling. Health-service resource use, costs and quality of life were calculated for each participant. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was calculated at 6 months. At 6 months, the total costs were on average higher (£424, 95% CI -182 to 1045) in the No Peel arm, primarily owing to the higher reoperation rate in the No Peel arm. The mean additional QALYs from ILM peel at 6 months were 0.002 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.013), adjusting for baseline EQ-5D and other minimisation factors. A mean incremental cost per QALY was not computed, as Peeling was on average less costly and slightly more effective. A stochastic analysis suggested that there was more than a 90% probability that Peeling would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Although there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in either costs or QALYs between macular hole surgery with or without ILM peeling, the balance of probabilities is that ILM Peeling is likely to be a cost-effective option for the treatment of macular holes. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Genetic Breeding and Diversity of the Genus Passiflora: Progress and Perspectives in Molecular and Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.), molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i) to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii) to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii) to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv) to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit. PMID:25196515

  19. Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: Potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Filipa; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Beatriz Oliveira, M; Bento, Ana Cristina; Costa, Helena S

    2016-02-15

    Annona cherimola Mill., commonly known as cherimoya, is a tropical fruit well known due to its tasty flavour. In the present study the antioxidant activity of pulp, peel and seeds of four cultivars from A. cherimola Mill. from Madeira Island (Madeira, Funchal, Perry Vidal and Mateus II) was analysed. Moreover, nutritional composition (proximates and vitamins) and bioactive compounds content were determined. The peel of Madeira cultivar showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with an EC50 of 0.97mg/mL, and total flavonoids (44.7 epicatechin equivalents/100g). The most abundant carotenoid was lutein, with values ranging from 129 to 232μg/100g. The highest l-ascorbic acid content (4.41mg/100g) was found in the peel of Perry Vidal cultivar. These results highlight A. cherimola Mill. antioxidant properties, especially in its by-products and encourage their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food processing industries, as added value natural extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inertial and stick-slip regimes of unstable adhesive tape peeling.

    PubMed

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Villey, Richard; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2016-05-18

    We present an experimental characterization of the detachment front unstable dynamics observed during the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives. We use an experimental set-up specifically designed to control the peeling angle θ and the peeled tape length L, while peeling an adhesive tape from a flat substrate at a constant driving velocity V. High-speed imaging allows us to report the evolution of the period and amplitude of the front oscillations, as well as the relative durations of their fast and slow phases, as a function of the control parameters V, L and θ. Our study shows that, as the driving velocity or the peeling angle increases, the oscillations of the peeling front progressively evolve from genuine "stick-slip" oscillations, made of alternating long stick phases and very brief slip phases, to sinusoidal oscillations of amplitude twice the peeling velocity. We propose a model which, taking into account the peeling angle-dependent kinetic energy cost to accelerate and decelerate the peeled tape, explains the transition from the "stick-slip" to the "inertial" regime of the dynamical instability. Using independent direct measurements of the effective fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint, we show that our model quantitatively accounts for the two regimes of the unstable dynamics.

  1. Occurrence and characterisation of calcium oxalate crystals in stems and fruits of Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus (Cactaceae: Hylocereeae).

    PubMed

    Viñas, María; Jiménez, Víctor M

    2016-10-01

    Detailed description about occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in the edible vine cactus species Hylocereus costaricensis and Selenicereus megalanthus is scarce. Therefore, we evaluated and characterized the presence, morphology and composition of CaOx crystals in both species. Crystals were isolated from greenhouse and in vitro vegetative stems, and from ripe fruit peels and pulp by enzymatic digestion and density centrifugation and quantified with a haemocytometer. Morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy, elemental composition with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and salt composition with X-ray powder diffraction. Analyses conducted confirmed that isolated crystals were exclusively composed by CaOx, both mono- and dihydrated. Highest crystal contents were measured in greenhouse stems, followed by the fruit peels. While very few crystals were quantified in in vitro plants, they were not detected in the fruit pulp at all, which is of advantage for its human consumption and could be linked to mechanisms of seed dispersal through animals. Different crystal morphologies were observed, sometimes varying between genotypes and tissues analysed. This is the first work known to the authors with a detailed characterization of CaOx crystals in vine cacti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combination Superficial Peels With Salicylic Acid and Post-Peel Retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kligman, Douglas E; Draelos, Zoe D

    2016-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and retinoids, tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA]), and retinol (all-trans retinol) are widely used as topical agents for the improvement of photodamage and acne vulgaris. They can be used in daily take-home products or as part of an in-office procedure, combining the benefits of a keratolytic (SA) and a retinoid. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy for ameliorating photodamage of topical tretinoin (0.25%) and retinol (0.25%) to baseline and with each other when applied after a 30% salicylic acid peel on human facial skin. Twenty female subjects received a full face 30% SA peel followed by the overnight application of tretinoin to a 1 randomized half-face and retinol to the opposite side (split-face study). The identical procedure was repeated at week 2. Double-blinded subject and investigator assessments of the results were captured at weeks 2 and 4. By investigator evaluation, both peeling regimens were effective in improving photodamage parameters compared to baseline. (ATRA P-values at week 4 were: P=.00008 texture, P=.00013 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00098 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.00008 overall appearance. Retinol P-values at week 4 were: P=.00019 texture, P=.00053 roughness, P=.00221 pores, P=.00147 dryness, P=.02770 erythema, and P=.0043 overall appearance.) By subject self-assessment compared with baseline, both tretinoin and retinol were effective in improving overall appearance (ATRA P=.0229 and retinol P=.0190). By investigator evaluation comparing tretinoin with retinol, tretinoin was slightly better than retinol at week 4 in improving texture P=.00506, roughness P=.01171, and overall appearance P=.00506. By subject self-assessment comparing tretinoin with retinol, there was no difference in overall appearance (ATRA P=.2367 and retinol P=.3613). Either topical tretinoin (0.25%) or retinol (0.25%) can be used safely and effectively when applied in office immediately after SA peeling to

  3. Ultrastructural observations of chemical peeling for skin rejuvenation (ultrastructural changes of the skin due to chemical peeling).

