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Sample records for passive gene-environment correlation

  1. Gene-environment correlations in the stress-depression relationship.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason

    2010-09-01

    A critical feature of the social stress model is the apparent relationship between stress and depression. Although many studies have demonstrated a connection between the two, the relationship may be contaminated by genes affecting both stress and depression. Using a sample of identical and fraternal twins, this study explores genetic influences on depression and assorted sources of stress while explicitly estimating, and thereby controlling for, gene-environment correlations. I consider both stress and depression in a fine-grained fashion. For the former, the study explores assorted sources of stress, including health and disability, family, unemployment, discrimination, and perceived neighborhood safety, as gene-environment correlations may be stronger for some forms of stress than others. For the latter, the study explores both depressive symptoms and major depressive disorders, as each may entail a different epidemiological process, especially with respect to genes. The results reveal that most, but not all, measures of stress have moderate heritabilities, suggesting that genes influence exposure to the environment in a broad fashion. Yet, despite this, the relationship between stress and depression is generally robust to gene-environment correlations. There are some notable exceptions. For example, allowing for gene-environment correlations, marital conflict is generally unrelated to depression. Moreover, gene-environment correlations are generally stronger for major depression than for depressive symptoms, encouraging further elaboration of the distinction between the onset of depression and its recurrence, especially in the context of genes. These exceptions do not put limits on environmental influence, but do suggest that genes operate in a complex life-course fashion.

  2. Evidence of reactive gene-environment correlation in preschoolers' prosocial play with unfamiliar peers.

    PubMed

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Bersted, Kyle; John, Sufna Gheyara

    2015-10-01

    The development of prosocial behaviors during the preschool years is essential for children's positive interactions with peers in school and other social situations. Although there is some evidence of genetic influences on prosocial behaviors, very little is known about how genes and environment, independently and in concert, affect prosocial behaviors in young children. This study of 126 twin and sibling pairs examined 5-year-old preschool children's positive behaviors (prosocial and easy-going) while playing freely with an unfamiliar, same-age, same-sex peer. Children were randomly paired, allowing us to rule out passive (parent-influenced environment) and active (child-driven peer choices) gene-environment correlations as potential influences on the results. We found evidence of reactive gene-environment correlation, demonstrating that children who are genetically more likely to act prosocially and to be temperamentally outgoing appear to evoke more prosocial and easy-going behaviors from an unfamiliar peer. We also found that both dominant genetic and nonshared environmental factors were significant influences on preschoolers' prosocial play behaviors, but that neither genetic nor shared environmental factors were significant for easy-going play behaviors. These findings shed important light on influences of prosocial behaviors in preschoolers. Via inherited tendencies, preschool children's positive behaviors evoke similar positive behaviors from their play peers. Given that prosocial behaviors are preludes to a large range of important socially appropriate behaviors, prosocial children should be encouraged to interact with their peers to potentially create a more positive atmosphere within social contexts.

  3. Disentangling Gene-Environment Correlations and Interactions on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Genetic risks for depression may be expressed through greater exposure towards environmental stressors (gene-environment correlation, rGE) and increased susceptibility to these stressors (gene-environment interaction, G x E). While these effects are often studied independently, evidence supports their co-occurrence on depression.…

  4. Gene-Environment Correlation Underlying the Association between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent "and" child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present…

  5. Effects of the Family Environment: Gene-Environment Interaction and Passive Gene-Environment Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Thomas S.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2008-01-01

    The classical twin study provides a useful resource for testing hypotheses about how the family environment influences children's development, including how genes can influence sensitivity to environmental effects. However, existing statistical models do not account for the possibility that children can inherit exposure to family environments…

  6. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-02-01

    Theories of skilled performance that emphasize training history, such as K. Anders Ericsson and colleagues' deliberate-practice theory, have received a great deal of recent attention in both the scientific literature and the popular press. Twin studies, however, have demonstrated evidence for moderate-to-strong genetic influences on skilled performance. Focusing on musical accomplishment in a sample of over 800 pairs of twins, we found evidence for gene-environment correlation, in the form of a genetic effect on music practice. However, only about one quarter of the genetic effect on music accomplishment was explained by this genetic effect on music practice, suggesting that genetically influenced factors other than practice contribute to individual differences in music accomplishment. We also found evidence for gene-environment interaction, such that genetic effects on music accomplishment were most pronounced among those engaging in music practice, suggesting that genetic potentials for skilled performance are most fully expressed and fostered by practice.

  7. Cognitive change in aging: identifying gene-environment correlation and nonshared environment mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mayr, Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    We describe gene-environment processes that may help account for individual differences in successful aging. Our emphasis is on successful aging in the cognitive domain, wherein individuals come to use a variety of strategies to cope with changes in cognitive capacities. We focus on the role of executive control in particular and define gene-environment correlation and nonshared environmental mechanisms. The quantitative genetic methods used to identify these mechanisms are described, with examples from research in childhood, where such studies are now common. Future work will be most effective if it is guided by life-span development frameworks that address these processes, such as the developmental genotype-->environment theory of Scarr and McCartney and the selection/optimization/compensation theory of Baltes and Baltes.

  8. The role of gene-environment correlations and interactions in middle childhood depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Haworth, Claire M A; Eley, Thalia C

    2013-02-01

    Depression is known to be associated with a wide array of environmental factors. Such associations are due at least in part to genetic influences on both. This issue has been little explored with preadolescent children. Measures of family chaos and parenting style at age 9 and child depressive symptoms at age 12 were completed by 3,258 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study and their parents. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to explore common and unique genetic and environmental influences on both family environment and later depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at age 12 were significantly heritable. Moderate genetic effects influenced parenting style and family chaos at the age of 9, indicating gene-environment correlation. There were significant genetic correlations between family environment and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of a Gene × Environment interaction, with stronger genetic effects on depressive symptoms for children with more suboptimal family environment. There was an Environment × Environment interaction, with effects of nonshared environment on depressive symptoms stronger for twins with more adverse parenting experiences. There is some evidence for gene-environment correlation between aspects of family environment in middle childhood and subsequent depressive symptoms. This suggests that one of the mechanisms by which genes lead to depressive symptoms may be by themselves influencing depressogenic environments.

  9. Child dopamine active transporter 1 genotype and parenting: evidence for evocative gene-environment correlations.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Elizabeth P; Hanna, Brigitte; Sheikh, Haroon I; Laptook, Rebecca S; Kim, Jiyon; Singh, Shiva M; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-02-01

    The dopamine active transporter 1 (DAT1) gene is implicated in psychopathology risk. Although the processes by which this gene exerts its effects on risk are poorly understood, a small body of research suggests that the DAT1 gene influences early emerging negative emotionality, a marker of children's psychopathology risk. As child negative emotionality evokes negative parenting practices, the DAT1 gene may also play a role in gene-environment correlations. To test this model, children (N = 365) were genotyped for the DAT1 gene and participated in standardized parent-child interaction tasks with their primary caregiver. The DAT1 gene 9-repeat variant was associated with child negative affect expressed toward the parent during parent-child interactions, and parents of children with a 9-repeat allele exhibited more hostility and lower guidance/engagement than parents of children without a 9-repeat allele. These gene-environment associations were partially mediated by child negative affect toward the parent. The findings implicate a specific polymorphism in eliciting negative parenting, suggesting that evocative associations play a role in elevating children's risk for emotional trajectories toward psychopathology risk.

  10. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  11. Links between Friends' Physical Aggression and Adolescents' Physical Aggression: What Happens If Gene-Environment Correlations are Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…

  12. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: evidence for gene-environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L; Jenness, Jessica L; Young, Jami F; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Gene-environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene-environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths' genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  13. Evocative gene-environment correlation in the mother-child relationship: a twin study of interpersonal processes.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2013-02-01

    The behavior genetic literature suggests that genetically influenced characteristics of the child elicit specific behaviors from the parent. However, little is known about the processes by which genetically influenced child characteristics evoke parental responses. Interpersonal theory provides a useful framework for identifying reciprocal behavioral processes between children and mothers. The theory posits that, at any given moment, interpersonal behavior varies along the orthogonal dimensions of warmth and control and that the interpersonal behavior of one individual tends to elicit corresponding or contrasting behavior from the other (i.e., warmth elicits warmth, whereas control elicits submission). The current study thus examined these dimensions of interpersonal behavior as they relate to the parent-child relationship in 546 twin families. A computer joystick was used to rate videos of mother-child interactions in real time, yielding information on mother and child levels of warmth and control throughout the interaction. Analyses indicated that maternal control, but not maternal warmth, was influenced by evocative gene-environment correlational processes, such that genetic influences on maternal control and child control were largely overlapping. Moreover, these common genetic influences were present both cross-sectionally and over the course of the interaction. Such findings not only confirm the presence of evocative gene-environment correlational processes in the mother-child relationship but also illuminate at least one of the specific interpersonal behaviors that underlie this evocative process.

  14. Boys' serotonin transporter genotype affects maternal behavior through self-control: a case of evocative gene-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Pener-Tessler, Roni; Avinun, Reut; Uzefovsky, Florina; Edelman, Shany; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-02-01

    Self-control, involving processes such as delaying gratification, concentrating, planning, following instructions, and adapting emotions and behavior to situational requirements and social norms, may have a profound impact on children's adjustment. The importance of self-control suggests that parents are likely to modify their parenting based on children's ability for self-control. We study the effect of children's self-control, a trait partially molded by genetics, on their mothers' parenting, a process of evocative gene-environment correlation. Israeli 3.5-year-old twins (N = 320) participated in a lab session in which their mothers' parenting was observed. DNA was available from most children (N = 228). Mothers described children's self-control in a questionnaire. Boys were lower in self-control and received less positive parenting from their mothers, in comparison with girls. For boys, and not for girls, the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene predicted mothers' levels of positive parenting, an effect mediated by boys' self-control. The implications of this evocative gene-environment correlation and the observed sex differences are discussed.

  15. The Heritability of Personality is not Always 50%: Gene-Environment Interactions and Correlations between Personality and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Robert F.; South, Susan; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William

    2008-01-01

    Twin studies of personality are consistent in attributing approximately half of the variance in personality to genetic effects, with the remaining variance attributed to environments that make people within the same families different. Such conclusions, however, are based on quantitative models of human individual differences that estimate genetic and environmental contributions as constants for entire populations. Recent advances in statistical modeling allow for the possibility of estimating genetic and environmental contributions contingent on other variables, allowing the quantification of phenomena that have traditionally been characterized as gene-environment interaction and correlation. We applied these newer models to understand how adolescents’ descriptions of their relationships with their parents might change or moderate the impact of genetic and environmental factors on personality. We documented notable moderation in the domains of positive and negative emotionality, with parental relationships acting to both enhance and diminish both genetic and environmental effects. We discuss how genetic and environmental contributions to personality might be more richly conceptualized as dynamic systems of gene-environment interplay – systems that are not captured by classical concepts, such as the overall heritability of personality. PMID:19012656

  16. Temperament and peer problems from early to middle childhood: Gene-environment correlations with negative emotionality and sociability.

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, Liat; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Steinberg, Tami; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Based in a transactional framework in which children's own characteristics and the social environment influence each other to produce individual differences in social adjustment, we investigated relationships between children's peer problems and their temperamental characteristics, using a longitudinal and genetically informed study of 939 pairs of Israeli twins followed from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 6.5). Peer problems were moderately stable within children over time, such that children who appeared to have more peer problems at age 3 tended to have also more peer problems at age 6.5. Children's temperament accounted for 10%-22% of the variance in their peer problems measured at the same age and for 2%-7% of the variance longitudinally. It is important that genetic factors accounted for the association between temperament and peer problems and were in line with a gene-environment correlation process, providing support for the proposal that biologically predisposed characteristics, particularly negative emotionality and sociability, have an influence on children's early experiences of peer problems. The results highlight the need for early and continuous interventions that are specifically tailored to address the interpersonal difficulties of children with particular temperamental profiles.

  17. Passive rGE or developmental gene-environment cascade? An investigation of the role of xenobiotic metabolism genes in the association between smoke exposure during pregnancy and child birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H.C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Smith, Taylor F.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that smoke exposure during pregnancy (SDP) environmentally influences birth weight after controlling for genetic influences and maternal characteristics. However, maternal smoking during pregnancy – the behavior that leads to smoke exposure during pregnancy – is also genetically-influenced, indicating the potential role of passive gene-environment correlation. An alternative to passive gene-SDP correlation is a cascading effect whereby maternal and child genetic influences are causally linked to prenatal exposures, which then have an ‘environmental’ effect on the development of the child’s biology and behavior. We describe and demonstrate a conceptual framework for disentangling passive rGE from this cascading GE effect using a systems-based polygenic scoring approach comprised of genes shown to be important in the xenobiotic (substances foreign to the body) metabolism pathway. Data were drawn from 5,044 families from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with information on maternal SDP, birth weight, and genetic polymorphisms in the xenobiotic pathway. Within a k-fold cross-validation approach (k=5), we created weighted maternal and child polygenic scores using 18 polymorphisms from 10 genes that have been implicated in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Mothers and children shared variation in xenobiotic metabolism genes. Amongst mothers who smoked during pregnancy, neither maternal nor child xenobiotic metabolism polygenic scores were associated with a higher likelihood of smoke exposure during pregnancy, or the severity of smoke exposure during pregnancy (and therefore, neither proposed mechanism was supported), or with child birth weight. SDP was consistently associated with lower child birth weight controlling for the polygenic scores, maternal educational attainment, social class, psychiatric problems, and age. Limitations of the study design and the potential of the framework using other designs are

  18. Passive rGE or Developmental Gene-Environment Cascade? An Investigation of the Role of Xenobiotic Metabolism Genes in the Association Between Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy and Child Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H C; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Smith, Taylor F; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    There is considerable evidence that smoke exposure during pregnancy (SDP) environmentally influences birth weight after controlling for genetic influences and maternal characteristics. However, maternal smoking during pregnancy-the behavior that leads to smoke exposure during pregnancy-is also genetically-influenced, indicating the potential role of passive gene-environment correlation. An alternative to passive gene-SDP correlation is a cascading effect whereby maternal and child genetic influences are causally linked to prenatal exposures, which then have an 'environmental' effect on the development of the child's biology and behavior. We describe and demonstrate a conceptual framework for disentangling passive rGE from this cascading GE effect using a systems-based polygenic scoring approach comprised of genes shown to be important in the xenobiotic (substances foreign to the body) metabolism pathway. Data were drawn from 5044 families from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with information on maternal SDP, birth weight, and genetic polymorphisms in the xenobiotic pathway. Within a k-fold cross-validation approach (k = 5), we created weighted maternal and child polygenic scores using 18 polymorphisms from 10 genes that have been implicated in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Mothers and children shared variation in xenobiotic metabolism genes. Amongst mothers who smoked during pregnancy, neither maternal nor child xenobiotic metabolism polygenic scores were associated with a higher likelihood of smoke exposure during pregnancy, or the severity of smoke exposure during pregnancy (and therefore, neither proposed mechanism was supported), or with child birth weight. SDP was consistently associated with lower child birth weight controlling for the polygenic scores, maternal educational attainment, social class, psychiatric problems, and age. Limitations of the study design and the potential of the framework using other designs are discussed.

  19. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Direct Environmental Effects and Passive Genotype-Environment Correlations in the Association between Familial Risk Factors and Child Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Hunt, Elizabeth; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Steve; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous work reports an association between familial risk factors stemming from parental characteristics and offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). This association may reflect a) the direct effects of familial environment, and b) a passive gene-environment correlation, wherein the parents provide both the genes and the environment. The current study examined the contributions of direct environmental influences and passive gene-environment correlations by comparing the effects of familial risk factors on child DBDs in genetically related (biological) and non-related (adoptive) families. Method: Participants were 402 adoptive and 204 biological families. Familial environment was defined as maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and antisociality, marital conflict, and divorce; offspring DBDs included attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. Mixed-level regressions estimated the main effects of familial environment, adoption status, and the familial environment by adoption status interaction term, which tested for a presence of passive gene-environment correlations. Results: There was a main effect of maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and marital discord on child DBDs, indicating a direct environmental effect. There was no direct environmental effect of maternal or paternal antisociality, but maternal and paternal antisociality had stronger associations with child DBDs in biological families than adoptive families, indicating the presence of a passive gene-environment correlation. Conclusions: Many familial risk factors affected children equally across genetically-related and non-related families, providing evidence for direct environmental effects. The relationship of parental antisociality and offspring DBDs was best explained by a passive gene-environment correlation, where a general vulnerability toward externalizing psychopathology is passed down by the parents to the

  20. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  1. Child-evoked maternal negativity from 9 to 27 months: evidence of gene-environment correlation and its moderation by marital distress

    PubMed Central

    Fearon, R.M. Pasco; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented pervasive genetic influences on emotional and behavioral disturbance across the lifespan and on liability to adult psychiatric disorder. Increasingly, interest is turning to mechanisms of gene-environment interplay in attempting to understand the earliest manifestations of genetic risk. We report findings from a prospective adoption study, which aimed to test the role of evocative gene-environment correlation in early development. 561 infants adopted at birth were studied between 9 and 27 months with their adoptive parents and birth mothers. Birth mother psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms scales were used as indicators of genetic influence, and multiple self-report measures were used to index adoptive mother parental negativity. We hypothesized that birth parent psychopathology would be associated with greater adoptive parent negativity, and that such evocative effects would be amplified under conditions of high family adversity. The findings suggested that genetic factors linked to birth mother externalizing psychopathology may evoke negative reactions in adoptive mothers in the first year of life, but primarily when the adoptive family environment was characterized by marital problems. The observed maternal negativity mediated the effects of genetic risk on child adjustment at 27 months. The results underline the importance of genetically-influenced evocative processes in early development. PMID:25216383

  2. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  3. Gene-Environment Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural genetics was initially concerned with partitioning population variance into that due to genetics and that due to environmental influences. The implication was that the two were separate and it was assumed that gene-environment interactions were usually of so little importance that they could safely be ignored. Theoretical…

  4. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  5. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  6. The Correlation of Active and Passive Microwave Outputs for the Skylab S-193 Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the Skylab S-193 13.9 GHz Radiometer/Scatterometer data. Computer analysis of the S-193 data shows more than 50 percent of the radiometer and scatterometer data are uncorrelated. The correlation coefficients computed for the data gathered over various ground scenes indicates the desirability of using both active and passive sensors for the determination of various Earth phenomena.

  7. 3D passive photon counting automatic target recognition using advanced correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we present results for detecting and recognizing 3D objects in photon counting images using integral imaging with maximum average correlation height filters. We show that even under photon starved conditions objects may be automatically recognized in passively sensed 3D images using advanced correlation filters. We show that the proposed filter synthesized with ideal training images can detect and recognize a 3D object in photon counting images, even in the presence of occlusions and obscuration.

  8. Anisotropic Turbulent Advection of a Passive Vector Field: Effects of the Finite Correlation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, N. V.; Gulitskiy, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    The turbulent passive advection under the environment (velocity) field with finite correlation time is studied. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior of a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow, is investigated by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and prescribed pair correlation function. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations and depend on the relation between the exponents in the energy energy spectrum ɛ ∝ k⊥1-ξ and the dispersion law ω ∝ k⊥2-η . The corresponding anomalous exponents are associated with the critical dimensions of tensor composite operators built solely of the passive vector field itself. In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the dependence on the integral turbulence scale L has a logarithmic behavior: instead of power-like corrections to ordinary scaling, determined by naive (canonical) dimensions, the anomalies manifest themselves as polynomials of logarithms of L. Due to the presence of the anisotropy in the model, all multiloop diagrams are equal to zero, thus this result is exact.

  9. Gene-Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews behavioral genetic research from the past decade that has moved beyond simply studying the independent influences of genes and environments. The studies considered in this review have instead focused on understanding gene-environment interplay, including genotype-environment correlation (rGE) and genotype x environment…

  10. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  11. Gene-Environment Interplay between Peer Rejection and Depressive Behavior in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Girard, Alain; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk for depressive behavior may increase the likelihood of exposure to environmental stressors (gene-environment correlation, rGE). By the same token, exposure to environmental stressors may moderate the effect of genes on depressive behavior (gene-environment interaction, GxE). Relating these processes to a peer-related…

  12. Gene-Environment Interplay between Number of Friends and Prosocial Leadership Behavior in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivizzigno, Alessandra S.; Brendgen, Mara; Feng, Bei; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Enriched environments may moderate the effect of genetic factors on prosocial leadership (gene-environment interaction, G × E). However, positive environmental experiences may also themselves be influenced by a genetic disposition for prosocial leadership (gene-environment correlation, rGE). Relating these processes to friendships, the present…

  13. Gene-Environment Processes Linking Aggression, Peer Victimization, and the Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Barker, Edward D.; Vitaro, Frank; Girard, Alain; Tremblay, Richard; Perusse, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior in middle childhood is at least partly explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, estimations of simple effects ignore possible gene-environment interactions (G x E) or gene-environment correlations (rGE) in the etiology of aggression. The present study aimed to simultaneously test for G x E and rGE processes between…

  14. Multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves based on cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Xia, J.; Xu, Z.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional active seismic survey can no longer be properly applied in highly populated urban areas due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. Passive seismic methods, however, have gained much more attention from the engineering geophysics community because of their environmental friendly and deeper investigation depth. Due to extracting signal from noise has never been as comfortable as that in active seismic survey, how to make it more efficiently and accurately has been emphasized. We propose a multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves (MAPW) based on long noise sequences cross-correlations to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a relative low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz) in urban areas. We utilize seismic interferometry to produce common virtual source gathers from one-hour-long noise records and do dispersion measurements by using the classic passive multi-channel analysis of surface waves (PMASW). We used synthetic tests to demonstrate the advantages of MAPW for various noise distributions. Results show that our method has the superiority of maximizing the analysis accuracy. Finally, we used two field data applications to demonstrate the advantages of our MAPW over the classic PMASW on isolating azimuth of the predominant noise sources and the effectivity of combined survey of active multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and MAPW. We suggest, for the field operation using MAPW, that a parallel receiver line which is close to a main road or river, if any, with one or two hours noise observation will be an effective means for an unbiased dispersion image. Keywords: passive seismic method, MAPW, MASW, cross-correlation, directional noise source, spatial-aliasing effects, inversion

  15. Active Flexion in Weight Bearing Better Correlates with Functional Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty than Passive Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Dong; Jain, Nimash; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Yune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Correlations between maximum flexion and functional outcomes in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are reportedly weak. We investigated whether there are differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and other types of maximum flexion and whether the type of maximum flexion correlates with functional outcomes. Materials and Methods A total of 210 patients (359 knees) underwent preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up evaluations (6, 12, and 24 months) for the assessment of clinical outcomes including maximum knee flexion. Maximum flexion was measured under five conditions: passive nonweight bearing, passive weight bearing, active nonweight bearing, and active weight bearing with or without arm support. Data were analyzed for relationships between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing by Pearson correlation analyses, and a variance comparison between measurement techniques via paired t test. Results We observed substantial differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and the other four maximum flexion types. At all time points, passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing correlated poorly with active maximum flexion in weight bearing with or without arm support. Active maximum flexion in weight bearing better correlated with functional outcomes than the other maximum flexion types. Conclusions Our study suggests active maximum flexion in weight bearing should be reported together with passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing in research on the knee motion arc after TKA. PMID:27274468

  16. Temporal trends and correlates of passive commuting to and from school in children from 9 provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhaohui; Bauman, Adrian; Dibley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine trends and correlates of passive (inactive) commuting to school among Chinese children aged 6–18 years in nine provinces. Methods The trends analysis used school commuting data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys in 1997 (n=2454), 2000 (n=1978), 2004 (n=1549) and 2006 (n=1236). Generalised estimating equations examined trends after adjusting for age, sex and region, and also explored the correlates of passive commuting to school in urban and rural areas (n=6935). Results An increase in passive commuting to school was noted (3.6% in 1997, 14.1% in 2006, P < 0.0001). Children attending schools not located in their local community were more likely to passively commute. In urban areas, maternal education was associated with increased passive commuting (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.03–1.92). In rural areas, family income (AOR high/low = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.52–2.96), paternal education (AOR high/low = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.17 – 2.07), motorcycle ownership (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI: 1.19–2.07) were associated with passive commuting. Conclusion Passive commuting to school increased in China over a decade and was associated with family socioeconomic status, school location, and in rural children, with access to motorised vehicles. PMID:21524662

  17. Gene-environment interaction and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec; Sarchiopone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir

    2009-07-01

    Studies have increasingly shown that gene-environment interactions are important in psychiatry. Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem. Suicide is generally considered to be a multi-determined act involving various areas of proximal and distal risk. Genetic risk factors are estimated to account for approximately 30% to 40% of the variance in suicidal behavior. In this article, the authors review relevant studies concerning the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene and environmental variables as a model of gene-environment interactions that may have an impact on suicidal behavior. The findings reviewed here suggest that there may be meaningful interactions between distal and proximal suicide risk factors that may amplify the risk of suicidal behavior. Future studies of suicidal behavior should examine both genetic and environmental variables and examine for gene-environment interactions.

  18. The neural correlates of subjectively perceived and passively matched loudness perception in auditory phantom perception

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Dirk; Congedo, Marco; Vanneste, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A fundamental question in phantom perception is determining whether the brain creates a network that represents the sound intensity of the auditory phantom as measured by tinnitus matching (in dB), or whether the phantom perception is actually only a representation of the subjectively perceived loudness. Methods In tinnitus patients, tinnitus loudness was tested in two ways, by a numeric rating scale for subjectively perceived loudness and a more objective tinnitus-matching test, albeit it is still a subjective measure. Results Passively matched tinnitus does not correlate with subjective numeric rating scale, and has no electrophysiological correlates. Subjective loudness, in a whole-brain analysis, is correlated with activity in the left anterior insula (alpha), the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (beta), and the left parahippocampus (gamma). A ROI analysis finds correlations with the auditory cortex (high beta and gamma) as well. The theta band links gamma band activity in the auditory cortex and parahippocampus via theta–gamma nesting. Conclusions Apparently the brain generates a network that represents subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness only, which is context dependent. The subjective loudness network consists of the anterior cingulate/insula, the parahippocampus, and the auditory cortex. The gamma band activity in the parahippocampus and the auditory cortex is functionally linked via theta–gamma nested lagged phase synchronization. PMID:25874164

  19. International Network of Passive Correlation Ranging for Orbit Determination of a Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola; Bushuev, Felix; Shulga, Oleksandr; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Shakun, Leonid; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Moskalenko, Sergiy; Kulishenko, Vladislav; Malynovskyi, Yevgen

    2016-12-01

    An international network of passive correlation ranging of a geostationary telecommunication satellite is considered in the article. The network is developed by the RI "MAO". The network consists of five spatially separated stations of synchronized reception of DVB-S signals of digital satellite TV. The stations are located in Ukraine and Latvia. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) on the network stations of the DVB-S signals, radiated by the satellite, is a measured parameter. The results of TDOA estimation obtained by the network in May-August 2016 are presented in the article. Orbital parameters of the tracked satellite are determined using measured values of the TDOA and two models of satellite motion: the analytical model SGP4/SDP4 and the model of numerical integration of the equations of satellite motion. Both models are realized using the free low-level space dynamics library OREKIT (ORbit Extrapolation KIT).

  20. Why study gene-environment interactions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the reasons for investigating gene-environment interactions and address recent reports evaluating interactions between genes and environmental modulators in relation to cardiovascular disease and its common risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies focusing on smoking, phy...

  1. Biological Implications of Gene-Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction (G x E) has been treated as both a statistical phenomenon and a biological reality. It is argued that, although there are important statistical issues that need to be considered, the focus has to be on the biological implications of G x E. Four reports of G x E deriving from the Dunedin longitudinal study are used as…

  2. Gene-environment interplay between cannabis and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Henquet, Cécile; Di Forti, Marta; Morrison, Paul; Kuepper, Rebecca; Murray, Robin M

    2008-11-01

    Cannabis use is considered a contributory cause of schizophrenia and psychotic illness. However, only a small proportion of cannabis users develop psychosis. This can partly be explained by the amount and duration of the consumption of cannabis and by its strength but also by the age at which individuals are first exposed to cannabis. Genetic factors, in particular, are likely to play a role in the short- and the long-term effects cannabis may have on psychosis outcome. This review will therefore consider the interplay between genes and exposure to cannabis in the development of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. Studies using genetic, epidemiological, experimental, and observational techniques will be discussed to investigate gene-environment correlation gene-environment interaction, and higher order interactions within the cannabis-psychosis association. Evidence suggests that mechanisms of gene-environment interaction are likely to underlie the association between cannabis and psychosis. In this respect, multiple variations within multiple genes--rather than single genetic polymorphisms--together with other environmental factors (eg, stress) may interact with cannabis to increase the risk of psychosis. Further research on these higher order interactions is needed to better understand the biological pathway by which cannabis use, in some individuals, may cause psychosis in the short- and long term.

  3. Neuronal Correlates of a Virtual-Reality-Based Passive Sensory P300 Network

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chuan; Syue, Kai-Syun; Li, Kai-Chiun; Yeh, Shih-Ching

    2014-01-01

    P300, a positive event-related potential (ERP) evoked at around 300 ms after stimulus, can be elicited using an active or passive oddball paradigm. Active P300 requires a person’s intentional response, whereas passive P300 does not require an intentional response. Passive P300 has been used in incommunicative patients for consciousness detection and brain computer interface. Active and passive P300 differ in amplitude, but not in latency or scalp distribution. However, no study has addressed the mechanism underlying the production of passive P300. In particular, it remains unclear whether the passive P300 shares an identical active P300 generating network architecture when no response is required. This study aims to explore the hierarchical network of passive sensory P300 production using dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for ERP and a novel virtual reality (VR)-based passive oddball paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the causal relationship of this passive P300 network and the changes in connection strength to address the possible functional roles. A classical ERP analysis was performed to verify that the proposed VR-based game can reliably elicit passive P300. The DCM results suggested that the passive and active P300 share the same parietal-frontal neural network for attentional control and, underlying the passive network, the feed-forward modulation is stronger than the feed-back one. The functional role of this forward modulation may indicate the delivery of sensory information, automatic detection of differences, and stimulus-driven attentional processes involved in performing this passive task. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to address the passive P300 network. The results of this study may provide a reference for future clinical studies on addressing the network alternations under pathological states of incommunicative patients. However, caution is required when comparing patients’ analytic results with this study. For example, the task

  4. The Role of Individual Correlates and Class Norms in Defending and Passive Bystanding Behavior in Bullying: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Vieno, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates possible individual and class correlates of defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying, in a sample of 1,825 Italian primary school (mean age = 10 years 1 month) and middle school (mean age = 13 years 2 months) students. The findings of a series of multilevel regression models show that both individual (e.g.,…

  5. Gene-environment interactions in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Daniel A.; Newman, Lee S.; Kavuru, Mani S.

    2007-01-01

    Susceptibility to most human diseases is polygenic, with complex interactions between functional polymorphisms of single genes governing disease incidence, phenotype, or both. In this context, the contribution of any discrete gene is generally modest for a single individual, but may confer substantial attributable risk on a population level. Environmental exposure can modify the effects of a polymorphism, either by providing a necessary substrate for development of human disease or because the effects of a given exposure modulate the effects of the gene. In several diseases, genetic polymorphisms have been shown to be context-dependent, i.e. the effects of a genetic variant are realized only in the setting of a relevant exposure. Since sarcoidosis susceptibility is dependent on both genetic and environmental modifiers, the study of gene-environment interactions may yield important pathogenetic information and will likely be crucial for uncovering the range of genetic susceptibility loci. However, the complexity of these relationships implies that investigations of gene-environment interactions will require the study of large cohorts with carefully-defined exposures and similar clinical phenotypes. A general principle is that the study of gene-environment interactions requires a sample size at least several-fold greater than for either factor alone. To date, the presence of environmental modifiers has been demonstrated for one sarcoidosis susceptibility locus, HLA-DQB1, in African-American families. This article reviews general considerations obtaining for the study of gene-environment interactions in sarcoidosis. It also describes the limited current understanding of the role of environmental influences on sarcoidosis susceptibility genes. PMID:17560304

  6. Passive correlation ranging of a geostationary satellite using DVB-S payload signals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakun, Leonid; Shulga, Alexandr; Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya; Bushuev, Felix; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Moskalenko, Sergiy; Kulishenko, Vladislav; Balagura, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Passive correlation ranging (PaCoRa) for geostationary satellites is now considered as an alternate to tone-ranging (https://artes.esa.int/search/node/PaCoRa). The PaCoRa method has been employed in the Research Institute "Nikolaev astronomical observatory" since the first experiment in August 2011 with two stations spatially separated on 150 km. The PaCoRa has been considered as an independent method for tracking the future Ukrainian geostationary satellite "Lybid'. Now a radio engineering complex (RC) for passive ranging consists of five spatially separated stations of receiving digital satellite television and a data processing center located in Mykolaiv. The stations are located in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Mukacheve, Mykolaiv (Ukraine) and in Ventspils (Latvia). Each station has identical equipment. The equipment allows making synchronous recording of fragments of the DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of a satellite television receiver. The fragments are recorded every second. Synchronization of the stations is performed using GPS receivers. Samples of the complex signal obtained in this way are archived and are sent to the data processing center over the Internet. Here the time differences of arrival (TDOA) for pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. The values of the TDOA that measured every second are used for orbit determination (OD) of the satellite. The results of orbit determination of the geostationary telecommunication satellite "Eutelsat-13B" (13º East) obtained during about four months of observations in 2015 are presented in the report. The TDOA and OD accuracies are also given. Single-measurement error (1 sigma) of the TDOA is equal about 8.7 ns for all pairs of the stations. Standard deviations and average values of the residuals between the observed TDOA and the TDOA computed using the orbit elements obtained from optical measurements are estimated for the pairs Kharkiv-Mykolaiv and

  7. Finding gene-environment interactions for phobias.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alice M; Lau, Jennifer Y F; Eley, Thalia C

    2008-03-01

    Phobias are common disorders causing a great deal of suffering. Studies of gene-environment interaction (G x E) have revealed much about the complex processes underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders but have told us little about phobias. This article describes what is already known about genetic and environmental influences upon phobias and suggests how this information can be used to optimise the chances of discovering G x Es for phobias. In addition to the careful conceptualisation of new studies, it is suggested that data already collected should be re-analysed in light of increased understanding of processes influencing phobias.

  8. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  9. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2–12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3–5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization

  10. An automated cross-correlation based event detection technique and its application to surface passive data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Behura, Jyoti; Haines, Seth S.; Batzle, Mike

    2013-01-01

    In studies on heavy oil, shale reservoirs, tight gas and enhanced geothermal systems, the use of surface passive seismic data to monitor induced microseismicity due to the fluid flow in the subsurface is becoming more common. However, in most studies passive seismic records contain days and months of data and manually analysing the data can be expensive and inaccurate. Moreover, in the presence of noise, detecting the arrival of weak microseismic events becomes challenging. Hence, the use of an automated, accurate and computationally fast technique for event detection in passive seismic data is essential. The conventional automatic event identification algorithm computes a running-window energy ratio of the short-term average to the long-term average of the passive seismic data for each trace. We show that for the common case of a low signal-to-noise ratio in surface passive records, the conventional method is not sufficiently effective at event identification. Here, we extend the conventional algorithm by introducing a technique that is based on the cross-correlation of the energy ratios computed by the conventional method. With our technique we can measure the similarities amongst the computed energy ratios at different traces. Our approach is successful at improving the detectability of events with a low signal-to-noise ratio that are not detectable with the conventional algorithm. Also, our algorithm has the advantage to identify if an event is common to all stations (a regional event) or to a limited number of stations (a local event). We provide examples of applying our technique to synthetic data and a field surface passive data set recorded at a geothermal site.

  11. [Interhemisphere asymmetry of hippocampus and neocortex in correlates of active and passive behavioural strategy in negative emotional situations].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P; Ziablintseva, E A

    2010-12-01

    The interhemisphere interaction of neurons in bilateral derivations from parietal and sensomotor areas of neocortex and the area CA1 of hippocampus were studied in rabbits with active and passive behavioural strategy in the open field by plotting histograms of crosscorrelation. In passive animals, there was asymmetry in bilateral neuronal interaction: with right-sided dominance in the neocortex and with left-sided that--in the hippocampus. On the contrary, in active rabbits, the left-sided dominance was observed in the neocortex, and the lateralization was not revealed in the hippocampus. The brain laterality was reflected in motor asymmetry of animals in preferring left or right turns in the open field. Passive rabbits made relatively more left turns, and the active animals--right turns. Systemic administration of agonist GABA(B) receptors phenibut decreased behavioural responses to emotional stimuli and eliminated interhemisphere asymmetry observed usually in negative emotional situations. Thus the interhemisphere asymmetry of the neocortex and hippocampus is correlated with individual typological characteristics of animals and reflects the readiness to preferential forms of behavioural responses in active and passive rabbits.

  12. Invited commentary: genes, environment, and hybrid vigor.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Marta; Guessous, Idris; Khoury, Muin J

    2009-09-15

    In the 1950s, case-control studies of smoking and lung cancer established a paradigm for epidemiologic studies of risk factors for chronic diseases. Since then, thousands of case-control studies have examined possible associations of countless risk factors with numerous diseases, rarely finding associations as strong or consistent as that of smoking with lung cancer. Recently, researchers have applied advances in molecular genetics to conduct candidate gene and genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Skeptics among both epidemiologists and geneticists have argued that genomic research adds little value when most cases of disease can be attributed to a preventable exposure; however, well-conducted studies of gene-environment interactions that draw on data from more than 50 years of research in toxicology, pathophysiology, and behavioral science offer important models for the development of more comprehensive approaches to understanding the etiology of chronic diseases.

  13. Narrative review of genes, environment, and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Do, Elizabeth; Maes, Hermine

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the US, emphasizing the need to understand which genes and environments are involved in the establishment of cigarette use behaviors. However, to date, no comprehensive review of the influence of genes, the environment, and their interaction on cigarette use exists. This narrative review provides a description of gene variants and environmental factors associated with cigarette use, as well as an overview of studies investigating gene-environment interaction (GxE) in cigarette use. GxE studies of cigarette use have been useful in demonstrating that the influence of genes changes as a function of both the phenotype being measured and the environment. However, it is difficult to determine how the effect of genes contributing to different phenotypes of cigarette use changes as a function of the environment. This suggests the need for more studies of GxE, to parse out the effects of genes and the environment across the development of cigarette use phenotypes, which may help to inform potential prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of cigarette use. Key Messages No comprehensive reviews of the influence of genes, the environment, and their interaction on cigarette use exist currently. The influence of genes may change as a function of the environment and the phenotype being measured. It is difficult to determine how the effect of genes contributing to different phenotypes of cigarette use changes according to environmental context, suggesting the need for more studies of gene-environment interaction related to cigarette use to parse out effects.

