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Sample records for passive nondestructive assay

  1. Active and passive computed tomography for nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R T; Camp, D E; Clard, D; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E, Decman, D J; Roberson, G P

    1998-10-28

    Traditional gamma-ray methods used to characterize nuclear waste introduce errors that are related to non-uniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by applying an active and passive tomographic technique (A&PCT) developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The technique uses an external radioactive source and active tomography to map the attenuation within a waste barrel as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste within the same container. Reconstruction of the passive data using the attenuation maps at specific energies allows internal waste radioactivity to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste activity. LLNL and Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. have collaborated in a technology transfer effort to integrate an A&PCT assay system into a mobile waste characterization trailer. This mobile system has participated in and passed several formal DOE-sponsored performance demonstrations, tests and evaluations. The system is currently being upgraded with multiple detectors to improve throughput, automated gamma-ray analysis code to simplify the assay, and a new emission reconstruction code to improve accuracy

  2. Nondestructive assay using active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G. P. ,LLNL

    1998-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has over 600,000 transuranic (TRU) waste drums temporarily stored at nearly 40 sites within the United States. Contents of these drums must be characterized before they are transported for permanent disposal. Traditional gamma-ray methods used to characterize nuclear waste introduce errors that are related to nonuniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by application of tomographic techniques, that measure these distributions. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed two tomographic-based waste assay systems. They use external radioactive sources and tomography-protocol to map the attenuation within a waste drum as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy in waste containers. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste contents within the same waste containers. Reconstruction of the passive data via the active images allows internal waste radioactivities in a drum to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste radioactivities. Calibration of both systems requires only point source measurements and are independent of matrix materials. The first system is housed at LLNL and was developed to study and validate research concepts. The second system is being developed with Bioimaging Research, Inc. (BIR) and is housed within a mobile waste characterization trailer. This system has traveled to three DOE facilities to demonstrate the active and passive computed tomography capability. Both systems have participated in and successfully passed the requirements of formal DOE-sponsored intercomparison studies. The systems have measured approximately 1 to 100 grains of plutonium within a variety of waste matrix materials. Laboratory and field results from these two systems over the past several years show that both systems

  3. Tomographic applications of wavelets in passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weems, Lance David

    1998-07-01

    An economically reliable and technologically feasible methodology for assaying radioactive waste is essential for properly disposing of newly generated and legacy radioactive waste. The present research has investigated, developed, and integrated tomographic applications of wavelets into the present segmented gamma scanning (SGS) measurement methodology used for passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste. The SGS measurement methodology was specifically developed to nondestructively measure the radionuclide content within only low-density, homogeneously drum-packaged scrap and waste using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. A result of this research has been the Tomographic Segmented Gamma Scanner (TSGS) system. This TSGS system supplements a rotation-averaged SGS measurement system with tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) capability that can specifically take into account the effects of larger density and radionuclide distribution non-uniformities when present. This TSGS system allows the throughput to remain high with a less detailed but faster rotation-averaged segment measurement of homogenous radioactive waste, while the TGS capability provides a more detailed but slower spatial radionuclide measurement for assaying heterogeneous radionuclide waste as necessary. Within the experimental part of this research, (1) the tomographic experimental feasibility was established, (2) a TSGS system integrated calibration was designed, (3) collimation sampling problems were studied, (4) SGS and TGS modality-specific comparisons were shown, and finally, (5) the TSGS system precision was measured. An investigation of the applications of wavelets in computerized tomography has lead to the development of a radionuclide computerized tomography (RCT) algorithm able to accurately calculate the measured radionuclide content within heterogeneously packaged scrap and waste. Within the computational part of this research, (1) the optimization of a relaxation parameter that

  4. Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael L; Tobin, Steven J; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been

  5. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  6. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  7. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Application of nondestructive assay techniques in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Butler, G.; Collins, M.

    1997-11-01

    As Kazakstan has transitioned from being part of the Soviet Union to a nonweapons state (Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT] signatory) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, significant changes have been required. Some of these changes have occurred in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the four nuclear facility sites in the Republic of Kazakstan. Specifically, the Republic of Kazakstan has changed from relying primarily on a subset of physical protection methods to a graded safeguards approach using a balance of material control, material accounting, and physical protection. Once more intensive material control and accounting procedures and systems are in place, a necessary step is to supply the accounting systems with measured values of high quality. This need can be met with destructive and nondestructive methods. Material control systems can also use qualitative nondestructive assay information as input. This paper will discuss the nondestructive assay techniques and systems the US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing to Kazakstan under both DOE programs and the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act as part of the nuclear material control and accounting upgrades at four facilities in Kazakstan. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Crooks, William J.; Geist, William H.; Gonzales, Robert; Helland, Carolyn A.; Jackson, Jay M.; Frame, Katherine C.; Martinez, Michael M.; Scherer, Caroylnn P.; Vo, Duc T.