    PubMed

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Numano, Kayoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Chemical peeling of the skin is commonly used as a means to treat photoaging, but the mechanism underlying its efficacy has not yet been fully clarified. We recently conducted chemical peeling of the skin with glycolic acid and lactic acid and observed it at the ultrastructural level. No changes in the horny layer or the upper epidermal layer were observed but there was dissociation and vacuolation between the basal cells and increases in vimentin filaments within fibroblasts and endothelial cells were seen. These findings suggest that chemical peeling of the skin with this type of agent directly induces collagen formation within the dermis and thus directly stimulates remodeling of the dermis.

  4. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  5. Assessment of bruising in fruits using dynamic speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Baldwin-Olguin, Guillermo; Rabal, Hector J.; Arizaga, Ricardo A.; Trivi, Marcelo

    2001-08-01

    When a rough surface changes, its optical properties change also and the scattered light shows intensity fluctuations named dynamic speckle. Fruits, even hard peel ones, shows a speckle activity that can be related to maturity, turgor, damage, aging, and mechanical properties. Many techniques have been sued to study these properties, most of them destructive ones. We present an application of dynamical speckle to the study of impact on apples and the analysis of bruises produced by them. The aim is to correlate physical properties of apples with quality factors.

  6. Chemotaxonomic Study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella Genotypes Based on Peel Oil Volatile Compounds - Deciphering the Genetic Origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuihua; Jiang, Dong; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Fang, Liu; Ma, Zhaocheng; Xu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified) and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study. PMID:23516475

  7. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  8. The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in relationships between types of passion for sport and athlete burnout.

    PubMed

    Curran, Thomas; Appleton, Paul R; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout.

  9. Use of fruit residues for pectinase production by Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 and Aspergillus terreus FP-370.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trujillo, A; Arreguín-Rangel, L; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G

    2011-08-01

    Utilization of fruit residues for pectinase production by two Aspergillus strains for recognizing the effects of some factors during fermentation and describing enzyme production kinetics. Pectinase production on several fruit residues was compared. The effects of three factors on the production of several pectinases were evaluated by a full factorial 2(k) experimental design. Higher activities were obtained on lemon peel. In both strains, acidic pH values and high carbon source concentration favoured exopectinase and endopectinase production, while higher pH values and low carbon source concentration promoted pectin lyase and rhamnogalacturonase production. Unstructured mathematical modelling provided a good description of pectinase production in a submerged batch culture. Fruit residues were very good substrates for pectinase production, and Aspergillus strains used showed a promising performance in submerged fermentation. Mathematical modelling was useful to describe growth and pectinase production. Lemon peel can be used as a substrate to obtain high pectinase titres by Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 and Aspergillus terreus FP-370. The factors that contributed to improve the yield were identified, which supports the possibility of using this substrate in the industrial production of these enzymes. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Pesticide residues in fruit samples: comparison of different QuEChERS methods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Christia, C; Bizani, E; Christophoridis, C; Fytianos, K

    2015-09-01

    Acetate- and citrate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) pretreatment methods were evaluated for the determination of various pesticides in peaches, grapes, apples, bananas, pears, and strawberries from various regions of Greece, using LC-MS/MS. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate which type of QuEChERS method was the most appropriate and effective for each matrix; (ii) to apply the selected QuEChERS method for each matrix, in order to detect and quantify pesticide residues in various fruit samples using UPLC-MS/MS; (iii) to examine the concentration distribution of pesticide classes among fruit originating from various areas; and (iv) to assess pesticide concentration distribution between peel and flesh of fruit in order to evaluate the penetration of pesticide residues in the fruit flesh. Acetate-buffered QuEChERS was found to be the most suitable technique for most of the fruit matrices. According to the recovery values at two different concentration levels, peaches should preferably be treated by the citrate-buffered type, whereas grapes, bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries are best treated by the acetate-buffered version, although the differences in efficiency were small. The addition of graphitized carbon black significantly decreases the recovery of specific pesticides in all matrices except for strawberries. The majority of values do not exceed the official maximum residue levels set by the European Commission. Organophosphates proved to be the most commonly detected category along with triazines-triazoles-conazoles group and by carbamates. Apples and pears seem to be the most contaminated fruit matrices among those tested. Distribution of pesticide classes shows variations between different regions, suggesting different pesticide application practices. In the case of peaches and pears, there is an equal distribution of detected pesticides between peel and flesh, indicating penetration of contaminants into the

  11. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases.

  12. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report.

    PubMed

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-03-19

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  13. Complications of Macular Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Duran, Mónica; Manzano-Muñoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-García, José Luis; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  14. Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive), and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction becau