  14. Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology and climate investigations. Current and future satellite missions with L-band passive microwave radiometers can provide valuable information for monitoring the global soil moisture. A factor that can play a significant role in the modeling...

  15. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  16. Gene-environment interactions in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matejcic, Marco; Iqbal Parker, M

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignancies in low- and medium-income countries and represents a disease of public health importance because of its poor prognosis and high mortality rate in these regions. The striking variation in the prevalence of EC among different ethnic groups suggests a significant contribution of population-specific environmental and dietary factors to susceptibility to the disease. Although individuals within a demarcated geographical area are exposed to the same environment and share similar dietary habits, not all of them will develop the disease; thus genetic susceptibility to environmental risk factors may play a key role in the development of EC. A wide range of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of carcinogens introduced via the diet or inhaled from the environment. Such dietary or environmental carcinogens can bind to DNA, resulting in mutations that may lead to carcinogenesis. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of these enzymes are all subject to genetic polymorphisms that can lead to altered expression or activity of the encoded proteins. Genetic polymorphisms may, therefore, act as molecular biomarkers that can provide important predictive information about carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge on the genetic risk factors associated with the development of EC in different populations; it addresses mainly the topics of genetic polymorphisms, gene-environment interactions, and carcinogenesis. We have reviewed the published data on genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and discuss some of the potential gene-environment interactions underlying esophageal carcinogenesis. The main enzymes discussed in this review are the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), N-acetyltransferases (NATs), cytochrome P450s (CYPs), sulfotransferases (SULTs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and epoxide hydrolases (EHs), all of which

  17. Discharge correlates of hippocampal complex spike neurons in behaving rats passively displaced on a mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Wiener, S I; Berthoz, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated location-, movement-, and directional-selectivity of action potential discharges of hippocampal neurons in awake rats subjected to passive displacements in order to estimate vestibular contributions to this activity. Water-deprived rats were habituated to being restrained in a sling mounted on a moving robot. The extracellular activity of single complex-spike cells in area CA1 of the hippocampus was recorded with glass micropipettes in the rats during passive translations, rotations, and immobility. The robot made a standardized series of trajectories starting from each of four corners of a square enclosure surrounded by black curtains. A drop of water was delivered to the rat each time the robot arrived at one designated corner of the arena. The activities of 29 neurons were investigated in 45 recording sessions (16 of which were in total darkness) in four rats. Hippocampal neurons recorded in 31 sessions (9 sessions in the dark) had significant location-selective increases or decreases in firing rate as the rat was passively displaced or immobile within the experimental arena. In 20 sessions (6 in the dark) direction-selective discharges were found when the rat was in the corners. In six sessions, cells discharged selectively during movement initiation or termination. These data suggest that information essential for path integration is present in the hippocampus and that inertial cues could play a vital role in hippocampal spatial functions. These results resemble those of O'Mara et al. ([1994] J Neurosci 14:6511) using the same protocol in macaques, suggesting similarities in hippocampal processing and function.

  18. Gene-environment interactions in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Cecil, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global and growing problem. The detrimental health consequences of obesity are significant and include co-morbidities such as diabetes, cancer and coronary heart disease. The marked rise in obesity observed over the last three decades suggests that behavioural and environmental factors underpin the chronic mismatch between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, not all individuals become obese, suggesting that there is considerable variation in responsiveness to 'obesogenic' environments. Some individuals defend easily against a propensity to accumulate fat mass and become overweight whilst others are predisposed to gain weight, possibly as a function of genotype. The genetic contribution to obesity is well established. Common obesity is polygenic, involving complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and it is these interactions that produce the multi-factorial obese phenotypes. Candidate gene variants for polygenic obesity appear to disrupt pathways involved in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure and include adrenergic receptors, uncoupling proteins, PPARG, POMC, MC4R and a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO locus. Notably, the FTO gene is the most robust gene for common obesity characterised to date, and recent data shows that the FTO locus seems to confer risk of obesity through increasing energy intake and reduced satiety. Gene variants involved in pathways regulating addiction and reward behaviours may also play a role in predisposition to obesity. Understanding the routes through which the genotype is expressed will ultimately provide opportunities for developing strategies to intervene, as the interaction between genotype and environment is potentially modifiable through behaviour change.

  19. Variance components models for gene-environment interaction in twin analysis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Shaun

    2002-12-01

    Gene-environment interaction is likely to be a common and important source of variation for complex behavioral traits. Often conceptualized as the genetic control of sensitivity to the environment, it can be incorporated in variance components twin analyses by partitioning genetic effects into a mean part, which is independent of the environment, and a part that is a linear function of the environment. The model allows for one or more environmental moderator variables (that possibly interact with each other) that may i). be continuous or binary ii). differ between twins within a pair iii). interact with residual environmental as well as genetic effects iv) have nonlinear moderating properties v). show scalar (different magnitudes) or qualitative (different genes) interactions vi). be correlated with genetic effects acting upon the trait, to allow for a test of gene-environment interaction in the presence of gene-environment correlation. Aspects and applications of a class of models are explored by simulation, in the context of both individual differences twin analysis and, in a companion paper (Purcell & Sham, 2002) sibpair quantitative trait locus linkage analysis. As well as elucidating environmental pathways, consideration of gene-environment interaction in quantitative and molecular studies will potentially direct and enhance gene-mapping efforts.

  20. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends' and Nonfriends' Behaviors with Children's Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and…

  1. Passive Source Localization from Spatially Correlated Angle-of-Arrival Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    correlation coefficient . However, for source ranges much larger than sensor separation, both the bias and the variance tend to increase linearly with decreasing correlation coefficient , whereas they tend to decrease with increasing sensor separation. The combined effect for a distant source in a stationary random medium, when evaluated for typical spatial wavefront autocorrelation functions, is a significant reduction in the estimator bias and variance dependence on sensor separation, as compared to the uncorrelated case. With minor modifications, the

  2. Gene-environment studies: any advantage over environmental studies?

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Hemminki, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Gene-environment studies have been motivated by the likely existence of prevalent low-risk genes that interact with common environmental exposures. The present study assessed the statistical advantage of the simultaneous consideration of genes and environment to investigate the effect of environmental risk factors on disease. In particular, we contemplated the possibility that several genes modulate the environmental effect. Environmental exposures, genotypes and phenotypes were simulated according to a wide range of parameter settings. Different models of gene-gene-environment interaction were considered. For each parameter combination, we estimated the probability of detecting the main environmental effect, the power to identify the gene-environment interaction and the frequency of environmentally affected individuals at which environmental and gene-environment studies show the same statistical power. The proportion of cases in the population attributable to the modeled risk factors was also calculated. Our data indicate that environmental exposures with weak effects may account for a significant proportion of the population prevalence of the disease. A general result was that, if the environmental effect was restricted to rare genotypes, the power to detect the gene-environment interaction was higher than the power to identify the main environmental effect. In other words, when few individuals contribute to the overall environmental effect, individual contributions are large and result in easily identifiable gene-environment interactions. Moreover, when multiple genes interacted with the environment, the statistical benefit of gene-environment studies was limited to those studies that included major contributors to the gene-environment interaction. The advantage of gene-environment over plain environmental studies also depends on the inheritance mode of the involved genes, on the study design and, to some extend, on the disease prevalence.

  3. Calibration of Passive Microwave Polarimeters that Use Hybrid Coupler-Based Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Four calibration algorithms are studied for microwave polarimeters that use hybrid coupler-based correlators: 1) conventional two-look of hot and cold sources, 2) three looks of hot and cold source combinations, 3) two-look with correlated source, and 4) four-look combining methods 2 and 3. The systematic errors are found to depend on the polarimeter component parameters and accuracy of calibration noise temperatures. A case study radiometer in four different remote sensing scenarios was considered in light of these results. Applications for Ocean surface salinity, Ocean surface winds, and soil moisture were found to be sensitive to different systematic errors. Finally, a standard uncertainty analysis was performed on the four-look calibration algorithm, which was found to be most sensitive to the correlated calibration source.

  4. Passive cable properties and morphological correlates of neurones in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, S A; Hamos, J E; Sherman, S M

    1987-01-01

    1. We used an in vivo preparation of the cat to study the passive cable properties of sixteen X and twelve Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Cells were modelled as equivalent cylinders according to Rall's formulations (Rall, 1959a, 1969, 1977). We injected intracellular current pulses into these geniculate neurones, and we analysed the resulting voltage transients to obtain the cable parameters of these cells. In addition, fifty-four physiologically characterized neurones were labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and analysed morphologically. 2. Analysis of HRP-labelled geniculate neurones showed that the dendritic branching pattern of these cells adheres closely to the 3/2 power rule. That is, at each branch point, the diameter of the parent branch raised to the 3/2 power equals the sum of the diameters of the daughter dendrites after each is raised to the 3/2 power. Furthermore, preliminary data indicate that the dendritic terminations emanating from each primary dendrite occur at the same electrotonic distance from the soma. These observations suggest that both X and Y cells meet the geometric constraints necessary for reduction of their dendritic arbors into equivalent cylinders. 3. We found a strong linear relationship between the diameter of each primary dendrite and the membrane surface area of the arbor emanating from it. We used this relationship to derive an algorithm for determining the total somatic and dendritic membrane surface area of an X and Y cell simply from knowledge of the diameters of its soma and primary dendrites. 4. Both geniculate X and Y cells display current-voltage relationships that were linear within +/- 20 mV of the resting membrane potential. This meant that we could easily remain within the linear voltage range during the voltage transient analyses. 5. X and Y cells clearly differ in terms of many of their electrical properties, including input resistance, membrane time constant and electrotonic length. The

  5. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin A; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D; Yost, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD. This is one of the largest mobile monitoring campaigns in terms of spatial extent undertaken at this time. The mobile platform made repeat measurements every third day at each intersection for 6-10 minutes at a resolution of 10 s. In two-week periods in both summer and winter seasons, each site was visited 3-4 times, and a temporal adjustment was applied to each dataset. We present the correlations between eight species measured using mobile monitoring and the 2-week PSD data and observe correlations between mobile NOx measurements and PSD NOx measurements in both summer and winter (Pearson's r = 0.84 and 0.48, respectively). The summer season exhibited the strongest correlations between multiple pollutants, whereas the winter had comparatively few statistically significant correlations. In the summer CO was correlated with PSD pentanes (r = 0.81), and PSD NOx was correlated with mobile measurements of black carbon (r = 0.83), two ultrafine particle count measures (r =0.8), and intermodal (1-3 μm) particle counts (r = 0.73). Principal Component Analysis of the combined PSD and mobile monitoring data revealed multipollutant features consistent with light duty vehicle traffic, diesel exhaust and crankcase blow by. These features were more consistent

  6. Development of phytotoxicity indexes and their correlation with ecotoxicological, stability and physicochemical parameters during passive composting of poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian Jonathan; Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Riera, Nicolás Iván; Torre, Virginia Della; López, Valeria Alejandra; Molina, Cecilia Denisse; Fernández, Florencia Estefanía; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Barrena, Raquel; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and composted poultry manure is applied as soil amendment. The aims of this study were: (1) to develop phytotoxicity indexes for organic wastes and composts, and (2) to assess the correlation among phytotoxicity indexes, ecotoxicological endpoints and stability and physicochemical parameters during passive composting of poultry manure. Six 2-m(3) composting piles were constructed and four parameter groups (physicochemical and microbiological parameters, ecotoxicological endpoints, and biological activity) were determined at four sampling times during 92days. Extracts were used to carry out acute toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Raphanus sativus. Composting decreased average toxicity 22.8% for the 3 species and D. magna was the most sensitive species. The static respiration index decreased from 1.12 to 0.46mgO2gOMh(-1) whilst organic matter reduced by 64.1% at the end of the process. Escherichia coli colonies remained higher than values recommended by international guidelines. The D. magna immobilization test allowed the assessment of possible leachate or run-off toxicity. The new phytotoxicity indexes (RGIC0.8 and GIC80%), proposed in this study, as well as salinity, proved to be good maturity indicators. Hence, these phytotoxicity indexes could be implemented in monitoring strategies as useful ecotoxicological tools. Multivariate analyses demonstrated positive correlations between ecotoxicological endpoints (low toxicity) and biological activity (stability). These two parameter groups were associated at the final sampling time and showed negative correlations with several physicochemical parameters (organic and inorganic contents). The final poultry manure compost was rendered stable, but immature and, thus, unsuitable for soil amending.

  7. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  8. The impact of gate width setting and gate utilization factors on plutonium assay in passive correlated neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Santi, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  9. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  10. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    DOE PAGES

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; ...

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimummore » gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.« less

  11. Understanding risk for psychopathology through imaging gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the interplay of genes, experience, and the brain is critical to understanding psychopathology. We review the recent gene-environment interaction (GxE) and imaging genetics literature with the goal of developing models to bridge these approaches within single imaging gene-environment interaction (IGxE) studies. We explore challenges inherent in both GxE and imaging genetics and highlight studies that address these limitations. In specifying IGxE models, we examine statistical methods for combining these approaches, and explore plausible biological mechanisms (e.g., epigenetics) through which these conditional mechanisms can be understood. Finally, we discuss the potential contribution that IGxE studies can make to understanding psychopathology and developing more personalized and effective prevention and treatment. PMID:21839667

  12. Pilot study of the cortical correlates and clinical effects of passive ankle mobilisation in children with upper motorneuron lesions.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Vassena, Elena; Strazzer, Sandra; Pittaccio, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Upper motoreuron lesions (UML) affects people of all ages and conditions and is a major cause of disability in the young. Whereas active exercise is recognised as paramount to restore the lost motor functions, passive mobilisation of the affected limbs is regarded as a means to safeguard muscular tissue properties during a period of disuse and lack of voluntary control, which often characterises the acute and sub-acute phases. The purpose of the present work is to study the cortical reactivity in UML patients who are treated for two weeks with a robotic passive ankle mobiliser, and the clinical effects of this treatment. The rationale is that, if passive mobilisation can affect positively the functional reorganisation at a cortical level, it could be proposed as a suitable tool to maintain afferentation and guide central nervous remapping, thus bridging the period of time when active exercise is impossible due to acute paresis. Preliminary results on 7 patients (aged 15.35±4.36) showed that this therapy is very well tolerated and suggest that its application could specifically improve ankle PROM and plantarflexor muscle length. EEG data showed improved desynchronisation in at least one frequency band in 3 patients of the study, thus confirming the effects of passive mobilisation on the cortical re-organisation of some patients having UML.

  13. ERP correlates of object recognition memory in Down syndrome: Do active and passive tasks measure the same thing?

    PubMed

    Van Hoogmoed, A H; Nadel, L; Spanò, G; Edgin, J O

    2016-02-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) can help to determine the cognitive and neural processes underlying memory functions and are often used to study populations with severe memory impairment. In healthy adults, memory is typically assessed with active tasks, while in patient studies passive memory paradigms are generally used. In this study we examined whether active and passive continuous object recognition tasks measure the same underlying memory process in typically developing (TD) adults and in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), a population with known hippocampal impairment. We further explored how ERPs in these tasks relate to behavioral measures of memory. Data-driven analysis techniques revealed large differences in old-new effects in the active versus passive task in TD adults, but no difference between these tasks in DS. The group with DS required additional processing in the active task in comparison to the TD group in two ways. First, the old-new effect started 150 ms later. Second, more repetitions were required to show the old-new effect. In the group with DS, performance on a behavioral measure of object-location memory was related to ERP measures across both tasks. In total, our results suggest that active and passive ERP memory measures do not differ in DS and likely reflect the use of implicit memory, but not explicit processing, on both tasks. Our findings highlight the need for a greater understanding of the comparison between active and passive ERP paradigms before they are inferred to measure similar functions across populations (e.g., infants or intellectual disability).

  14. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents’ daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro) and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped) over short distances (maximum eight kilometres) among older adolescents (17–18 years), to school and to other destinations. Methods 562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed. Results More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations. Conclusions Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both

  15. Genome-wide gene-environment interactions on quantitative traits using family data.

    PubMed

    Sitlani, Colleen M; Dupuis, Josée; Rice, Kenneth M; Sun, Fangui; Pitsillides, Achilleas N; Cupples, L Adrienne; Psaty, Bruce M

    2016-07-01

    Gene-environment interactions may provide a mechanism for targeting interventions to those individuals who would gain the most benefit from them. Searching for interactions agnostically on a genome-wide scale requires large sample sizes, often achieved through collaboration among multiple studies in a consortium. Family studies can contribute to consortia, but to do so they must account for correlation within families by using specialized analytic methods. In this paper, we investigate the performance of methods that account for within-family correlation, in the context of gene-environment interactions with binary exposures and quantitative outcomes. We simulate both cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements, and analyze the simulated data taking family structure into account, via generalized estimating equations (GEE) and linear mixed-effects models. With sufficient exposure prevalence and correct model specification, all methods perform well. However, when models are misspecified, mixed modeling approaches have seriously inflated type I error rates. GEE methods with robust variance estimates are less sensitive to model misspecification; however, when exposures are infrequent, GEE methods require modifications to preserve type I error rate. We illustrate the practical use of these methods by evaluating gene-drug interactions on fasting glucose levels in data from the Framingham Heart Study, a cohort that includes related individuals.

  16. Gene-Environment Interactions and the Etiology of Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Robert S; Hong, Mingi

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that most structural birth defects are caused by a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors that interact to interfere with morphogenetic processes. It is important not only to identify individual genetic and environmental risk factors for particular defects but also to identify which environmental factors interact specifically with which genetic variants that predispose to the same defect. Genomic and epidemiological studies are critical to this end. Development and analysis of model systems will also be essential for this goal, as well as for understanding the mechanisms that underlie specific gene-environment interactions.

  17. Gene-Environment Interactions in Asthma: Genetic and Epigenetic Effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Uk; Kim, Jeong Dong; Park, Choon-Sik

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three decades, a large number of genetic studies have been aimed at finding genetic variants associated with the risk of asthma, applying various genetic and genomic approaches including linkage analysis, candidate gene polymorphism studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, contrary to general expectation, even single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by GWAS failed to fully explain the heritability of asthma. Thus, application of rare allele polymorphisms in well defined phenotypes and clarification of environmental factors have been suggested to overcome the problem of 'missing' heritability. Such factors include allergens, cigarette smoke, air pollutants, and infectious agents during pre- and post-natal periods. The first and simplest interaction between a gene and the environment is a candidate interaction of both a well known gene and environmental factor in a direct physical or chemical interaction such as between CD14 and endotoxin or between HLA and allergens. Several GWAS have found environmental interactions with occupational asthma, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, tobacco smoke-related airway dysfunction, and farm-related atopic diseases. As one of the mechanisms behind gene-environment interaction is epigenetics, a few studies on DNA CpG methylation have been reported on subphenotypes of asthma, pitching the exciting idea that it may be possible to intervene at the junction between the genome and the environment. Epigenetic studies are starting to include data from clinical samples, which will make them another powerful tool for re-search on gene-environment interactions in asthma.

  18. The importance of gene-environment interactions in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddon, Hudson; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity. Heritability, monogenic and polygenic obesity studies provide converging evidence that obesity-predisposing genes interact with a variety of environmental, lifestyle and treatment exposures. However, some skepticism remains regarding the validity of these studies based on several issues, which include statistical modelling, confounding, low replication rate, underpowered analyses, biological assumptions and measurement precision. What follows in this review includes (1) an introduction to the study of GEI, (2) the evidence of GEI in the field of obesity, (3) an outline of the biological mechanisms that may explain these interaction effects, (4) methodological challenges associated with GEI studies and potential solutions, and (5) future directions of GEI research. Thus far, this growing body of evidence has provided a deeper understanding of GEI influencing obesity and may have tremendous applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine and individualized lifestyle recommendations.

  19. Confluence of Genes, Environment, Development, and Behavior in a Post-GWAS World

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoff. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention and is informed by psychometrics, while the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic effects (i.e., gene-environment correlation). Genetically-informed designs which—thanks to ever cheaper genotyping—are no longer are limited to twin and adoption studies, are required to understand environmental influences. Finally, we outline the vast amount of individual differences in structural genomic variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. While the genetic data can be burdensomely massive (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific a priori hypotheses derived from etiological psychological theory, much like current candidate gene research, but with less confusion and more payoff than candidate gene research has to date. PMID:23062291

  20. A gene-environment study of the paraoxonase 1 gene and pesticides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morahan, Julia M; Yu, Bing; Trent, Ronald J; Pamphlett, Roger

    2007-05-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) causes progressive muscle weakness because of the loss of motor neurons. SALS has been associated with exposure to environmental toxins, including pesticides and chemical warfare agents, many of which are organophosphates. The enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates and the efficacy of this enzyme varies with polymorphisms in the PON1 gene. To determine if an impaired ability to break down organophosphates underlies some cases of SALS, we compared the frequencies of PON1 polymorphisms in SALS patients and controls and investigated gene-environment interactions with self-reported pesticide/herbicide exposure. The PON1 coding polymorphisms L55M, Q192R and I102V, and the promoter polymorphisms -909c>g, -832g>a, -162g>a and -108c>t, were genotyped in 143 SALS patients and 143 matched controls. Statistical comparisons were carried out at allele, genotype and haplotype levels. The PON1 promoter allele -108t, which reduces PON1 expression, was strongly associated with SALS. Overall, promoter haplotypes that decrease PON1 expression were associated with SALS, whereas haplotypes that increase expression were associated with controls. Coding polymorphisms did not correlate with SALS. Gene-environment interactions were identified at the allele level for some promoter SNPs and pesticide/herbicide exposure, but not at the genotype or haplotype level. In conclusion, some PON1 promoter polymorphisms may predispose to SALS, possibly by making motor neurons more susceptible to organophosphate-containing toxins.

  1. Gene-Environment-Wide Association Studies: Emerging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the yield of recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the identified variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of most complex diseases. This unexplained heritability could be partly due to gene-environment (G×E) interactions or more complex pathways involving multiple genes and exposures. This article provides a tutorial on the available epidemiological designs and statistical analysis approaches for studying specific G×E interactions and choosing the most appropriate methods. I discuss the approaches that are being developed to study entire pathways and available techniques for mining interactions in GWA data. I also explore approaches to marrying hypothesis-driven pathway-based approaches with “agnostic” GWA studies. PMID:20212493

  2. Music training and speech perception: a gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Claims of beneficial side effects of music training are made for many different abilities, including verbal and visuospatial abilities, executive functions, working memory, IQ, and speech perception in particular. Such claims assume that music training causes the associations even though children who take music lessons are likely to differ from other children in music aptitude, which is associated with many aspects of speech perception. Music training in childhood is also associated with cognitive, personality, and demographic variables, and it is well established that IQ and personality are determined largely by genetics. Recent evidence also indicates that the role of genetics in music aptitude and music achievement is much larger than previously thought. In short, music training is an ideal model for the study of gene-environment interactions but far less appropriate as a model for the study of plasticity. Children seek out environments, including those with music lessons, that are consistent with their predispositions; such environments exaggerate preexisting individual differences.

  3. When Chocolate Seeking Becomes Compulsion: Gene-Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Patella, Loris; Andolina, Diego; Valzania, Alessandro; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Felsani, Armando; Pompili, Assunta; Gasbarri, Antonella; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorders appear to be caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors, and compulsive eating in response to adverse circumstances characterizes many eating disorders. Materials and Methods We compared compulsion-like eating in the form of conditioned suppression of palatable food-seeking in adverse situations in stressed C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, two well-characterized inbred strains, to determine the influence of gene-environment interplay on this behavioral phenotype. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that low accumbal D2 receptor (R) availability is a genetic risk factor of food compulsion-like behavior and that environmental conditions that induce compulsive eating alter D2R expression in the striatum. To this end, we measured D1R and D2R expression in the striatum and D1R, D2R and α1R levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, by western blot. Results Exposure to environmental conditions induces compulsion-like eating behavior, depending on genetic background. This behavioral pattern is linked to decreased availability of accumbal D2R. Moreover, exposure to certain environmental conditions upregulates D2R and downregulates α1R in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, of compulsive animals. These findings confirm the function of gene-environment interplay in the manifestation of compulsive eating and support the hypothesis that low accumbal D2R availability is a “constitutive” genetic risk factor for compulsion-like eating behavior. Finally, D2R upregulation and α1R downregulation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, are potential neuroadaptive responses that parallel the shift from motivated to compulsive eating. PMID:25781028

  4. Investigations of Passive Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.

  5. Can Clouds Dance? Neural Correlates of Passive Conceptual Expansion Using a Metaphor Processing Task: Implications for Creative Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Barbara; Kroger, Soren; Stark, Rudolf; Schweckendiek, Jan; Windmann, Sabine; Hermann, Christiane; Abraham, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Creativity has emerged in the focus of neurocognitive research in the past decade. However, a heterogeneous pattern of brain areas has been implicated as underpinning the neural correlates of creativity. One explanation for these divergent findings lies in the fact that creativity is not usually investigated in terms of its many underlying…

  6. Candidate Gene-Environment Interaction Research: Reflections and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Agrawal, Arpana; Keller, Matthew C.; Adkins, Amy; Aliev, Fazil; Monroe, Scott; Hewitt, John K.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying how genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to contribute to complex behavioral outcomes has great potential for advancing our understanding of the development of psychopathology. It represents a clear theoretical advance over studying these factors in isolation. However, research at the intersection of multiple fields creates many challenges. We review several reasons why the rapidly expanding candidate gene-environment interaction (cGxE) literature should be considered with a degree of caution. We discuss lessons learned about candidate gene main effects from the evolving genetics literature and how these inform the study of cGxE. We review the importance of the measurement of the gene and environment of interest in cGxE studies. We discuss statistical concerns with modeling cGxE that are frequently overlooked. And we review other challenges that have likely contributed to the cGxE literature being difficult to interpret, including low power and publication bias. Many of these issues are similar to other concerns about research integrity (e.g., high false positive rates) that have received increasing attention in the social sciences. We provide recommendations for rigorous research practices for cGxE studies that we believe will advance its potential to contribute more robustly to the understanding of complex behavioral phenotypes. PMID:25620996

  7. Gene-environment interactions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Molfino, Nestor A; Coyle, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world and is largely associated with cigarette smoking. Despite the appreciation of the central role of smoking in the development of COPD, only a relatively small number of smokers (15%-20%) develop COPD. Recent studies depicting familial aggregation suggest that some subjects may have a genetic predisposition to developing COPD. In this respect, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported in association with different COPD features (subphenotypes), although much of this data remains controversial. Classical genetic studies (including twin and family studies) assume an "equal-environment" scenario, but as gene-environment interactions occur in COPD, this assumption needs revision. Thus, new integrated models are needed to examine the major environmental factors associated with COPD which include smoking as well as air pollution, and respiratory infections, and not only genetic predisposition. Revisiting this area, may help answer the question of what has more bearing in the pathogenesis of COPD--the environment or the genomic sequence of the affected subjects. It is anticipated that an improved understanding of this interaction will both enable improved identification of individuals susceptible to developing this disease, as well as improved future treatments for this disease.

  8. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S.

    1994-09-01

    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  9. Subtle gene-environment interactions driving paranoia in daily life.

    PubMed

    Simons, C J P; Wichers, M; Derom, C; Thiery, E; Myin-Germeys, I; Krabbendam, L; van Os, J

    2009-02-01

    It has been suggested that genes impact on the degree to which minor daily stressors cause variation in the intensity of subtle paranoid experiences. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met in part mediate genetic effects on paranoid reactivity to minor stressors. In a general population sample of 579 young adult female twins, on the one hand, appraisals of (1) event-related stress and (2) social stress and, on the other hand, feelings of paranoia in the flow of daily life were assessed using momentary assessment technology for five consecutive days. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine moderation of daily life stress-induced paranoia by COMT Val(158)Met and BDNF Val(66)Met genotypes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val carriers displayed more feelings of paranoia in response to event stress compared with Met carriers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Met carriers showed more social-stress-induced paranoia than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. Thus, paranoia in the flow of daily life may be the result of gene-environment interactions that can be traced to different types of stress being moderated by different types of genetic variation.

  10. Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Simon D; Hurteau, Gregory J; Jain, Ritu; Kumar, Shalini V; Aldous, Kenneth M; Gierthy, John F; Kaminsky, Laurence S

    2004-09-15

    Exfoliated cytologic specimens from mouth (buccal) epithelium may contain viable cells, permitting assay of gene expression for direct and noninvasive measurement of gene-environment interactions, such as for inhalation (e.g., tobacco smoke) exposures. We determined specific mRNA levels in exfoliated buccal cells collected by cytologic brush, using a recently developed RNA-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR strategy. In a pilot study, metabolic activity of exfoliated buccal cells was verified by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium assay in vitro. Transcriptional activity was observed, after timed in vivo exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke resulted in induction of CYP1B1 in serially collected buccal samples from the one subject examined. For a set of 11 subjects, mRNA expression of nine genes encoding carcinogen- and oxidant-metabolizing enzymes qualitatively detected in buccal cells was then shown to correlate with that in laser-microdissected lung from the same individuals (Chi2 = 52.91, P < 0.001). Finally, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for seven target gene (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and three reference gene [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, and 36B4] transcripts were performed on buccal specimens from 42 subjects. In multivariate analyses, gender, tobacco smoke exposure, and other factors were associated with the level of expression of CYP1B1, GSTP1, and other transcripts on a gene-specific basis, but substantial interindividual variability in mRNA expression remained unexplained. Within the power limits of this pilot study, gene expression signature was not clearly predictive of lung cancer case or control status. This noninvasive and quantitative method may be incorporated into high-throughput human applications for probing gene-environment interactions associated with cancer.

  11. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; Fiocchi, Claudio; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ripke, Stephan; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Rebert, Nancy; Duerr, Richard H.; Achkar, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified at least 133 ulcerative colitis (UC) associated loci. The role of genetic factors in clinical practice is not clearly defined. The relevance of genetic variants to disease pathogenesis is still uncertain because of not characterized gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. We examined the predictive value of combining the 133 UC risk loci with genetic interactions in an ongoing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) GWAS. The Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) IBD GWAS was used as a replication cohort. We applied logic regression (LR), a novel adaptive regression methodology, to search for high order interactions. Exploratory genotype correlations with UC sub-phenotypes (extent of disease, need of surgery, age of onset, extra-intestinal manifestations and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)) were conducted. The combination of 133 UC loci yielded good UC risk predictability (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.86). A higher cumulative allele score predicted higher UC risk. Through LR, several lines of evidence for genetic interactions were identified and successfully replicated in the WTCCC cohort. The genetic interactions combined with the gene-smoking interaction significantly improved predictability in the model (AUC, from 0.86 to 0.89, P=3.26E-05). Explained UC variance increased from 37% to 42% after adding the interaction terms. A within case analysis found suggested genetic association with PSC. Our study demonstrates that the LR methodology allows the identification and replication of high order genetic interactions in UC GWAS datasets. UC risk can be predicted by a 133 loci and improved by adding gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. PMID:24241240

  12. Efficient Designs of Gene-Environment Interaction Studies: Implications of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and Gene-Environment Independence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinbo; Kang, Guolian; VanderWeele, Tyler; Zhang, Cuilin; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY It is important to investigate whether genetic susceptible variants exercise the same effects in populations that are differentially exposed to environmental risk factors. Here, we assess the power of four two-phase case-control design strategies for assessing multiplicative gene-environment (G-E) interactions or for assessing genetic or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions. With a di-allelic SNP and a binary E, we obtained closed-form maximum likelihood estimates of both main effect and interaction odds ratio parameters under the constraints of G-E independence and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and used the Wald statistic for all tests. We concluded that i) for testing G-E interactions or genetic effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for E is fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for G in a subsample of cases with similar numbers of exposed and unexposed and a random subsample of controls; and ii) for testing G-E interactions or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for G is fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for E in a subsample of cases that has similar numbers for each genotype and a random subsample of controls. In addition, supplementing external control data to an existing casecontrol sample leads to improved power for assessing effects of G or E in the presence of G-E interactions. PMID:22362617

  13. Four-point correlation function of a passive scalar field in rapidly fluctuating turbulence: Numerical analysis of an exact closure equation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Y; Ohi, K; Sogabe, T; Yamamoto, Y; Kaneda, Y

    2010-09-01

    A numerical analysis is made on the four-point correlation function in a similarity range of a model of two-dimensional passive scalar field ψ advected by a turbulent velocity field with infinitely small correlation time. The model yields an exact closure equation for the four-point correlation Ψ{4} of ψ, which may be casted into the form of an eigenvalue problem in the similarity range. The analysis of the eigenvalue problem gives not only the scale dependence of Ψ{4} , but also the dependence on the configuration of the four points. The numerical analysis gives S4(R)∝R{ζ{4}} in the similarity range in which S2(R)∝R{ζ{2}} , where S_{N} is the structure function defined by S{N}(R)≡⟨[ψ(x+R)-ψ(x)]{N} and ζ{4}≠2ζ{2} . The estimate of ζ_{4} by the numerical analysis of the eigenvalue problem is in good agreement with numerical simulations so far reported. The agreement supports the idea of universality of the exponent ζ{4} in the sense that ζ_{4} is insensitive to conditions of ψ outside the similarity range. The numerical analysis also shows that the correlation C(R,r)≡[ψ(x+R)-ψ(x)]{2}[ψ(x+r)-ψ(x)]{2}> is stronger than that given by the joint-normal approximation, and scales like C(R,r)∝(r/R){χ} for r/R<1 with R and r in the similarity range, where χ is a constant depending on the angle between R and r .

  14. Gene-Environment Interplay and Psychopathology: Multiple Varieties but Real Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2006-01-01

    Gene-environment interplay is a general term that covers several divergent concepts with different meanings and different implications. In this review, we evaluate research evidence on four varieties of gene-environment interplay. First, we consider epigenetic mechanisms by which environmental influences alter the effects of genes. Second, we…

  15. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  16. Meconium Nicotine and Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Differentiation of Passive and Nonexposure and Correlation with Neonatal Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Magri, Raquel; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meconium analysis is a diagnostically sensitive and objective alternative to maternal self-report for detecting prenatal tobacco exposure. Nicotine and metabolite disposition in meconium is poorly characterized, and correlation of analytes’ concentrations with neonatal outcomes is unexplored. Our objectives were to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), nornicotine, norcotinine, and glucuronide concentrations in meconium, identify the best biomarkers of in utero tobacco exposure, compare meconium concentrations of tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates, and investigate concentration–outcome relationships. METHODS We quantified concentrations of nicotine and 4 metabolites with and without hydrolysis simultaneously in meconium from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed neonates by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We compared meconium concentrations to birth weight, length, head circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores. RESULTS Nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine were the most prevalent and abundant meconium tobacco biomarkers and were found in higher concentrations in tobacco-exposed neonates. Whereas cotinine and OH-cotinine are glucuronide bound, performing the lengthy and costly enzymatic hydrolysis identified only 1 additional positive specimen. Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, or OH-cotinine meconium concentration >10 ng/g most accurately discriminated active from passive and nonexposed neonates. There was no significant correlation between quantitative nicotine and metabolite meconium results and neonatal outcomes, although presence of a nicotine biomarker predicted decreased head circumference. CONCLUSIONS Unconjugated nicotine, cotinine, and OH-cotinine should be analyzed in meconium to detect in utero tobacco exposure, as approximately 25% of positive specimens did not contain cotinine. Immunoassay testing monitoring cotinine only would underestimate the prevalence of prenatal

  17. Rethinking expertise: A multifactorial gene-environment interaction model of expert performance.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Hambrick, David Zachary; Mosing, Miriam Anna

    2016-04-01

    Scientific interest in expertise-superior performance within a specific domain-has a long history in psychology. Although there is a broad consensus that a long period of practice is essential for expertise, a long-standing controversy in the field concerns the importance of other variables such as cognitive abilities and genetic factors. According to the influential deliberate practice theory, expert performance is essentially limited by a single variable: the amount of deliberate practice an individual has accumulated. Here, we provide a review of the literature on deliberate practice, expert performance, and its neural correlates. A particular emphasis is on recent studies indicating that expertise is related to numerous traits other than practice as well as genetic factors. We argue that deliberate practice theory is unable to account for major recent findings relating to expertise and expert performance, and propose an alternative multifactorial gene-environment interaction model of expertise, which provides an adequate explanation for the available empirical data and may serve as a useful framework for future empirical and theoretical work on expert performance.

  18. Evidence of Reactive Gene-Environment Correlation in Preschoolers' Prosocial Play with Unfamiliar Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Bersted, Kyle; John, Sufna Gheyara

    2015-01-01

    The development of prosocial behaviors during the preschool years is essential for children's positive interactions with peers in school and other social situations. Although there is some evidence of genetic influences on prosocial behaviors, very little is known about how genes and environment, independently and in concert, affect prosocial…

  19. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized gene-environment interactions are now fairly common in human genetic research, and with the shift towards genome-wide association studies, genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies are beginning to emerge. Methods We summarize the basic ideas behind gene-environment interaction, and provide an overview of possible study designs and traditional analysis methods in the context of genome-wide analysis. We then discuss novel approaches beyond the traditional strategy of analyzing the interaction between the environmental factor and each polymorphism individually. Results Two-step filtering approaches that reduce the number of polymorphisms tested for interactions can substantially increase the power of genome-wide gene-environment studies. New analytical methods including data-mining approaches, and gene-level and pathway-level analyses, also have the capacity to improve our understanding of how complex genetic and environmental factors interact to influence psychological and psychiatric traits. Such methods, however, have not yet been utilized much in behavioral and mental health research. Conclusions Although methods to investigate gene-environment interactions are available, there is a need for further development and extension of these methods to identify gene-environment interactions in the context of genome-wide association studies. These novel approaches need to be applied in studies of psychology and psychiatry. PMID:23808649

  20. Genes, environments, and developmental research: methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Costello, E Jane; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E; Angold, A; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

    2013-04-01

    The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative, our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used of which common characteristics include (1) general population samples, including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables.