    2008-06-12

    Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

  10. Preparation of Pure Plutonium Metal Standards for Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    S. -T. Hsue; J. E. Stewart; M. S. Krick

    2000-11-01

    To calibrate neutron coincidence and neutron multiplicity counters for passive assay of plutonium, certain detector parameters must be determined. When one is using small plutonium metal samples, biases can be introduced from non-zero multiplication and impurities. This paper describes preparing small, pure plutonium metal standards with well-known geometries to enable accurate multiplication corrections and with acceptably low levels of impurities. To minimize multiplication, these standards are designed as 2-cm-diameter foils with varying thicknesses and masses of 1.4, 3.6, and 7.2 g plutonium. These standards will significantly improve characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters. They can also be equally useful for gamma-ray spectrometry and calorimetry. Five sets will be made: four for other US Department of Energy plutonium facilities, and one set to remain at Los Alamos. We will also describe other nondestructive assay standards that are planned for the next few years.

  11. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Jansson, Peter

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  12. Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Report No. 4 is precursory to Report No. 5 {open_quotes}Determination of the Quantity and Locations of the Pu Currently Retained in the Cimarron Fuel Plant Systems{close_quotes} which will be presented upon completion of the decontamination of the Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility. This report presents the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) procedures which were developed and used by Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (successor to Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation) to measure equipment hold-up of plutonium materials for inventory purposes during operation of the plant. These procedures are also used to measure plutonium contamination on the equipment removed from the Material Balance Areas (MBA`s) during final decontamination. Report No. 5 will compare the measurements taken during this final decontamination period to previous inventory hold-up measurements, the date will be statistically analyzed, and a long-term assessment of the performance of the NDA equipment will be described.

  13. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  14. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  15. Shuffler instruments for the nondestructive assay of fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.

    1991-05-01

    A shuffler is a nondestructive assay instrument used to determine the fissile content of materials. It places an isotopic source of neutrons near the material to induce fissions, withdraws the source, and counts the delayed neutrons. The source is shuffled until a sufficient number of delayed neutrons have been counted. The shuffler technique is generally applied to difficult assay cases. The amount of material present may be very small (a few milligrams), and thus it does not spontaneously emit neutrons of consequence; the amount of material is also below an active well counter's level of sensitivity. On the other hand, the fissile amount may be fairly large, but the rate of spontaneously emitted neutrons may still be low (so a passive neutron count will not work) or the highest assay precision may be desired (favoring a shuffler over an active well counter) even if the material is inhomogeneous (making it difficult to interrogate with thermal neutrons). In all these cases, gamma-ray backgrounds, self- shielding, or matrix effects can make gamma-ray assays impractical. Materials ranging from highly radioactive spent-fuel assemblies to low-level waste drums have been assayed with shufflers, as have leached hulls, various process materials, scrap, and waste. This report presents a theoretical background for shufflers and describes techniques for practical applications. Procedures for assaying mixtures of fissile isotopes, inhomogeneous materials, and flowing liquids are discussed. It is shown how the precision and limits of detection of a shuffler can be calculated for a given neutron background rate. A section on data analysis gives a stepwise procedure for converting the measured counts into an assay value, including random, systematic, and total uncertainties. 31 refs.

  16. A simple, nondestructive assay for bound hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J B

    2000-01-01

    A simple, convenient, nondestructive method is described for the quantitative determination of bound hyaluronan. The method is based on the binding of the cationic dye Toluidine Blue O to the D-glucuronate component of the hyaluronan repeat disaccharide. Quantification is accomplished without interference by the dye's metachromatic properties. The method is easily adapted to hyaluronan coated medical devices and should be useful to developers and manufacturers of such devices and coatings.

  17. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-06-30

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed

  18. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A.

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential

  19. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R.