  1. Genes, environments, and developmental GEWIS: Methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. J.; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E.; Angold, A.; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H.; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the NIDA-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative (GEDI) our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used whose common characteristics include (1) general population samples including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already-collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables. PMID:23461817

  2. Gene-environment interactions and obesity: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, a major public health concern, is a multifactorial disease caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Although recent genome-wide association studies have identified many loci related to obesity or body mass index, the identified variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of obesity. Better understanding of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors is the basis for developing effective personalized obesity prevention and management strategies. This article reviews recent advances in identifying gene-environment interactions related to obesity and describes epidemiological designs and newly developed statistical approaches to characterizing and discovering gene-environment interactions on obesity risk. PMID:25951849

  3. Psychosocial and environmental correlates of active and passive transport behaviors in college educated and non-college educated working young adults

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; De Cocker, Katrien; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine potential differences in walking, cycling, public transport and passive transport (car/moped/motorcycle) to work and to other destinations between college and non-college educated working young adults. Secondly, we aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with the four transport modes and whether these associations differ between college and non-college educated working young adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 224 working young adults completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables (8 items), psychosocial variables (6 items), environmental variables (10 items) and transport mode (4 types) and duration to work/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed in R. Results A trend (p<0.10) indicated that more college educated compared to non-college educated young adults participated in cycling and public transport. However, another trend indicated that cycle time and public transport trips were longer and passive transport trips were shorter in non-college compared to college educated working young adults. In all working young adults, high self-efficacy towards active transport, and high perceived benefits and low perceived barriers towards active and public transport were related to more active and public transport. High social support/norm/modeling towards active, public and passive transport was related to more active, public and passive transport. High neighborhood walkability was related to more walking and less passive transport. Only in non-college educated working young adults, feeling safe from traffic and crime in their neighborhood was related to more active and public transport and less passive transport. Conclusions Educational levels should be taken into account when promoting healthy transport behaviors in working young adults. Among non-college educated working young adults, focus should be on

  4. How Gene-Environment Interaction Affects Children's Anxious and Fearful Behavior. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Behavioral Inhibition in Middle Childhood" (N. A. Fox, K E. Nichols, H. A. Henderson, K. Rubin, L. Schmidt, D. Hamer, M. Ernst, and D. S.…

  5. Commentary: Gene-Environment Interplay in the Context of Genetics, Epigenetics, and Gene Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To comment on the article in this issue of the Journal by Professor Michael Rutter, "Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings," in the context of current research findings on gene-environment interaction, epigenetics, and gene expression. Method: Animal and human studies are reviewed that…

  6. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  7. Confirmatory and Competitive Evaluation of Alternative Gene-Environment Interaction Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most gene-environment interaction (GXE) research, though based on clear, vulnerability-oriented hypotheses, is carried out using exploratory rather than hypothesis-informed statistical tests, limiting power and making formal evaluation of competing GXE propositions difficult. Method: We present and illustrate a new regression technique…

  8. Gene-Environment Interaction and Breast Cancer on Long Island, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    exposures, endocrine disruptors , estrogen receptor genes, gene-environment interaction, methodologic approaches to examining multiple exposures 16...phthalates and pyrethroid pesticides . o The collection of serial urine samples was completed. o The CDC has competed sample analysis and has...Environmental Epidemiology 2005). Teitelbaum SL, Gammon MD, Britton JA, Neugut AI, Levin B, Stellman SD. Reported residential pesticide use and breast

  9. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  10. Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-03-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and nonfriends' behaviors and (b) children's social reticence were examined. The sample comprised 466 twin children (i.e., the target children), each of whom was assessed in kindergarten together with a same-sex friend and two nonfriend classmates of either sex. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children with a genetic disposition for social reticence showed more reticent behavior in the competitive situation and were more likely to affiliate with reticent friends (i.e., rGE). Moreover, a higher level of children's reticent behavior was predicted by their friends' higher social reticence (particularly for girls) and their friends' higher social dominance, independently of children's genetic disposition. Children's social reticence was also predicted by their nonfriends' behaviors. Specifically, children were less reticent when male nonfriends showed high levels of social reticence in the competitive situation, and this was particularly true for children with a genetic disposition for social reticence (i.e., GxE). Moreover, children genetically vulnerable for social reticence seemed to foster dominant behavior in their female nonfriend peers (i.e., rGE). In turn, male nonfriends seemed to be more dominant as soon as the target children were reticent, even if the target children did not have a stable genetic disposition for this behavior.

  11. Gene-Environment Interaction and Breast Cancer on Long Island, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    TERMS epidemiology, environmental exposures, endocrine disruptors , estrogen receptor genes, gene-environment interaction, methodologic approaches...phthalates and pyrethroid pesticides . o The collection of serial urine samples was completed. W81XWH-04-1-0507 6 o The CDC has competed sample...manuscripts are in preparation. • Published manuscript examining combined effect of multiple exposures “Reported residential pesticide use and breast

  12. Tests for Gene-Environment Interactions and Joint Effects With Exposure Misclassification

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Philip S.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gruber, Stephen B.; Ahn, Jaeil; Schmit, Stephanie L.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2016-01-01

    The number of methods for genome-wide testing of gene-environment (G-E) interactions continues to increase, with the aim of discovering new genetic risk factors and obtaining insight into the disease-gene-environment relationship. The relative performance of these methods, assessed on the basis of family-wise type I error rate and power, depends on underlying disease-gene-environment associations, estimates of which may be biased in the presence of exposure misclassification. This simulation study expands on a previously published simulation study of methods for detecting G-E interactions by evaluating the impact of exposure misclassification. We consider 7 single-step and modular screening methods for identifying G-E interaction at a genome-wide level and 7 joint tests for genetic association and G-E interaction, for which the goal is to discover new genetic susceptibility loci by leveraging G-E interaction when present. In terms of statistical power, modular methods that screen on the basis of the marginal disease-gene relationship are more robust to exposure misclassification. Joint tests that include main/marginal effects of a gene display a similar robustness, which confirms results from earlier studies. Our results offer an increased understanding of the strengths and limitations of methods for genome-wide searches for G-E interaction and joint tests in the presence of exposure misclassification. PMID:26755675

  13. Meta-regression of gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Gang; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have created heightened interest in understanding the effects of gene-environment interaction on complex human diseases or traits. Applying methods for analyzing such interaction can help uncover novel genes and identify environmental hazards that influence only certain genetically susceptible groups. However, the number of interaction analysis methods is still limited, so there is a need to develop more efficient and powerful methods. In this paper, we propose two novel meta-analysis methods of studying gene-environment interaction, based on meta-regression of estimated genetic effects on the environmental factor. The two methods can perform joint analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism's (SNP) main and interaction effects, or analyze only the effect of the interaction. They can readily estimate any linear or non-linear interactions by simply modifying the gene-environment regression function. Thus, they are efficient methods to be applied to different scenarios. We use numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of our methods. We also compare them with two other methods commonly used in current GWAS, i.e., meta-analysis of SNP main effects (MAIN) and joint meta-analysis of SNP main and interaction effects (JMA). The results show that our methods are more powerful than MAIN when the interaction effect exists, and are comparable to JMAin the linear or quadratic interaction cases. In the numerical examples, we also investigate how the number of the divided groups and the sample size of the studies affect the performance of our methods.

  14. Identifying gene-environment and gene-gene interactions using a progressive penalization approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zhao, Hongyu; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-05-01

    In genomic studies, identifying important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions is a challenging problem. In this study, we adopt the statistical modeling approach, where interactions are represented by product terms in regression models. For the identification of important interactions, we adopt penalization, which has been used in many genomic studies. Straightforward application of penalization does not respect the "main effect, interaction" hierarchical structure. A few recently proposed methods respect this structure by applying constrained penalization. However, they demand very complicated computational algorithms and can only accommodate a small number of genomic measurements. We propose a computationally fast penalization method that can identify important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and respect a strong hierarchical structure. The method takes a stagewise approach and progressively expands its optimization domain to account for possible hierarchical interactions. It is applicable to multiple data types and models. A coordinate descent method is utilized to produce the entire regularized solution path. Simulation study demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed method. We analyze a lung cancer prognosis study with gene expression measurements and identify important gene-environment interactions.

  15. Effects of exposure to amphetamine derivatives on passive avoidance performance and the central levels of monoamines and their metabolites in mice: correlations between behavior and neurochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Murnane, Kevin Sean; Perrine, Shane Alan; Finton, Brendan James; Galloway, Matthew Peter; Howell, Leonard Lee; Fantegrossi, William Edward

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Considerable evidence indicates that amphetamine derivatives can deplete brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters. However, the behavioral and cognitive consequences of neurochemical depletions induced by amphetamines are not well established. Objectives In this study, mice were exposed to dosing regimens of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), or para-chloroamphetamine (PCA) known to deplete the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and the effects of these dosing regimens on learning and memory were assessed. Methods In the same animals, we determined deficits in learning and memory via passive avoidance (PA) behavior and changes in tissue content of monoamine neurotransmitters and their primary metabolites in the striatum, frontal cortex, cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala via ex vivo high pressure liquid chromatography. Results Consistent with previous studies, significant reductions in tissue content of dopamine and serotonin were readily apparent. In addition, exposure to METH and PCA impaired PA performance and resulted in significant depletions of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites in several brain regions. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the tissue concentration of dopamine in the anterior striatum was the strongest predictor of PA performance, with an additional significant contribution by the tissue concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cingulate. In contrast to the effects of METH and PCA, exposure to MDMA did not deplete anterior striatal dopamine levels or cingulate levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and it did not impair PA performance. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that certain amphetamines impair PA performance in mice and that these impairments may be attributable to specific neurochemical depletions. PMID:21993877

  16. Rigorous tests of gene-environment interactions in a lab study of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), alcohol exposure, and aggression.

    PubMed

    LoParo, Devon; Johansson, Ada; Walum, Hasse; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; Waldman, Irwin

    2016-07-01

    Naturalistic studies of gene-environment interactions (G X E) have been plagued by several limitations, including difficulty isolating specific environmental risk factors from other correlated aspects of the environment, gene-environment correlation (rGE ), and the use of a single genetic variant to represent the influence of a gene. We present results from 235 Finnish young men in two lab studies of aggression and alcohol challenge that attempt to redress these limitations of the extant G X E literature. Specifically, we use a latent variable modeling approach in an attempt to more fully account for genetic variation across the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and to robustly test its main effects on aggression and its interaction with alcohol exposure. We also modeled aggression as a latent variable comprising various indices, including the average and maximum levels of aggression, the earliest trial on which aggression was expressed, and the proportion of trials on which the minimum and maximum levels of aggression were expressed. The best fitting model for the genetic variation across OXTR included six factors derived from an exploratory factor analysis, roughly corresponding to six haplotype blocks. Aggression levels were higher on trials in which participants were administered alcohol, won, or were provoked. There was a significant main effect of OXTR on aggression across studies after controlling for covariates. The interaction of OXTR and alcohol was also significant across studies, such that OXTR had stronger effects on aggression in the alcohol administration condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Passive solar technology

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  18. A mechanism for gene-environment interaction in the etiology of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Duncan B; Chapman, Gavin; Smith, Allanceson J; Mattar, Muhammad Z; Major, Joelene A; O'Reilly, Victoria C; Saga, Yumiko; Zackai, Elaine H; Dormans, John P; Alman, Benjamin A; McGregor, Lesley; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kusumi, Kenro; Dunwoodie, Sally L

    2012-04-13

    Congenital scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine caused by vertebral defects, occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 live births. Here we demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of Notch signaling pathway genes in humans can cause this congenital abnormality. We also show that in a mouse model, the combination of this genetic risk factor with an environmental condition (short-term gestational hypoxia) significantly increases the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects. We demonstrate that hypoxia disrupts FGF signaling, leading to a temporary failure of embryonic somitogenesis. Our results potentially provide a mechanism for the genesis of a host of common sporadic congenital abnormalities through gene-environment interaction.

  19. [Detecting gene-gene/environment interactions by model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Shen, Chao; Guo, Zhirong

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a method called model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction (MB-MDR), which was firstly proposed by Calle et al., and can be applied for detecting gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genetic studies. The basic principle and characteristics of MB-MDR as well as the operation in R program are briefly summarized. Besides, the detailed procedure of MB-MDR is illustrated by using example. Compared with classical MDR, MB-MDR has similar principle, which merges multi-locus genotypes into a one-dimensional construct and can be used in the study with small sample size. However, there is some difference between MB-MDR and classical MDR. First, it has higher statistical power than MDR and other MDR in the presence of different noises due to the different way the genotype cells merged. Second, compared with MDR, it can deal with all binary and quantitative traits, adjust marginal effects of factors and confounders. MBMDR could be a useful method in the analyses of gene-gene/environment interactions.

  20. Gene-Environment Interaction and Children’s Health and Development

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review A systematic approach to studying gene-environment interaction can have immediate impact on our understanding of how environmental factors induce developmental disease and toxicity and provide biological insight for potential treatment and prevention measures. Recent Findings Because DNA sequence is static, genetic studies typically are not conducted prospectively. This limits the ability to incorporate environmental data into an analysis, as such data is usually collected cross-sectionally. Prospective environmental data collection could account for the role of critical windows of susceptibility that likely corresponds to the expression of specific genes and gene pathways. The use of large scale genomic platforms to discover genetic variants that modify environmental exposure in conjunction with a priori planned replication studies would reduce the number of false positive results. Summary Using a genome-wide approach, combined with a prospective longitudinal of environmental exposure at critical developmental windows is the optimal design for gene-environment interaction research. This approach would discover susceptibility variants, then validate the findings in an independent sample of children. Designs which combine the strengths and methodologies of each field will yield data which can account for both genetic variability and the role of critical developmental windows in the etiology of childhood disease and development. PMID:20090521

  1. Bisphenol-A and Female Infertility: A Possible Role of Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiaona; Chen, Dan; He, Yonghua; Zhu, Wenting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used and ubiquitous in the environment. Animal studies indicate that BPA affects reproduction, however, the gene-environment interaction mechanism(s) involved in this association remains unclear. We performed a literature review to summarize the evidence on this topic. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed using as keywords BPA, gene, infertility and female reproduction. Full-text articles in both human and animals published in English prior to December 2014 were selected. Results: Evidence shows that BPA can interfere with endocrine function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as by changing gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) secretion in hypothalamus and promoting pituitary proliferation. Such actions affect puberty, ovulation and may even result in infertility. Ovary, uterus and other reproductive organs are also targets of BPA. BPA exposure impairs the structure and functions of female reproductive system in different times of life cycle and may contribute to infertility. Both epidemiological and experimental evidences demonstrate that BPA affects reproduction-related gene expression and epigenetic modification that are closely associated with infertility. The detrimental effects on reproduction may be lifelong and transgenerational. Conclusions: Evidence on gene-environment interactions, especially from human studies, is still limited. Further research on this topic is warranted. PMID:26371021

  2. Importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of selected birth defects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Kartiko, S; Finnell, R H

    2009-05-01

    It is generally understood that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the highly complex etiology of structural birth defects, including neural tube defects, oral clefts and congenital heart defects, by disrupting highly regulated embryonic developmental processes. The intrauterine environment of the developing embryo/fetus is determined by maternal factors such as health/disease status, lifestyle, medication, exposure to environmental teratogens, as well as the maternal genotype. Certain genetic characteristics of the embryo/fetus also predispose it to developmental abnormalities. Epidemiologic and animal studies conducted over the last few decades have suggested that the interplay between genes and environmental factors underlies the etiological heterogeneity of these defects. It is now widely believed that the study of gene-environment interactions will lead to better understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathological processes that contribute to the development of complex birth defects. It is only through such an understanding that more efficient measures will be developed to prevent these severe, costly and often deadly defects. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex clinical and experimental literature on current hypotheses of interactions between several select environmental factors and those genetic pathways in which they are most likely to have significant modifying effects. These include maternal folate nutritional status, maternal diabetes/obesity-related conditions, and maternal exposure to selected medications and environmental contaminants. Our goal is to highlight the potential gene-environment interactions affecting early embryogenesis that deserve comprehensive study.

  3. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  4. Enhancing the gene-environment interaction framework through a quasi-experimental research design: evidence from differential responses to September 11.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a gene-environment interaction framework to examine the differential responses to an objective external stressor based on genetic variation in the production of depressive symptoms. This article advances the literature by utilizing a quasi-experimental environmental exposure design, as well as a regression discontinuity design, to control for seasonal trends, which limit the potential for gene-environment correlation and allow stronger causal claims. Replications are attempted for two prominent genes (5-HTT and MAOA), and three additional genes are explored (DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1). This article provides evidence of a main effect of 9/11 on reports of feelings of sadness and fails to replicate a common finding of interaction using 5-HTT but does show support for interaction with MAOA in men. It also provides new evidence that variation in the DRD4 gene modifies an individual's response to the exposure, with individuals with no 7-repeats found to have a muted response.

  5. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  6. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  7. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  8. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  9. Passively transmitted gp41 antibodies in babies born from HIV-1 subtype C-seropositive women: correlation between fine specificity and protection.

    PubMed

    Diomede, L; Nyoka, S; Pastori, C; Scotti, L; Zambon, A; Sherman, G; Gray, C M; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, M; Lopalco, L

    2012-04-01

    HIV-exposed, uninfected (EUN) babies born to HIV-infected mothers are examples of natural resistance to HIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the titer and neutralizing potential of gp41-specific maternal antibodies and their correlation with HIV transmission in HIV-infected mother-child pairs. Specific gp41-binding and -neutralizing antibodies were determined in a cohort of 74 first-time mother-child pairs, of whom 40 mothers were infected with HIV subtype C. Within the infected mother cohort, 16 babies were born infected and 24 were PCR negative and uninfected at birth (i.e., exposed but uninfected). Thirty-four HIV-uninfected and HIV-unexposed mother-child pairs were included as controls. All HIV-positive mothers and their newborns showed high IgG titers to linear epitopes within the HR1 region and to the membrane-proximal (MPER) domain of gp41; most sera also recognized the disulfide loop immunodominant epitope (IDE). Antibody titers to the gp41 epitopes were significantly lower in nontransmitting mothers (P < 0.01) and in the EUN babies (P < 0.005) than in HIV-positive mother-child pairs. Three domains of gp41, HR1, IDE, and MPER, elicited antibodies that were effectively transmitted to EUN babies. Moreover, in EUN babies, epitopes overlapping the 2F5 epitope (ELDKWAS), but not the 4E10 epitope, were neutralization targets in two out of four viruses tested. Our findings highlight important epitopes in gp41 that appear to be associated with exposure without infection and would be important to consider for vaccine design.

  10. An attachment perspective on borderline personality disorder: advances in gene-environment considerations.

    PubMed

    Steele, Howard; Siever, Larry

    2010-02-01

    Accumulating evidence points to severe relationship dysfunction as the core epigenetic expression of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In adulthood, BPD is typified by disorganization within and across interpersonal domains of functioning. When interacting with their infants, mothers with BPD show marked withdrawal and frightening or frightened behavior, leading to disorganized infant-mother attachments. Linked to both infant disorganization and BPD is a maternal state of mind typified by unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma. Early risk factors for BPD in adulthood include maternal withdrawal in infancy and separation of 1 month or more from mother in the first 5 years of life. Likely contributing biological factors include genes linked to dopamine, serotonin, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neuropeptides. The complex gene-environment picture emerging confers risk or protection against BPD pathology in ways consistent with infants varying biological sensitivity to context. This line of research may refine early risk assessment and preventive mental health services.

  11. Gene-environment interactions in psychopathology throughout early childhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raquel Q; Soares, Isabel; Carvalho-Correia, Eduarda; Mesquita, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    Up to 20% of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health problems. Epidemiological studies have shown that some of these problems are already present at an early age. The recognition that psychopathology is a result of an interaction between individual experiences and genetic characteristics has led to an increase in the number of studies using a gene-environment approach (G×E). However, to date, there has been no systematic review of G×E studies on psychopathology in the first 6 years of life. Following a literature search and a selection process, 14 studies were identified and most (n=12) of the studies found at least one significant G×E effect. This review provides a systematic characterization of the published G×E studies, providing insights into the neurobiological and environmental determinants involved in the etiology of children's psychopathology.

  12. Animal models of gene-environment interaction in schizophrenia: a dimensional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Yavuz; McFarland, Ross; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has long been considered as a disorder with multifactorial origins. Recent discoveries have advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease. However, even with the increase of identified risk variants, heritability estimates suggest an important contribution of non-genetic factors. Various environmental risk factors have been proposed to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. These include season of birth, maternal infections, obstetric complications, adverse events at early childhood, and drug abuse. Despite the progress in identification of genetic and environmental risk factors, we still have a limited understanding of the mechanisms whereby gene-environment interactions (GxE) operate in schizophrenia and psychoses at large. In this review we provide a critical analysis of current animal models of GxE relevant to psychotic disorders and propose that dimensional perspective will advance our understanding of the complex mechanisms of these disorders. PMID:26510407

  13. The role of gene-environment interactions in the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Melanie R; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The rates of IgE-mediated food allergy have increased globally, particularly in developed countries. The rising incidence is occurring more rapidly than changes to the genome sequence would allow, suggesting that environmental exposures that alter the immune response play an important role. Genetic factors may also be used to predict an increased predisposition to these environmental risk factors, giving rise to the concept of gene-environment interactions, whereby differential risk of environmental exposures is mediated through the genome. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms, which are sensitive to environmental exposures, in the development of food allergy. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental and genetic risk factors for food allergy and how environmental exposures may interact with immune genes to modify disease risk or outcome.

  14. Gene-Environment Interaction in the Etiology of Mathematical Ability Using SNP Sets

    PubMed Central

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics ability and disability is as heritable as other cognitive abilities and disabilities, however its genetic etiology has received relatively little attention. In our recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 10 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA and validated in an individually genotyped sample. In this paper, we use a ‘SNP set’ composite of these 10 SNPs to investigate gene-environment (GE) interaction, examining whether the association between the 10-SNP set and mathematical ability differs as a function of ten environmental measures in the home and school in a sample of 1888 children with complete data. We found two significant GE interactions for environmental measures in the home and the school both in the direction of the diathesis-stress type of GE interaction: The 10-SNP set was more strongly associated with mathematical ability in chaotic homes and when parents are negative. PMID:20978832

  15. A Fast Multiple-Kernel Method With Applications to Detect Gene-Environment Interaction.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Rachel; Lu, Wenbin; Holloway, Shannon; Sale, Michèle M; Worrall, Bradford B; Williams, Stephen R; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2015-09-01

    Kernel machine (KM) models are a powerful tool for exploring associations between sets of genetic variants and complex traits. Although most KM methods use a single kernel function to assess the marginal effect of a variable set, KM analyses involving multiple kernels have become increasingly popular. Multikernel analysis allows researchers to study more complex problems, such as assessing gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, incorporating variance-component based methods for population substructure into rare-variant association testing, and assessing the conditional effects of a variable set adjusting for other variable sets. The KM framework is robust, powerful, and provides efficient dimension reduction for multifactor analyses, but requires the estimation of high dimensional nuisance parameters. Traditional estimation techniques, including regularization and the "expectation-maximization (EM)" algorithm, have a large computational cost and are not scalable to large sample sizes needed for rare variant analysis. Therefore, under the context of gene-environment interaction, we propose a computationally efficient and statistically rigorous "fastKM" algorithm for multikernel analysis that is based on a low-rank approximation to the nuisance effect kernel matrices. Our algorithm is applicable to various trait types (e.g., continuous, binary, and survival traits) and can be implemented using any existing single-kernel analysis software. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that our algorithm has similar performance to an EM-based KM approach for quantitative traits while running much faster. We also apply our method to the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) clinical trial, examining gene-by-vitamin effects on recurrent stroke risk and gene-by-age effects on change in homocysteine level.

  16. Genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis for asbestos exposure in lung cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng; Wang, Li-E; McHugh, Michelle K; Han, Younghun; Xiong, Momiao; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R; Wei, Qingyi Wei

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos exposure is a known risk factor for lung cancer. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified some novel loci for lung cancer risk, few addressed genome-wide gene-environment interactions. To determine gene-asbestos interactions in lung cancer risk, we conducted genome-wide gene-environment interaction analyses at levels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genes and pathways, using our published Texas lung cancer GWAS dataset. This dataset included 317 498 SNPs from 1154 lung cancer cases and 1137 cancer-free controls. The initial SNP-level P-values for interactions between genetic variants and self-reported asbestos exposure were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status and pack-years. The P-value for the most significant SNP rs13383928 was 2.17×10(-6), which did not reach the genome-wide statistical significance. Using a versatile gene-based test approach, we found that the top significant gene was C7orf54, located on 7q32.1 (P = 8.90×10(-5)). Interestingly, most of the other significant genes were located on 11q13. When we used an improved gene-set-enrichment analysis approach, we found that the Fas signaling pathway and the antigen processing and presentation pathway were most significant (nominal P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.05) among 250 pathways containing 17 572 genes. We believe that our analysis is a pilot study that first describes the gene-asbestos interaction in lung cancer risk at levels of SNPs, genes and pathways. Our findings suggest that immune function regulation-related pathways may be mechanistically involved in asbestos-associated lung cancer risk.

  17. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 < MAF < 0.05) genetic variants associated with cancer. The marginal effects of most of these variants have been small (odds ratios: 1.1-1.4). There remain unanswered questions on how best to incorporate the joint effects of genes and environment, including gene-environment (G × E) interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a "Gene-Environment Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

  18. A Fast Multiple-Kernel Method with Applications to Detect Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Rachel; Lu, Wenbin; Holloway, Shannon; Sale, Michèle M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Williams, Stephen R.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Kernel machine (KM) models are a powerful tool for exploring associations between sets of genetic variants and complex traits. While most KM methods use a single kernel function to assess the marginal effect of a variable set, KM analyses involving multiple kernels have become increasingly popular. Multi-kernel analysis allows researchers to study more complex problems, such as assessing gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, incorporating variance-component based methods for population substructure into rare-variant association testing, and assessing the conditional effects of a variable set adjusting for other variable sets. The KM framework is robust, powerful, and provides efficient dimension reduction for multi-factor analyses, but requires the estimation of high dimensional nuisance parameters. Traditional estimation techniques, including regularization and the EM algorithm, have a large computational cost and are not scalable to large sample sizes needed for rare variant analysis. Therefore, under the context of gene-environment interaction, we propose a computationally efficient and statistically rigorous “fastKM” algorithm for multi-kernel analysis that is based on a low-rank approximation to the nuisance-effect kernel matrices. Our algorithm is applicable to various trait types (e.g., continuous, binary, and survival traits) and can be implemented using any existing single-kernel analysis software. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that our algorithm has similar performance to an EM-based KM approach for quantitative traits while running much faster. We also apply our method to the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) clinical trial, examining gene-by-vitamin effects on recurrent stroke risk and gene-by-age effects on change in homocysteine level. PMID:26139508

  19. BAYESIAN SEMIPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR TWO-PHASE STUDIES OF GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jaeil; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gruber, Stephen B.; Ghosh, Malay

    2013-01-01

    The two-phase sampling design is a cost-efficient way of collecting expensive covariate information on a judiciously selected sub-sample. It is natural to apply such a strategy for collecting genetic data in a sub-sample enriched for exposure to environmental factors for gene-environment interaction (G × E) analysis. In this paper, we consider two-phase studies of G × E interaction where phase I data are available on exposure, covariates and disease status. Stratified sampling is done to prioritize individuals for genotyping at phase II conditional on disease and exposure. We consider a Bayesian analysis based on the joint retrospective likelihood of phase I and phase II data. We address several important statistical issues: (i) we consider a model with multiple genes, environmental factors and their pairwise interactions. We employ a Bayesian variable selection algorithm to reduce the dimensionality of this potentially high-dimensional model; (ii) we use the assumption of gene-gene and gene-environment independence to trade-off between bias and efficiency for estimating the interaction parameters through use of hierarchical priors reflecting this assumption; (iii) we posit a flexible model for the joint distribution of the phase I categorical variables using the non-parametric Bayes construction of Dunson and Xing (2009). We carry out a small-scale simulation study to compare the proposed Bayesian method with weighted likelihood and pseudo likelihood methods that are standard choices for analyzing two-phase data. The motivating example originates from an ongoing case-control study of colorectal cancer, where the goal is to explore the interaction between the use of statins (a drug used for lowering lipid levels) and 294 genetic markers in the lipid metabolism/cholesterol synthesis pathway. The sub-sample of cases and controls on which these genetic markers were measured is enriched in terms of statin users. The example and simulation results illustrate that the

  20. CardioGxE, a catalog of gene-environment interactions for cardiometabolic traits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic understanding of complex traits has developed immensely over the past decade but remains hampered by incomplete descriptions of contribution to phenotypic variance. Gene-environment (GxE) interactions are one of these contributors and in the guise of diet and physical activity are important modulators of cardiometabolic phenotypes and ensuing diseases. Results We mined the scientific literature to collect GxE interactions from 386 publications for blood lipids, glycemic traits, obesity anthropometrics, vascular measures, inflammation and metabolic syndrome, and introduce CardioGxE, a gene-environment interaction resource. We then analyzed the genes and SNPs supporting cardiometabolic GxEs in order to demonstrate utility of GxE SNPs and to discern characteristics of these important genetic variants. We were able to draw many observations from our extensive analysis of GxEs. 1) The CardioGxE SNPs showed little overlap with variants identified by main effect GWAS, indicating the importance of environmental interactions with genetic factors on cardiometabolic traits. 2) These GxE SNPs were enriched in adaptation to climatic and geographical features, with implications on energy homeostasis and response to physical activity. 3) Comparison to gene networks responding to plasma cholesterol-lowering or regression of atherosclerotic plaques showed that GxE genes have a greater role in those responses, particularly through high-energy diets and fat intake, than do GWAS-identified genes for the same traits. Other aspects of the CardioGxE dataset were explored. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate that SNPs supporting cardiometabolic GxE interactions often exhibit transcriptional effects or are under positive selection. Still, not all such SNPs can be assigned potential functional or regulatory roles often because data are lacking in specific cell types or from treatments that approximate the environmental factor of the GxE. With research on metabolic related

  1. Fast Envelope Correlation for Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Ref. l:p. 27]. Range (meters; / 𔃺 Transmittng Radar Sen or I Sensor 2 Range turete,,; (focal point 1) (focal point 2) Hyperbola for t d I ms. d td ...Scaling noise is zero because it is not performed during pass five. Substituting Equation 81 into 82 NA2(5) = 25N2 + (25 + 24)S2o, + 7o0 (83) Pass 6 The

  2. A database of gene-environment interactions pertaining to blood lipid traits, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the role of the environment – diet, exercise, alcohol and tobacco use and sleep among others – is accorded a more prominent role in modifying the relationship between genetic variants and clinical measures of disease, consideration of gene-environment (GxE) interactions is a must. To facilitate i...

  3. Gene-environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies in its clinical presentation and course. Susceptibility gene variants for ADHD and associated antisocial behaviour are being identified with emerging evidence of gene-environment interaction. Genes and environmental factors that influence the origins of disorder are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to its course and outcome.

  4. Gene-Environment Interactions across Development: Exploring DRD2 Genotype and Prenatal Smoking Effects on Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Stopp, Christian; Respass, Jennifer; Stewart, Peter; Jameson, Travis R.; Gilbert, David G.; Huggenvik, Jodi I.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic factors dynamically interact with both pre- and postnatal environmental influences to shape development. Considerable attention has been devoted to gene-environment interactions (G x E) on important outcomes (A. Caspi & T. E. Moffitt, 2006). It is also important to consider the possibility that these G x E effects may vary across…

  5. Research Review: Gene-Environment Interaction Research in Youth Depression--A Systematic Review with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Erin C.; Uddin, Monica; Subramanian, S. V.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Depression is a major public health problem among youth, currently estimated to affect as many as 9% of US children and adolescents. The recognition that both genes (nature) and environments (nurture) are important for understanding the etiology of depression has led to a rapid growth in research exploring gene-environment interactions…

  6. Gene-Environment Interaction in Externalizing Problems among Adolescents: Evidence from the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Christian; Hutz, Mara H.; Genro, Julia P.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Anselmi, Luciana; Camey, Suzi; Hallal, Pedro C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study of gene-environment interactions (G by E) is one of the most promising strategies to uncover the origins of mental disorders. Replication of initial findings, however, is essential because there is a strong possibility of publication bias in the literature. In addition, there is a scarcity of research on the topic originated…

  7. Testing gene-environment interactions in family-based association studies using trait-based ascertained samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiming; Langefeld, Carl D.; Grunwald, Gary K.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.

    2014-01-01

    The study of gene-environment interactions is an increasingly important aspect of genetic epidemiological investigation. Historically, it has been difficult to study gene-environment interactions using a family-based design for quantitative traits or when parent-offspring trios were incomplete. The QBAT-I[1] provides researchers a tool to estimate and test for a gene-environment interaction in families of arbitrary structure that are sampled without regard to the phenotype of interest, but is vulnerable to inflated type I error if families are ascertained based on the phenotype. In this study, we verified the potential for type I error of the QBAT-I when applied to samples ascertained on a trait of interest. The magnitude of the inflation increases as the main genetic effect increases and as the ascertainment becomes more extreme. We propose an ascertainment-corrected score test that allows use of the QBAT-I to test for gene-environment interactions in ascertained samples. Our results indicate that the score test and an ad-hoc method we propose can often restore the nominal type I error rate, and in cases where complete restoration is not possible, dramatically reduce the inflation of the type I error rate in ascertained samples. PMID:23922213

  8. Dissecting cause and effect in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders: genes, environment and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gray, Laura; Hannan, Anthiny J

    2007-08-01

    It has long been established that the development of psychiatric illness results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Postmortem and genetic linkage studies have identified a number of promising candidate genes which have been reinforced by replication and functional studies. However, the fact that concordance rates for monozygotic twins rarely approach 100% highlights the involvement of environmental factors. Whilst epidemiological studies of psychiatric cohorts have demonstrated potential risk factors, such studies are clearly limited and in many cases the potential mechanism linking a given risk factor with pathogenesis remains unclear. A very powerful method of elucidating the mechanisms underlying gene-environment interactions is the use of appropriate animal models of psychiatric pathology. Whilst animals cannot be used to map the entire complexity of diseases such as schizophrenia, dissecting the symptom profile into more simply encapsulated traits or endophenotypes has proved to be a successful approach. Such endophenotypes provide a measurable link between aetiological factors and phenotypic outcome. Given the potential for the careful control and modification of an experimental animal's environment, the combination of studies of candidate genes with investigations of environmental factors is an effective heuristic tool, allowing examination of behavioural endophenotypes in conjunction with cellular and molecular outcomes. This review will consider the extant genetic, molecular, pharmacological and lesion-based models of psychiatric disorders, and the relevant methods of environmental manipulation appearing in the literature. We will discuss studies where such models have been combined, and the potential for future experimentation in this area.

  9. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene-environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder caused by a complex and heterogeneous combination of genetic and environmental factors. In order to develop effective new strategies to prevent and treat schizophrenia, valid animal models are required which accurately model the disorder, and ideally provide construct, face and predictive validity. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia represent some of the most debilitating symptoms and are also currently the most poorly treated. Therefore it is crucial that animal models are able to capture the cognitive dysfunction that characterizes schizophrenia, as well as the negative and psychotic symptoms. The genomes of mice have, prior to the recent gene-editing revolution, proven the most easily manipulable of mammalian laboratory species, and hence most genetic targeting has been performed using mouse models. Importantly, when key environmental factors of relevance to schizophrenia are experimentally manipulated, dramatic changes in the phenotypes of these animal models are often observed. We will review recent studies in rodent models which provide insight into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We will focus specifically on environmental factors which modulate levels of experience-dependent plasticity, including environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, physical activity and stress. The insights provided by this research will not only help refine the establishment of optimally valid animal models which facilitate development of novel therapeutics, but will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, thus identifying molecular and cellular targets for future preclinical and clinical investigations.

  10. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    PubMed

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype.

  11. Drug metabolism and liver disease: a drug-gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Zgheib, Nathalie K; Branch, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the central role of the liver in drug metabolism, surprisingly there is lack of certainty in anticipating the extent of modification of the clearance of a given drug in a given patient. The intent of this review is to provide a conceptual framework in considering the impact of liver disease on drug disposition and reciprocally the impact of drug disposition on liver disease. It is proposed that improved understanding of the situation is gained by considering the issue as a special example of a drug-gene-environment interaction. This requires an integration of knowledge of the drug's properties, knowledge of the gene products involved in its metabolism, and knowledge of the pathophysiology of its disposition. This will enhance the level of predictability of drug disposition and toxicity for a drug of interest in an individual patient. It is our contention that advances in pharmacology, pharmacogenomics, and hepatology, together with concerted interests in the academic, regulatory, and pharmaceutical industry communities provide an ideal immediate environment to move from a qualitative reactive approach to quantitative proactive approach in individualizing patient therapy in liver disease.

  12. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Chiș, Adina; Vulturar, Romana; Dobrean, Anca; Cândea, Diana Mirela; Miu, Andrei C.

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people’s preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology. PMID:26230319

  13. Gene-Environment Interaction in Adults’ IQ Scores: Measures of Past and Present Environment

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction was studied in a sample of young (mean age 26 years, N = 385) and older (mean age 49 years, N = 370) adult males and females. Full scale IQ scores (FSIQ) were analyzed using biometric models in which additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) effects were allowed to depend on environmental measures. Moderators under study were parental and partner educational level, as well as urbanization level and mean real estate price of the participants’ residential area. Mean effects were observed for parental education, partner education and urbanization level. On average, FSIQ scores were roughly 5 points higher in participants with highly educated parents, compared to participants whose parents were less well educated. In older participants, IQ scores were about 2 points higher when their partners were highly educated. In younger males, higher urbanization levels were associated with slightly higher FSIQ scores. Our analyses also showed increased common environmental variation in older males whose parents were more highly educated, and increased unique environmental effects in older males living in more affluent areas. Contrary to studies in children, however, the variance attributable to additive genetic effects was stable across all levels of the moderators under study. Most results were replicated for VIQ and PIQ. PMID:18535898

  14. Environmental factors as modulators of neurodegeneration: insights from gene-environment interactions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2015-05-01

    Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases with established gene-environment interactions, Huntington's disease (HD) is viewed as a disorder governed by genetics. The cause of the disease is a highly penetrant tandem repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. In the year 2000, a pioneering study showed that the disease could be delayed in transgenic mice by enriched housing conditions. This review describes subsequent human and preclinical studies identifying environmental modulation of motor, cognitive, affective and other symptoms found in HD. Alongside the behavioral observations we also discuss potential mechanisms and the relevance to other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In mouse models of HD, increased sensorimotor and cognitive stimulation can delay or ameliorate various endophenotypes. Potential mechanisms include increased trophic support, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, and other forms of experience-dependent cellular plasticity. Subsequent clinical investigations support a role for lifetime activity levels in modulating the onset and progression of HD. Stress can accelerate memory and olfactory deficits and exacerbate cellular dysfunctions in HD mice. In the absence of effective treatments to slow the course of HD, environmental interventions offer feasible approaches to delay the disease, however further preclinical and human studies are needed in order to generate clinical recommendations. Environmental interventions could be combined with future pharmacological therapies and stimulate the identification of enviromimetics, drugs which mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity.