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

  1. Hydroponic Growth and the Nondestructive Assay for Dinitrogen Fixation 1

    PubMed Central

    Imsande, John; Ralston, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Hydroponic growth medium must be well buffered if it is to support sustained plant growth. Although 1.0 millimolar phosphate is commonly used as a buffer for hydroponic growth media, at that concentration it is generally toxic to a soybean plant that derives its nitrogen solely from dinitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we show that 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, pKa 6.1, has excellent buffering capacity, and it neither interferes with nor contributes nutritionally to soybean plant growth. Furthermore, it neither impedes nodulation nor the assay of dinitrogen fixation. Hence, soybean plants grown hydroponically on a medium supplemented with 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar phosphate achieve an excellent rate of growth and, in the absence of added fixed nitrogen, attain a very high rate of dinitrogen fixation. Combining the concept of hydroponic growth and the sensitive acetylene reduction technique, we have devised a simple, rapid, reproducible assay procedure whereby the rate of dinitrogen fixation by individual plants can be measured throughout the lifetime of those plants. The rate of dinitrogen fixation as measured by the nondestructive acetylene reduction procedure is shown to be approximately equal to the rate of total plant nitrogen accumulation as measured by Kjeldahl analysis. Because of the simplicity of the procedure, one investigator can readily assay 50 plants individually per day. PMID:16662112

  2. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

  3. Performance in the WIPP nondestructive assay performance demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Marcinkiewicz, C.J.; Connolly, M.J.; Becker, G.K.

    1997-11-01

    Measurement facilities performing nondestructive assay (NDA) of wastes intended for disposal at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are required to demonstrate their ability to meet specific Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). This demonstration is performed, in part, by participation in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP is funded and managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and is conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It tests the characteristics of precision, system bias and/or total uncertainty through the measurement of variable, blind combinations of simulated waste drums and certified radioactive standards. Each facility must successfully participate in the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP was completed in July 1996 and the second is scheduled for completion by December 1996. Seven sites reported data in cycle 1 for 11 different measurement systems. This paper describes the design and operation of the PDP and provides the performance data from cycle 1. It also describes the preliminary results from cycle 2 and updates the status and future plans for the NDA PDP. 4 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G.; Bernard, P.; Loridon, J.; Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.; Reneleau, A.

    2011-07-01

    The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

  5. Capability and limitation study of the DDT passive-active neutron waste assay instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, N.J.; Coop, K.L.; Estep, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    The differential-dieaway-technique passive-active neutron assay system is widely used by transuranic waste generators to certify their drummed waste for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Stricter criteria being established for waste emplacement at the WIPP site has led to a renewed interest in improvements to and a better understanding of current nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Our study includes the effects of source position, extreme matrices, high neutron backgrounds, and source self-shielding to explore the system`s capabilities and limitations and to establish a basis for comparison with other NDA systems. 11 refs.

  6. Capability and limitation study of the DDT passive-active neutron waste assay instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, N.J.; Coop, K.L.; Estep, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    The differential-dieaway-technique passive-active neutron assay system is widely used by transuranic waste generators to certify their drummed waste for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Stricter criteria being established for waste emplacement at the WIPP site has led to a renewed interest in improvements to and a better understanding of current nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Our study includes the effects of source position, extreme matrices, high neutron backgrounds, and source self-shielding to explore the system's capabilities and limitations and to establish a basis for comparison with other NDA systems. 11 refs.

  7. Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

    1991-11-12

    The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

  8. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

    1999-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  9. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  10. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  11. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  12. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  13. Results from nondestructive assay measurement of the 296-P-34 Rotary mode core sampler HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-06-04

    The objective of this data acquisition was to measure and identify the gamma emissions from the 296-P-34 exhauster high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Data acquisition was accomplished by nondestructive assay (NDA), using a portable gamma spectrometer calibrated to the exhauster HEPA filter geometry. The NDA technique that was used is referenced in 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 and also addressed in HNF-EP-0528.

  14. Verification of nuclear fuel plates by a developed non-destructive assay method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, W.; El-Nagdy, M.; Rizk, M.; Shawky, S.; Samei, M. A.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear material (NM) verification is a main target for NM accounting and control. In this work a new relative non-destructive assay technique has been developed to verify the uranium mass content in nuclear fuel. The technique uses a planar high-resolution germanium gamma ray spectrometer in combination with the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo transport code. A standard NM sample was used to simulate the assayed NM and to determine the average intrinsic full energy peak efficiency of the detector for assayed configuration. The developed technique was found to be capable of verifying the operator declarations with an average accuracy of about 2.8% within a precision of better than 4%.

  15. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. )

    1990-06-08

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

  18. Non-destructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Bjorn; Weltz, Adam; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Thompson, J. T.; Thompson, N.; Danon, Yaron

    2013-10-01

    The use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is consid- ered as a possible option for non-destructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear fuel. The primary objective is to quantify the 239Pu and 235U fissile content via a direct measurement, distinguishing them through their characteristic fission spectra in the LSDS. In this pa- per, we present several assay measurements performed at the Rensse- laer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a method and to provide benchmark experiments for Monte Carlo cal- culations of the assay system. A fresh UOX fuel rod from the RPI Criticality Research Facility, a 239PuBe source and several highly en- riched 235U discs were assayed in the LSDS. The characteristic fission spectra were measured with 238U and 232Th threshold fission cham- bers, which are only sensitive to fission neutron with energy above the threshold. Despite the constant neutron and gamma background from the PuBe source and the intense interrogation neutron flux, the LSDS system was able to measure the characteristic 235U and 239Pu responses. All measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simula- tions. It was shown that the available simulation tools and models are well suited to simulate the assay, and that it is possible to calculate the absolute count rate in all investigated cases.

  19. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  20. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  1. Design of ERL Spoke Cavity For Non-Destructive Assay Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, M.; Nagai, R.; Nishimori, N.; Hajima, R.

    2015-10-01

    We are proposing non-destructive assay system of nuclear materials with laser Compton scattering combined with an energy-recovery linac (ERL) and a laser. Since constructing accelerator system for nuclear safe guard and security requires small cavities, spoke cavities have many advantages such as shortening the distance between cavities, small frequency detune due to micro-phonics and easy adjustment of field distribution for strong cell coupling. Calculations of optimized cavity shape and HOM coupler shape have been performed and rf properties with aluminum spoke cavity model have been also measured. Considering refrigerator system required for superconducting accelerator, we are planning to develop 325MHz spoke cavity which can be practically operated with 4K liquid helium. We have started to fabricate the niobium one-spoke cavity.

  2. Guide to nondestructive assay standards: Preparation criteria, availability, and practical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Stewart, J.E.; Sampson, T.E.; Butler, G.W.; Rudy, C.R.; Rinard, P.M.

    1997-10-01

    For certification and measurement control, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments and methods used for verification measurements of special nuclear materials (SNMs) require calibrations based on certified reference materials (CRMs), or working reference materials (WRMs), traceable to the national system of measurements, and adequately characteristic of the unknowns. The Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security is sponsoring production of a comprehensive guide to preparation of NDA standards. The scope of the report includes preparation criteria, current availability of CRMs and WRMs, practical considerations for preparation and characterization, and an extensive bibliography. In preparing the report, based primarily on experience at Los Alamos, they have found that standards preparation is highly dependent on the particular NDA method being applied. They therefore include sections that contain information specific to commonly used neutron and gamma-ray NDA techniques. They also present approaches that are alternatives to, or minimize requirements for physical standards.

  3. An integrated approach for determining plutonium mass in spent fuel assemblies with nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, Stephen J; Fensin, Mike L; Menlove, Howard O

    2009-01-01

    be part of a system that cost-effectively meets the burnup credit needs of a repository. Behind each of these reasons is a regulatory structure with MC&A requirements. In the case of the IAEA, the accountable quantity is elemental plutonium. The material in spent fuel (fissile isotopes, fission products, etc.) emits signatures that provide information about the content and history of the fuel. A variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available to quantify these signatures. The effort presented in this paper is investigation of the capabilities of 12 NDA techniques. For these 12, none is conceptually capable of independently determining the Pu content in a spent fuel assembly while at the same time being able to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of rods. For this reason the authors are investigating the capability of 12 NDA techniques with the end goal of integrating a few techniques together into a system that is capable of measuring Pu mass in an assembly. The work described here is the beginning of what is anticipated to be a five year effort: (1) two years of modeling to select the best technologies, (2) one year fabricating instruments and (3) two years measuring spent fuel. This paper describes the first two years of this work. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of the 12 NDA techniques, an 'assembly library' was created. The library contains the following: (a) A diverse range of PWR spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future. (b) Diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options. (c) The spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. It is our intention to make this library available to other researchers in the field for inter-comparison purposes. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly

  4. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed and achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.

  6. Uncertainty quantification in application of the enrichment meter principle for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, Tom; Croft, Stephen; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-05

    The various methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) have applications in nuclear nonproliferation, including detection and identification of illicit SNM at border crossings, and quantifying SNM at nuclear facilities for safeguards. No assay method is complete without “error bars,” which provide one way of expressing confidence in the assay result. Consequently, NDA specialists typically quantify total uncertainty in terms of “random” and “systematic” components, and then specify error bars for the total mass estimate in multiple items. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) for NDA has always been important, but it is recognized that greater rigor is needed andmore » achievable using modern statistical methods. To this end, we describe the extent to which the guideline for expressing uncertainty in measurements (GUM) can be used for NDA. Also, we propose improvements over GUM for NDA by illustrating UQ challenges that it does not address, including calibration with errors in predictors, model error, and item-specific biases. A case study is presented using low-resolution NaI spectra and applying the enrichment meter principle to estimate the U-235 mass in an item. The case study illustrates how to update the current American Society for Testing and Materials guide for application of the enrichment meter principle using gamma spectra from a NaI detector.« less