  15. Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Contemporary Challenges for Integrated, Large-scale Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi–center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. PMID:24860087

  16. Education and alcohol use: A study of gene-environment interaction in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Barr, Peter B; Salvatore, Jessica E; Maes, Hermine; Aliev, Fazil; Latvala, Antti; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-08-01

    The consequences of heavy alcohol use remain a serious public health problem. Consistent evidence has demonstrated that both genetic and social influences contribute to alcohol use. Research on gene-environment interaction (GxE) has also demonstrated that these social and genetic influences do not act independently. Instead, certain environmental contexts may limit or exacerbate an underlying genetic predisposition. However, much of the work on GxE and alcohol use has focused on adolescence and less is known about the important environmental contexts in young adulthood. Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (N = 3402), we used biometric twin modeling to test whether education moderated genetic risk for alcohol use as assessed by drinking frequency and intoxication frequency. Education is important because it offers greater access to personal resources and helps determine one's position in the broader stratification system. Results from the twin models show that education did not moderate genetic variance components and that genetic risk was constant across levels of education. Instead, education moderated environmental variance so that under conditions of low education, environmental influences explained more of the variation in alcohol use outcomes. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed.

  17. A Combinatorial Approach to Detecting Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Guo-Bo; Yan, Lei; Ma, Jennie Z.; Mangold, Jamie E.; Zhu, Jun; Elston, Robert C.; Li, Ming D.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread multifactor interactions present a significant challenge in determining risk factors of complex diseases. Several combinatorial approaches, such as the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method, have emerged as a promising tool for better detecting gene-gene (G × G) and gene-environment (G × E) interactions. We recently developed a general combinatorial approach, namely the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method, which can entertain both qualitative and quantitative phenotypes and allows for both discrete and continuous covariates to detect G × G and G × E interactions in a sample of unrelated individuals. In this article, we report the development of an algorithm that can be used to study G × G and G × E interactions for family-based designs, called pedigree-based GMDR (PGMDR). Compared to the available method, our proposed method has several major improvements, including allowing for covariate adjustments and being applicable to arbitrary phenotypes, arbitrary pedigree structures, and arbitrary patterns of missing marker genotypes. Our Monte Carlo simulations provide evidence that the PGMDR method is superior in performance to identify epistatic loci compared to the MDR-pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Finally, we applied our proposed approach to a genetic data set on tobacco dependence and found a significant interaction between two taste receptor genes (i.e., TAS2R16 and TAS2R38) in affecting nicotine dependence. PMID:18834969

  18. Leveraging gene-environment interactions and endotypes for asthma gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Ober, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that includes subtypes of disease with different underlying causes and disease mechanisms. Asthma is caused by a complex interaction between genes and environmental exposures; early-life exposures in particular play an important role. Asthma is also heritable, and a number of susceptibility variants have been discovered in genome-wide association studies, although the known risk alleles explain only a small proportion of the heritability. In this review, we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that focusing on more specific asthma phenotypes, such as childhood asthma with severe exacerbations, and on relevant exposures that are involved in gene-environment interactions (GEIs), such as rhinovirus infections, will improve detection of asthma genes and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. We will discuss the challenges of considering GEIs and the advantages of studying responses to asthma-associated exposures in clinical birth cohorts, as well as in cell models of GEIs, to dissect the context-specific nature of genotypic risks, to prioritize variants in genome-wide association studies, and to identify pathways involved in pathogenesis in subgroups of patients. We propose that such approaches, in spite of their many challenges, present great opportunities for better understanding of asthma pathogenesis and heterogeneity and, ultimately, for improving prevention and treatment of disease.

  19. Gene-environment interactions: key to unraveling the mystery of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The gradual, irreversible loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra is the signature lesion of PD. Clinical symptoms of PD become apparent when 50-60% of nigral dopamine neurons are lost. PD progresses insidiously for 5-7 years (preclinical period) and then continues to worsen even under the symptomatic treatment. To determine what triggers the disease onset and what drives the chronic, self-propelling neurodegenerative process becomes critical and urgent, since lack of such knowledge impedes the discovery of effective treatments to retard PD progression. At present, available therapeutics only temporarily relieve PD symptoms. While the identification of causative gene defects in familial PD uncovers important genetic influences in this disease, the majority of PD cases are sporadic and idiopathic. The current consensus suggests that PD develops from multiple risk factors including aging, genetic predisposition, and environmental exposure. Here, we briefly review research on the genetic and environmental causes of PD. We also summarize very recent genome-wide association studies on risk gene polymorphisms in the emergence of PD. We highlight the new converging evidence on gene-environment interplay in the development of PD with an emphasis on newly developed multiple-hit PD models involving both genetic lesions and environmental triggers.

  20. Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation.

  1. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in logarithmic predictive relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a reliable surrogate for biomonitoring organisms when biomonitoring organisms are not available. When applied properly, passive sampling based estimates of bioaccumulation provide useful information for making informed decisions about the bioavailability of HOCs

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Results/Lessons Learned. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in strong logarithmic regression relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Passive sampler uptake and bioaccumulation were not found to be identical (i.e., CPS ≠ CL) but the logarithmic-based relationships between these values were consistently linear and predictive. This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a

  3. Gene-environment interactions linking air pollution and inflammation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Lill, Christina M; Bertram, Lars; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hansen, Johnni; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1β). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94μg/m(3) increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted.

  4. Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Hogberg, Helena T; Bressler, Joseph; Christian, Kimberly M; Harris, Georgina; Makri, Georgia; O'Driscoll, Cliona; Pamies, David; Smirnova, Lena; Wen, Zhexing; Hartung, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to establish and characterize an in vitro model of the developing human brain for the purpose of testing drugs and chemicals. To accurately assess risk, a model needs to recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of glial cells and neurons in a three-dimensional platform. Moreover, human cells are preferred over cells from rodents to eliminate cross-species differences in sensitivity to chemicals. Previously, we established conditions to culture rat primary cells as three-dimensional aggregates, which will be humanized and evaluated here with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The use of iPSCs allows us to address gene/environment interactions as well as the potential of chemicals to interfere with epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, iPSCs afford us the opportunity to study the effect of chemicals during very early stages of brain development. It is well recognized that assays for testing toxicity in the developing brain must consider differences in sensitivity and susceptibility that arise depending on the time of exposure. This model will reflect critical developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, lineage specification, migration, axonal growth, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, which will probably display differences in sensitivity to different types of chemicals. Functional endpoints will evaluate the complex cell-to-cell interactions that are affected in neurodevelopment through chemical perturbation, and the efficacy of drug intervention to prevent or reverse phenotypes. The model described is designed to assess developmental neurotoxicity effects on unique processes occurring during human brain development by leveraging human iPSCs from diverse genetic backgrounds, which can be differentiated into different cell types of the central nervous system. Our goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the personalized model using iPSCs derived from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

  5. Identification of New Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Breast Cancer Through Consideration of Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Dunning, Alison M.; Milne, Roger L.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Andrulis, Irene; Brenner, Hermann; Behrens, Sabine; Orr, Nicholas; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Li, Jingmei; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Knight, Julia; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M.; Dumont, Martine; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Moisse, Matthieu; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Spurdle, Amanda; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Malats, Núria; Arias Perez, JoséI.; Benítez, Javier; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Truong, Théresè; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Braaf, Linde; Atsma, Femke; van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Simard, Jacques; Giles, Graham G.; Lambrechts, Diether; Mannermaa, Arto; Brauch, Hiltrud; Guénel, Pascal; Peto, Julian; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Couch, Fergus; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10−07), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10−05). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci. PMID:24248812

  6. G x E: a NIAAA workshop on gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Goldman, David

    2003-03-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a May 2002 workshop on gene-environment interaction (G x E) research to identify potential roadblocks to further research and to propose solutions to those roadblocks, to optimize investigative opportunities and multidisciplinary or multi-institution collaborations, and to explore ways that NIAAA can facilitate G x E studies. Sessions included panels on animal models; phenotypes; genetic findings in humans; study designs and analytical methods; and assessment of environmental risk. Key among the identified challenges to progress in G x E research were issues of study design and sampling strategies; logistic and methodological costs and constraints; availability and understanding of data analysis techniques; potential stigmatization of study populations; and organizational/bureaucratic structures that are inadequate to address the unique needs of large-scale, multicenter, longitudinal projects. Participants proposed a series of recommendations to address these issues. Session coordinators included: Gayle Boyd, Kendall Bryant, Page Chiapella, Vivian Faden, David Goldman, and Antonio Noronha. Session participants included: Laura Almasy, Henri Begleiter, Raul Caetano, Bruce Dudek, Mary Dufour, Cindy Ehlers, Mary-Anne Enoch, Joel Gelernter, David Goldman, Bridget Grant, Lorraine Gunzerath, Deborah Hasin, Andrew Heath, Victor Hesselbrock, J. Dee Higley, Shirley Hill, Kerry Jang, Raynard S. Kington, Rick Kittles, George Koob, Kenneth Leonard, Ting-Kai Li, Jeffrey Long, William McBride, Matthew McGue, Kathleen Merikangas, Tamara Phillips, Bernice Porjesz, Carol Prescott, Theodore Reich, John Rice, Richard Rose, Charmaine Royal, Arnold Sameroff, Marc Schuckit, Kenneth Sher, Renee Sieving, Robert Taylor, Michael Windle, and Robert Zucker.

  7. Gene-environment interactions in the development of complex disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosemarie G; Olden, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    The lack of knowledge about the earliest events in disease development is due to the multi-factorial nature of disease risk. This information gap is the consequence of the lack of appreciation for the fact that most diseases arise from the complex interactions between genes and the environment as a function of the age or stage of development of the individual. Whether an environmental exposure causes illness or not is dependent on the efficiency of the so-called "environmental response machinery" (i.e., the complex of metabolic pathways that can modulate response to environmental perturbations) that one has inherited. Thus, elucidating the causes of most chronic diseases will require an understanding of both the genetic and environmental contribution to their etiology. Unfortunately, the exploration of the relationship between genes and the environment has been hampered in the past by the limited knowledge of the human genome, and by the inclination of scientists to study disease development using experimental models that consider exposure to a single environmental agent. Rarely in the past were interactions between multiple genes or between genes and environmental agents considered in studies of human disease etiology. The most critical issue is how to relate exposure-disease association studies to pathways and mechanisms. To understand how genes and environmental factors interact to perturb biological pathways to cause injury or disease, scientists will need tools with the capacity to monitor the global expression of thousands of genes, proteins and metabolites simultaneously. The generation of such data in multiple species can be used to identify conserved and functionally significant genes and pathways involved in gene-environment interactions. Ultimately, it is this knowledge that will be used to guide agencies such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in decisions regarding biomedical research funding and policy.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Ray, Lara; Justus, Alicia; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John; Meyerson, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that genetic influences on adolescent drinking are moderated by environmental factors. The present study builds on molecular-genetic findings by conducting the first analysis of gene-environment interactions in the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the µ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene (A118G) and risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether variation in parenting practices or affiliation with deviant peers moderated the link between the OPRM1 gene and risk for an AUD. Methods Adolescents reporting European ancestry (N = 104), ages 12–19 years (M = 15.60, SD = 1.77), were interviewed to ascertain AUD diagnoses, provided a DNA sample for genetic analyses, and completed measures of parental monitoring and deviant peer affiliation. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of environmental variable sand their interactions with OPRM1genotype as predictors of AUD diagnosis while controlling for age and sex. Results Case-control comparisons showed that the proportion of youth with an AUD (n = 18) significantly differed by genotype such that 33.3% of G allele carriers met criteria for an AUD compared to 10.8% of youth who were homozygous for the A allele (p = .006). The OPRM1 × parental monitoring (odds ratio = 0.16) and OPRM1 × deviant peer affiliation (odds ratio = 7.64) interactions were significant predictors of AUD risk, such that G allele carriers with high levels of deviant peer affiliation or lower levels of parental monitoring had the greatest likelihood of developing an AUD (p values < .01). Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the association between the A118G SNP of the OPRM1 gene and risk for AUDs is moderated by modifiable factors. These results are limited, however, by the small sample size and require replication. PMID:23136901

  9. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... a certain type of wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful ... A is common. They are typically given before children or adults leave on their ... active vaccination is preferable. Keep in mind that passive immunizations ...

  10. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  11. LASL passive program

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent accomplishments are outlined on the following tasks: (1) solar load ratio for sunspaces; (2) thermal performance of components and buildings; (3) convective loop test; (4) similarity study of interzone convection; (5) evaluation of phase-change thermal storage; (6) off-peak electrical auxiliary heating; (7) passive solar design handbook; (8) program support to DOE; and (9) passive cooling for residences. (WHK)

  12. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  13. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Various Recipes of SiNx Passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors in Correlation with Current Slump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Quan, Si; Hu, Gui-Zhou; Jiang, Shou-Gao; Yang, Li-Yuan

    2009-11-01

    The current slump of different recipes of SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. The dc and pulsed current-voltage curves of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using different recipes are analyzed. It is found that passivation leakage has a strong relationship with NH3 flow in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition process, which has impacted on the current collapse of SiNx passivated devices. We analyze the pulsed IDS - VDS characteristics of different recipes of SiNx passivation devices for different combinations of gate and drain quiescent biases (VGS0, VDS0) of (0, 0), (-6, 0), (-6, 15) and (0, 15)V. The possible mechanisms are the traps in SiNx passivation capturing the electrons and the surface states at the SiNx/AlGaN interface, which can affect the channel of two-dimensional electron gas and cause the current collapse.

  14. The challenge of causal inference in gene-environment interaction research: leveraging research designs from the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Conley, Dalton

    2013-10-01

    The integration of genetics and the social sciences will lead to a more complex understanding of the articulation between social and biological processes, although the empirical difficulties inherent in this integration are large. One key challenge is the implications of moving "outside the lab" and away from the experimental tools available for research with model organisms. Social science research methods used to examine human behavior in nonexperimental, real-world settings to date have not been fully taken advantage of during this disciplinary integration, especially in the form of gene-environment interaction research. This article outlines and provides examples of several prominent research designs that should be used in gene-environment research and highlights a key benefit to geneticists of working with social scientists.

  15. The developmental origins of externalizing behavioral problems: parental disengagement and the role of gene-environment interplay.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, James C; Vaske, Jamie

    2012-05-30

    A line of research has revealed that the influence of genes on behavioral development is closely tied to environmental experiences. Known as gene-environment interaction, research in this area is beginning to reveal that variation in parenting behaviors may moderate genetic influences on antisocial behaviors in children. Despite growing interest in gene-environment interaction research, little evidence exists concerning the role of maternal disengagement in the conditioning of genetic influences on childhood behavioral problems. The current study is intended to address this gap in the literature by analyzing a sample of twin pairs drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analysis of the ECLS-B provided evidence that maternal disengagement moderates genetic influences on the development of externalizing problems.

  16. Characterization of gene-environment interactions for colorectal cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Carolyn M.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Slattery, Martha L.; Pflugeisen, Bethann M.; Lin, Yi; Duggan, David; Nan, Hongmei; Lemire, Mathieu; Rangrej, Jagadish; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Jiao, Shuo; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lin S.; Stelling, Deanna L.; Warnick, Greg S.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Küry, Sébastien; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hazra, Aditi; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gallinger, Steven; Zanke, Brent W.; Brenner, Hermann; Frank, Bernd; Ma, Jing; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A.; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Prentice, Ross L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Schoen, Robert E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Hayes, Richard B.; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Hsu, Li; Bézieau, Stéphane; Chan, Andrew T.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Peters, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Here we examined potential effect-modification between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 of these loci and probable or established environmental risk factors for CRC in 7,016 CRC cases and 9,723 controls from nine cohort and case-control studies. We used meta-analysis of an efficient empirical-Bayes estimator to detect potential multiplicative interactions between each of the SNPs [rs16892766 at 8q23.3 (EIF3H/UTP23); rs6983267 at 8q24 (MYC); rs10795668 at 10p14 (FLJ3802842); rs3802842 at11q23 (LOC120376); rs4444235 at 14q22.2 (BMP4); rs4779584 at15q13 (GREM1); rs9929218 at16q22.1 (CDH1); rs4939827 at18q21 (SMAD7); rs10411210 at19q13.1 (RHPN2); and rs961253 at 20p12.3 (BMP2)] and select major CRC risk factors (sex, body mass index, height, smoking status, aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, alcohol use, and dietary intake of calcium, folate, red meat, processed meat, vegetables, fruit, and fiber). The strongest statistical evidence for a gene-environment interaction across studies was for vegetable consumption and rs16892766, located on chromosome 8q23.3, near the EIF3H and UTP23 genes (nominal p-interaction =1.3×10–4; adjusted p-value 0.02). The magnitude of the main effect of the SNP increased with increasing levels of vegetable consumption. No other interactions were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, the association of most CRC susceptibility loci identified in initial GWAS appears to be invariant to the other risk factors considered; however, our results suggest potential modification of the rs16892766 effect by vegetable consumption. PMID:22367214

  17. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  18. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  19. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, David; Neri, Robin

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  20. Tests for gene-environment interaction from case-control data: a novel study of type I error, power and designs.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Gruber, Stephen B; Rennert, Gad; Moreno, Victor; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of a disease associated with the joint effects of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures, epidemiologic researchers often test for non-multiplicative gene-environment effects from case-control studies. In this article, we present a comparative study of four alternative tests for interactions: (i) the standard case-control method; (ii) the case-only method, which requires an assumption of gene-environment independence for the underlying population; (iii) a two-step method that decides between the case-only and case-control estimators depending on a statistical test for the gene-environment independence assumption and (iv) a novel empirical-Bayes (EB) method that combines the case-control and case-only estimators depending on the sample size and strength of the gene-environment association in the data. We evaluate the methods in terms of integrated Type I error and power, averaged with respect to varying scenarios for gene-environment association that are likely to appear in practice. These unique studies suggest that the novel EB procedure overall is a promising approach for detection of gene-environment interactions from case-control studies. In particular, the EB procedure, unlike the case-only or two-step methods, can closely maintain a desired Type I error under realistic scenarios of gene-environment dependence and yet can be substantially more powerful than the traditional case-control analysis when the gene-environment independence assumption is satisfied, exactly or approximately. Our studies also reveal potential utility of some non-traditional case-control designs that samples controls at a smaller rate than the cases. Apart from the simulation studies, we also illustrate the different methods by analyzing interactions of two commonly studied genes, N-acetyl transferase type 2 and glutathione s-transferase M1, with smoking and dietary exposures, in a large case-control study of colorectal cancer.

  1. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  2. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  3. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  4. Gene Environment Interactions in Women With Breast and Secondary Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    expression is correlated with benzo [ a ] pyrene -DNA adducts in carcinoma cell lines. Carcinogenesis 1995; 16:2117-2124. 16. Phillips, E.N., et al...with Breast and Secondary Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Meredith A . Tennis Peter G...Secondary Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0300 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Meredith A . Tennis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Peter G

  5. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  6. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic nutritional deprivation in larval life affects adult fecal output.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Cronish, Mackenzie; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2014-10-01

    Life history consequences of stress in early life are varied and known to have lasting impacts on the fitness of an organism. Gene-environment interactions play a large role in how phenotypic differences are mediated by stressful conditions during development. Here we use natural allelic 'rover/sitter' variants of the foraging (for) gene and chronic early life nutrient deprivation to investigate gene-environment interactions on excretion phenotypes. Excretion assay analysis and a fully factorial nutritional regimen encompassing the larval and adult life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster were used to assess the effects of larval and adult nutritional stress on adult excretion phenotypes. Natural allelic variants of for exhibited differences in the number of fecal spots when they were nutritionally deprived as larvae and well fed as adults. for mediates the excretion response to chronic early-life nutritional stress in mated female, virgin female, and male rovers and sitters. Transgenic manipulations of for in a sitter genetic background under larval but not adult food deprivation increases the number of fecal spots. Our study shows that food deprivation early in life affects adult excretion phenotypes and these excretion differences are mediated by for.

  7. Toll-like receptors and microbial exposure: gene-gene and gene-environment interaction in the development of atopy.

    PubMed

    Reijmerink, N E; Kerkhof, M; Bottema, R W B; Gerritsen, J; Stelma, F F; Thijs, C; van Schayck, C P; Smit, H A; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D S; Koppelman, G H

    2011-10-01

    Environmental and genetic factors contribute to atopy development. High microbial exposure may confer a protective effect on atopy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind microbial products and are important in activating the immune system. To assess whether interactions between microbial exposures and genes encoding TLRs (and related genes) result in atopy, genes, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions of 66 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 12 genes (TLR 1-6, 9 and 10, CD14, MD2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and Dectin-1), and six proxy parameters of microbial exposure (sibship size, pets (three different parameters), day-care and intrauterine and childhood tobacco smoke exposure) were analysed for association with atopic phenotypes in 3,062 Dutch children (the Allergenic study). The presence of two or more older siblings increased the risk of developing high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels at different ages. This risk increased further in children aged 1-2 yrs carrying the minor allele of TLR6 SNP rs1039559. Furthermore, novel two- and three-factor gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were found (e.g. between sibship size, day-care and LBP SNP rs2232596). Larger sibship size is associated with increased total IgE levels. Furthermore, complex two- and three-factor interactions exist between genes and the environment. The TLRs and related genes interact with proxy parameters of high microbial exposure in atopy development.

  8. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  9. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway.

  10. Gene-Gene-Environment Interactions of Serotonin Transporter, Monoamine Oxidase A and Childhood Maltreatment Predict Aggressive Behavior in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qing-sen; Yi, Jin-yao; Wang, Xiang; Chai, Qiao-lian; Yao, Shu-qiao

    2017-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified independently in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). The aim of the present study was to investigate epistasis interactions between MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), 5-HTTlinked polymorphism (LPR) and child abuse and the effects of these on aggressive tendencies in a group of otherwise healthy adolescents. A group of 546 Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire and Youth self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. Buccal cells were collected for DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse, MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR genotypes and their interactive gene-gene-environmental effects on aggressive behavior were analyzed using a linear regression model. The effect of child maltreatment was significant, and a three-way interaction among MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR and sexual abuse (SA) relating to aggressive behaviors was identified. Chinese male adolescents with high expression of the MAOA-VNTR allele and 5-HTTLPR “SS” genotype exhibited the highest aggression tendencies with an increase in SA during childhood. The findings reported support aggression being a complex behavior involving the synergistic effects of gene-gene-environment interactions. PMID:28203149

  11. Gene-Gene-Environment Interactions of Serotonin Transporter, Monoamine Oxidase A and Childhood Maltreatment Predict Aggressive Behavior in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qing-Sen; Yi, Jin-Yao; Wang, Xiang; Chai, Qiao-Lian; Yao, Shu-Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified independently in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). The aim of the present study was to investigate epistasis interactions between MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), 5-HTTlinked polymorphism (LPR) and child abuse and the effects of these on aggressive tendencies in a group of otherwise healthy adolescents. A group of 546 Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire and Youth self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. Buccal cells were collected for DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse, MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR genotypes and their interactive gene-gene-environmental effects on aggressive behavior were analyzed using a linear regression model. The effect of child maltreatment was significant, and a three-way interaction among MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR and sexual abuse (SA) relating to aggressive behaviors was identified. Chinese male adolescents with high expression of the MAOA-VNTR allele and 5-HTTLPR "SS" genotype exhibited the highest aggression tendencies with an increase in SA during childhood. The findings reported support aggression being a complex behavior involving the synergistic effects of gene-gene-environment interactions.

  12. Passive hydrogel fuel generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neefe, Ch. W.

    1985-04-16

    A passive hydrogen oxygen generator in which the long wavelength infrared portion of the sun's spectrum heats water to provide circulation of the water within the generator. The shorter wavelength portion of the spectrum to which water is transparent is used in splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by photoelectrolysis.

  13. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  14. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  15. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.3 Dependence on SNR...71 4.3.3 Dependence on SNR and DNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.4 Interpretations...described as a passive radar network. The topology of such networks is described as bistatic, multistatic, or multiple-input multiple-output, depending on

  16. Passive adaptive imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofsted, David

    2016-05-01

    Standard methods for improved imaging system performance under degrading optical turbulence conditions typically involve active adaptive techniques or post-capture image processing. Here, passive adaptive methods are considered where active sources are disallowed, a priori. Theoretical analyses of short-exposure turbulence impacts indicate that varying aperture sizes experience different degrees of turbulence impacts. Smaller apertures often outperform larger aperture systems as turbulence strength increases. This suggests a controllable aperture system is advantageous. In addition, sub-aperture sampling of a set of training images permits the system to sense tilts in different sub-aperture regions through image acquisition and image cross-correlation calculations. A four sub-aperture pattern supports corrections involving five realizable operating modes (beyond tip and tilt) for removing aberrations over an annular pattern. Progress to date will be discussed regarding development and field trials of a prototype system.

  17. Use of the Twin Design to Examine Evocative Gene-Environment Effects within a Conversational Context

    PubMed Central

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Hart, Sara Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the role of twin designs in understanding children’s conversational interactions. Specifically, we (a) attempted to replicate the findings of genetic effects on children’s conversational language use reported in DeThorne et al. (2008), and (b) examined whether the language used by examiners in their conversation with twins reflected differences in the children’s genetic similarity. Behavioral genetic analyses included intraclass correlations and model fitting procedures applied to 514 same-sex twins (202 MZ, 294 DZ, 10 unknown zygosity) from the Western Reserve Reading Project (Petrill, Deater-Deckard, Thompson, DeThorne, & Schatschneider, 2006). Analyses focused on child and examiner measures of talkativeness, average utterance length, vocabulary diversity, and grammatical complexity from a fifteen-minute conversational exchange. Substantial genetic effects on children’s conversational language measures replicated results from DeThorne et al. (2008) using an expanded sample. However, no familiality was reflected in the examiner language measures. Modest phenotypic correlations between child and examiner language measures suggested that differences in examiner language use may elicit differences in child language use, but evidence of evocative rGE in which genetic differences across children evoke differences in examiner language use, was not found. The discussion focuses on a comparison of findings to previous studies and implications for future research. PMID:22102850

  18. Gene Environment Risk Assessment and Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Average Risk Population: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David S.; Myers, Ronald E.; Keenan, Eileen; Ruth, Karen; Sifri, Randa; Ziring, Barry; Ross, Eric; Manne, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Background New methods are needed to improve health behaviors such as adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. There is increasing availability of personalized genetic information to inform medical decisions. It is not known if such information motivates behavioral change. Objective To determine, in average risk persons, if individualized gene-environment risk assessment about CRC susceptibility improves adherence to screening. Design Two-arm, randomized, controlled trial Setting Four medical school affiliated primary care practices Patients 783 patients at average risk for CRC, but not adherent with screening at study entry Intervention Patients were randomized to usual care or to receipt of Gene Environmental Risk Assessment (GERA), which assessed Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and serum folate level. Based on pre-specified polymorphism/folate level combinations, GERA participants were told they were at either “elevated” or at “average” risk for CRC. Measurements The primary outcome was receipt of CRC screening within 6 months of study entry. Results CRC screening rates were not statistically significantly different between usual care (35.7%) and GERA (33.1%) arms overall. After adjustment for baseline participant factors, the odds ratio (OR) for screening completion for GERA vs usual care was 0.88 (95% CI 0.64 - 1.22). Within the GERA arm, there was no significant difference in screening rates between GERA average risk (38.1%) and GERA elevated risk (26.9%) groups. Odds ratios for elevated vs. average risk remained non-significant after adjustment for covariates (OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.42). Limitations Only one personalized, gene-environment interaction and only one health behavior, colorectal cancer screening, were assessed. Conclusion In average risk persons, there was no positive association between CRC screening uptake and feedback of a single personalized gene-environment risk assessment (GERA). Additional

  19. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  20. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  1. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  2. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Hall, Earl T.; Baker, Donald A.; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1992-08-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  3. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The invention is an ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system. The invention incorporates piezoelectric polymer film combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted from a fetus inside an expectant mother and to provide means for filtering out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  4. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  5. Biometric Modeling of Gene-Environment Interplay: The Intersection of Theory and Method and Applications for Social Inequality.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Hamdi, Nayla R; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, biometric moderation models have been used to examine whether genetic and environmental influences on individual differences might vary within the population. These quantitative Gene × Environment interaction models have the potential to elucidate not only when genetic and environmental influences on a phenotype might differ, but also why, as they provide an empirical test of several theoretical paradigms that serve as useful heuristics to explain etiology-diathesis-stress, bioecological, differential susceptibility, and social control. In the current article, we review how these developmental theories align with different patterns of findings from statistical models of gene-environment interplay. We then describe the extant empirical evidence, using work by our own research group and others, to lay out genetically informative plausible accounts of how phenotypes related to social inequality-physical health and cognition-might relate to these theoretical models.

  6. Satiety and the Self-Regulation of Food Take in Children: a Potential Role for Gene-Environment Interplay.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-03-01

    Child eating self-regulation refers to behaviors that enable children to start and stop eating in a manner consistent with maintaining energy balance. Perturbations in these behaviors, manifesting as poorer child eating self-regulation, are associated with higher child weight status. Initial research into child eating self-regulation focused on the role of parent feeding styles and behaviors. However, we argue that child eating self-regulation is better understood as arising from a complex interplay between the child and their feeding environment, and highlight newer research into the heritable child characteristics, such as cognitive ability, that play an important role in this dynamic. Therefore, child eating self-regulation arises from gene-environment interactions. Identifying the genes and environmental influences contributing to these will help us tailor our parental feeding advice to the unique nature of the child. In this way, we will devise more effective advice for preventing childhood obesity.

  7. Nature versus nurture: A systematic approach to elucidate gene-environment interactions in the development of myopic refractive errors.

    PubMed

    Miraldi Utz, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Myopia is the most common eye disorder and major cause of visual impairment worldwide. As the incidence of myopia continues to rise, the need to further understand the complex roles of molecular and environmental factors controlling variation in refractive error is of increasing importance. Tkatchenko and colleagues applied a systematic approach using a combination of gene set enrichment analysis, genome-wide association studies, and functional analysis of a murine model to identify a myopia susceptibility gene, APLP2. Differential expression of refractive error was associated with time spent reading for those with low frequency variants in this gene. This provides support for the longstanding hypothesis of gene-environment interactions in refractive error development.

  8. Conceptual shifts needed to understand the dynamic interactions of genes, environment, epigenetics, social processes, and behavioral choices.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Fatimah L C; Niculescu, Mihai D; Jackson, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Social and behavioral research in public health is often intimately tied to profound, but frequently neglected, biological influences from underlying genetic, environmental, and epigenetic events. The dynamic interplay between the life, social, and behavioral sciences often remains underappreciated and underutilized in addressing complex diseases and disorders and in developing effective remediation strategies. Using a case-study format, we present examples as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies. We highlight the important roles of gene-environment interactions and epigenetics as sources of phenotypic change and as a bridge between the life and social and behavioral sciences in the development of robust interdisciplinary analyses.

  9. Satiety and the self-regulation of food take in children: A potential role for gene-environment interplay

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Sheryl O.

    2016-01-01

    Child eating self-regulation refers to behaviors that enable children to start and stop eating in a manner consistent with maintaining energy balance. Perturbations in these behaviors, manifesting as poorer child eating self-regulation, are associated with higher child weight status. Initial research into child eating self-regulation focused on the role of parent feeding styles and behaviors. However, we argue that child eating self-regulation is better understood as arising from a complex interplay between the child and their feeding environment, and highlight newer research into the heritable child characteristics, such as cognitive ability, that play an important role in this dynamic. Therefore, child eating self-regulation arises from gene-environment interactions. Identifying the genes and environmental influences contributing to these will help us tailor our parental feeding advice to the unique nature of the child. In this way, we will devise more effective advice for preventing childhood obesity. PMID:26847550

  10. The Gene, Environment Association Studies consortium (GENEVA): maximizing the knowledge obtained from GWAS by collaboration across studies of multiple conditions.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; Agrawal, Arpana; Cole, John W; Hansel, Nadia N; Barnes, Kathleen C; Beaty, Terri H; Bennett, Siiri N; Bierut, Laura J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Doheny, Kimberly F; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feingold, Eleanor; Fornage, Myriam; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Emily L; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heit, John A; Hu, Frank B; Kang, Jae H; Laurie, Cathy C; Ling, Hua; Manolio, Teri A; Marazita, Mary L; Mathias, Rasika A; Mirel, Daniel B; Paschall, Justin; Pasquale, Louis R; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Rice, John P; Udren, Jenna; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Xiaojing; Wiggs, Janey L; Williams, Kayleen; Yu, Kai

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as powerful means for identifying genetic loci related to complex diseases. However, the role of environment and its potential to interact with key loci has not been adequately addressed in most GWAS. Networks of collaborative studies involving different study populations and multiple phenotypes provide a powerful approach for addressing the challenges in analysis and interpretation shared across studies. The Gene, Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) consortium was initiated to: identify genetic variants related to complex diseases; identify variations in gene-trait associations related to environmental exposures; and ensure rapid sharing of data through the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes. GENEVA consists of several academic institutions, including a coordinating center, two genotyping centers and 14 independently designed studies of various phenotypes, as well as several Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health led by the National Human Genome Research Institute. Minimum detectable effect sizes include relative risks ranging from 1.24 to 1.57 and proportions of variance explained ranging from 0.0097 to 0.02. Given the large number of research participants (N>80,000), an important feature of GENEVA is harmonization of common variables, which allow analyses of additional traits. Environmental exposure information available from most studies also enables testing of gene-environment interactions. Facilitated by its sizeable infrastructure for promoting collaboration, GENEVA has established a unified framework for genotyping, data quality control, analysis and interpretation. By maximizing knowledge obtained through collaborative GWAS incorporating environmental exposure information, GENEVA aims to enhance our understanding of disease etiology, potentially identifying opportunities for intervention.

  11. Gene-environment interaction effects on lung function- a genome-wide association study within the Framingham heart study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in occupational exposure and lung function have focused only on the main effect of occupational exposure or genetics on lung function. Some disease-susceptible genes may be missed due to their low marginal effects, despite potential involvement in the disease process through interactions with the environment. Through comprehensive genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies, we can uncover these susceptibility genes. Our objective in this study was to explore gene by occupational exposure interaction effects on lung function using both the individual SNPs approach and the genetic network approach. Methods The study population comprised the Offspring Cohort and the Third Generation from the Framingham Heart Study. We used forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) as outcomes. Occupational exposures were classified using a population-specific job exposure matrix. We performed genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis, using the Affymetrix 550 K mapping array for genotyping. A linear regression-based generalized estimating equation was applied to account for within-family relatedness. Network analysis was conducted using results from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-level analyses and from gene expression study results. Results There were 4,785 participants in total. SNP-level analysis and network analysis identified SNP rs9931086 (Pinteraction =1.16 × 10-7) in gene SLC38A8, which may significantly modify the effects of occupational exposure on FEV1. Genes identified from the network analysis included CTLA-4, HDAC, and PPAR-alpha. Conclusions Our study implies that SNP rs9931086 in SLC38A8 and genes CTLA-4, HDAC, and PPAR-alpha, which are related to inflammatory processes, may modify the effect of occupational exposure on lung function. PMID:24289273

  12. The association of interacting neighborhood gene-environment risk with cortisol and blood pressure in African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Sandra M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. L.; Hand, Gregory A.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background African-American adults are disproportionately affected by stress-related chronic conditions like high blood pressure (BP), and both environmental stress and genetic risk may play a role in its development. Purpose This study tested whether the dual risk of low neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and glucocorticoid genetic sensitivity interacted to predict waking cortisol and BP. Methods Cross-sectional waking cortisol and BP were collected from 208 African-American adults who were participating in a follow-up visit as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health trial. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, salivary cortisol samples were collected, and neighborhood SES was calculated using 2010 Census data. Results The sample was mostly female (65%), with weight classified as overweight or obese (MBMI=32.74, SD=8.88), and a mean age of 55.64 (SD=15.21). The gene-by-neighborhood SES interaction predicted cortisol (B=0.235, p=.001, r2=.036), but not BP. For adults with high genetic risk, waking cortisol was lower with lower SES but higher with higher SES (B=0.87). Lower neighborhood SES was also related to higher systolic BP (B=−0.794, p=.028). Conclusions Findings demonstrated an interaction whereby African-American adults with high genetic sensitivity had high levels of waking cortisol with higher neighborhood SES, and low levels with lower neighborhood SES. This moderation effect is consistent with a differential susceptibility gene-environment pattern, rather than a dual-risk pattern. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the importance of investigating complex gene-environment relations in order to better understand stress-related health disparities. PMID:26685668

  13. [Study of the validity and reproducibility of passive ozone monitors].

    PubMed

    Cortez-Lugo, M; Romieu, I; Palazuelos-Rendón, E; Hernández-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reproducibility between ozone measurements obtained with passive ozone monitors and those registered with a continuous ozone monitor, to determine the applicability of passive monitors in epidemiological research. The study was carried out during November and December 1992. Indoor and outdoor classroom air ozone concentrations were analyzed using 28 passive monitors and using a continuous monitor. The correlation between both measurements was highly significant (r = 0.089, p < 0.001), indicating a very good validity. Also, the correlation between the measurements obtained with two different passive monitors exposed concurrently was very high (r = 0.97, p < 0.001), indicating a good reproducibility in the measurements of the passive monitors. The relative error between the concentrations measured by the passive monitors and those from the continuous monitor tended to decrease with increasing ozone concentrations. The results suggest that passive monitors should be used to determine cumulative exposure of ozone exceeding 100 ppb, corresponding to an exposure period greater than five days, if used to analyze indoor air.

  14. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A.

    2007-05-07

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods.