  7. Applications of gamma-ray spectrometry in the quantitative nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.

    1990-04-16

    Nearly all applications of gamma-ray spectrometry in the quanitative assay of special nuclear materials can be grouped into five general categories. They are as follows: (1) Quanitative passive assay, of which transmission-corrected passive assay methods for measuring isotopic masses/concentrations are an important subset; (2) Enrichment measurements on infinitely thick'' samples for absolute determination of isotopic fractions/concentrations; (3) Measurements of isotopic ratios using relative detection efficiency principles resulting in absolute isotopic distributions without recourse to standards; (4) Absorption-edge densitometry measurements of elemental concentrations; and (5) X-ray fluorescence measurements of elemental concentrations. Careful and correct practice of these techniques can yield measurement accuracies in the range of 0.1% to 1.0% in favorable situations with measurement times generally in the range of 15 minutes to 1 hour. We present examples of these general categories with emphasis on those measurements and techniques exhibiting the best accuracy, as well as those which are not routinely practiced in many other applications of gamma-ray spectrometry. 20 refs., 6 fig.

  8. A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2010-08-04

    A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

  9. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and

  10. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Bruggeman, M.; Botte, J.

    2007-07-01

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

  11. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimummore » gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.« less

  12. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  13. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  14. A hybrid neural network structure for application to nondestructive TRU waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.

    1995-12-31

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component. of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks.

  15. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-07-06

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required.

  16. Development of a neutron measurement system in unified non-destructive assay for the PRIDE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Shin, Hee-Sung; Na, Sang-Ho; Song, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ho-Dong; Lee, Seung Kyu

    2013-12-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made an effort to develop pyroprocessing technology to resolve an on-going problem in Korea, i.e., the management of spent nuclear fuels. To this end, a test-bed facility for pyroprocessing, called PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility), is being constructed at KAERI. The main objective of PRIDE is to evaluate the performance of the unit processes, remote operation, maintenance, and proliferation resistance. In addition, integrating all unit processes into a one-step process is also one of the main goals. PRIDE can also provide a good opportunity to test safeguards instrumentations for a pyroprocessing facility such as nuclear material accounting devices, surveillance systems, radiation monitoring systems, and process monitoring systems. In the present study, a non-destructive assay (NDA) system for the testing of nuclear material accountancy of PRIDE was designed by integrating three different NDA techniques, i.e., neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurements. The developed neutron detection module consists of 56 3He tubes and 16 AMPTEK A111 signal processing circuits. The amplifiers were matched in terms of the gain and showed good uniformity after a gain-matching procedure (%RSD=0.37%). The axial and the radial efficiency distributions within the cavity were then measured using a 252Cf neutron source and were compared with the MCNPX calculation results. The measured efficiency distributions showed excellent agreement with the calculations, which confirmed the accuracy of the MCNPX model of the system.

  17. A New Facility For Non-Destructive Assay With A Time-Tagged {sup 252}Cf Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao, Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2011-06-01

    A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay based on a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source is now in operation at the Padova University. The system is designed to analyze samples with dimensions on the order of 20x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays as a function of energy.

  18. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  19. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  20. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R.J.; Coop, K.L.; Deane, T.M.; Lujan, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping; Lu, Qianhui

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  4. Experimental verification of modeling results for a PGNAA system for nondestructive assay of RCRA metals in drums

    PubMed

    Dulloo; Ruddy; Congedo; Seidel; McIlwain

    2000-10-01

    The use of pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive assay of mercury, cadmium and lead in a concrete matrix has been demonstrated. Calculations have also been performed to study interference with PGNAA detection sensitivity resulting from the presence of 238U, 235U, and 239Pu at levels expected in mixed waste. Analyses based on transport calculations examined the effects of these nuclides on neutron kinetics, and the contribution from the capture, fission and decay gamma-rays emitted by the nuclides to the gamma-ray spectrum. These calculations predicted insignificant effects on the system's detection limits (115, 9 and 4400 ppm for Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, for a 2000 s assay). This paper describes verification measurements recently conducted using samples of 235U and 231U in the test drum geometry, which have provided experimental confirmation of the modeling results.

  5. Statistical signal processing and artificial intelligence applications in the nondestructive assay of U/Pu bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Forsmann, J.H.