  15. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods.

  16. Linking Genes to Cardiovascular Diseases: Gene Action and Gene-Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-12-01

    A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases. Current technologies can identify candidate genes variously involved in diverse normal/abnormal morphomechanical phenotypes, and offer insights into multiple genetic factors implicated in complex cardiovascular syndromes. The expression profiles of thousands of genes are regularly ascertained under diverse conditions. Global analyses of gene expression levels are useful for cataloging genes and correlated phenotypes, and for elucidating the role of genes in maladies. Comparative expression of gene networks coupled to complex disorders can contribute insights as to how "modifier genes" influence the expressed phenotypes. Increasingly, a more comprehensive and detailed systematic understanding of genetic abnormalities underlying, for example, various genetic cardiomyopathies is emerging. Implementing genomic findings in cardiology practice may well lead directly to better diagnosing and therapeutics. There is currently evolving a strong appreciation for the value of studying gene anomalies, and doing so in a non-disjointed, cohesive manner. However, it is challenging for many-practitioners and investigators-to comprehend, interpret, and utilize the clinically increasingly accessible and affordable cardiovascular genomics studies. This survey addresses the need for fundamental understanding in this vital area.

  17. Passive millimeter wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergande, Al; Dean, Donald D.; O'Donnell, Daniel J.

    1996-05-01

    Passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging provides a breakthrough capability for driver vision enhancement to counter the blinding effects of inclement weather. This type of sensor images in a manner analogous to an infrared or visible camera, but receives its energy from the MMW portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Technology has progressed to the point where MMW radiometric systems offer advantages to a number of vision applications. We report on our developmental 94 GHz radiometric testbed, and the eventual technological evolutions that will help MMW radiometers and radars meet military and commercial market needs.

  18. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  19. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-03-25

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  20. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  3. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A; Hopper, John L; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine M; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J; Doody, Michele M; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  4. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  5. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Peter A.; Kim, Kwiseon; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-06-01

    We describe a systematic and efficient method of determining pseudo-atom positions and potentials for use in nanostructure calculations based on bulk empirical pseudopotentials (EPMs). Given a bulk EPM for binary semiconductor X, we produce parameters for pseudo-atoms necessary to passivate a nanostructure of X in preparation for quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. These passivants are based on the quality of the wave functions of a set of small test structures that include the passivants. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. It enables and/or streamlines surface passivation for empirical pseudopotential calculations.

  6. Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease

    PubMed Central

    Tora, Abebayehu; Ayode, Desta; Tadele, Getnet; Farrell, David; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Misunderstandings of the role of genetics in disease development are associated with stigmatizing behaviors and fatalistic attitudes about prevention. This report describes an evaluation of community understanding of an educational module about genetic and environmental influences on the development of podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease endemic in highland Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative process assessment was conducted as part of a large prospective intervention trial in August 2013, in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Sixty five participants were purposively selected from 600 households randomized to receive the inherited susceptibility module. The educational module used pictorial representations and oral explanations of the interaction of inherited sensitivity and soil exposure and was delivered by lay health educators in participants' homes. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). Results Qualitative analyses showed that most participants improved their understanding of inherited soil sensitivity and susceptibility to podoconiosis. Participants linked their new understanding to decreased stigma-related attitudes. The module also corrected misconceptions that the condition was contagious, again diminishing stigmatizing attitudes. Lastly, these improvements in understanding increased the perceived value of foot protection. Conclusions Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. PMID:27114426

  7. The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    The role of “genes” on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one’s job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated. PMID:24860199

  8. Gene-Environment Interplay in Physical, Psychological, and Cognitive Domains in Mid to Late Adulthood: Is APOE a Variability Gene?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Chandra A; Gatz, Margaret; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kremen, William S; Krueger, Robert; McGue, Matt; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging interest in gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects, there is a dearth of studies evaluating its potential relevance apart from specific hypothesized environments and biometrical variance trends. Using a monozygotic within-pair approach, we evaluated evidence of G×E for body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms, and cognition (verbal, spatial, attention, working memory, perceptual speed) in twin studies from four countries. We also evaluated whether APOE is a 'variability gene' across these measures and whether it partly represents the 'G' in G×E effects. In all three domains, G×E effects were pervasive across country and gender, with small-to-moderate effects. Age-cohort trends were generally stable for BMI and depressive symptoms; however, they were variable-with both increasing and decreasing age-cohort trends-for different cognitive measures. Results also suggested that APOE may represent a 'variability gene' for depressive symptoms and spatial reasoning, but not for BMI or other cognitive measures. Hence, additional genes are salient beyond APOE.

  9. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants

    PubMed Central

    Hollman, Antoinesha L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Huang, Hung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases. PMID:27043589

  10. Nrf2 regulates gene-environment interactions in an animal model of intrauterine inflammation: Implications for preterm birth and prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Sussan, Thomas E.; Sudini, Kuladeep; Talbot, C. Conover; Wang, Xiaobin; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Burd, Irina; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and surviving infants are at increased risk for lifelong disabilities. Intrauterine inflammation is an etiological factor that drives PTB, and oxidative stress is associated with PTB. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and inflammatory stress. Here, we used the established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation-induced PTB to determine whether Nrf2 is a modifier of susceptibility to PTB and prematurity-related morbidity and mortality in the offspring. We determined that Nr2-deficient (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited a greater sensitivity to intrauterine inflammation, as indicated by decreased time to delivery, reduced birthweight, and 100% mortality. Placentas from preterm Nrf2−/− mice showed elevated levels of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death, and transcriptomic analysis identified numerous key signaling pathways that were differentially expressed between wild-type (WT) and Nrf2−/− mice in both preterm and control samples. Thus, Nrf2 could be a critical factor for gene-environment interactions that may determine susceptibility to PTB. Further studies are needed to determine if Nrf2 is a viable therapeutic target in women who are at risk for PTB and associated complications in the affected offspring. PMID:28071748

  11. Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: the case for gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.

  12. Estimating genetic effect sizes under joint disease-endophenotype models in presence of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, Alexandre; Croteau, Jordie; Couture, Christian; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Effects of genetic variants on the risk of complex diseases estimated from association studies are typically small. Nonetheless, variants may have important effects in presence of specific levels of environmental exposures, and when a trait related to the disease (endophenotype) is either normal or impaired. We propose polytomous and transition models to represent the relationship between disease, endophenotype, genotype and environmental exposure in family studies. Model coefficients were estimated using generalized estimating equations and were used to derive gene-environment interaction effects and genotype effects at specific levels of exposure. In a simulation study, estimates of the effect of a genetic variant were substantially higher when both an endophenotype and an environmental exposure modifying the variant effect were taken into account, particularly under transition models, compared to the alternative of ignoring the endophenotype. Illustration of the proposed modeling with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, physical activity and polymorphisms in the NOX3 gene in the Quebec Family Study revealed that the positive association of the A allele of rs1375713 with the metabolic syndrome at high levels of physical activity was only detectable in subjects without abdominal obesity, illustrating the importance of taking into account the abdominal obesity endophenotype in this analysis. PMID:26284107

  13. The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2013-10-01

    The role of "genes" on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one's job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated.

  14. Genotype-based association models of complex diseases to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong; Manga, Prashiela

    A central problem in genetic epidemiology is to identify and rank genetic markers involved in a disease. Complex diseases, such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, are thought to be caused by an interaction of a panel of genetic factors, that can be identified by markers, which modulate environmental factors. Moreover, the effect of each genetic marker may be small. Hence, the association signal may be missed unless a large sample is considered, or a priori biomedical data are used. Recent advances generated a vast variety of a priori information, including linkage maps and information about gene regulatory dependence assembled into curated pathway databases. We propose a genotype-based approach that takes into account linkage disequilibrium (LD) information between genetic markers that are in moderate LD while modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A major advantage of our method is that the observed genetic information enters a model directly thus eliminating the need to estimate haplotype-phase. Our approach results in an algorithm that is inexpensive computationally and does not suffer from bias induced by haplotype-phase ambiguity. We investigated our model in a series of simulation experiments and demonstrated that the proposed approach results in estimates that are nearly unbiased and have small variability. We applied our method to the analysis of data from a melanoma case-control study and investigated interaction between a set of pigmentation genes and environmental factors defined by age and gender. Furthermore, an application of our method is demonstrated using a study of Alcohol Dependence.

  15. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2012-10-16

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

  16. Gene-environment interactions across development: Exploring DRD2 genotype and prenatal smoking effects on self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Stopp, Christian; Respass, Jennifer; Stewart, Peter; Jameson, Travis R; Gilbert, David G; Huggenvik, Jodi I

    2009-01-01

    Genetic factors dynamically interact with both pre- and postnatal environmental influences to shape development. Considerable attention has been devoted to gene-environment interactions (G x E) on important outcomes (A. Caspi & T. E. Moffitt, 2006). It is also important to consider the possibility that these G x E effects may vary across development, particularly for constructs like self-regulation that emerge slowly, depend on brain regions that change qualitatively in different developmental periods, and thus may be manifested differently. To illustrate one approach to exploring such developmental patterns, the relation between variation in the TaqIA polymorphism, related to D2 dopamine receptor expression and availability, and prenatal exposure to tobacco was examined in two exploratory studies. First, in 4-week-old neonates, genotype-exposure interactions were observed for attention and irritable reactivity, but not for stress dysregulation. Second, in preschool children, genotype was related to Preschool Trail Making Test (K. A. Espy and M. F. Cwik, 2004) task performance on conditions requiring executive control; children with both the A1+ genotype and a history of prenatal tobacco exposure displayed disproportionately poor performance. Despite study limitations, these results illustrate the importance of examining the interplay between genetic and prenatal environmental factors across development.

  17. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all.

  18. Refining the Candidate Environment: Interpersonal Stress, the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism, and Gene-Environment Interactions in Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan; Redei, Eva E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Hammen, Constance; Adam, Emma K

    2014-05-01

    Meta-analytic evidence supports a gene-environment (G×E) interaction between life stress and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on depression, but few studies have examined factors that influence detection of this effect, despite years of inconsistent results. We propose that the "candidate environment" (akin to a candidate gene) is key. Theory and evidence implicate major stressful life events (SLEs)-particularly major interpersonal SLEs-as well as chronic family stress. Participants (N = 400) from the Youth Emotion Project (which began with 627 high school juniors oversampled for high neuroticism) completed up to five annual diagnostic and life stress interviews and provided DNA samples. A significant G×E effect for major SLEs and S-carrier genotype was accounted for significantly by major interpersonal SLEs but not significantly by major non-interpersonal SLEs. S-carrier genotype and chronic family stress also significantly interacted. Identifying such candidate environments may facilitate future G×E research in depression and psychopathology more broadly.

  19. Gli2 gene-environment interactions contribute to the etiological complexity of holoprosencephaly: evidence from a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Galen W; Everson, Joshua L; Ansen-Wilson, Lydia J; Melberg, Cal G; Fink, Dustin M; Parins, Kia F; Doroodchi, Padydeh; Ulschmid, Caden M; Lipinski, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a common and severe human developmental abnormality marked by malformations of the forebrain and face. Although several genetic mutations have been linked to HPE, phenotypic outcomes range dramatically, and most cases cannot be attributed to a specific cause. Gene-environment interaction has been invoked as a premise to explain the etiological complexity of HPE, but identification of interacting factors has been extremely limited. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in Gli2, which encodes a Hedgehog pathway transcription factor, can cause or predispose to HPE depending upon gene dosage. On the C57BL/6J background, homozygous GLI2 loss of function results in the characteristic brain and facial features seen in severe human HPE, including midfacial hypoplasia, hypotelorism and medial forebrain deficiency with loss of ventral neurospecification. Although normally indistinguishable from wild-type littermates, we demonstrate that mice with single-allele Gli2 mutations exhibit increased penetrance and severity of HPE in response to low-dose teratogen exposure. This genetic predisposition is associated with a Gli2 dosage-dependent attenuation of Hedgehog ligand responsiveness at the cellular level. In addition to revealing a causative role for GLI2 in HPE genesis, these studies demonstrate a mechanism by which normally silent genetic and environmental factors can interact to produce severe outcomes. Taken together, these findings provide a framework for the understanding of the extreme phenotypic variability observed in humans carrying GLI2 mutations and a paradigm for reducing the incidence of this morbid birth defect.

  20. Does Parental Divorce Moderate the Heritability of Body Dissatisfaction? An Extension of Previous Gene-Environment Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Klump, Kelly L.; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous research suggests that parental divorce moderates genetic influences on body dissatisfaction. Specifically, the heritability of body dissatisfaction is higher in children of divorced versus intact families, suggesting possible gene-environment interaction effects. However, prior research is limited to a single, self-report measure of body dissatisfaction. The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether these findings extend to a different dimension of body dissatisfaction, body image perceptions. Method Participants were 1,534 female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, ages 16–20 years. The Body Rating Scale (BRS) was used to assess body image perceptions. Results Although BRS scores were heritable in twins from divorced and intact families, the heritability estimates in the divorced group were not significantly greater than estimates in the intact group. However, there were differences in nonshared environmental effects, where the magnitude of these environmental influences was larger in the divorced as compared to the intact families. Discussion Different dimensions of body dissatisfaction (i.e., negative self-evaluation versus body image perceptions) may interact with environmental risk, such as parental divorce, in discrete ways. Future research should examine this possibility and explore differential gene x environment interactions using diverse measures. PMID:26314278

  1. Gli2 gene-environment interactions contribute to the etiological complexity of holoprosencephaly: evidence from a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W.; Everson, Joshua L.; Ansen-Wilson, Lydia J.; Melberg, Cal G.; Fink, Dustin M.; Parins, Kia F.; Doroodchi, Padydeh; Ulschmid, Caden M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a common and severe human developmental abnormality marked by malformations of the forebrain and face. Although several genetic mutations have been linked to HPE, phenotypic outcomes range dramatically, and most cases cannot be attributed to a specific cause. Gene-environment interaction has been invoked as a premise to explain the etiological complexity of HPE, but identification of interacting factors has been extremely limited. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in Gli2, which encodes a Hedgehog pathway transcription factor, can cause or predispose to HPE depending upon gene dosage. On the C57BL/6J background, homozygous GLI2 loss of function results in the characteristic brain and facial features seen in severe human HPE, including midfacial hypoplasia, hypotelorism and medial forebrain deficiency with loss of ventral neurospecification. Although normally indistinguishable from wild-type littermates, we demonstrate that mice with single-allele Gli2 mutations exhibit increased penetrance and severity of HPE in response to low-dose teratogen exposure. This genetic predisposition is associated with a Gli2 dosage-dependent attenuation of Hedgehog ligand responsiveness at the cellular level. In addition to revealing a causative role for GLI2 in HPE genesis, these studies demonstrate a mechanism by which normally silent genetic and environmental factors can interact to produce severe outcomes. Taken together, these findings provide a framework for the understanding of the extreme phenotypic variability observed in humans carrying GLI2 mutations and a paradigm for reducing the incidence of this morbid birth defect. PMID:27585885

  2. Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2009-01-01

    Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

  3. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  4. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  5. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  6. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  8. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  9. Passive retrofits for Navy housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

  10. Epigenetic genes and emotional reactivity to daily life events: a multi-step gene-environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Pishva, Ehsan; Drukker, Marjan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Decoster, Jeroen; Collip, Dina; van Winkel, Ruud; Wichers, Marieke; Jacobs, Nele; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Geschwind, Nicole; van den Hove, Daniel; Lataster, Tineke; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P F; Kenis, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Recent human and animal studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the impact of environment on development of mental disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in epigenetic-regulatory genes impact stress-induced emotional changes. A multi-step, multi-sample gene-environment interaction analysis was conducted to test whether 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in epigenetic-regulatory genes, i.e. three DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), moderate emotional responses to stressful and pleasant stimuli in daily life as measured by Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). In the first step, main and interactive effects were tested in a sample of 112 healthy individuals. Significant associations in this discovery sample were then investigated in a population-based sample of 434 individuals for replication. SNPs showing significant effects in both the discovery and replication samples were subsequently tested in three other samples of: (i) 85 unaffected siblings of patients with psychosis, (ii) 110 patients with psychotic disorders, and iii) 126 patients with a history of major depressive disorder. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no significant association between SNPs and negative affect or positive affect. No SNPs moderated the effect of pleasant stimuli on positive affect. Three SNPs of DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and 1 SNP of MTHFR (rs1801131) moderated the effect of stressful events on negative affect. Only rs11683424 of DNMT3A showed consistent directions of effect in the majority of the 5 samples. These data provide the first evidence that emotional responses to daily life stressors may be moderated by genetic variation in the genes involved in the epigenetic machinery.

  11. Enacting the molecular imperative: How gene-environment interaction research links bodies and environments in the Post-Genomic Age

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Ackerman, Sara L.; Hiatt, Robert H.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Shim, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a proclaimed shift from ‘nature versus nurture’ to ‘genes and environment’ paradigms within biomedical and genomic science, capturing the environment and identifying gene-environment interactions (GEIs) has remained a challenge. What does ‘the environment’ mean in the post-genomic age? In this paper, we present qualitative data from a study of 33 principal investigators funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to conduct etiological research on three complex diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes). We examine their research practices and perspectives on the environment through the concept of molecularization: the social processes and transformations through which phenomena (diseases, identities, pollution, food, racial/ethnic classifications) are re-defined in terms of their molecular components and described in the language of molecular biology. We show how GEI researchers’ expansive conceptualizations of the environment ultimately yield to the imperative to molecularize and personalize the environment. They seek to ‘go into the body’ and re-work the boundaries between bodies and environments. In the process, they create epistemic hinges to facilitate a turn from efforts to understand social and environmental exposures outside the body, to quantifying their effects inside the body. GEI researchers respond to these emergent imperatives with a mixture of excitement, ambivalence and frustration. We reflect on how GEI researchers struggle to make meaning of molecules in their work, and how they grapple with molecularization as a methodological and rhetorical imperative as well as a process transforming biomedical research practices. PMID:26994357

  12. Epigenetic Genes and Emotional Reactivity to Daily Life Events: A Multi-Step Gene-Environment Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Pishva, Ehsan; Drukker, Marjan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Decoster, Jeroen; Collip, Dina; van Winkel, Ruud; Wichers, Marieke; Jacobs, Nele; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Geschwind, Nicole; van den Hove, Daniel; Lataster, Tineke; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Recent human and animal studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the impact of environment on development of mental disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in epigenetic-regulatory genes impact stress-induced emotional changes. A multi-step, multi-sample gene-environment interaction analysis was conducted to test whether 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in epigenetic-regulatory genes, i.e. three DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), moderate emotional responses to stressful and pleasant stimuli in daily life as measured by Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). In the first step, main and interactive effects were tested in a sample of 112 healthy individuals. Significant associations in this discovery sample were then investigated in a population-based sample of 434 individuals for replication. SNPs showing significant effects in both the discovery and replication samples were subsequently tested in three other samples of: (i) 85 unaffected siblings of patients with psychosis, (ii) 110 patients with psychotic disorders, and iii) 126 patients with a history of major depressive disorder. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no significant association between SNPs and negative affect or positive affect. No SNPs moderated the effect of pleasant stimuli on positive affect. Three SNPs of DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and 1 SNP of MTHFR (rs1801131) moderated the effect of stressful events on negative affect. Only rs11683424 of DNMT3A showed consistent directions of effect in the majority of the 5 samples. These data provide the first evidence that emotional responses to daily life stressors may be moderated by genetic variation in the genes involved in the epigenetic machinery. PMID:24967710

  13. Genotype-based association models of complex diseases to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruzong; Manga, Prashiela

    2015-01-01

    A central problem in genetic epidemiology is to identify and rank genetic markers involved in a disease. Complex diseases, such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, are thought to be caused by an interaction of a panel of genetic factors, that can be identified by markers, which modulate environmental factors. Moreover, the effect of each genetic marker may be small. Hence, the association signal may be missed unless a large sample is considered, or a priori biomedical data are used. Recent advances generated a vast variety of a priori information, including linkage maps and information about gene regulatory dependence assembled into curated pathway databases. We propose a genotype-based approach that takes into account linkage disequilibrium (LD) information between genetic markers that are in moderate LD while modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A major advantage of our method is that the observed genetic information enters a model directly thus eliminating the need to estimate haplotype-phase. Our approach results in an algorithm that is inexpensive computationally and does not suffer from bias induced by haplotype-phase ambiguity. We investigated our model in a series of simulation experiments and demonstrated that the proposed approach results in estimates that are nearly unbiased and have small variability. We applied our method to the analysis of data from a melanoma case-control study and investigated interaction between a set of pigmentation genes and environmental factors defined by age and gender. Furthermore, an application of our method is demonstrated using a study of Alcohol Dependence. PMID:26191336

  14. Semiparametric Bayesian analysis of gene-environment interactions with error in measurement of environmental covariates and missing genetic data.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies are widely used to detect gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Many variables that are of interest to biomedical researchers are difficult to measure on an individual level, e.g. nutrient intake, cigarette smoking exposure, long-term toxic exposure. Measurement error causes bias in parameter estimates, thus masking key features of data and leading to loss of power and spurious/masked associations. We develop a Bayesian methodology for analysis of case-control studies for the case when measurement error is present in an environmental covariate and the genetic variable has missing data. This approach offers several advantages. It allows prior information to enter the model to make estimation and inference more precise. The environmental covariates measured exactly are modeled completely nonparametrically. Further, information about the probability of disease can be incorporated in the estimation procedure to improve quality of parameter estimates, what cannot be done in conventional case-control studies. A unique feature of the procedure under investigation is that the analysis is based on a pseudo-likelihood function therefore conventional Bayesian techniques may not be technically correct. We propose an approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling as well as a computationally simple method based on an asymptotic posterior distribution. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of the association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development.

  15. Semiparametric Bayesian analysis of gene-environment interactions with error in measurement of environmental covariates and missing genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies are widely used to detect gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Many variables that are of interest to biomedical researchers are difficult to measure on an individual level, e.g. nutrient intake, cigarette smoking exposure, long-term toxic exposure. Measurement error causes bias in parameter estimates, thus masking key features of data and leading to loss of power and spurious/masked associations. We develop a Bayesian methodology for analysis of case-control studies for the case when measurement error is present in an environmental covariate and the genetic variable has missing data. This approach offers several advantages. It allows prior information to enter the model to make estimation and inference more precise. The environmental covariates measured exactly are modeled completely nonparametrically. Further, information about the probability of disease can be incorporated in the estimation procedure to improve quality of parameter estimates, what cannot be done in conventional case-control studies. A unique feature of the procedure under investigation is that the analysis is based on a pseudo-likelihood function therefore conventional Bayesian techniques may not be technically correct. We propose an approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling as well as a computationally simple method based on an asymptotic posterior distribution. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of the association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development. PMID:21949562

  16. Gene-environment interaction in progression of AMD: the CFH gene, smoking and exposure to chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Baird, Paul N; Robman, Luba D; Richardson, Andrea J; Dimitrov, Peter N; Tikellis, Gabriella; McCarty, Catherine A; Guymer, Robyn H

    2008-05-01

    A number of risk factors including the complement factor H (CFH) gene, smoking and Chlamydia pneumoniae have been associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanisms underlying how these risk factors might be involved in disease progression and disease aetiology is poorly understood. A cohort series of 233 individuals followed for AMD progression over a mean period of 7 years underwent a full eye examination, blood was taken for DNA and antibody titre and individuals completed a standard medical and general questionnaire. Y402H variants of the CFH gene were assessed with disease progression as well as examination of interaction between Y402H variants and smoking and Y402H variants and the pathogen C. pneumoniae. The CC risk genotype of Y402H was significantly associated with increased AMD progression [odds ratio (OR) 2.43, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-5.49] as was smoking (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.12). However, the risk of progression was greatly increased to almost 12-fold (OR 11.8, 95% CI 2.1-65.8) when, in addition to having the C risk allele, subjects also presented with the upper tertile of antibodies to the bacterial pathogen C. pneumoniae compared with those with the T allele of Y402H and the lowest antibody tertile. This demonstrates for the first time the existence of a gene environment-interaction between pathogenic load of C. pneumoniae and the CFH gene in the aetiology of AMD.

  17. The role of environmental heterogeneity in meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions with quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Rice, Kenneth M; Wen, Xiaoquan; Rice, John D; Stringham, Heather M; Boehnke, Michael

    2014-07-01

    With challenges in data harmonization and environmental heterogeneity across various data sources, meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction studies can often involve subtle statistical issues. In this paper, we study the effect of environmental covariate heterogeneity (within and between cohorts) on two approaches for fixed-effect meta-analysis: the standard inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis and a meta-regression approach. Akin to the results in Simmonds and Higgins (), we obtain analytic efficiency results for both methods under certain assumptions. The relative efficiency of the two methods depends on the ratio of within versus between cohort variability of the environmental covariate. We propose to use an adaptively weighted estimator (AWE), between meta-analysis and meta-regression, for the interaction parameter. The AWE retains full efficiency of the joint analysis using individual level data under certain natural assumptions. Lin and Zeng (2010a, b) showed that a multivariate inverse-variance weighted estimator retains full efficiency as joint analysis using individual level data, if the estimates with full covariance matrices for all the common parameters are pooled across all studies. We show consistency of our work with Lin and Zeng (2010a, b). Without sacrificing much efficiency, the AWE uses only univariate summary statistics from each study, and bypasses issues with sharing individual level data or full covariance matrices across studies. We compare the performance of the methods both analytically and numerically. The methods are illustrated through meta-analysis of interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in FTO gene and body mass index on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol data from a set of eight studies of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  19. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  20. Passive Acoustic Thermometry Using Low-Frequency Deep Water Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    design of future cabled or autonomous ocean observatory systems for passive ocean monitoring. WORK COMPLETED Deep oceans play a major role in...absorbing atmospheric heat , thus measuring deep oceans temperature variations is necessary among others to quantify air-sea heat exchanges- for instance...correlation processing, which has successfully been used for continuously monitoring, with unprecedented temporal resolution, seismically-active systems

  1. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  2. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  3. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  4. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  5. Solar passive systems for buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A survey is provided of what is known about the design of solar passive buildings. A systematic presentation is given of proven concepts with suitable illustrations. It is intended as a general guide for architects, designers and other building practitioners. Topics include the various concepts of solar passive heating and cooling, design factors such as location, climate, microclimate, form; building metabolism, thermal and visual comfort; location and form of illumination; and natural cooling via wind towers and cisterns.

  6. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  7. Rule based classifier for the analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several methods have been presented for the analysis of complex interactions between genetic polymorphisms and/or environmental factors. Despite the available methods, there is still a need for alternative methods, because no single method will perform well in all scenarios. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of three selected rule based classifier algorithms, RIPPER, RIDOR and PART, for the analysis of genetic association studies. Methods Overall, 42 datasets were simulated with three different case-control models, a varying number of subjects (300, 600), SNPs (500, 1500, 3000) and noise (5%, 10%, 20%). The algorithms were applied to each of the datasets with a set of algorithm-specific settings. Results were further investigated with respect to a) the Model, b) the Rules, and c) the Attribute level. Data analysis was performed using WEKA, SAS and PERL. Results The RIPPER algorithm discovered the true case-control model at least once in >33% of the datasets. The RIDOR and PART algorithm performed poorly for model detection. The RIPPER, RIDOR and PART algorithm discovered the true case-control rules in more than 83%, 83% and 44% of the datasets, respectively. All three algorithms were able to detect the attributes utilized in the respective case-control models in most datasets. Conclusions The current analyses substantiate the utility of rule based classifiers such as RIPPER, RIDOR and PART for the detection of gene-gene/gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies. These classifiers could provide a valuable new method, complementing existing approaches, in the analysis of genetic association studies. The methods provide an advantage in being able to handle both categorical and continuous variable types. Further, because the outputs of the analyses are easy to interpret, the rule based classifier approach could quickly generate testable hypotheses for additional evaluation. Since the algorithms are computationally

  8. Allowing for population stratification in case-only studies of gene-environment interaction, using genomic control.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Lieb, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Krawczak, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gene-environment interactions (G × E) have attracted considerable research interest in the past owing to their scientific and public health implications, but powerful statistical methods are required to successfully track down G × E, particularly at a genome-wide level. Previously, a case-only (CO) design has been proposed as a means to identify G × E with greater efficiency than traditional case-control or cohort studies. However, as with genotype-phenotype association studies themselves, hidden population stratification (PS) can impact the validity of G × E studies using a CO design. Since this problem has been subject to little research to date, we used comprehensive simulation to systematically assess the type I error rate, power and effect size bias of CO studies of G × E in the presence of PS. Three types of PS were considered, namely genetic-only (PSG), environment-only (PSE), and joint genetic and environmental stratification (PSGE). Our results reveal that the type I error rate of an unadjusted Wald test, appropriate for the CO design, would be close to its nominal level (0.05 in our study) as long as PS involves only one interaction partner (i.e., either PSG or PSE). In contrast, if the study population is stratified with respect to both G and E (i.e., if there is PSGE), then the type I error rate is seriously inflated and estimates of the underlying G × E interaction are biased. Comparison of CO to a family-based case-parents design confirmed that the latter is more robust against PSGE, as expected. However, case-parent trios may be particularly unsuitable for G × E studies in view of the fact that they require genotype data from parents and that many diseases with an environmental component are likely to be of late onset. An alternative approach to adjusting for PS is principal component analysis (PCA), which has been widely used for this very purpose in past genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, resolving genetic PS properly by PCA

  9. Gene-environment interactions between ERCC2, ERCC3, XRCC1 and cadmium exposure in nasal polyposis disease.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Hammami, Boutheina; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-11-12

    Gene-environment interactions have long been known to play an important role in complex disease aetiology, such as nasal polyposis (NP). The present study supports the concept that DNA repair gene polymorphisms play critical roles in modifying individual susceptibility to environmental diseases. In fact, we investigated the role of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and cadmium as risk factors for Tunisian patients with NP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of combined effects of cadmium and ERCC3 7122 A>G (rs4150407), ERCC2 Lys751Gln (rs13181) and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) genes in the susceptibility to NP disease. Significant associations between the risk of developing NP disease and ERCC2 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-3.7, p = 0.023] and ERCC3 (OR = 2.2, 95 % CI = 1.2-4.1, p = 0.013) genotypes polymorphisms were observed. Blood concentrations of Cd in NP patients (2.2 μg/L) were significantly higher than those of controls (0.5 μg/L). A significant interaction between ERCC3 (7122 A>G) polymorphism and blood-Cd levels (for the median of blood-Cd levels: OR = 3.8, 95 % CI = 1.3-10.8, p = 0.014 and for the 75th percentiles of blood-Cd levels: OR = 2.7, 95 % CI = 1.1-7.2, p = 0.041) was found in association with the risk of NP disease. In addition, when we stratified ERCC2, ERCC3 and XRCC1 polymorphism genotypes by the median and 75th percentiles of blood-Cd levels, we found also significant interactions between ERCC2 (Lys751Gln) and ERCC3 (7122 A>G) genotypes polymorphism and this metal in association with NP disease. However, no interaction was found between XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) polymorphism genotypes and Cd in association with NP disease.

  10. A Candidate-Pathway Approach to Identify Gene-Environment Interactions: Analyses of Colon Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeldin, Noha; Slattery, Martha L.; Liu, Qi; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic association studies have traditionally focused on associations between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease. Standard analysis ignores interactions between multiple SNPs and environmental exposures explaining a small portion of disease heritability: the often-cited issue of “missing heritability.” Methods: We present a novel three-step analytic framework for modeling gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between an angiogenesis candidate-gene pathway and three lifestyle exposures (dietary protein, smoking, and alcohol consumption) on colon cancer risk and survival. Logic regression was used to summarize the gene-pathway effects, and GEIs were modeled using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. We analyzed data from 1541 colon cancer case patients and 1934 control subjects in the Diet, Activity and Lifestyle as a Risk Factor for Colon Cancer Study. Results: We identified five statistically significant GEIs for colon cancer risk. For risk interaction, odds ratios (ORINT) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were FLT1(rs678714) and BMP4(rs17563) and smoking (ORINT = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.41 and ORINT = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10 to 2.32, respectively); FLT1(rs2387632 OR rs9513070) and protein intake (ORINT = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.77); KDR(rs6838752) and TLR2(rs3804099) and alcohol (ORINT = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10 to 2.13 and ORINT = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.38, respectively). Three GEIs between TNF, BMP1, and BMPR2 genes and the three exposures were statistically significant at the 5% level in relation to colon cancer survival but not after multiple-testing adjustment. Conclusions: Adopting a comprehensive biologically informed candidate-pathway approach identified GEI effects on colon cancer. Findings may have important implications for public health and personalized medicine targeting prevention and therapeutic strategies. Findings from this study need to be validated in other studies. PMID:26072521

  11. Detection of Epistatic and Gene-Environment Interactions Underlying Three Quality Traits in Rice Using High-Throughput Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong

    2015-01-01

    With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits. PMID:26345334

  12. Detection of Epistatic and Gene-Environment Interactions Underlying Three Quality Traits in Rice Using High-Throughput Genome-Wide Data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong

    2015-01-01

    With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits.

  13. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  14. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  15. Synthetic passive margin stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, D.L.; Kenyon, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    Synthetic stratigraphic cross sections are derived mathematically for a variety of simple conditions. The variables considered in the mathematical model include variations in sea level, rate of tectonic subsidence, rate of sedimentation, and rate of erosion. Derived stratigraphic relationships include unconformities, correlative conformities and disconformities, coastal onlap, coastal toplap, erosional truncation, pinch-out, and sigmoidal progradational clinoforms. An important conclusion is that the rate of erosion is a dominant variable in determining the type of stratigraphic section observed. The proposed approach may provide the basis for either a forward or inverse modeling of seismic stratigraphic sections.

  16. Passive solar design: final evaluation, the Passive Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Duncan S.; Rose, Stuart

    1980-08-01

    The further evaluation of the workshops in passive design for practicing architects and engineers through delayed interviews with a sample of the participants is reported with particular emphasis on the extent to which the participants have practiced passive design in the three-four months since attending. Also discussed is an unsuccessful attempt to conduct a lower-cost version of the program outside of normal office hours. Finally, the follow-on programs and improvements that the interviews indicated are needed are identified. (MHR)

  17. Arterial stiffness, pressure and flow pulsatility and brain structure and function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary F; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gotal, John D; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Kjartansson, Ólafur; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-11-01

    Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, P<0.001). Carotid pulse pressure, pulsatility index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were each associated with increased risk for silent subcortical infarcts (hazard ratios of 1.62-1.71 per standard deviation, P<0.002). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with higher white matter hyperintensity volume (0.108 ± 0.045 SD/SD, P = 0.018). Pulsatility index was associated with lower whole brain (-0.127 ± 0.037 SD/SD, P<0.001), grey matter (-0.079 ± 0.038 SD/SD, P = 0.038) and white matter (-0.128 ± 0.039 SD/SD, P<0.001) volumes. Carotid-femoral pulse

  18. Passive expiration as a test of lung function.

    PubMed Central

    Ashutosh, K; Keighley, J F

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five normal subjects, 14 non-smokers and 11 smokers, passively expired into a spirometer after a maximal active inspiration, and after a passive inflation of the chest by a pressure cycled intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) machine. Acceptable passive expirations could be performed by all subjects after a passive inspiration but by only 12 after an active inspiration. Expired volume was found to change exponentially with time (r greater than 0.98), and the time constant of passive expiration (Tp) was obtained. There was no significant difference between the smokers and non-smokers in age, sex, forced vital capacity, FEV1 FEV1/FVC%, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, maximum expiratory flow at 50% and 25% of the vital capacity, or the magnitude of the fall in the dynamic compliance with increasing frequency of breathing (Cdyn/f). Tp in smokers (1.06 +/- 0.47 SD) was significantly longer than in the non-smokers (0.65 +/- 0.25 SD P less than 0.02). Tp had a significant correlation with Cdyn/f(Tp = 0.6 + 161.81 Cdyn/f +/- 0.38 SE, r = 0.49, P less than 0.02). We conclude that satisfactory passive expiratory spirograms can be easily obtained after a mechanically assisted passive inspiration. Tp thus obtained is determined by the intrinsic properties of the respiratory system (lung plus thorax), and is significantly prolonged in smokers compared with non-smokers when other studies of pulmonary function including frequency dependence of compliance are unchanged. PMID:371059

  19. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwiseon; Graf, Peter A.; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-03-01

    The calculation of the electronic structure of a nanostructure must take into account surface effects. In experiments, the dangling bonds at the surface of a semiconductor nanostructure are passivated by other semiconductors or by organic ligands. In either case, photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission comes from bulk-like, dot-interior states. These observations suggest that an approach to passivating a simulated nanostructure would be to attach “pseudo-atoms” to each dangling bond. Here we present an automated methodology for generating surface passivating pseudo potentials for bulk empirical pseudo potentials. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. We apply it to two materials, CdSe and InP. Incorporated into a larger computational nanoscience infrastructure, our work represents a much needed improvement in the usability of the empirical pseudo potential method.

  20. The anodic passivation of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.

    1983-10-01

    The anodic passivation of Li has been characterized at room temperature in a variety of electrolytes (propylene carbonate, thionyl chloride, sulfur dioxide), as a function of convection and current density and in the presence of water and other impurities. In thionyl chloride the effect of salt concentration (0.5-4.5M, LiA1C1/sub 4/) and acidity (0.5-3M, A1C1/sub 3/) has been studied. The evidence accumulated suggests that anodic passivation is caused by anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of electrolyte salt in superficial anolyte.

  1. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  2. Indoor localization using passive RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems based on passive tags are used successfully in a wide range of object identification applications. However, the increasing needs to meet new demands on applications of localization and tracking create a new field for evolution of the RFID technology. This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cost-effective localization system for in-building usage that is able to localize objects that carry passive RFID tags. The RFID reading is performed by a single Reader and an array of directional antennas through multiplexing. Evaluation and experimental results from three localization algorithms based on RSSI are presented.

  3. Mission 119 passive microwave results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Mennella, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the sea surface were made for determining surface wind speeds from the NP3A aircraft (NASA-927). Observations were made at frequencies of 1.4, 10.6, and 31.4 GHz during NASA mission 119, undertaken off Bermuda in the vicinity of Argus Island sea tower during January 1970. Passive microwave observations from Argus Island ocean showed that the surface roughness effect, dependent on wind speed, is also dependent on observational frequency, increasing with increasing frequency. The roughness effect appears to be dominant for wind speeds less than 30 to 40 knots (2).