    1997-10-01

    Over the years a number of techniques have been developed to determine the quantity and distribution of radiative isotopes contained in given assay samples through the measurement and analysis of penetrating characteristic radiations. An active technique of particular utility when assaying samples containing very small quantities of fissionable material or when high gamma ray backgrounds are encountered is the delayed neutron nondestructive assay (DN-NDA) technique. Typically, analysis of the delayed neutron signal involves relating the gross delayed neutron count observed following neutron irradiation of an assay sample to total fissionable material present via a linear calibration curve. In this way, the technique is capable of yielding the mass of a single dominant fissionable isotope or the total fissionable mass contained in a sample. Using this approach the only way to determine the mass of individual fissionable isotopes contained in a sample is to correlate total fissionable mass to individual isotopics via calculations or other means, yielding an indirect measure of isotopics. However, there is isotope specific information in the temporal delayed neutron signal due to differences in the delayed neutron precursor yields resulting from the fissioning of different isotopes. The authors present the results of an analysis to evaluate the feasibility of using Kalman filters and genetic algorithms to determine multiple specific fissionable isotopic masses contained in an assay sample from a cumulative delayed neutron signal measured following neutron irradiation of the sample.

  6. Use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition. 17 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  7. The use of calibration standards and the correction for sample self-attenuation in gamma-ray nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    The efficient use of appropriate calibration standards and the correction for the attenuation of the gamma rays within an assay sample by the sample itself are two important and closely related subjects in gamma-ray nondestructive assay. Much research relating to those subjects has been done in the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1970. This report brings together most of the significant results of that research. Also discussed are the nature of appropriate calibration standards and the necessary conditions on the composition, size, and shape of the samples to allow accurate assays. Procedures for determining the correction for the sample self-attenuation are described at length including both general principles and several specific useful cases. The most useful concept is that knowing the linear attenuation coefficient of the sample (which can usually be determined) and the size and shape of the sample and its position relative to the detector permits the computation of the correction factor for the self-attenuation. A major objective of the report is to explain how the procedures for determining the self-attenuation correction factor can be applied so that calibration standards can be entirely appropriate without being particularly similar, either physically or chemically, to the items to be assayed. This permits minimization of the number of standards required to assay items with a wide range of size, shape, and chemical composition.

  8. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  9. Droplet-interface-bilayer assays in microfluidic passive networks

    PubMed Central

    Schlicht, Bárbara; Zagnoni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Basic biophysical studies and pharmacological processes can be investigated by mimicking the intracellular and extracellular environments across an artificial cell membrane construct. The ability to reproduce in vitro simplified scenarios found in live cell membranes in an automated manner has great potential for a variety of synthetic biology and compound screening applications. Here, we present a fully integrated microfluidic system for the production of artificial lipid bilayers based on the miniaturisation of droplet-interface-bilayer (DIB) techniques. The platform uses a microfluidic design that enables the controlled positioning and storage of phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets, leading successfully to the scalable and automated formation of arrays of DIBs to mimic cell membrane processes. To ensure robustness of operation, we have investigated how lipid concentration, immiscible phase flow velocities and the device geometrical parameters affect the system performance. Finally, we produced proof-of-concept data showing that diffusive transport of molecules and ions across on-chip DIBs can be studied and quantified using fluorescence-based assays. PMID:25909686

  10. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, L; Caldogno, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Pino, F; Sajo-Bohus, L; Viesti, G

    2013-03-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged (252)Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20 × 25 cm(2), the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. PMID:23276691

  11. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  12. Statistical signal processing and artificial intelligence applications in the nondestructive assay of U/Pu-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Forsmann, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed to determine the quantity and distribution of radiative isotopes contained in given assay samples through the measurement and analysis of penetrating characteristic radiations. An active technique of particular utility when assaying samples containing very small quantities of fissionable material or when high-gamma-ray backgrounds are encountered is the delayed neutron nondestructive assay technique. The authors present the results of an analysis to evaluate the feasibility of using Kalman filters and genetic algorithms to determine multiple specific fissionable isotopic masses contained in an assay sample from a cumulative delayed neutron signal measured following neutron irradiation of the sample. Delayed neutron measurement data were generated to simulate the ideal response of the leached fuel clad monitor located at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The simulated measurement data were generated by calculating the cumulative delayed neutron count following the irradiation of a sample containing 5.9 g {sup 238}U, 9.8 g {sup 235}U, 16.9 G {sup 239}Pu, and 3.1 g {sup 240}Pu. Data were simulated for {approximately} 14-MeV neutron irradiation and irradiation with a moderated neutron beam with average neutron energy of {approximately} 200 eV, which yields a larger fissile/fertile fission ratio than the 14-MeV irradiation.