  4. The Cumulative Effect of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions on the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Shi, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jianye; Xu, Yong; Wei, Dong; Yang, Kuo; Zhang, Yaoguang; Wang, Xin; Liang, Siying; Chen, Xin; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Chengxiao; Zhu, Ling; Tang, Lei; Zheng, Chenguang; Yang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental factors interactions. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with PCa in Chinese men are less studied. We explored the association between 36 SNPs and PCa in 574 subjects from northern China. Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption were determined through self-administered questionnaires in 134 PCa patients. Then gene-gene and gene-environment interactions among the PCa-associated SNPs were analyzed using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) and logistic regression methods. Allelic and genotypic association analyses showed that six variants were associated with PCa and the cumulative effect suggested men who carried any combination of 1, 2, or ≥3 risk genotypes had a gradually increased PCa risk (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.79–4.41). GMDR analysis identified the best gene-gene interaction model with scores of 10 for both the cross-validation consistency and sign tests. For gene-environment interactions, rs6983561 CC and rs16901966 GG in individuals with a BMI ≥ 28 had ORs of 7.66 (p = 0.032) and 5.33 (p = 0.046), respectively. rs7679673 CC + CA and rs12653946 TT in individuals that smoked had ORs of 2.77 (p = 0.007) and 3.11 (p = 0.024), respectively. rs7679673 CC in individuals that consumed alcohol had an OR of 4.37 (p = 0.041). These results suggest that polymorphisms, either individually or by interacting with other genes or environmental factors, contribute to an increased risk of PCa. PMID:26828504

  5. The Cumulative Effect of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions on the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Shi, Xiaohong; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jianye; Xu, Yong; Wei, Dong; Yang, Kuo; Zhang, Yaoguang; Wang, Xin; Liang, Siying; Chen, Xin; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Chengxiao; Zhu, Ling; Tang, Lei; Zheng, Chenguang; Yang, Ze

    2016-01-27

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental factors interactions. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with PCa in Chinese men are less studied. We explored the association between 36 SNPs and PCa in 574 subjects from northern China. Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption were determined through self-administered questionnaires in 134 PCa patients. Then gene-gene and gene-environment interactions among the PCa-associated SNPs were analyzed using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) and logistic regression methods. Allelic and genotypic association analyses showed that six variants were associated with PCa and the cumulative effect suggested men who carried any combination of 1, 2, or ≥3 risk genotypes had a gradually increased PCa risk (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.79-4.41). GMDR analysis identified the best gene-gene interaction model with scores of 10 for both the cross-validation consistency and sign tests. For gene-environment interactions, rs6983561 CC and rs16901966 GG in individuals with a BMI ≥ 28 had ORs of 7.66 (p = 0.032) and 5.33 (p = 0.046), respectively. rs7679673 CC + CA and rs12653946 TT in individuals that smoked had ORs of 2.77 (p = 0.007) and 3.11 (p = 0.024), respectively. rs7679673 CC in individuals that consumed alcohol had an OR of 4.37 (p = 0.041). These results suggest that polymorphisms, either individually or by interacting with other genes or environmental factors, contribute to an increased risk of PCa.

  6. Passive Fiber Optic Gyro Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    34. FORWORD The report summarizes the principles of operation of the passive fiber optic gyro. It starts with a discussion of the Sagnac effect and...polarization and the angle of the " fast " axis varied nonlinearly and that the two effects are partially independent. Based on tests with a 200 meter length of

  7. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  8. Solar Array Passive LDEF Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Marshall researcher examines a sample from the Solar Array Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF, which flew in space, measured the number, severity, and effects of micrometeroid hits on various materials. The data will lead to improved spacecraft design in the future.

  9. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  10. Determining Subsurface Structure From Microtremors Using a Passive Circular Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, D. S.; Doser, D. I.; Velasco, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    The amount of damage to a structure during an earthquake is related to the ground motion at that site. Therefore, it is important to study seismic waves that propagate through specific soil types to understand site response. However, active seismic surveys are susceptible to noise interference and are limited due to spatial need while boreholes are costly. We develop a method using a passive array to study Rayleigh waves from microtremors, waves originating from building appliances, cars, pedestrians walking, etc. By using everyday noises as the source, site-specific analysis can be done in urban areas without worrying about noise interference or disturbing the public with explosions or other loud active sources. The array is comprised of short period Texans, self contained geophones, which record continuously for 24 hours. Our technique differs slightly from traditional SPAC (SPatial Auto-Correlation) methods used in passive arrays. We first cross correlate time windows between two receivers then stack the correlations to determine a phase delay. Performing the correlation at different frequencies will create a dispersion curve that can be inverted for shear velocity. This approach is similar to the two-station phase delay method used in regional tomography studies at much longer periods. Stacking removes off-azimuth energy, so we do not need to assume a source direction. Preliminary results from a previous passive array survey conducted near El Paso, Texas show 1-D velocity models can be created by cross-correlating noise at various frequencies. We will conduct another survey in alluvium sands at Rio Bosque Park east of El Paso. We will validate the results with active seismic refraction and surface wave survey results as well as other geophysical techniques to determine if a passive array using microtremors is an accurate method of determining subsurface structure.

  11. Is the gene-environment interaction paradigm relevant to genome-wide studies? The case of education and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W; Blalock, Casey L; Haberstick, Brett C; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; McQueen, Matthew B

    2014-02-01

    This study uses data from the Framingham Heart Study to examine the relevance of the gene-environment interaction paradigm for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We use completed college education as our environmental measure and estimate the interactive effect of genotype and education on body mass index (BMI) using 260,402 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our results highlight the sensitivity of parameter estimates obtained from GWAS models and the difficulty of framing genome-wide results using the existing gene-environment interaction typology. We argue that SNP-environment interactions across the human genome are not likely to provide consistent evidence regarding genetic influences on health that differ by environment. Nevertheless, genome-wide data contain rich information about individual respondents, and we demonstrate the utility of this type of data. We highlight the fact that GWAS is just one use of genome-wide data, and we encourage demographers to develop methods that incorporate this vast amount of information from respondents into their analyses.

  12. Gene environment interaction in periphery and brain converge to modulate behavioral outcomes: Insights from the SP1 transient early in life interference rat model

    PubMed Central

    Asor, Eyal; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that behavior results from an interaction between susceptible genes and environmental stimuli during critical life stages. The present article reviews the main theoretical and practical concepts in the research of gene environment interaction, emphasizing the need for models simulating real life complexity. We review a novel approach to study gene environment interaction in which a brief post-natal interference with the expression of multiple genes, by hindering the activity of the ubiquitous transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is followed by later-in-life exposure of rats to stress. Finally, this review discusses the role of peripheral processes in behavioral responses, with the Sp1 model as one example demonstrating how specific behavioral patterns are linked to modulations in both peripheral and central physiological processes. We suggest that models, which take into account the tripartite reciprocal interaction between the central nervous system, peripheral systems and environmental stimuli will advance our understanding of the complexity of behavior. PMID:27679768

  13. Bayesian inference of gene-environment interaction from incomplete data: what happens when information on environment is disjoint from data on gene and disease?

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Paul; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-04-15

    Inference in gene-environment studies can sometimes exploit the assumption of mendelian randomization that genotype and environmental exposure are independent in the population under study. Moreover, in some such problems it is reasonable to assume that the disease risk for subjects without environmental exposure will not vary with genotype. When both assumptions can be invoked, we consider the prospects for inferring the dependence of disease risk on genotype and environmental exposure (and particularly the extent of any gene-environment interaction), without detailed data on environmental exposure. The data structure envisioned involves data on disease and genotype jointly, but only external information about the distribution of the environmental exposure in the population. This is relevant as for many environmental exposures individual-level measurements are costly and/or highly error-prone. Working in the setting where all relevant variables are binary, we examine the extent to which such data are informative about the interaction, via determination of the large-sample limit of the posterior distribution. The ideas are illustrated using data from a case-control study for bladder cancer involving smoking behaviour and the NAT2 genotype.

  14. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  15. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  16. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  17. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  18. Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

    1998-11-01

    A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

  19. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  20. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  1. Design Document for Passive Bioventing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Unfortunately, most of the airflow measurement techniques such as Pitot tubes or orifice plates are not suitable for such low airflows. While there...available, including mechanical (rotary vane ) and thermal (hot wire) anemometers, which are suitable for measuring the flows induced during passive...Hill Air Force Base, UT. Blond, A. N., and P. M. Downing, 1997. Rotating vanes vs. thermal anemometry technology. Technical Topic I003: Airflow

  2. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  3. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  4. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  5. Influence of meteorological factors on the atmospheric mercury measurement by a novel passive sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haoli; Lin, Huiming; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qianggong; Shen, Yating; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, an incentive for developing simple and cost-effective samplers that are capable of monitoring over an extended period and require nonattendance at remote locations was obvious. Compared to traditional active sampling approaches, passive samplers require no electric power and are more flexible in field deployment, thus they are more appropriate for screening applications and long-term sampling. However, the performance of passive samplers may be influenced by meteorological factors, therefore inducing bias for the result of passive sampling. In this study, the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed on the performance of a novel passive sampler for gaseous mercury were investigated. The meteorological factors were well controlled in an exposure chamber. The passive samplers were tested in different conditions: temperature ranging from -10 to 35 °C, relative humidity ranging from 25 to 90%, wind speed ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 m s-1. The results showed that temperature and relative humidity had no significant influence on the performance of the passive sampler. However, wind speed was found to have significant impact on the sampling rate of the passive sampler. Wind correction should be considered when making comparisons among samplings with different average wind speeds. In the field application in Beijing and Tibet site, the passively measured data were well correlated with the active measurements.

  6. Use of reference chemicals to determine passive uptake rates of common indoor air VOCs by collocation deployment of active and passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Xian, Qiming; Feng, Yong-Lai; Chan, Cecilia C; Zhu, Jiping

    2011-09-01

    Passive samplers have become more popular in their application in the measurement of airborne chemicals. For volatile organic compounds, the rate of a chemical's diffusivity is a determining factor in the quantity of the chemical being collected for a given passive sampler. While uptake rate of a chemical in the passive sampler can be determined either by collocation deployment of both active and passive samplers or use of controlled facilities such as environmental chambers, a new approach without a need for accurate active flow rate in the collocation experiment was demonstrated in this study. This approach uses chemicals of known uptake rates as references to calculate the actual flow rate of the active sampling in the collocation experiment. The active sampling rate in turn can be used in the determination of the uptake rates of all other chemicals present in the passive samplers. The advantage of such approach is the elimination of the errors in actual active sampling rate associated with low flow employed in the collocation experiment. Using this approach, passive uptake rates of more than 80 volatile organic compounds commonly present in indoor air were determined. These experimentally determined uptake rates correlate well with air diffusivity of the chemicals, indicating the regression equation describing such correlation might be useful in predicting the uptake rates of other volatile organic chemicals in indoor air based on their air diffusivity.

  7. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  8. Characterisation of the passive permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Dagmar; Frey, Steffen; Fischer, Torsten; Güttler, Thomas; Görlich, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) restrict uncontrolled nucleocytoplasmic fluxes of inert macromolecules but permit facilitated translocation of nuclear transport receptors and their cargo complexes. We probed the passive barrier of NPCs and observed sieve-like properties with a dominating mesh or channel radius of 2.6 nm, which is narrower than proposed earlier. A small fraction of diffusion channels has a wider opening, explaining the very slow passage of larger molecules. The observed dominant passive diameter approximates the distance of adjacent hydrophobic clusters of FG repeats, supporting the model that the barrier is made of FG repeat domains cross-linked with a spacing of an FG repeat unit length. Wheat germ agglutinin and the dominant-negative importin β45-462 fragment were previously regarded as selective inhibitors of facilitated NPC passage. We now observed that they do not distinguish between the passive and the facilitated mode. Instead, their inhibitory effect correlates with the size of the NPC-passing molecule. They have little effect on small species, inhibit the passage of green fluorescent protein-sized objects >10-fold and virtually block the translocation of larger ones. This suggests that passive and facilitated NPC passage proceed through one and the same permeability barrier. PMID:19680228

  9. Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.

  10. Using a passive alcohol sensor to detect legally intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Foss, R D; Voas, R B; Beirness, D J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We examined whether a passive alcohol sensor could be used for mass screening of motorists to accurately and quickly detect drivers whose blood alcohol concentration exceeded a variety of levels often established as per se evidence of legal intoxication. METHODS. In a voluntary roadside survey, 1181 late-night drivers in Minnesota were interviewed. Breath measurements were taken with both a passive alcohol sensor and an evidentiary quality portable breath-test device. RESULTS. Measurements could be taken much more easily and quickly with the passive sensor, whose readings correlated very strongly (r = .87) with the evidentiary device. Moreover, for criterion blood alcohol concentration levels ranging from 100 mg/dL to 20 mg/dL, a large proportion of motorists could be accurately identified as being above or below the criterion, with relatively few false-negative or false-positive identifications. CONCLUSIONS. The use of passive alcohol sensors at sobriety checkpoints should allow motorists to be processed very quickly with minimal inconvenience. At the same time, detection of legally intoxicated motorists will probably be substantially increased and the general deterrent value of per se alcohol-impaired driving laws enhanced. PMID:8460734

  11. Gibbs free energy assisted passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Tansel, T.; Hostut, M.; Ergun, Y.; Aydinli, A.

    2016-05-01

    Reduction of surface leakage is a major challenge in most photodetectors that requires the elimination of surface oxides on etched mesas during passivation. Engineering the passivation requires close attention to chemical reactions that take place at the interface during the process. In particular, removal of surface oxides may be controlled via Gibbs reactivity. We have compared electrical performance of type-II superlattice photodetectors, designed for MWIR operation, passivated by different passivation techniques. We have used ALD deposited Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, PECVD deposited SiO2, Si3N4 and sulphur containing octadecanethiol (ODT) selfassembled monolayers (SAM) passivation layers on InAs/GaSb p-i-n superlattice photodetectors with cutoff wavelength at 5.1 μm. In this work, we have compared the result of different passivation techniques which are done under same conditions, same epitaxial structure and same fabrication processes. We have found that ALD deposited passivation is directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the passivation material. Gibbs free energies of the passivation layer can directly be compared with native surface oxides to check the effectiveness of the passivation layer before the experimental study.

  12. Multivariate dimensionality reduction approaches to identify gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying multiple complex traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Ming; Sun, Xi-Wei; Qi, Ting; Lin, Wan-Yu; Liu, Nianjun; Lou, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The elusive but ubiquitous multifactor interactions represent a stumbling block that urgently needs to be removed in searching for determinants involved in human complex diseases. The dimensionality reduction approaches are a promising tool for this task. Many complex diseases exhibit composite syndromes required to be measured in a cluster of clinical traits with varying correlations and/or are inherently longitudinal in nature (changing over time and measured dynamically at multiple time points). A multivariate approach for detecting interactions is thus greatly needed on the purposes of handling a multifaceted phenotype and longitudinal data, as well as improving statistical power for multiple significance testing via a two-stage testing procedure that involves a multivariate analysis for grouped phenotypes followed by univariate analysis for the phenotypes in the significant group(s). In this article, we propose a multivariate extension of generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) based on multivariate generalized linear, multivariate quasi-likelihood and generalized estimating equations models. Simulations and real data analysis for the cohort from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment are performed to investigate the properties and performance of the proposed method, as compared with the univariate method. The results suggest that the proposed multivariate GMDR substantially boosts statistical power.

  13. The role of 5-HTT LPR and GNβ3 825C>T polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuri A.; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Ryu, Euijung; Almazar, Ann E.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Smaller studies have evaluated SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and GNβ3 825C>T polymorphisms in IBS, and interactions between 5-HTT LPR with life events have been reported in the psychiatric literature, but gene-environment studies in IBS are lacking. Aims To assess the association of two polymorphisms with IBS and age of onset; and to assess whether there are gene-environment interactions with IBS. Methods Outpatients with IBS and controls completed a validated questionnaire and provided blood for DNA. Comparisons of genotype/allele frequencies between cases and controls were performed with logistic regression. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the variants and age of onset. Environmental variables tested included abuse, parental alcohol abuse, parental psychiatric disorders, and gastrointestinal infections. Results Genotyping was performed in 385 cases and 262 controls with median age of 50 yrs (range: 18.0–70.0) and 498 (77%) females. The IBS subtype distribution among cases was: 102 (26%) D-IBS, 40 (10%) C-IBS, 125 (32%) M-IBS, 118 (31%) other. No association was observed between IBS or age of onset and both variants. Significant interactions were observed between GI infection and the GNβ3 825T allele. For those reporting gastrointestinal infection, the OR for IBS was 3.9 (95%CI: 1.2–12.7) whereas the OR was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.65–1.13) for those without prior infection. Conclusions There was a significant interaction between the GNβ3 polymorphism and infection in the development of IBS, suggesting that its etiology is the result of a combination of specific genetic and environmental risk factors. PMID:22855291

  14. Gene-environment interaction between the MMP9 C-1562T promoter variant and cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Marija; Kojic, Snezana; Djordjevic, Valentina; Tomovic, Andrija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2016-07-01

    The aetiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex. While cigarette smoking is a well-established cause of COPD, a myriad of assessed genetic factors has given conflicting data. Since gene-environment interactions are thought to be implicated in aetiopathogenesis of COPD, we aimed to examine the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 C-1562T (rs3918242) functional variant and cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of this disease. The distribution of the MMP9 C-1562T variant was analyzed in COPD patients and controls with normal pulmonary function from Serbia. Interaction between the C-1562T genetic variant and cigarette smoking was assessed using a case-control model. The response of the C-1562T promoter variant to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposure was examined using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The frequency of T allele carriers was higher in the COPD group than in smoker controls (38.4% vs. 20%; OR = 2.7, P = 0.027). Interaction between the T allele and cigarette smoking was identified in COPD occurrence (OR = 4.38, P = 0.005) and severity (P = 0.001). A functional analysis of the C-1562T variant demonstrated a dose-dependent and allele-specific response (P < 0.01) to CSC. Significantly higher MMP9 promoter activity following CSC exposure was found for the promoter harboring the T allele compared to the promoter harboring the C allele (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to reveal an interaction between the MMP9-1562T allele and cigarette smoke in COPD, emphasising gene-environment interactions as a possible cause of lung damage in the pathogenesis of COPD. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:447-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  16. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-07-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  17. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  18. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  19. A Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Procedures to Measure Passive Drag in Human Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Morais, Jorge E.; Forte, Pedro; Neiva, Henrique; Garrido, Nuno D.; Marinho, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the swimming hydrodynamics assessed with experimental and analytical procedures, as well as, to learn about the relative contributions of the friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag. Sixty young talented swimmers (30 boys and 30 girls with 13.59±0.77 and 12.61±0.07 years-old, respectively) were assessed. Passive drag was assessed with inverse dynamics of the gliding decay speed. The theoretical modeling included a set of analytical procedures based on naval architecture adapted to human swimming. Linear regression models between experimental and analytical procedures showed a high correlation for both passive drag (Dp = 0.777*Df+pr; R2 = 0.90; R2a = 0.90; SEE = 8.528; P<0.001) and passive drag coefficient (CDp = 1.918*CDf+pr; R2 = 0.96; R2a = 0.96; SEE = 0.029; P<0.001). On average the difference between methods was -7.002N (95%CI: -40.480; 26.475) for the passive drag and 0.127 (95%CI: 0.007; 0.247) for the passive drag coefficient. The partial contribution of friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag was 14.12±9.33% and 85.88±9.33%, respectively. As a conclusion, there is a strong relationship between the passive drag and passive drag coefficient assessed with experimental and analytical procedures. The analytical method is a novel, feasible and valid way to gather insight about one’s passive drag during training and competition. Analytical methods can be selected not only to perform race analysis during official competitions but also to monitor the swimmer’s status on regular basis during training sessions without disrupting or time-consuming procedures. PMID:26207364

  20. A Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Procedures to Measure Passive Drag in Human Swimming.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Forte, Pedro; Neiva, Henrique; Garrido, Nuno D; Marinho, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the swimming hydrodynamics assessed with experimental and analytical procedures, as well as, to learn about the relative contributions of the friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag. Sixty young talented swimmers (30 boys and 30 girls with 13.59±0.77 and 12.61±0.07 years-old, respectively) were assessed. Passive drag was assessed with inverse dynamics of the gliding decay speed. The theoretical modeling included a set of analytical procedures based on naval architecture adapted to human swimming. Linear regression models between experimental and analytical procedures showed a high correlation for both passive drag (Dp = 0.777*Df+pr; R2 = 0.90; R2a = 0.90; SEE = 8.528; P<0.001) and passive drag coefficient (CDp = 1.918*CDf+pr; R2 = 0.96; R2a = 0.96; SEE = 0.029; P<0.001). On average the difference between methods was -7.002N (95%CI: -40.480; 26.475) for the passive drag and 0.127 (95%CI: 0.007; 0.247) for the passive drag coefficient. The partial contribution of friction drag and pressure drag to total passive drag was 14.12±9.33% and 85.88±9.33%, respectively. As a conclusion, there is a strong relationship between the passive drag and passive drag coefficient assessed with experimental and analytical procedures. The analytical method is a novel, feasible and valid way to gather insight about one's passive drag during training and competition. Analytical methods can be selected not only to perform race analysis during official competitions but also to monitor the swimmer's status on regular basis during training sessions without disrupting or time-consuming procedures.

  1. Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liang; Ghista, Dhanjoo N; Ng, Eddie YK; Lim, Soo T

    2005-01-01

    Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep) and active (Ea) elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV) models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF) are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max) is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea) can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep) can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling. PMID:15707494

  2. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  3. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  4. Overview of Passive Solar Design Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    the "market acceptance" of the passive solar designs. In mast cases, a passive system is integrated into the architecture of a building, which...increases discomfort by decreasing the rate of moisture evaporation from the skin. The Bioclimatic Chart developed by V. Olgyay provides a convenient way...outdoors and, therefore, not previously cir- culated through the system. passive solar system: An assembly of natural and architectural components

  5. Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0148 Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices Hilary L. Gallagher Richard L. McKinley...Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S...is essential. Passive hearing protectors, capable of attenuating both continuous and impulsive noise, have been designed to reduce the risk of

  6. Cellular automaton formulation of passive scalar dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hudong; Matthaeus, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Cellular automata modeling of the advection of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional flow is examined in the context of discrete lattice kinetic theory. It is shown that if the passive scalar is represented by tagging or 'coloring' automation particles a passive advection-diffusion equation emerges without use of perturbation expansions. For the specific case of the hydrodynamic lattice gas model of Frisch et al. (1986), the diffusion coefficient is calculated by perturbation.

  7. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  8. Passive locomotion in unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi Oskouei, Babak; Kanso, Eva

    2010-11-01

    The passive locomotion of a submerged body in unsteady flow is studied. This work is motivated by recent experimental evidence that live and dead trout exploit vortices in the wake of an oscillating cylinder to swim upstream. We consider a simple model of a rigid body interacting dynamically with idealized wake models. The wake models consist of point vortices periodically introduced into the fluid domain to emulate shedding of vortices from an external un-modeled fixed or moving obstacle producing a "drag" or "thrust" wake, respectively. Both symmetric and staggered vortex configurations are considered. The submerged body is free to move in the plane, that is to say, it is not pinned at a given point. We do not prescribe a background flow, we rather consider the two-way coupled dynamics between the body's motion and the advection of ambient vortices. We show that both circular and elliptical bodies could "swim" passively against the flow by extracting energy from the ambient vortices. We obtain periodic trajectories for the body-vortex system and analyze their linear stability. We propose active feedback control strategies to overcome the instabilities.

  9. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system.

  10. Rocket launchers as passive controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Gunnels, R. T.; McCutchen, R. K., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    A concept is advanced for using the motion of launchers of a free-flight launcher/rocket system which is caused by random imperfections of the rockets launched from it to reduce the total error caused by the imperfections. This concept is called 'passive launcher control' because no feedback is generated by an active energy source after an error is sensed; only the feedback inherent in the launcher/rocket interaction is used. Relatively simple launcher models with two degrees of freedom, pitch and yaw, were used in conjunction with a more detailed, variable-mass model in a digital simulation code to obtain rocket trajectories with and without thrust misalignment and dynamic imbalance. Angular deviations of rocket velocities and linear deviations of the positions of rocket centers of mass at burnout were computed for cases in which the launcher was allowed to move ('flexible' launcher) and was constrained so that it did not rotate ('rigid' launcher) and ratios of flexible to rigid deviations were determined. Curves of these error ratios versus launcher frequency are presented. These show that a launcher which has a transverse moment of inertia about its pivot point of the same magnitude as that of the centroidal transverse moments of inertia of the rockets launched from it can be tuned to passively reduce the errors caused by rocket imperfections.

  11. The simulation of a passive solar energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slate, M. P.

    1982-12-01

    A simple lumped capacitance-resistance model is used to simulate heat flow in a residential size structure heated passively by the sun. The model takes the form of an analogous electrical circuit. A computer program was written to analyse the circuit. By altering the input parameters of the program, the thermal performance of a wide variety of passive solar designs can be investigated for any geographical location. By comparing program generated data to data taken from experimental test cells in Los Alamos, New Mexico, it was found that the simulation program predicted energy use to within 4 percent of measured values. Also, the computer program predicted temperature swings to within 16 percent of measured swings. Correlation with empirical methods of calculating monthly and annual savings in fuel use for heating was poor. Using the simulation calculations as a base, the predictions of annual savings differed by as much as 76 percent.

  12. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  13. Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins in calves.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D M; Tyler, J W; VanMetre, D C; Hostetler, D E; Barrington, G M

    2000-01-01

    Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins has long been accepted as imperative to optimal calf health. Many factors, including timing of colostrum ingestion, the method and volume of colostrum administration, the immunoglobulin concentration of the colostrum ingested, and the age of the dam have been implicated in affecting the optimization of absorption. The practice of colostrum pooling, the breed and presence of the dam, and the presence of respiratory acidosis in the calf also may affect passive transfer. Various tests have been reported to accurately measure passive transfer status in neonatal calves. The radial immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the only tests that directly measure serum IgG concentration. All other available tests including serum total solids by refractometry, sodium sulfite turbidity test, zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, and whole blood glutaraldehyde gelation estimate serum IgG concentration based on concentration of total globulins or other proteins whose passive transfer is statistically associated with that of IgG. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature of passive transfer in calves including factors that affect passive transfer status, testing modalities, effects of failure of passive transfer on baseline mortality, consequences of failure of passive transfer, and some treatment options. Many previously accepted truisms regarding passive transfer in calves should be rejected based on the results of recent research.

  14. Passive scalar scaling regimes in a rapidly decorrelating turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Peter Roland

    This thesis is concerned with some issues pertaining to the small scale structure of a passive scalar field advected by a turbulent flow, and driven by external stochastic pumping and/or interaction with a background passive scalar gradient. We analyze and apply two previously developed simplified mathematical models: the Simple Shear Model of Andrew Majda and Marco Avellaneda, and the Rapid Decorrelation in Time (RDT) Model of Robert Kraichnan. The fundamental representation of the passive scalar statistics in these models is presented from a consideration of Lagrangian tracer trajectories. This permits an easy extension of the Simple Shear Model to incorporate driving, and an alternative derivation of the governing mathematical equations in the RDT Model. Using a Simple Shear Poisson Blob Model of Majda and Avellaneda, we provide an example in which the correlation time of the velocity field becomes very small, but the passive scalar statistics do not converge to those of the RDT model. The RDT Model therefore only describes passive scalar advection for a velocity field with short correlation time in a certain sense. We next apply the RDT Model to investigate scaling regimes in the spectral density of a random passive scalar field advected by a turbulent flow. First, we rigorously derive three scaling regimes, and test some physical theories against these exact results. We find most predictions to succeed, but indicate an apparent gap in the reasoning behind the inertial-diffusive theory of Carl Gibson. Next, motivated by a recent experimental controversy, we consider whether, in the RDT Model, anisotropies in the external pumping could disrupt the k-1 viscous- convective scaling law at high Schmidt number. We find that the k-1 law persists. Finally, we test two asymptotic procedures, the Intermediate Asymptotic (IA) approach as described by G. I. Barenblatt and the Renormalization Group (RG) method of Lin-Yuan Chen et al. on an exactly solvable ODE arising in

  15. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Abigail S; Portis, Lisa M; Parks, Ashley N; Burgess, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in log-log predictive relationships, most of which were within one to 2 orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r(2)) for LDPE, PDMS, and POM were 0.68, 0.76, and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw, untransformed data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Using passive sampling as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation is viable when biomonitoring organisms are not available. Passive sampling based estimates of bioaccumulation provide useful information for making informed decisions about the bioavailability of HOCs.

  16. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  17. Data-driven approach to design of passive flow control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Blackburn, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    An approach to designing passive devices for control of unsteady flows is presented. The method requires only snapshots of the flow to be controlled as inputs. A temporal correlation based on proper orthogonal decomposition of both fluctuating velocity and nonlinear forcing serves to identify the spatial locations in which the forcing drives the different unsteady flow features. The installation of a passive device in these spatial locations inhibits the fluctuating motion. The potential of the methodology is demonstrated via the suppression of vortex shedding in flow past a square cylinder, paving the way to the control of more complex flows using passive devices. Connections in agreement with previous studies targeting the same flow using different passive flow control strategies are provided.

  18. Cardiopulmonary readjustments in passive tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matalon, S. V.; Farhi, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The readjustment of cardiopulmonary variables in human volunteers at various tilt angles on a tilt board is studied. Five healthy subjects (18-31 yr) with thorough knowledge of the experimental protocol are tested, passively tilted from the supine to the upright position in 15-deg increments in random sequence. The parameters measured are cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), minute and alveolar ventilation /V(E) and V(A)/, functional residual capacity (FRC), and arterial-end-tidal P(CO2) pressure difference. It is found that changes in Q and FRC are linearly related to the sine of the tilt angle, indicating that either reflexes are absent or their net effect is proportional to the effects of gravity. This is clearly not the case for other variables /HR, SV, V(E), V(A)/, where it is possible to demonstrate threshold values for the appearance of secondary changes.

  19. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  20. Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.; Miller, E. R.; Susko, M.

    1981-01-01

    A Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) unit was mounted and flown in the cargo bay of the space shuttle Columbia during the first Orbital Flight Test (OFT-1). A similar unit was mounted in a different location in the cargo bay during the postflight operations. The samples in both POSA arrays were subjected to a series of optical and analytical measurements prior to delivery for installation in the cargo bay and after retrieval of the flight hardware. The final results of a comparison of the two series of measurements are presented. These STS-1 results are based on data obtained from only a portion of one of the ten Induced Environment Contamination Monitor instruments to be flown on several shuttle flights beginning with STS-2. These limited results do not indicate shuttle contamination levels in excess of those anticipated.

  1. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, Jon (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes an antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements spaced apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  2. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements placed apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  3. Passive solar-heated courthouse

    SciTech Connect

    Coupland, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Santa Fe Municipal Court Building is the first passive solar-heated courthouse in the United States. Taking advantage of the mild climate and using the sun to heat buildings are ancient traditions in northern New Mexico. One of the design team`s initial goals was to develop a project that was both environmentally responsive and responsible. The project was planned to be energy efficient and to demonstrate the use of integrated natural energy systems. The building is unique because occupants are responsible for manually operating equipment to maintain comfort levels in their individual work areas. Solar gain and light levels are modulated by adjusting mini-blinds, and temperature and ventilation are controlled by windows. This approach has proven successful, and the court employees are enthusiastic about their ability to control their environment. The paper describes the operation of the heating systems, ventilation cooling systems, and lighting. The paper also discusses energy consumption and modeling.

  4. Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the key findings from genetic and epidemiological research, which show that autism is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Remarkable advances in the knowledge of genetic causes of autism have resulted from the great efforts made in the field of genetics. The identification of specific alleles contributing to the autism spectrum has supplied important pieces for the autism puzzle. However, many questions remain unanswered, and new questions are raised by recent results. Moreover, given the amount of evidence supporting a significant contribution of environmental factors to autism risk, it is now clear that the search for environmental factors should be reinforced. One aspect of this search that has been neglected so far is the study of interactions between genes and environmental factors. PMID:23226953

  5. Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the key findings from genetic and epidemiological research, which show that autism is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Remarkable advances in the knowledge of genetic causes of autism have resulted from the great efforts made in the field of genetics. The identification of specific alleles contributing to the autism spectrum has supplied important pieces for the autism puzzle. However, many questions remain unanswered, and new questions are raised by recent results. Moreover, given the amount of evidence supporting a significant contribution of environmental factors to autism risk, it is now clear that the search for environmental factors should be reinforced. One aspect of this search that has been neglected so far is the study of interactions between genes and environmental factors.

  6. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  7. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of August 1, 1984...active and passive microwave remote sensing , (2) used the strong fluctuation theory and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the brightness

  8. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of February 1, 1984...the emissivities as functions of viewing angles and polarizations. They are used to interpret the passive microwave remote sensing data from

  9. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  10. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  11. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  12. Regulation of adult cardiocyte growth: effects of active and passive mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, M. L.; Janes, D. M.; Barclay, M. M.; Harger, L.; Decker, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in hemodynamic load have been documented to modulate contractile protein turnover and myofibrillar structure in the heart; however, the relative importance of active and passive loading in regulating adult cardiocyte growth remains unresolved. To address this issue at the cellular level, adult feline cardiocytes were cultured either on Silastic membranes or plastic surfaces. Cardiocyte-laden membranes were stretched 10% of their rest length to enhance passive loading, whereas heart cells cultured on plastic or Silastic were field stimulated at 1 Hz to mimic active loading. Turnover of contractile proteins and structural integrity of the contractile-cytoskeletal apparatus were monitored for periods ranging from 4 to 72 h. Active and passive loading elevated contractile protein synthesis nearly equally (approximately 50%) and promoted the attachment of remodeled myofibrils to vinculin-positive focal contacts and/or costameres during the first 24 h of loading. Thereafter, rates of contractile protein synthesis returned to control values in passively stretched heart cells but remained elevated in field-stimulated cultures. The fractional rate of growth was increased significantly (approximately 8%/day) in electrically paced cells, whereas in passively stretched cardiocytes the growth rate rose only modestly (approximately 2%/day). Changes in the rate of myocyte growth appeared more closely correlated with the development of focal contacts and myofibril remodeling than with changes in myofibrillar protein turnover per se. 2,3-Butanedione monoxime, nifedipine, and, to a lesser extent, ryanodine blocked field-stimulated contractile protein synthesis and myofibrillar remodeling but had no impact on protein turnover or myofibril reassembly in passively loaded cardiocytes. The results of these experiments imply that both active and passive loading stimulate contractile protein turnover and myofibril remodeling, but the generation of active tension accelerates

  13. The immunogenetics of narcolepsy associated with A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (Pandemrix) supports a potent gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, I L; Lamb, F; Fink, K; Szakács, A; Silveira, A; Franzén, L; Azhary, V; Maeurer, M; Feltelius, N; Darin, N; Hallböök, T; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Kockum, I; Olsson, T

    2017-03-23

    The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination campaign from 2009 to 2010 was associated with a sudden increase in the incidence of narcolepsy in several countries. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is strongly associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*06:02 allele, and protective associations with the DQB1*06:03 allele have been reported. Several non-HLA gene loci are also associated, such as common variants of the T-cell receptor-α (TRA), the purinergic receptor P2RY11, cathepsin H (CTSH) and TNFSF4/OX40L/CD252. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated if these predisposing gene loci were also involved in vaccination-associated narcolepsy. We compared HLA- along with single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes for non-HLA regions between 42 Pandemrix-vaccinated narcolepsy cases and 1990 population-based controls. The class II gene loci associations supported previous findings. Nominal association (P-value<0.05) with TRA as well as suggestive (P-value<0.1) associations with P2RY11 and CTSH were found. These associations suggest a very strong gene-environment interaction, in which the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain or Pandemrix vaccine can act as potent environmental triggers.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 23 March 2017; doi:10.1038/gene.2017.1.

  14. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence.

  15. Early-life stress and antidepressant treatment involve synaptic signaling and Erk kinases in a gene-environment model of depression.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Tardito, Daniela; Gruber, Susanne H M; El Khoury, Aram; Racagni, Giorgio; Mathé, Aleksander A; Popoli, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    Stress has been shown to interact with genetic vulnerability in pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the outcome of interaction between genetic vulnerability and early-life stress, by employing a rodent model that combines an inherited trait of vulnerability in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, with early-life stress (maternal separation). Basal differences in synaptic signaling between FSL rats and their controls were studied, as well as the consequences of early-life stress in adulthood, and their response to chronic antidepressant treatment (escitalopram). FSL rats showed basal differences in the activation of synapsin I and Erk1/2, as well as in alpha CaM kinase II/syntaxin-1 and alpha CaM kinase II/NMDA-receptor interactions in purified hippocampal synaptosomes. In addition, FSL rats displayed a blunted response of Erk-MAP kinases and other differences in the outcome of early-life stress in adulthood. Escitalopram treatment restored some but not all alterations observed in FSL rats after early-life stress. The marked alterations found in key regulators of presynaptic release/neurotransmission in the basal FSL rats, and as a result of early-life stress, suggest synaptic dysfunction. These results show that early gene-environment interaction may cause life-long synaptic changes affecting the course of depressive-like behavior and response to drugs.

  16. Remodelling by early-life stress of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in a gene-environment rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ben; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Tardito, Daniela; Gruber, Suzanne H M; El Khoury, Aram; Anwyl, Roger; Racagni, Giorgio; Mathé, Aleksander A; Rowan, Michael J; Popoli, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    An animal model of depression combining genetic vulnerability and early-life stress (ELS) was prepared by submitting the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats to a standard paradigm of maternal separation. We analysed hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity in vivo and ionotropic receptors for glutamate in FSL rats, in their controls Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats, and in both lines subjected to ELS. A strong inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) and lower synaptic expression of NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were found in FSL rats. Remarkably, ELS induced a remodelling of synaptic plasticity only in FSL rats, reducing inhibition of LTP; this was accompanied by marked increase of synaptic NR1 subunit and GluR2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors. Chronic treatment with escitalopram inhibited LTP in FRL rats, but this effect was attenuated by prior ELS. The present results suggest that early gene-environment interactions cause lifelong synaptic changes affecting functional and molecular aspects of plasticity, partly reversed by antidepressant treatments.