  13. A state-of-the-art passive gamma-ray assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    We report details of the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision system for the non-destructive assay of /sup 235/U in solution. The system can measure samples with concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 500 g /sup 235/U/l using 200-ml samples at low concentrations, 30-ml samples at high concentrations, and 1000-s measurement times. The accuracy and precision goals of 0.1% were essentially attained for concentrations above 100 g/l. This at-line system, designed for a production plant environment, represents a significant improvement in the state of the art.

  14. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 μg g-1.

  15. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the α-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

  16. Nondestructive assay in complex, self-attenuating radioactive materials by gamma spectroscopy: A mathematical model and empirical determination of error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, James David

    2001-12-01

    Over the past several years, portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy systems have been used with nondestructive assay techniques to characterize waste items at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Accurate quantification of the radionuclide contamination required that an analytical model be developed. The resulting model, based on a point kernel volumetric approach, is used to translate the raw spectral information into total activity for each detected radionuclide. Using uncollimated, in situ counting techniques, a relatively high-efficiency n-type HPGe detector, a portable laptop computer, and a multi-channel analyzer, the nondestructive assay system has superior detection limits with state of-the-art accuracy. Not only can the system be used to successfully count drums, but also large items such as 90 cubic foot boxes, gloveboxes and heavy machinery. Additionally, contaminated materials such as floors, walls, soil and water have been characterized with the same model. Because of the versatility of the model and the very low detection limits attainable, tremendous cost savings have been realized from low-level/TRU waste segregation activities, and free-release/low-level determinations. The model has been used to determine the activity in a number of contaminated and spiked items and matrices with both known and unknown quantities. In an extensive study to determine the empirical accuracy of the model, a number of measurements were made on sources of known activity. The results show that measurement errors of 20 to 50 percent are achieved, depending on item size, geometry and radionuclide contamination. For larger items, results were typically 30 to 50 percent from the known value. Measurements of smaller and homogeneously contaminated items showed that the measurement errors were the same order of magnitude as the uncertainty of the source (10 to 20 percent). Furthermore, although individual error

  17. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors

  18. Compton suppressed LaBr3 detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as 137Cs and 140La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved. There was a

  19. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Edward T. Reedy; Heather A. Seipel

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  20. Passive water-lipid peptide translocators with conformational switches: from single-molecule probe to cellular assay.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Crespo, Alejandro; Blau, Axel

    2007-12-20

    Peptide design for unassisted passive water-lipid translocation remains a challenge, notwithstanding its importance for drug delivery. We introduce a design paradigm based on conformational switches operating as passive translocation vehicles. The interfacial behavior of the molecular prototype, probed in single-molecule AFM experiments, reveals a near-barrierless translocation. The associated free-energy agrees with mesoscopic measurements, and the in vitro behavior is quantitatively reproduced in cellular assays. The prototypes herald the advent of novel nanobiomaterials for passive translocation.

  1. Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Nondestructive assay of fission products in spent-fuel assemblies using gamma and photoneutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakosi, L.; Veres, Á.

    1990-12-01

    Hard γ-radiation (above 1.078 MeV) from spent reactor fuel was detected by means of excitation of 115In to its 4.5 h half-life metastable state induced by the (γ, γ') reaction and subsequent counting of the 336 keV isomeric transition. Resonance-energy quanta were produced by Compton scattering in the source, i.e. the spent fuel itself. The sensitivity of the activation method above 1.67 MeV γ-energy was enhanced by introducing a Be photoneutron converter in order to produce neutrons for exploiting their much larger activation cross sections. For short cooling times (10-40 d) the hard-γ signature of the fuel was due to the fission product 140Ba 140La, detection of which facilitated monitoring of the reactor power which existed in the core just before reactor shutdown. A linear relationship was found between the γ-signal and the fissile content in the fuel. For 100-1000 d cooled fuel the 144Ce 144Pr content could be detected, which was only sensitive to the cooling time. Spent-fuel assemblies of both a research and a power reactor were assayed by these novel methods for reactor operational and nuclear-material safeguard purposes.