  17. Genotype-based association mapping of complex diseases: gene-environment interactions with multiple genetic markers and measurement error in environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong; Carroll, Raymond J

    2010-12-01

    With the advent of dense single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, population-based association studies have become the major tools for identifying human disease genes and for fine gene mapping of complex traits. We develop a genotype-based approach for association analysis of case-control studies of gene-environment interactions in the case when environmental factors are measured with error and genotype data are available on multiple genetic markers. To directly use the observed genotype data, we propose two genotype-based models: genotype effect and additive effect models. Our approach offers several advantages. First, the proposed risk functions can directly incorporate the observed genotype data while modeling the linkage disequilibrium information in the regression coefficients, thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase. Compared with the haplotype-based approach, an estimating procedure based on the proposed methods can be much simpler and significantly faster. In addition, there is no potential risk due to haplotype phase estimation. Further, by fitting the proposed models, it is possible to analyze the risk alleles/variants of complex diseases, including their dominant or additive effects. To model measurement error, we adopt the pseudo-likelihood method by Lobach et al. [2008]. Performance of the proposed method is examined using simulation experiments. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development.

  18. Genotype-Based Association Mapping of Complex Diseases: Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Measurement Error in Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Irvna; Fan, Ruzone; Carroll, Raymond T.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of dense single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, population-based association studies have become the major tools for identifying human disease genes and for fine gene mapping of complex traits. We develop a genotype-based approach for association analysis of case-control studies of gene-environment interactions in the case when environmental factors are measured with error and genotype data are available on multiple genetic markers. To directly use the observed genotype data, we propose two genotype-based models: genotype effect and additive effect models. Our approach offers several advantages. First, the proposed risk functions can directly incorporate the observed genotype data while modeling the linkage disequihbrium information in the regression coefficients, thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase. Compared with the haplotype-based approach, an estimating procedure based on the proposed methods can be much simpler and significantly faster. In addition, there is no potential risk due to haplotype phase estimation. Further, by fitting the proposed models, it is possible to analyze the risk alleles/variants of complex diseases, including their dominant or additive effects. To model measurement error, we adopt the pseudo-likelihood method by Lobach et al. [2008]. Performance of the proposed method is examined using simulation experiments. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development. PMID:21031455

  19. Classification and Clustering Methods for Multiple Environmental Factors in Gene-Environment Interaction: Application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    There has been an increased interest in identifying gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the context of multiple environmental exposures. Most G × E studies analyze one exposure at a time, but we are exposed to multiple exposures in reality. Efficient analysis strategies for complex G × E with multiple environmental factors in a single model are still lacking. Using the data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we illustrate a two-step approach for modeling G × E with multiple environmental factors. First, we utilize common clustering and classification strategies (e.g., k-means, latent class analysis, classification and regression trees, Bayesian clustering using Dirichlet Process) to define subgroups corresponding to distinct environmental exposure profiles. Second, we illustrate the use of an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, instead of the conventional saturated interaction model using product terms of factors, to study G × E with the data-driven exposure subgroups defined in the first step. We demonstrate useful analytical approaches to translate multiple environmental exposures into one summary class. These tools not only allow researchers to consider several environmental exposures in G × E analysis but also provide some insight into how genes modify the effect of a comprehensive exposure profile instead of examining effect modification for each exposure in isolation.

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with medulloblastoma in an African-American boy: A rare case illustrating gene-environment interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Korczak, J.F.; Goldstein, A.M.; Kase, R.G.

    1997-03-31

    We present an 8-year-old African-American boy with medulloblastoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) who exhibited the radiosensitive response of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) formation in the area irradiated for medulloblastoma. Such a response is well-documented in Caucasian NBCCS patients with medulloblastoma. The propositus was diagnosed with medulloblastoma at the age of 2 years and underwent surgery, chemotherapy, and craniospinal irradiation. At the age of 6 years, he was diagnosed with NBCCS following his presentation with a large odontogenic keratocyst of the mandible, pits of the palms and soles and numerous BCCs in the area of the back and neck that had been irradiated previously for medulloblastoma. Examination of other relatives showed that the propositus mother also had NBCCS but was more mildly affected; in particular, she had no BCCs. This case illustrates complex gene-environment interaction, in that increased skin pigmentation in African-Americans is presumably protective against ultraviolet, but not ionizing, radiation. This case and other similar cases in the literature show the importance of considering NBCCS in the differential diagnosis of any patient who presents with a medulloblastoma, especially before the age of 5 years, and of examining other close relatives for signs of NBCCS to determine the patient`s at-risk status. Finally, for individuals who are radiosensitive, protocols that utilize chemotherapy in lieu of radiotherapy should be considered. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiao; Guo, Xiaobo; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Williams, Katie M.; Yazar, Seyhan; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Howe, Laura D.; Pourcain, Beaté St; Evans, David M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; McMahon, George; Hysi, Pirro G.; Krapohl, Eva; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B.; Baird, Paul Nigel; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ding, Xiaohu; Wojciechowski, Robert; Young, Terri L.; Pärssinen, Olavi; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Plomin, Robert; Hammond, Christopher J.; Mackey, David A.; He, Mingguang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Meguro, Akira; Wright, Alan F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Young, Alvin L.; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Metspalu, Andres; Paterson, Andrew D.; Döring, Angela; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Klein, Barbara E.; Pourcain, Beate St; Fleck, Brian; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Hayward, Caroline; Williams, Cathy; Delcourt, Cécile; Pang, Chi Pui; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gieger, Christian; Hammond, Christopher J.; Simpson, Claire L.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mackey, David A.; Evans, David M.; Stambolian, Dwight; Chew, Emily; Tai, E-Shyong; Krapohl, Eva; Mihailov, Evelin; Smith, George Davey; McMahon, George; Biino, Ginevra; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Seppälä, Ilkka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Craig, Jamie E.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Ried, Janina S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Wang, Jie Jin; Liao, Jiemin; Zhao, Jing Hua; Xie, Jing; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Kemp, John P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Jonas, Jost B.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Wedenoja, Juho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Williams, Katie M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oexle, Konrad; Howe, Laura D.; Chen, Li Jia; Xu, Liang; Farrer, Lindsay; Ikram, M. Kamran; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Schache, Maria; Pirastu, Mario; Miyake, Masahiro; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Fossarello, Maurizio; Kähönen, Mika; Tedja, Milly S.; He, Mingguang; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Wareham, Nick J.; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Pärssinen, Olavi; Raitakari, Olli; Polasek, Ozren; Tam, Pancy O.; Foster, Paul J.; Mitchell, Paul; Baird, Paul Nigel; Chen, Peng; Hysi, Pirro G.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Gharahkhani, Puya; Fan, Qiao; Höhn, René; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Luben, Robert N.; Igo Jr, Robert P.; Plomin, Robert; Wojciechowski, Robert; Klein, Ronald; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Saw, Seang-Mei; Yazar, Seyhan; Ping Yip, Shea; Feng, Sheng; Vaccargiu, Simona; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; MacGregor, Stuart; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Rantanen, Taina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Young, Terri L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Wong, Tien-Yin; Aung, Tin; Haller, Toomas; Vitart, Veronique; Nangia, Vinay; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Xiangtian; Guo, Xiaobo; Ding, Xiaohu; Wang, Ya Xing; Lu, Yi; Teo, Yik-Ying; Vatavuk, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7–15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N = 10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E–08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E–21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P = 6.3E–04). PMID:27174397

  2. Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpe, Amory; Zhang, Zheng; Hubner, James; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    The coupling of passive structural response of flexible membranes with the flow over them can significantly alter the aerodynamic characteristic of simple flat-plate wings. The use of flexible wings is common throughout biological flying systems inspiring many engineers to incorporate them into small engineering flying systems. In many of these systems, the motion of the membrane serves to passively alter the flow over the wing potentially resulting in an aerodynamic benefit. In this study, the aerodynamic loads and the flow field for a rigid flat-plate wing are compared to free trailing-edge membrane wings with two different pre-tensions at a chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 50,000. The membrane was silicon rubber with a scalloped free trailing edge. The analysis presented includes load measurements from a sting balance along with velocity fields and membrane deflections from synchronized, time-resolved particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation. The load measurements demonstrate increased aerodynamic efficiency and lift, while the synchronized flow and membrane measurements show how the membrane motion serves to force the flow. This passive flow control introduced by the membranes motion alters the flows development over the wing and into the wake region demonstrating how, at least for lower angles of attack, the membranes motion drives the flow as opposed to the flow driving the membrane motion.

  3. New algorithm for the passive THz image quality enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new approach for THz image quality enhancing using correlation function between the image under consideration and a standard image. The standard image moves in two directions along a image under analysis. As a result, 2 D correlation function is obtained. Multiplying this function by color number belonging to a grey scale, we restore the image under the analysis. This allows to suppress a noise on a new image. This method allows to see the person clothes details that it means multi-times increasing of the passive THz camera temperature resolution. We discuss a choice of standard image characteristics for an achievement of correlation function for high contrast. Other feature of our approach arises from a possibility of a person image coming to the THz camera by using a computer processing of the image only. It means that we can "decrease" a distance between a person and the passive THz camera. This algorithm is very convenient for using and has a high performance.

  4. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media.

    PubMed

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-10-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime.

  5. Passive microwave tags : LDRD 52709, FY04 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-10-01

    This report describes both a general methodology and specific examples of completely passive microwave tags. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were used to make tags for both identification and sensing applications at different frequencies. SAW correlators were optimized for wireless identification, and SAW filters were developed to enable wireless remote sensing of physical properties. Identification tag applications and wireless remote measurement applications are discussed. Significant effort went into optimizing the SAW devices used for this work, and the lessons learned from that effort are reviewed.

  6. Passive ventricular mechanics modelling using MRI of structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, V Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, D B; Young, A A; Nash, M P

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions.

  7. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  8. Turbulent transport of a passive-scalar field by using a renormalization-group method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Murshed

    1992-01-01

    A passive-scalar field is considered to evolve under the influence of a turbulent fluid governed by the Navier-Stokes equation. Turbulent-transport coefficients are calculated by small-scale elimination using a renormalization-group method. Turbulent processes couple both the viscosity and the diffusivity. In the absence of any correlation between the passive-scalar fluctuations and any component of the fluid velocity, the renormalized diffusivity is essentially the same as if the fluid velocity were frozen, although the renormalized equation does contain higher-order nonlinear terms involving viscosity. This arises due to the nonlinear interaction of the velocity with itself. In the presence of a finite correlation, the turbulent diffusivity becomes coupled with both the velocity field and the viscosity. There is then a dependence of the turbulent decay of the passive scalar on the turbulent Prandtl number.

  9. Passive states for essential observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strich, Robert

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given by Borchers and Buchholz ["Global properties of vacuum states in de Sitter space," Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A. 70, 23-40 (1999)] and by Buchholz and Summers ["Stable quantum systems in anti-de Sitter space: Causality, independence and spectral properties," J. Math. Phys. 45, 4810-4831 (2004)] which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g., d-dimensional Minkowski space-time for d ⩾3). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer traveling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a temperature equilibrium state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved, and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also, the modular objects associated with such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  10. Passive states for essential observers

    SciTech Connect

    Strich, Robert

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given by Borchers and Buchholz ['Global properties of vacuum states in de Sitter space', Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A. 70, 23-40 (1999)] and by Buchholz and Summers ['Stable quantum systems in anti-de Sitter space: Causality, independence and spectral properties', J. Math. Phys. 45, 4810-4831 (2004)] which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g., d-dimensional Minkowski space-time for d{>=}3). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer traveling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a temperature equilibrium state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved, and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also, the modular objects associated with such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  11. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  12. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  13. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  14. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOEpatents

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  15. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  16. Passive autonomous infrared sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    1987-10-01

    This study was conducted in response to the DoD's need for establishing understanding of algorithm's modules for passive infrared sensors and seekers and establishing a standardized systematic procedure for applying this understanding to DoD applications. We quantified the performances of Honeywell's Background Adaptive Convexity Operator Region Extractor (BACORE) detection and segmentation modules, as functions of a set of image metrics for both single-frame and multiframe processing. We established an understanding of the behavior of the BACORE's internal parameters. We characterized several sets of stationary and sequential imagery and extracted TIR squared, TBIR squared, ESR, and range for each target. We generated a set of performance models for multi-frame processing BACORE that could be used to predict the behavior of BACORE in image metric space. A similar study was conducted for another of Honeywell's segmentors, namely Texture Boundary Locator (TBL), and its performances were quantified. Finally, a comparison of TBL and BACORE on the same data base and same number of frames was made.

  17. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  18. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  19. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  20. Improving the Navys Passive Underwater Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    marine mammal species using passive acoustic monitoring, with application to obtaining density estimates of transiting humpback whale populations in...by propagation of humpback calls west of Kauai, Hawaii, and 4) to conduct spatial statistical analyses and correlation analyses of marine mammal and

  1. Cretaceous sequence stratigraphy of the Northern South American Passive Margin: Implications for tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, E.G.; Villamil, T.; Johnson, C.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The passive margin of northern South America, from Colombia to northeastern Venezuela, was relatively stable through the Cretaceous and only broadly affected by the entry of the Caribbean Plate into the Protocaribbean Basin. This region offers a unique opportunity to test the relative effects of global sealevel change, autocyclic sedimentologic processed, and regional tectonics in shaping the stratigraphic record of Cretaceous passive margins. High-resolution stratigraphic studies of Colombia and Venezuela have established a precise system of regional chronology and correlation with resolution <1 Ma (50-500 ka for the middle Cretaceous). This allows precise separation of allocyclic and autocyclic controls on facies development. This new chronology integrates assemblage zone biostratigraphy with event/cycle chronostratigraphy. Newly measured Cretaceous sections in Venezuela and throughout Colombia are calibrated to this new chronology, and sequence stratigraphic units independently defined to the third-order of resolution. Graphic correlation of all sections is used to identify sequences with regional stratigraphic expression, and those which correlate to sequence stratigraphic standards of North America, Europe and the global cycles of Hag et al. (1988). 50-60 percent of the stratigraphic sequences across the South American passive margin correlate to other continents and to the global sequence stratigraphic standard, reflecting strong eustatic influence on Cretaceous sedimentation across northern South America. The remaining sequences in this region reflect tectonic modification of the passive margin and autocyclic sedimentary processes.

  2. Retinopathy in old persons with and without diabetes mellitus: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility—Reykjavik Study (AGES-R)

    PubMed Central

    Gunnlaugsdottir, E.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Klein, R.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Klein, B. E.; Benediktsson, R.; Harris, T. B.; Launer, L. J.; Aspelund, T.; Gudnason, V.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We aimed to describe the prevalence of retinopathy in an aged cohort of Icelanders with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods The study population consisted of 4,994 persons aged ≥67 years, who participated in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility—Reykjavik Study (AGES-R). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (>48 mmol/mol). Retinopathy was assessed by grading fundus photographs using the modified Airlie House adaptation of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. Associations between retinopathy and risk factors were estimated using odds ratios obtained from multivariate analyses. Results The overall prevalence of retinopathy in AGES-R was 12.4%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 516 persons (10.3%), for 512 of whom gradable fundus photos were available, including 138 persons (27.0%, 95% CI 23.2, 31.0) with any retinopathy. Five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3) had proliferative retinopathy. Clinically significant macular oedema was present in five persons (1.0%, 95% CI 0.3, 2.3). Independent risk factors for retinopathy in diabetic patients in a multivariate model included HbA1c, insulin use and use of oral hypoglycaemic agents, the last two being indicators of longer disease duration. In 4478 participants without diabetes mellitus, gradable fundus photos were available for 4,453 participants, with retinopathy present in 476 (10.7%, 95% CI 9.8, 11.6) and clinically significant macular oedema in three persons. Independent risk factors included increasing age and microalbuminuria. Conclusions/interpretation Over three-quarters (78%) of retinopathy cases were found in persons without diabetes and a strong association between microalbuminuria and non-diabetic retinopathy was found. These results may have implications for patient management of the aged. PMID:22134840

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  4. Using gene-environment interaction analyses to clarify the role of well-done meat and heterocyclic amine exposure in the etiology of colorectal polyps123

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Li, Guoliang; Smalley, Walter E; Hein, David W; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Cai, Qiuyin; Ness, Reid M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The role of well-done meat intake and meat-derived mutagen heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not yet established. Objective: With the use of gene-environment interaction analyses, we sought to clarify the association of HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk. Design: In a case-control study including 2057 colorectal polyp patients and 3329 controls, we evaluated 16 functional genetic variants to construct an HCA-metabolizing score. To derive dietary HCA-exposure amount, data were collected regarding dietary intake of meat by cooking method and degree of doneness. Results: A 2-fold elevated risk associated with high red meat intake was found for colorectal polyps or adenomas in subjects with a high HCA-metabolizing risk score, whereas the risk was 1.3- to 1.4-fold among those with a low risk score (P-interaction ≤ 0.05). The interaction was stronger for the risk of advanced or multiple adenomas, in which an OR of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.6) was observed for those with both a high HCA-risk score and high red meat intake (P-interaction = 0.01). No statistically significant interaction was found in analyses that used specific HCA exposure derived from dietary data. Conclusion: High red meat intake is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal polyps, and this association may be synergistically modified by genetic factors involved in HCA metabolism. PMID:23015320

  5. Effect of TNF and LTA polymorphisms on biological markers of response to oxidative stimuli in coal miners: a model of gene-environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nadif, R; Jedlicka, A; Mintz, M; Bertrand, J; Kleeberger, S; Kauffmann, F

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Interaction between genetic background and oxidative environmental stimuli in the pathogenesis of human lung disease has been largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective epidemiological study was undertaken in 253 coal miners. Intermediate quantitative phenotypes of response to oxidant exposure, including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities, were studied. Oxidant exposures studied were smoking habits and cumulative dust exposure assessed by job history and ambient measures. Disease phenotypes included subclinical computed tomography score at the first survey and x ray profusion grades twice, five years apart, to assess established coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Miners were genotyped for common functional polymorphisms in the gene for tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LTA), two proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Results: Regarding gene-environment interaction on intermediate phenotypes, results showed interaction of a promoter polymorphism at the –308 position in TNF with occupational exposure on erythrocyte GSH-Px activity with a significant association in those with high exposure (p=0.003), whereas no association was observed among those with low exposure (interaction p=0.06). Regarding gene intermediate phenotype interaction on clinical outcome, results showed an association of CWP prevalence with an NcoI polymorphism in LTA in those with low catalase activity (p=0.05), whereas no association was observed in those with high activity (interaction p=0.03). No other significant association was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that interactions of genetic background with environmental exposure and intermediate response phenotypes are important components in the pathogenesis of CWP. PMID:12566517

  6. Glutamatergic GRIN2B and polyaminergic ODC1 genes in suicide attempts: associations and gene-environment interactions with childhood/adolescent physical assault.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, M; Ben-Efraim, Y J; Wasserman, J; Wasserman, D

    2013-09-01

    The complex etiology of suicidal behavior has frequently been investigated in relation to monoaminergic neurotransmission, but other neurosystems have shown alterations as well, involving excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) molecular components, together with the modulating polyamines. Sufficiently powered and family-based association studies of glutamatergic and GABAergic genes with suicidal behavior are nonexistent, but several studies have been reported for polyamines. We therefore conducted, for the first time ever, an extensive family-based study of 113 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 24 glutamatergic and GABA genes, in addition to interrelated polyaminergic genes, on the outcome of severe suicide attempts (SAs). The family-based analysis (n=660 trios) was supplemented with gene-environment interaction (G × E), case-control (n=519 controls) and subgroup analyses. The main observations were the previously unreported association and linkage of SNPs rs2268115 and rs220557 in GRIN2B, as well as of SNPs rs1049500 and rs2302614 in ODC1 (P<10(-2)). Furthermore, GRIN2B haplotypic associations were observed, in particular with a four-SNP AGGC haplotype (rs1805247-rs1806201-rs1805482-rs2268115; P<10(-5)), and a third SNP rs7559979 in ODC1 showed G × E with serious childhood/adolescent physical assault (P<10(-4)). SA subjects were characterized by transdiagnostic trait anger and past year alcohol-drug use disorders, but not by alcohol-drug use at SA, depression, anxiety or psychosis diagnoses. We also discuss a first ever confirmatory observation of SNP rs6526342 (polyaminergic SAT1) in SA, originally identified in completed suicides. The results suggest that specific genetic variants in a subset of glutamatergic (GRIN2B) and polyaminergic (ODC1) neurosystem genes may be of importance in certain suicidal subjects.

  7. Escitalopram affects cytoskeleton and synaptic plasticity pathways in a rat gene-environment interaction model of depression as revealed by proteomics. Part II: environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Piubelli, Chiara; Vighini, Miriam; Mathé, Aleksander A; Domenici, Enrico; Carboni, Lucia

    2011-07-01

    Large-scale investigations aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment are achievable through the application of proteomic technologies. We performed a proteomic study on the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a genetically selected rat model of depression, and the control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To evaluate gene-environment interactions, FSL and FRL animals were separated from their mothers for 3 h from postnatal days 2 to 14 (maternal separation; MS), since early-life trauma is considered an important antecedent of depression. All groups received either escitalopram (Esc) admixed to food pellets (25 mg/kg.d) or vehicle for 1 month. Protein extracts from prefrontal/frontal cortex and hippocampus were separated by 2D electrophoresis. Proteins differentially modulated were identified by mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics analyses were performed to discover gene ontology terms associated with the modulated proteins. This paper was focused on the modifications induced by the environmental challenge of MS, both on the predisposed genetic background and on the resistant phenotype. The combination between Esc treatment and MS was investigated by comparing the MS, Esc-treated rats with rats subjected to each single procedure. In MS rats, antidepressant treatment influenced mainly proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism in FSL rats and in vesicle-mediated transport in FRL rats. When studying the interaction between Esc and MS vs. non-separated rats, proteins playing a role in cytoskeleton organization, neuronal development, vesicle-mediated transport and synaptic plasticity were identified. The results provide further support to the available reports that antidepressant treatment affects intracellular pathways and also suggest new potential targets for future therapeutic intervention.

  8. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  9. Gene-environment interactions in the causation of neural tube defects: folate deficiency increases susceptibility conferred by loss of Pax3 function.

    PubMed

    Burren, Katie A; Savery, Dawn; Massa, Valentina; Kok, Robert M; Scott, John M; Blom, Henk J; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2008-12-01

    Risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is determined by genetic and environmental factors, among which folate status appears to play a key role. However, the precise nature of the link between low folate status and NTDs is poorly understood, and it remains unclear how folic acid prevents NTDs. We investigated the effect of folate level on risk of NTDs in splotch (Sp(2)(H)) mice, which carry a mutation in Pax3. Dietary folate restriction results in reduced maternal blood folate, elevated plasma homocysteine and reduced embryonic folate content. Folate deficiency does not cause NTDs in wild-type mice, but causes a significant increase in cranial NTDs among Sp(2)(H) embryos, demonstrating a gene-environment interaction. Control treatments, in which intermediate levels of folate are supplied, suggest that NTD risk is related to embryonic folate concentration, not maternal blood folate concentration. Notably, the effect of folate deficiency appears more deleterious in female embryos than males, since defects are not prevented by exogenous folic acid. Folate-deficient embryos exhibit developmental delay and growth retardation. However, folate content normalized to protein content is appropriate for developmental stage, suggesting that folate availability places a tight limit on growth and development. Folate-deficient embryos also exhibit a reduced ratio of s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). This could indicate inhibition of the methylation cycle, but we did not detect any diminution in global DNA methylation, in contrast to embryos in which the methylation cycle was specifically inhibited. Hence, folate deficiency increases the risk of NTDs in genetically predisposed splotch embryos, probably via embryonic growth retardation.

  10. Impact of variation in the BDNF gene on social stress sensitivity and the buffering impact of positive emotions: replication and extension of a gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    van Winkel, Mark; Peeters, Frenk; van Winkel, Ruud; Kenis, Gunter; Collip, Dina; Geschwind, Nicole; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-06-01

    A previous study reported that social stress sensitivity is moderated by the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor(Val66Met) (BDNF rs6265) genotype. Additionally, positive emotions partially neutralize this moderating effect. The current study aimed to: (i) replicate in a new independent sample of subjects with residual depressive symptoms the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity, (ii) replicate the neutralizing impact of positive emotions, (iii) extend these analyses to other variations in the BDNF gene in the new independent sample and the original sample of non-depressed individuals. Previous findings were replicated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Negative Affect (NA) responses to social stress were stronger in "Val/Met" carriers of BDNF(Val66Met) compared to "Val/Val" carriers. Positive emotions neutralized the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity in a dose-response fashion. Finally, two of four additional BDNF SNPs (rs11030101, rs2049046) showed similar moderating effects on social stress-sensitivity across both samples. The neutralizing effect of positive emotions on the moderating effects of these two additional SNPs was found in one sample. In conclusion, ESM has important advantages in gene-environment (GxE) research and may attribute to more consistent findings in future GxE research. This study shows how the impact of BDNF genetic variation on depressive symptoms may be explained by its impact on subtle daily life responses to social stress. Further, it shows that the generation of positive affect (PA) can buffer social stress sensitivity and partially undo the genetic susceptibility.

  11. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  12. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  13. Community-Based Participatory Research and Gene-Environment Interaction Methodologies Addressing Environmental Justice among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Women and Children in Texas: “From Mother to Child Project”

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Valero, María A.; Herrera, Angelica P.; Zahm, Sheila H.; Jones, Lovell A.

    2013-01-01

    The “From Mother to Child Project” is a molecular epidemiological study that employs a community- based participatory research (CBPR) approach and gene-environment interaction research to address environmental justice in migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSF) women and children of Mexican origin home-based in Baytown and La Joya, Texas. This paper presents the background and rationale for the study and describes the study design and methodology. Preliminary data showed that MSF women and children in Texas have measurable levels of pesticides in their blood and urine, some of which were banned in the United States decades ago and are possible human carcinogens. Polymorphisms in genes involved in chemical detoxification and DNA repair have been associated with susceptibility to genetic damage and cancer development in populations exposed to environmental toxins. The “From Mother to Child Project” is testing three hypotheses: (1) MSF women and children who are occupationally exposed to pesticides are at higher risk for DNA damage than are non-exposed women and children. (2) Both, the extent of pesticide exposure and type of polymorphisms in chemical detoxification and DNA repair genes contribute to the extent of DNA damage observed in study participants. (3) The mutagenic potency levels measured in the organic compounds extracted from the urine and serum of study participants will correlate with the total concentrations of pesticides and with the measured DNA damage in study participants. The study will enroll 800 participants: 200 MSF mother-child pairs; 200 children (one per family) whose parents have never worked in agriculture, matched with the MSF children by ethnicity, age ± 2 years, gender, and city of residence; and these children’s mothers. Personal interviews with the mothers are used to gather data for both mothers and children on sociodemographic characteristics; pesticide exposure at work and home; medical and reproductive history; dietary

  14. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  15. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  16. Lipid-Based Passivation in Nanofluidics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Stretching DNA in nanochannels is a useful tool for direct, visual studies of genomic DNA at the single molecule level. To facilitate the study of the interaction of linear DNA with proteins in nanochannels, we have implemented a highly effective passivation scheme based on lipid bilayers. We demonstrate virtually complete long-term passivation of nanochannel surfaces to a range of relevant reagents, including streptavidin-coated quantum dots, RecA proteins, and RecA–DNA complexes. We show that the performance of the lipid bilayer is significantly better than that of standard bovine serum albumin-based passivation. Finally, we show how the passivated devices allow us to monitor single DNA cleavage events during enzymatic degradation by DNase I. We expect that our approach will open up for detailed, systematic studies of a wide range of protein–DNA interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:22432814

  17. Effectiveness of passivation techniques on hydrogen desorption in a tritium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Steven Michael

    2009-11-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is used as a fuel in fusion reactors, a booster material in nuclear weapons and as a light source in commercial applications. When tritium is used in fusion reactors, and especially when used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons, purity is critical. For U.S. Department of Energy use, tritium is recycled by Savannah River Site in South Carolina and is processed to a minimum purity of 99.5%. For use elsewhere in the country, it must be shipped and stored, while maintaining the highest purity possible. As an isotope of hydrogen it exchanges easily with the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. Stainless steel bottles are used to transport and store tritium. Protium, present in air, becomes associated in and on the surface of stainless steel during and after the manufacture of the steel. When filled, the tritium within the bottle exchanges with the protium in and on the surface of the stainless steel, slowly contaminating the pure tritium with protium. The stainless steel is therefore passivated to minimize the protium outgrowth of the bottles into the pure tritium. This research is to determine how effective different passivation techniques are in minimizing the contamination of tritium with protium. Additionally, this research will attempt to determine a relationship between surface chemistry of passivated steels and protium contamination of tritium. The conclusions of this research found that passivated bottles by two companies which routinely provide passivated materials to the US Department of Energy provide low levels of protium outgrowth into pure tritium. A bottle passivated with a material to prevent excessive corrosion in a highly corrosive environment, and a clean and polished bottle provided outgrowth rates roughly twice those of the passivated bottles above. Beyond generally high levels of chromium, oxygen, iron and nickel in the passivated bottles, there did not appear to be a strong correlation

  18. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  19. Statistical theory of passive location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    1984-03-01

    A derivation of the principal algorithms and an analysis of the performance of the two most important passive location systems for stationary transmitters, hyperbolic location systems and direction-finding location systems, are presented. The concentration ellipse, the circular error probability, and the geometric dilution of precision are defined and related to the location-system and received-signal characteristics. Doppler and other passive location systems are briefly discussed.

  20. Hydrogen passivation of silicon nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouida, S.; Benabderrahmane Zaghouani, R.; Bachtouli, N.; Bessais, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we focus on hydrogen passivation of silicon nanowire structures (SiNWs) obtained by metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) intended to be used in silicon-based solar cells. SiNWs present high surface defects density causing the minority carrier lifetime reduction. Our results show that hydrogen passivation of SiNWs ameliorates minority carrier lifetime by reducing the dangling bonds and then the surface recombination velocity. This enhancement is limited by SiNWs distribution.

  1. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    A. Herk; Poerschke, A.; Beach, R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction.

  2. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accident s consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  3. Transport of passive scalars in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, John; Moin, Parviz

    1987-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow with three passive scalars at different molecular Prandtl numbers is performed. Computed statistics including the turbulent Prandtl numbers are compared with existing experimental data. The computed fields are also examined to investigate the spatial structure of the scalar fields. The scalar fields are highly correlated with the streamwise velocity; the correlation coefficient between the temperature and the streamwise velocity is as high as 0.95 in the wall region. The joint probability distributions between the temperature and velocity fluctuations are also examined; they suggest that it might be possible to model the scalar fluxes in the wall region in a manner similar to the Reynolds stresses.

  4. Passive and Hybrid PFC Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Yasuyuki

    The diode rectifier offers several desirable features such as a unity displacement-factor and a high efficiency with low complexity and high reliability, but the utility line-current is significantly distorted. The traditional multi-pulse (e.g., 12-pulse, 18-pulse and so on) PAM concept by means of multiple rectifier units and phase-shifting isolation-transformers is a well-known scheme to improve the input line-current waveform and reduce dc-current/voltage ripple. Though, the necessity of the isolation-transformer is a great weak point especially for applications in low to medium power range. To mitigate the problem, several investigations have been done. The PWM rectifier is a modern and effective alternative, although it results in a higher initial cost, lower efficiency and EMI noise problems due to high frequency switching. To solve the problem, we have two alternatives without PWM and are so called “Passive” schemes. One is the multi-pulse/multi-phase scheme without the isolation transformer but with an autotransformer. This scheme results in a simplified multi-pulse PAM rectifier. The other is the Third-Harmonic-Current Injection and the expanded schemes. Although these two schemes have been studied independently in most cases, new types of diode PFC rectifier obtained by combining the two schemes have been studied recently. Additionally, further new topologies, so called “Hybrid” type, have been proposed very recently. The rectifiers with the new concept consist of an autotransformer-connected double 3-phase bridge 12-pulse rectifier and a PWM dc-dc converter on the dc-side to perform the current injection. The Hybrid rectifiers offer output voltage controllability and sinusoidal input currents similarly to the PWM rectifiers. To show the current trends and remaining possibilities of the Passive and Hybrid rectifiers, this paper gives a survey and historical review of the rectifiers. Then, some new topologies in the category are investigated

  5. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  6. Yttrium passivation of defects in GeO2 and GeO2/Ge interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongfei; Robertson, John

    2017-01-01

    Alloying amorphous GeO2 with Y2O3 has been found experimentally to improve its chemical stability and electrical reliability as a gate dielectric in Ge-based field effect transistors. The mechanism is explained here based on density functional calculations. The GeO2 reliability problem is correlated with oxygen deficiency defects, which generate gap states near the band-edges of the underlying Ge. These can be passivated through Y doping. This shifts the defect gap state out of the gap up into the GeO2 conduction band, thus effectively passivating gap states in the GeO2 layer.

  7. The Passive Film on Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C A

    2005-09-09

    This report describes oxide (passive film) formation on Alloy 22 surfaces when aged in air (25-750 C) and in solutions (90-110 C) over times ranging from days to 5 years. Most zero-valent metals (and their alloys) are thermodynamically unstable on the earth's surface and in its upper crust. Most will therefore convert to oxides when exposed to a surficial or underground environment. Despite the presence of thermodynamic driving forces, metals and their alloys may persist over lengthy timescales, even under normal atmospheric oxidizing conditions. One reason for this is that as metal is converted to metal oxide, the oxide forms a film on the surface that limits diffusion of chemical components between the environment and the metal. The formation of surface oxide is integral to understanding corrosion rates and processes for many of the more ''resistant'' metals and alloys. This report describes the correlation between oxide composition and oxide stability for Alloy 22 under a range of relevant repository environments. In the case in which the oxide itself is thermodynamically stable, the growth of the oxide film is a self-limiting process (i.e., as the film thickens, the diffusion across it slows, and the metal oxidizes at an ever-diminishing rate). In the case where the oxide is not thermodynamically stable, it dissolves at the oxide--solution interface as the metal oxidizes at the metal--oxide interface. The system achieves a steady state with a particular oxide thickness when the oxide dissolution and the metal oxidation rates are balanced. Once sufficient metal has transferred to solution, the solution may become saturated with respect to the oxide, which is then thermodynamically stable. The driving force for dissolution at the oxide--solution interface then ceases, and the first case is obtained. In the case of a complex alloy such as Alloy 22 (Haynes International 1997), the development and behavior of the oxide layer is complicated by the fact that different

  8. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  9. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  10. A systematic gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC4, and oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Yen, Ching-Yui; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate. Biomarkers that anticipate susceptibility, prognosis, or response to treatments are much needed. Oral cancer is a polygenic disease involving complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, which require multifaceted analyses. Here, we examined in a dataset of 103 oral cancer cases and 98 controls from Taiwan the association between oral cancer risk and the DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCCs) 1-4, and the environmental factors of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and hierarchical interaction graphs for analyzing gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions. We identified a significantly elevated risk of the XRCC2 rs2040639 heterozygous variant among smokers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-12.1] and alcohol drinkers [adjusted OR=5.7, 95% CI=1.4-23.2]. The best two-factor based G×G interaction of oral cancer included the XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 [OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.66-6.13]. For the G×E interaction, the estimated OR of oral cancer for two (drinking-BQ chewing), three (XRCC1-XRCC2-BQ chewing), four (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-BQ chewing), and five factors (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-drinking-BQ chewing) were 32.9 [95% CI=14.1-76.9], 31.0 [95% CI=14.0-64.7], 49.8 [95% CI=21.0-117.7] and 82.9 [95% CI=31.0-221.5], respectively. Taken together, the genotypes of XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 DNA repair genes appear to be significantly associated with oral cancer. These were enhanced by exposure to certain environmental factors. The observations presented here warrant further research in larger study samples to examine their relevance for routine clinical care in oncology.

  11. Evidence of gene-environment interaction for two genes on chromosome 4 and environmental tobacco smoke in controlling the risk of nonsyndromic cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Parker, Margaret M; Wang, Ping; Murray, Tanda; Taub, Margaret; Li, Shuai; Redett, Richard J; Fallin, M Daniele; Liang, Kung Yee; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chong, Samuel S; Yeow, Vincent; Ye, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong; Huang, Shangzhi; Jabs, Ethylin W; Shi, Bing; Wilcox, Allen J; Jee, Sun Ha; Scott, Alan F; Beaty, Terri H

    2014-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common human birth defects and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to its etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 550 CP case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium. Stratified analysis among trios with different ancestries was performed to test for GxE interactions with common maternal exposures using conditional logistic regression models. While no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) achieved genome-wide significance when considered alone, markers in SLC2A9 and the neighboring WDR1 on chromosome 4p16.1 gave suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among 259 Asian trios when the models included a term for GxE interaction. Multiple SNPs in these two genes were associated with increased risk of nonsyndromic CP if the mother was exposed to ETS during the peri-conceptual period (3 months prior to conception through the first trimester). When maternal ETS was considered, fifteen of 135 SNPs mapping to SLC2A9 and 9 of 59 SNPs in WDR1 gave P values approaching genome-wide significance (10(-6)

  12. Cytochrome P450 1B1, a new keystone in gene-environment interactions related to human head and neck cancer?

    PubMed

    Thier, Ricarda; Brüning, Thomas; Roos, Peter H; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-06-01

    Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking are major causes of head and neck cancers, and regional differences point to the importance of research into gene-environment interactions. Much interest has been focused on polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and of GSTM1 and GSTT1, but a number of studies have not demonstrated significant effects. This has mostly been ascribed to small sample sizes. In general, the impact of polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes appears inconsistent, with some reports of weak-to-moderate associations, and with others of no elevation of risks. The classical cytochrome P450 isoenzyme considered for metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is CYP1A1. A new member of the CYP1 family, CYP1B1, was cloned in 1994, currently representing the only member of the CYP1B subfamily. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene have been reported. The amino acid substitutions Val432Leu ( CYP1B1*3) and Asn453Ser ( CYP1B1*4), located in the heme binding domain of CYP1B1, appear as likely candidates to be linked with biological effects. CYP1B1 activates a wide range of PAH, aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Very recently, the CYP1B1 codon 432 polymorphism ( CYP1B1*3) has been identified as a susceptibility factor in smoking-related head-and-neck squamous cell cancer. The impact of this polymorphic variant of CYP1B1 on cancer risk was also reflected by an association with the frequency of somatic mutations of the p53 gene. Combined genotype analysis of CYP1B1 and the glutathione transferases GSTM1 or GSTT1 has pointed to interactive effects. This provides new molecular evidence that tobacco smoke-specific compounds relevant to head and neck carcinogenesis are metabolically activated through CYP1B1 and is consistent with a major pathogenetic relevance of PAH as ingredients of tobacco smoke.

  13. Optical Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotariu, Steven S.

    1991-01-01

    Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.

  14. Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, É.

    2006-05-01

    This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des

  15. Contribution of passive smoking to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, L H; Garfinkel, L; Correa, P; Haley, N; Hoffmann, D; Preston-Martin, S; Sandler, D

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews data from experimental and epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and makes 12 recommendations for further study. The physicochemical nature of passive smoke, the smoke inhaled by nonsmokers, differs significantly from the mainstream smoke inhaled by the active smoker. At present, measurement of urinary cotinine appears to be the best method of assessing exposures to passive smoking. Data indicate that the greater number of lung cancers in nonsmoking women is probably related to environmental tobacco smoke. Exposures in utero and very early in life to passive smoking may be important in relationship to the subsequent development of cancer and need further consideration. The short-term effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the cardiovascular system, especially among high-risk individuals, may be of greater concern than that of cancer and requires further study. Further study of increased risks of lung cancers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke exposure requires larger collaborative studies to identify lung cancer cases among nonsmokers, better delineation of pathology, and more careful selection of controls. In addition, studies of epithelial cells or specific cytology should be undertaken to determine evidence of cellular changes in relation to environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Animal inhalation studies with passive smoke should be initiated with respect to transplacental carcinogenesis, the relationship of sidestream smoke exposure with lung cancer, the induction of tumors in the respiratory tract and other organs, and the differences in the physicochemical natures of sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:3830114

  16. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  17. Passive MMW algorithm performance characterization using MACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bradford D.; Watson, John S.; Amphay, Sengvieng A.

    1997-06-01

    As passive millimeter wave sensor technology matures, algorithms which are tailored to exploit the benefits of this technology are being developed. The expedient development of such algorithms requires an understanding of not only the gross phenomenology, but also specific quirks and limitations inherent in sensors and the data gathering methodology specific to this regime. This level of understanding is approached as the technology matures and increasing amounts of data become available for analysis. The Armament Directorate of Wright Laboratory, WL/MN, has spearheaded the advancement of passive millimeter-wave technology in algorithm development tools and modeling capability as well as sensor development. A passive MMW channel is available within WL/MNs popular multi-channel modeling program Irma, and a sample passive MMW algorithm is incorporated into the Modular Algorithm Concept Evaluation Tool, an algorithm development and evaluation system. The Millimeter Wave Analysis of Passive Signatures system provides excellent data collection capability in the 35, 60, and 95 GHz MMW bands. This paper exploits these assets for the study of the PMMW signature of a High Mobility Multi- Purpose Wheeled Vehicle in the three bands mentioned, and the effect of camouflage upon this signature and autonomous target recognition algorithm performance.

  18. Passive acoustics as a monitoring tool for evaluating oyster reef restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenil Becerra, Hilde P.

    Oyster reefs are biodiverse communities that provide many ecological and commercial benefits. However, oyster reefs have declined around the world from human activities. Oyster reef restoration programs have begun to limit some of the decline, but the need for determining the success of a program has been problematic. Passive acoustic techniques can use naturally occurring sounds produced by organisms to assess biodiversity. Passive acoustics was utilized to compare the sounds in natural and restored oyster reefs, with special attention on snapping shrimp (Alpheus spp.) snap sounds, in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida over a one year period. Season, estuary region, habitat and day period had an effect on sound production Passive acoustic monitoring of snapping shrimp sound production may be a useful non-destructive technique for monitoring the progress of oyster reef restoration projects once further correlations are established between environmental effects and sound production.

  19. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Jaree L.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Zhioua, Elyes; Whitworth, Ulysses G.; Markowski, Daniel; Hyland, Kerwin E.; Hu, Renjie

    2004-01-01

    Data on nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted by the public to the University of Rhode Island Tick Research Laboratory for testing from 1991 to 2000 were compared with human case data from the Rhode Island Department of Health to determine the efficacy of passive tick surveillance at assessing human risk of Lyme disease. Numbers of ticks submitted were highly correlated with human cases by county (r = 0.998, n = 5 counties) and by town (r = 0.916, n = 37 towns), as were the numbers of positive ticks submitted (r = 0.989 by county, r = 0.787 by town). Human cases were correlated with ticks submitted by town each year, and with positive ticks in all but 2 years. Thus, passive tick surveillance effectively assessed geographical risk of human Lyme disease. In contrast, tick submissions through time were not correlated with human cases from year to year. Dog seropositivity was significantly correlated with human cases by county in both years tested, but by town in only one of two years. Numbers of ticks submitted were correlated with dog seropositivity by county but not by town, apparently because of high variability among towns with small sample sizes. Our results suggest that passive tick surveillance, using ticks submitted by the public for Lyme spirochete testing, can be used to assess the geographical distribution of Lyme disease risk, but cannot reliably predict Lyme incidence from year to year.

  20. Passive samplers accurately predict PAH levels in resident crayfish.

    PubMed

    Paulik, L Blair; Smith, Brian W; Bergmann, Alan J; Sower, Greg J; Forsberg, Norman D; Teeguarden, Justin G; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-02-15

    Contamination of resident aquatic organisms is a major concern for environmental risk assessors. However, collecting organisms to estimate risk is often prohibitively time and resource-intensive. Passive sampling accurately estimates resident organism contamination, and it saves time and resources. This study used low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive water samplers to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Resident crayfish were collected at 5 sites within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Megasite (PHSM) in the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. LDPE deployment was spatially and temporally paired with crayfish collection. Crayfish visceral and tail tissue, as well as water-deployed LDPE, were extracted and analyzed for 62 PAHs using GC-MS/MS. Freely-dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of PAHs in water were calculated from concentrations in LDPE. Carcinogenic risks were estimated for all crayfish tissues, using benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq). ∑PAH were 5-20 times higher in viscera than in tails, and ∑BaPeq were 6-70 times higher in viscera than in tails. Eating only tail tissue of crayfish would therefore significantly reduce carcinogenic risk compared to also eating viscera. Additionally, PAH levels in crayfish were compared to levels in crayfish collected 10 years earlier. PAH levels in crayfish were higher upriver of the PHSM and unchanged within the PHSM after the 10-year period. Finally, a linear regression model predicted levels of 34 PAHs in crayfish viscera with an associated R-squared value of 0.52 (and a correlation coefficient of 0.72), using only the Cfree PAHs in water. On average, the model predicted PAH concentrations in crayfish tissue within a factor of 2.4 ± 1.8 of measured concentrations. This affirms that passive water sampling accurately estimates PAH contamination in crayfish. Furthermore, the strong predictive ability of this simple model suggests

  1. Relationship between shear elastic modulus and passive muscle force: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Terry K; Guo, Jing-Yi; Cohen, Jeffrey H; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-08-09

    As muscle is stretched, it reacts with increasing passive resistance. This passive force component is important for normal muscle function. Unfortunately, direct measurement of passive muscle force is still beyond the current state-of-the-art. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using Supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE) to indirectly measure passive muscle force. Sixteen gastronomies pars externus and 16 tibialis anterior muscles were dissected from 10 fresh roaster chickens. For each muscle specimen, the proximal bone-tendon junction was kept intact with its tibia or femur clamped in a fixture. Calibration weights (0-400 g in 25 g per increment) were applied to the distal tendon via a pulley system and muscle elasticity was measured simultaneously using SSWE. The measurements were repeated for 3 cycles. The elasticity-load relationship of each tested muscle for each loading cycle was analyzed by fitting a least-squares regression line to the data. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results demonstrated that the relationships between SSWE elasticity and passive muscle force were highly linear for all the tested muscles with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.971 and 0.999. ICCs were 0.996 and 0.985, respectively, for the slope and y-intercept parameters of the regression lines, indicating excellent reliability. These findings indicate that SSWE, when carefully applied, can be a highly reliable technique for muscle elasticity measurements. The linear relationship between SSWE elasticity and passive muscle force identified in the present study demonstrated that SSWE may be used as an indirect measure of passive muscle force.

  2. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  3. Active colloids that slosh through passive matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Granick, Steve

    Studies of natural and artificial active matter have focused on systems with a large mismatch of the time and length scales for active and passive elements, but in a variety of non-equilibrium condensed matter systems, including numerous biological processes, actively driven elements have a crowded environment of surrounding passive ``solvent'' elements of comparable size. Here we study self-propelled colloidal particles in a passive matrix of comparable size. Particles with high activity take straight lines and sharp turns through the soft 2-D crystal matrix to ensure rapid healing of the crystal structure. Effective attraction between active particles arises when the concentration of active particles or the hardness of the matrix increases; active particles tend to segregate in the grain boundaries of the crystal matrix.

  4. Complete corrosion inhibition through graphene defect passivation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Hofmann, Mario; Chang, Kai-Wen; Jhu, Jian Gang; Li, Yuan-Yao; Chen, Kuang Yao; Yang, Chang Chung; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2014-01-28

    Graphene is expected to enable superior corrosion protection due to its impermeability and chemical inertness. Previous reports, however, demonstrate limited corrosion inhibition and even corrosion enhancement of graphene on metal surfaces. To enable the reliable and complete passivation, the origin of the low inhibition efficiency of graphene was investigated. Combining electrochemical and morphological characterization techniques, nanometer-sized structural defects in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene were found to be the cause for the limited passivation effect. Extremely fast mass transport on the order of meters per second both across and parallel to graphene layers results in an inhibition efficiency of only ∼50% for Cu covered with up to three graphene layers. Through selective passivation of the defects by atomic layer deposition (ALD) an enhanced corrosion protection of more than 99% was achieved, which compares favorably with commercial corrosion protection methods.

  5. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  6. Passive cooling system for a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  7. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air.

  8. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  9. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  10. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  11. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  12. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  13. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  14. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H

    2006-01-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  15. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer

    2006-01-20

    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  16. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2013-01-01

    The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. This procedure results in the formation of a metal oxide layer to prevent corrosion. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid which exhibits excellent corrosion performance; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. The longtime military specification for the passivation of stainless steel was cancelled in favor of newer specifications which allow for the use of citric acid in place of nitric acid. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits that include increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational costs. There have been few studies, however, to determine whether citric acid is an acceptable alternative for NASA and DoD. This paper details activities to date including development of the joint test plan, on-going and planned testing, and preliminary results.

  17. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  18. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert M; Lohmann, Rainer; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P; Reitsma, Pamela; Perron, Monique M; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Cantwell, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is an effort under way to encourage remedial project managers at contaminated sites to use passive sampling to collect freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of hydrophobic organic contaminants to improve site assessments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of passive sampling for measuring water column Cfree for several hydrophobic organic contaminants at 3 US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites. Sites investigated included New Bedford Harbor (New Bedford, MA, USA), Palos Verdes Shelf (Los Angeles, CA, USA), and Naval Station Newport (Newport, RI, USA); and the passive samplers evaluated were polyethylene, polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, semipermeable membrane devices, and polyoxymethylene. In general, the different passive samplers demonstrated good agreement, with Cfree values varying by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, at New Bedford Harbor, where conventional water sample concentrations were also measured (i.e., grab samples), passive sampler-based Cfree values agreed within a factor of 2. These findings suggest that all of the samplers were experiencing and measuring similar Cfree during their respective deployments. Also, at New Bedford Harbor, a strong log-linear, correlative, and predictive relationship was found between polyethylene passive sampler accumulation and lipid-normalized blue mussel bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (r(2)  = 0.92, p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the utility of passive sampling for generating scientifically accurate water column Cfree values, which is critical for making informed environmental management decisions at contaminated sediment sites.

  19. Short-Term Plasticity in a Monosynaptic Reflex Pathway to Forearm Muscles after Continuous Robot-Assisted Passive Stepping

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Kamibayashi, Kiyotaka; Kitamura, Taku; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E. Paul; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    Both active and passive rhythmic limb movements reduce the amplitude of spinal cord Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in muscles of moving and distant limbs. This could have clinical utility in remote modulation of the pathologically hyperactive reflexes found in spasticity after stroke or spinal cord injury. However, such clinical translation is currently hampered by a lack of critical information regarding the minimum or effective duration of passive movement needed for modulating spinal cord excitability. We therefore investigated the H-reflex modulation in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle during and after various durations (5, 10, 15, and 30 min) of passive stepping in 11 neurologically normal subjects. Passive stepping was performed by a robotic gait trainer system (Lokomat®) while a single pulse of electrical stimulation to the median nerve elicited H-reflexes in the FCR. The amplitude of the FCR H-reflex was significantly suppressed during passive stepping. Although 30 min of passive stepping was sufficient to elicit a persistent H-reflex suppression that lasted up to 15 min, 5 min of passive stepping was not. The duration of H-reflex suppression correlated with that of the stepping. These findings suggest that the accumulation of stepping-related afferent feedback from the leg plays a role in generating short-term interlimb plasticity in the circuitry of the FCR H-reflex. PMID:27499737

  20. Passive measurement and interpretation of polarized microwave brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Kunkee, D. B.; Piepmeier, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop satellite-based observational techniques for measuring both oceanic and atmospheric variables using passive polarimetric radiometry. Polarimetric radiometry offers a potential alternative to radar scatterometry in observing global ocean surface wind direction from satellites. Polarimetric radiometry might also provide a means of detecting cell-top ice in convective storms by virtue of the polarizing properties of oriented ice particles, and thus facilitate estimation of the phase of the storm. The project focuses on the development of polarimetric microwave radiometers using digital cross-correlators for obtaining precise measurements of all four Stokes' parameters. As part of the project a unique four-band polarimetric imaging radiometer, the Polar Scanning Radiometer (PSR), is being designed for use on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. In addition to providing an aircraft-based demonstration of digital correlation technology the PSR will significantly enhance the microwave imaging capability of the existing suite of DC-8 instruments. During the first grant year excellent progress has been made in the following areas: (1) demonstrating digital correlation radiometry, (2) fabricating aircraft-qualified correlators for use in the PSR, and (3) modeling observed SSM/I brightness signatures of ocean wind direction.

  1. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  2. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  3. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  4. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-08-12

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems.

  5. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-26

    92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice NO0014-89-J-l 107 6. AUTHOR(S) 425f023-08 Prof. J.A. Kong 7... REMOTE SENSING OF ICE Sponsored by: Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-89-J-1107 Research Organization: Center for...J. A. Kong Period covered: October 1, 1988 - November 30, 1992 St ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF ICE FINAL REPORT This annual report covers

  6. An all-silicon passive optical diode.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2012-01-27

    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input power is higher than the forward input. The silicon optical diode is ultracompact and is compatible with current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing.

  7. Passive obstacle location for rotorcraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.

    1991-01-01

    Nap-of-the-earth flight mode is extremely demanding on the rotorcraft pilots. This fact has motivated the research in automating various components of low altitude rotorcraft flight operations. Concurrent with the development of guidance laws, efforts are under way to develop systems for locating the terrain and the obstacles using inputs from passive electrooptical sensors such as TV cameras and infrared imagers. A passive obstable location algorithm that uses image sequences from cameras undergoing translational and rotational motion is developed. The algorithm is in a general form and can operate in multicamera imaging environments. Performance results using an image sequence from an airborne camera are given.

  8. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  9. A validated model of passive skeletal muscle to predict force and intramuscular pressure.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2016-12-31

    The passive properties of skeletal muscle are often overlooked in muscle studies, yet they play a key role in tissue function in vivo. Studies analyzing and modeling muscle passive properties, while not uncommon, have never investigated the role of fluid content within the tissue. Additionally, intramuscular pressure (IMP) has been shown to correlate with muscle force in vivo and could be used to predict muscle force in the clinic. In this study, a novel model of skeletal muscle was developed and validated to predict both muscle stress and IMP under passive conditions for the New Zealand White Rabbit tibialis anterior. This model is the first to include fluid content within the tissue and uses whole muscle geometry. A nonlinear optimization scheme was highly effective at fitting model stress output to experimental stress data (normalized mean square error or NMSE fit value of 0.993) and validation showed very good agreement to experimental data (NMSE fit values of 0.955 and 0.860 for IMP and stress, respectively). While future work to include muscle activation would broaden the physiological application of this model, the passive implementation could be used to guide surgeries where passive muscle is stretched.

  10. High-performance passive viscous isolator element for active/passive (hybrid) isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Torey; Davis, L. Porter; Sullivan, Jeanne M.; Hoffman, Terry; Das, Alok

    1996-05-01

    A high performance passive isolator has been developed for a multiaxis isolation system for vibration isolation of an optical payload. This passive isolator will be used along with an active element to provide improved vibration isolation performance over previous isolators. The isolator has been designed using ideas developed previously for 'tuned' three parameter passive isolators. The isolator has also been developed offering the lowest system passive break frequencies structurally feasible for the lightweight optical payload. The implementations of these passive isolator design considerations complement the active portion of the system, and also provide the best passive isolation at the higher frequencies long after the active system has 'rolled off.' The mathematics used to design the isolator as well as the isolator's physical attributes are discussed. The unique design challenges of incorporating the passive element with the active, forming one 'hybrid' D-strut$TM, also are discussed. Finally, actual test data from isolator testing are compared to predicted performance, verifying the isolator's exceptional performance and predictability.

  11. Delineating the whole brain BOLD response to passive movement kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, James; Dueñas, Julio; Stämpili, Philipp; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kollias, Spyros; Seifritz, Erich; Gassert, Roger

    2013-06-01

    The field of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has made great advances in recent years, converting thought to movement, with some of the most successful implementations measuring directly from the motor cortex. However, the ability to record from additional regions of the brain could potentially improve flexibility and robustness of use. In addition, BMIs of the future will benefit from integrating kinesthesia into the control loop. Here, we examine whether changes in passively induced forefinger movement amplitude are represented in different regions than forefinger velocity via a MR compatible robotic manipulandum. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), five healthy participants were exposed to combinations of forefinger movement amplitude and velocity in a factorial design followed by an epoch-based analysis. We found that primary and secondary somatosensory regions were activated, as well as cingulate motor area, putamen and cerebellum, with greater activity from changes in velocity compared to changes in amplitude. This represents the first investigation into whole brain response to parametric changes in passive movement kinematics. In addition to informing BMIs, these results have implications towards neural correlates of robotic rehabilitation.

  12. Optical and electrical study of CdZnTe surfaces passivated by KOH and NH4F solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zázvorka, J.; Franc, J.; Statelov, M.; Pekárek, J.; Veis, M.; Moravec, P.; Mašek, K.

    2016-12-01

    Performance of CdZnTe-based detectors is highly related to surface preparation. Mechanical polishing, chemical etching and passivation are routinely employed for this purpose. However, the relation between these processes and the detector performance in terms of underlying physical phenomena has not been fully explained. The dynamics and properties of CdZnTe surface oxide layers, created by passivation with KOH and NH4F/H2O2 solutions, were studied by optical ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thicknesses and growth rates of the surface oxide layers differed for each of the passivation methods. Leakage currents which influence the final spectral resolution of the detector were measured simultaneously with ellipsometry. Results of both optical and electrical investigation showed the same trends in the time evolution and correlated to each other. NH4F/H2O2 passivation showed to be a method which produces the most desirable properties of the surface oxide layer.

  13. Comparison of Lichen, Conifer Needles, Passive Air Sampling Devices, and Snowpack as Passive Sampling Media to Measure Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Remote Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    SCHRLAU, JILL E.; GEISER, LINDA; HAGEMAN, KIMBERLY J.; LANDERS, DIXON H.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, while PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log KOA values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log KOA > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs. PMID:22087860

  14. Comparison of lichen, conifer needles, passive air sampling devices, and snowpack as passive sampling media to measure semi-volatile organic compounds in remote atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Schrlau, Jill E; Geiser, Linda; Hageman, Kimberly J; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-12-15

    A wide range of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, whereas PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log K(OA) values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log K(OA) > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs.

  15. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    From June 2013 to March 2015, a total of 41 two-week duration passive sampler deployments were conducted at 17 sites in South Philadelphia, with results for benzene discussed here. Complementary time-resolved measurements with lower cost prototype fenceline sensors and an open-pa...

  16. Passive Polarimetric Microwave Signatures Observed Over Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WindSat satellite-based fully polarimetric passive microwave observations, expressed in the form of the Stokes vector, were analyzed over the Antarctic ice sheet. The vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures (first two Stokes components) from WindSat are shown to be consistent w...

  17. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, L.-P.; Weizman, M.; Simon, P.; Fehr, M.; Nickel, N. H.

    2012-09-01

    The influence of post-hydrogenation on the electrical and optical properties of solid phase crystallized polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) was examined. The passivation of grain-boundary defects was measured as a function of the passivation time. The silicon dangling-bond concentration decreases with increasing passivation time due to the formation of Si-H complexes. In addition, large H-stabilized platelet-like clusters are generated. The influence of H on the electrical properties was investigated using temperature dependent conductivity and Hall-effect measurements. For poly-Si on Corning glass, the dark conductivity decreases upon hydrogenation, while it increases when the samples are fabricated on silicon-nitride covered Borofloat glass. Hall-effect measurements reveal that for poly-Si on Corning glass the hole concentration and the mobility decrease upon post-hydrogenation, while a pronounced increase is observed for poly-Si on silicon-nitride covered Borofloat glass. This indicates the formation of localized states in the band gap, which is supported by sub band-gap absorption measurments. The results are discussed in terms of hydrogen-induced defect passivation and generation mechanisms.

  18. Four questions for passive frame theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-01-01

    Four questions are raised about the passive frame theory of Morsella et al.: (1) What is the relation of the theory to the response-selection-bottleneck view of attention? (2) Does the theory accommodate the contents of consciousness? (3) What about animals without skeletal muscles? (4) How do the contents of consciousness change with the development of automaticity?

  19. Passive mechanics in jellyfish-like locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Megan; Eldredge, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to identify possible benefits of passive flexibility in biologically-inspired locomotion. Substantial energy savings are likely achieved in natural locomotion by allowing a mix of actively controlled and passively responsive deformation. The jellyfish is a useful target of study, due to its relatively simple structure and the availability of recent kinematics and flow-field measurements. In this investigation, the jellyfish consists of a two-dimensional articulated system of rigid bodies linked by hinges. The kinematics -- expressed via the hinge angles -- are adapted from experimentally measured motion. The free swimming system is explored via high-fidelity numerical simulation with a viscous vortex particle method with coupled body dynamics. The computational tool allows the arbitrary designation of individual hinges as ``active'' or ``passive,'' to introduce a mix of flexibility into the system. In some cases, replacing an active hinge with a passive spring can enhance the mean swimming speed, thus reducing the power requirements of the system. Varying the stiffness and damping coefficients of the spring yield different locomotive results. The numerical solution is used to compute the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) throughout the field. The FTLE fields reveal manifolds in the flow that act as transport barriers, uncovering otherwise unseen geometric characteristics of the flow field that add new insight into the locomotion mechanics.

  20. USE OF PASSIVE SAMPLERS IN THE DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) employs a number of passive diffusion-based samplers for the collection of select gaseous air pollutants. These pollutants include criteria gases such as ozone, carbonyls such as acrolein, and volatile organics such as 1-3, ...

  1. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  2. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  3. Passive Smoking in the Workplace: Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report provides information about the health effects of passive smoking, the types of policies that are in force in the public and private sectors to control workplace smoking, and the costs and effects of those policies. The executive summary briefly highlights the three major areas of the report: (1) a review of the studies of health…

  4. Mennonite Nursing Home passive solar demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A long-term nursing care facility and retirement center was designed for passive solar heating. The system comprises thermal mass, thermal insulation, Trombe walls, and direct gain clerestories. Included here is a topical report, analysis of building performance, owner's perspective, designer's perspective, and summary of information dissemination activities. (MHR)

  5. PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

    2005-01-01

    A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

  6. Passive stability of a spinning Skylab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the rotational dynamics of a spinning Skylab space station are presented. The passive stability of motion of a simplified model consisting of a rigid core body with two attached flexible appendages is investigated. The parameter plane stability technique is applied to the specific Skylab case to determine its transient response to external disturbances.

  7. Passive stability of a spinning Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the rotational dynamics of a spinning Skylab space station are presented. The passive stability of motion of a simplified model consisting of a rigid core body with two attached flexible appendages is investigated. The parameter plane stability technique is applied to the specific Skylab case to determine its transient response to external disturbances.

  8. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  9. Propulsion by active and passive airfoil oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, A. W.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2013-11-01

    Oscillating airfoils have been the subject of much research both as a mechanism of propulsion in engineering devices as well as a model of understanding how fish, birds, and insects produce thrust and maneuvering forces. Additionally, the jet or wake generated by an oscillating airfoil exhibits a multitude of vortex patterns, which are an interesting study in their own right. We present PIV measurements of the vortex flow behind an airfoil undergoing controlled pitching oscillations at moderate Reynolds number. As a method of propulsion, oscillating foils have been found to be capable performers when undergoing both pitching and heaving motions [Anderson et al. 1998]. While an airfoil undergoing only pitching motion is a relatively inefficient propulsor, we examine the effect of adding passive dynamics to the system: for example, actuated pitching with a passive spring in the heave direction. Practically speaking, a mechanical system with such an arrangement has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of an oscillating airfoil propulsor. To study an airfoil undergoing both active and passive motion, we employ our ``cyber-physical fluid dynamics'' technique [Mackowski & Williamson, 2011] to simulate the effects of passive dynamics in a physical experiment.

  10. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  11. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  12. Polymer optics for the passive infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, Richard N.

    2016-10-01

    An important, but largely invisible, area of polymer optics involves sensing the motion of warm objects. It can be further subdivided into optics for security, for energy conservation, and for convenience; the area has become known as optics for the passive infrared. The passive infrared is generally known as the 8 to 14 μm region of the optical spectrum. The region's roots are in the traditional infrared technology of many decades ago; there is a coincident atmospheric window, although that has little relevance to many short-range applications relevant to polymer optics. Regrettably, there is no polymer material ideally suited to the passive infrared, but one material is generally superior to other candidates. The inadequacy of this material makes the Fresnel lens important. Polymer optics for the passive infrared were first introduced in the 1970s. Patents from that period will be shown, as well as early examples. The unfamiliar names of the pioneering companies and their technical leaders will be mentioned. The 1980s and 90s brought a new and improved lens type, and rapid growth. Pigments for visible-light appearance and other reasons were introduced; one was a spectacular failure. Recent advances include faster lenses, a new groove structure, additional pigments, and lens-mirror combinations. New sensor types are also being introduced. Finally, some unique and inventive applications will be discussed.

  13. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  14. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D

    1986-04-01

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  15. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in June 2013, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services began collaborative research on the use of passive samplers (PSs) and stand-alone air measurement (SAM) systems to improve information on the...

  16. Comprehension of Passives in Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; van Zonneveld, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Drai and Grodzinsky have statistically analyzed a large corpus of data on the comprehension of passives by patients with Broca's aphasia. The data come, according to Drai and Grodzinsky, from binary choice tasks. Among the languages that are analyzed are Dutch and German. Drai and Grodzinsky argue that Dutch and German speaking Broca patients…

  17. Passive SiC irradiation temperature monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.

    1996-04-01

    A new, improved passive irradiation temperature monitoring method was examined after an irradiation test at 627{degrees}C. The method is based on the analysis of thermal diffusivity changes during postirradiation annealing of polycrystalline SiC. Based on results from this test, several advantages for using this new method rather than a method based on length or lattice parameter changes are given.

  18. Passive baited sequential filth fly trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  19. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Dodson, Brian W.

    2001-10-02

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  20. Bacterial turbulence reduction by passive magnetic particle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuo-An; I, Lin

    2013-09-01

    We report the experimental observation of the bacterial turbulence reduction in dense E. coli suspensions by increasing the coupling of passive particle additives (paramagnetic particles). Applying an external magnetic field induces magnetic dipoles for particles and causes the formation of vertical chain bundles, which are hard for bacterial flows to tilt and break. The larger effective drag coefficient of chains causes slow horizontal motion of chains, which in turn form obstacles to suppress bacterial flows through the strong correlation in coherent bacterial clusters and intercluster interaction. The interruption of the upward energy flow from individual self-propelling bacteria to the larger scale in the bacterial turbulence with multiscaled coherent flow by the chain bundle leads to more severe suppression in the low frequency (wave number) regimes of the power spectra.

  1. Passive remote sensing of stratospheric and mesospheric winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccleese, Daniel J.; Margolis, Jack S.

    1985-01-01

    A passive infrared sensor is described for remote sounding of the wind field in the stratosphere and mesosphere from near Earth orbital spacecraft. The instrument uses gas correlation spectroscopy together with electro-optic phase modulation techniques to measure winds in the 20- to 120-km altitude range globally, both in the day and at night, and with a vertical resolution of better than the atmospheric scale height. Measurement of temperature and the amounts of key atmospheric species may also be made simultaneously and in coincident fields of view with the wind observations. The sensor is currently being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a candidate for the upcoming NASA Earth Observation System.

  2. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  3. Bacterial turbulence reduction by passive magnetic particle chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-An; I, Lin

    2013-09-01

    We report the experimental observation of the bacterial turbulence reduction in dense E. coli suspensions by increasing the coupling of passive particle additives (paramagnetic particles). Applying an external magnetic field induces magnetic dipoles for particles and causes the formation of vertical chain bundles, which are hard for bacterial flows to tilt and break. The larger effective drag coefficient of chains causes slow horizontal motion of chains, which in turn form obstacles to suppress bacterial flows through the strong correlation in coherent bacterial clusters and intercluster interaction. The interruption of the upward energy flow from individual self-propelling bacteria to the larger scale in the bacterial turbulence with multiscaled coherent flow by the chain bundle leads to more severe suppression in the low frequency (wave number) regimes of the power spectra.

  4. Nondestructive Measurements for Diagnostics of Advanced Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Dib, Gerges; Roy, Surajit; Luzi, Lorenzo; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-09-20

    Information on advanced reactor (AdvRx) component condition and failure probability is necessary to maintaining adequate safety margins and avoiding unplanned shutdowns, both of which have regulatory and economic consequences. Prognostic health management (PHM) technologies provide one approach to addressing these needs by providing the technical means for lifetime management of significant passive components and reactor internals. However, such systems require measurement data that are sensitive to degradation of the component. This paper describes results to date of ongoing research on nondestructive measurements of component condition for degradation mechanisms of relevance to AdvRx concepts. The focus of this paper is on in-situ ultrasonic measurements during high-temperature creep degradation. The data were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the measurements to creep degradation, with the specific objective of assessing the suitability of the resulting correlations for remaining life prediction. The details of the measurements, results of data analysis, and ongoing research in this area are discussed.

  5. Influence of environment on passive immunity in calves.

    PubMed

    Stott, G H; Wiersma, F; Menefee, B E; Radwanski, F R

    1976-07-01

    Passive immunity in neonatal calves is influenced by environment. Placing newly born Holstein calves (108 head) in three different housing environments (shade, cooled shade, hutch) during hot weather produced differences in body temperature, serum cortocosteroids, immunoglobulin IgG1 concentrations, and mortality. Experimental design permitted examination of effects due to treatments, time, differences in colostrum, and climatic environment in an analysis of variance. Calves exposed to the hotter, less desirable environment responded by having a higher mortality, higher serum corticosteroid concentration, and lower serum immunoglobulin IgG1 at 2 and 10 days after birth. All of these were correlated. Calves that died had serum immunoglobulin IgG1 falling below the mean for all experimental calves.

  6. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-01

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  7. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  8. The effects of passive heating and head-cooling on perception of exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shona E; Mündel, Toby; Jones, David A

    2008-09-01

    The capacity to perform exercise is reduced in a hot environment when compared to cooler conditions. A limiting factor appears to be a higher core body temperature (T (core)) and it has been suggested that an elevated T (core) reduces the drive to exercise, this being reflected in higher ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether passive heating to increase T (core) would have a detrimental effect on RPE and thermal comfort during subsequent exercise in the heat and whether head-cooling during passive heating would attenuate these unpleasant sensations of an elevated T (core) during subsequent exercise in the heat. Nine physically-active, non-heat-acclimated volunteers [6 males, 3 females; age: 21 +/- 1 year, VO(2max) 50 +/- 9 ml kg(-1).min(-1), peak power output: 286 +/- 43 W (mean +/- SD)] performed two 12-minute constant-load cycling tests at 70% VO(2max) in a warm-dry environment (34 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity <30%) separated by a period of passive heating in a sauna (68 +/- 3 degrees C) to increase T (core). In one trial, subjects had their head and face cooled continually in the sauna (HC), the other trial was a control (CON). Passive heating increased T (core) by 1.22 +/- 0.03 degrees C in the CON and by 0.75 +/- 0.07 degrees C in the HC trial (P < 0.01). Passive heating increased weighted mean skin temperature (T (msk)) in both the CON and HC trials (P < 0.01), however, head-cooling lowered T (msk) during passive heating (P < 0.05). Exercise time following passive heating was reduced in both the CON and HC trials (P < 0.05). Passive heating increased RPE (P < 0.01), however, RPE was lower following passive heating with head-cooling (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between T (core) and RPE (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest increased RPE during exercise in the heat is primarily due to the increase in T (core). Furthermore, head-cooling attenuates the rise in T

  9. Prototype designs for passive-solar apartments and townhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, D.

    1981-09-01

    Seven designs of passive solar apartments and townhouses are briefly described. Descriptions of the layouts, thermal insulation, thermal mass, source of passive solar gain, and thermal integrity factor for auxiliary heating are presented.

  10. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  11. Eye safe lidar and passive EO sensing for cloud monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Gustafsson, Ove; Berglund, Folke

    2016-10-01

    This study has investigated the use of an eye safe lidar (1550 nm) with equivalent performance of an ordinary military laser range finder for cloud monitoring. The aim was to combine lidar data with camera images in the visible, short wave infrared (SWIR) and infrared (IR) to better estimate the cloud density and cloud coverage. The measurement was concentrated on low clouds, mostly of the cumulus type. We found that these clouds between 0-2 km often showed a layered structure and that they often indicated a limited optical density probably allowing for observation through the cloud. This information is hard to achieve from a passive EO sensor only. This was supported both from the simulation of the lidar response from thin clouds and from inverting the measured lidar waveform. The comparison between the camera image intensities and the integrated range corrected lidar signals showed both negative and positive correlations. The highest positive correlation was obtained from comparing the lidar signal with the cloud temperature as derived from the FLIR camera. However, there were many cases when one or two of the camera intensities correlated negatively with the lidar signal. We could for example observe that under certain conditions the cloud which was dark in the SWIR appeared as white in the visible camera and vice versa. Example of lidar and image data will be presented and analyzed.

  12. Gene-environment interactions on the risk of esophageal cancer among Asian populations with the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 gene: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Jiang, Yingjiu; Wu, Qingcheng; Li, Qiang; Chen, Dan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Min; Ye, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the gene-environment interactions between the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) gene and environmental factors in determining the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to indentify eligible studies published before November 1, 2013. We performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies with a total of 8,906 EC patients and 13,712 controls. The overall analysis suggested that individuals with the GG genotype were associated with a 2.77-fold increased risk of EC, compared with carriers of the GA and AA genotypes. In a stratified analysis by ethnic group, Japanese, Mainland Chinese, and Taiwan Chinese with the GG genotype had a significantly higher risk of EC, compared with Thai and Iranian populations, indicating ethnic variance in EC susceptibility. An analysis of combined effect indicated that GG genotype of ADH2 G48A was associated with the highest risk of EC in heavy drinkers and smokers. A striking difference was found to exist between males and females, showing gender variance for the association between ADH2 G48A and EC risk. This meta-analysis shows that the GG genotype of ADH2 G48A may be associated with an increased risk of EC in Asian populations. In addition, significant gene-environment interactions were found. Heavy drinkers, smokers, and males with the GG genotype may have a higher EC risk. Thus, our results shed new light on the complex gene-environment interactions that exist between environmental factors and ADH2 G48A polymorphism in EC risk.

  13. Patientive Absolutive Verbal Morphology and Passive in Samoan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kenneth William

    A study of the Samoan "-cia" suffix is presented. It argues that, contrary to prevailing theory, Samoan does have an active/passive contrast but that it is indicated by a difference in word order rather than by verbal morphology. It is shown, however, that "-cia" is similar to a passive suffix in that passive involves the…

  14. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passive Radio Frequency... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7006 Passive Radio Frequency Identification. As prescribed in 211.275-3, use the following clause: Passive Radio Frequency Identification (SEP 2011) (a) Definitions....

  15. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passive Radio Frequency... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7006 Passive Radio Frequency Identification. As prescribed in 211.275-3, use the following clause: Passive Radio Frequency Identification (SEP 2011) (a) Definitions....

  16. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passive Radio Frequency... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7006 Passive Radio Frequency Identification. As prescribed in 211.275-3, use the following clause: Passive Radio Frequency Identification (SEP 2011) (a) Definitions....

  17. 48 CFR 252.211-7006 - Passive Radio Frequency Identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passive Radio Frequency... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7006 Passive Radio Frequency Identification. As prescribed in 211.275-3, use the following clause: Passive Radio Frequency Identification (SEP 2011) (a) Definitions....

  18. The Passive Voice in Computer Manuals: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelis, Louise H.

    1995-01-01

    Finds debate and confusion about the use of passive voice in texts in general, and in computer manuals in particular. Aims to provide clarity by presenting the "alternation principle" for the use of the passive voice in computer manuals, in which active voice is used for user actions and passive voice for automatic computer actions. (PA)

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of passive rider effects on motorcycle weave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Matteo; Lot, Roberto; Cossalter, Vittore; Brendelson, James; Sadauckas, James

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of rider passive response to the lateral dynamics of motorcycles, there is very little literature on the subject. Even more uncommon are works that consider rider passive steering impedance and its effect on motorcycle stability. Moreover, until this time, there have been no published studies on steering impedance that include correlation to on-road motorcycle stability testing. This paper explores these topics using an advanced motorcycle simulation model which includes rider torso and steering impedance values derived from experimental characterisation and anthropometric modelling. A novel method for quantitatively evaluating on-road stability is discussed and utilised to compare the simulation results to on-road weave stability testing for two different riders in the 'hands-off' and 'hands-on' the handlebars conditions. Good correlation is achieved between simulation and test indicating stability differences between riders and highlighting hands-off/on effects.

  20. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242