  3. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of the next generation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) recycling / reprocessing facilities is dependent upon the availability of high performance real time Non- Destructive Assay (NDA) systems at key in-line points. A diverse variety of such special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned at reprocessing plants worldwide over the past fifty years.. The measurement purpose, technique and plant performance for selected key systems have been reviewed. Obsolescence issues and areas for development are identified in the context of the measurements needs of future recycling facilities and their associated waste treatment plants. Areas of concern include (i) Materials Accountancy and Safeguards, (ii) Head End process control and feed envelope verification, (iii) Real-time monitoring at the Product Finishing Stages, (iv) Criticality safety and (v) Radioactive waste characterization. Common characteristics of the traditional NDA systems in historical recycling facilities are (i) In-house development of bespoke instruments resulting in equipment that if often unique to a given facility and generally not commercially available, (ii) Use of 'novel' techniques - not widely deployed in other applications, (iii) Design features that are tailored to the specific plant requirements of the facility operator, (iv) Systems and software implementation that was not always carried out to modern industry standards and (v) A tendency to be overly complex - refined by on-plant operational usage and experience. Although these systems were 'validated in use' and are generally fit for purpose, there are a number of potential problems in transferring technology that was developed ten or more years ago to the new build SNF recycling facilities of the future. These issues include (i) Obsolescence of components - particularly with respect to computer hardware and data acquisition electronics, (ii) Availability of Intellectual Property and design

  4. International Perspective on the Application of Non-Destructive Assay Technology Platforms for Sentencing and Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12113

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, major technology improvements have been introduced in the field of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste in compliance with an evolving regulatory structure. For example in the United States, various NDA technologies have been successfully developed to meet the stringent characterization requirements of the Department of Energy. The use of this instrumentation, combined with the compliant operational processes and expertise levels that have emerged in parallel, have enabled over 75,000 m{sup 3} (or in excess of 145,000 containers) of contact and remote handled transuranic (TRU) waste to be sentenced to date to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from 10 different consignor sites. Many of these techniques have applicability that transcends national borders and can be used for common characterization challenges in waste sentencing and disposal on an international basis. Applicable waste streams could include LLW, ILW, TRU and HLW. There are specific design aspects of assay equipment that must be tailored to meet the applicable regulatory requirements for detection and quantification of a set of nuclides of interest to a prescribed limit of detection and measurement uncertainty. Each host nation will have specific challenges in the form of matrix types and processes, availability of historical information, needs for portable versus fixed instruments and the requirement to measure all containers versus assay of a representative sample. Furthermore, the practice of load management (combining smaller packages into a larger package designed to meet the overall waste acceptance criteria for the bulk container) may not have universal acceptability. An evaluation has been performed on a sample of the most successful technologies that have recently emerged to understand their applicability in other countries. Two types of instrumentation 'suite' are considered for measurements on drums and larger boxes / crates: (i

  5. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  6. Passive water-lipid peptide translocators with conformational switches: From single-molecule probe to cellular assay

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ariel; Crespo, Alejandro; Blau, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Peptide design for unassisted passive water/lipid translocation remains a challenge, notwithstanding its importance for drug delivery. We introduce a design paradigm based on conformational switches operating as passive translocation vehicles. The interfacial behavior of the molecular prototype, probed in single-molecule AFM experiments, reveals a near-barrierless translocation. The associated free-energy agrees with mesoscopic measurements, and the in vitro behavior is quantitatively reproduced in cellular assays. The prototypes herald the advent of novel nano-biomaterials for passive translocation. PMID:18044863

  7. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

  8. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  9. The dosing determines mutagenicity of hydrophobic compounds in the Ames II assay with metabolic transformation: passive dosing versus solvent spiking.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kilian E C; Heringa, Minne B; Uytewaal, Marijan; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-01-20

    The Ames II bacterial mutagenicity assay is a new version of the standard Ames test for screening chemicals for genotoxic activity. However, the use of plastic micro-titer plates has drawbacks in the case of testing hydrophobic mutagens, since sorptive and other losses make it difficult to control and define the exposure concentrations, and they reduce availability for bacterial uptake or to the S9 enzymes. With passive dosing, a biocompatible polymer such as silicone is loaded with the test compound and acts as a partitioning source. It compensates for any losses and results in stable freely dissolved concentrations. Passive dosing using silicone O-rings was applied in the Ames II assay to measure PAH mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TAMix - a mixture of six different bacterial strains detecting six different base-pair substitutions - after metabolic activation by S9. Initially, 10 PAHs were tested with passive dosing from saturated O-rings, aiming at levels in the test medium close to aqueous solubility. Fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were mutagenic in both TA98 and TAMix, whereas benz(a)anthracene was mutagenic in TA98 only. The concentration-dependent mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene was then compared for passive dosing and solvent spiking. With spiking, nominal concentrations greatly exceeded aqueous solubility before mutagenicity was observed, due to sorptive losses and limiting dissolution kinetics. In contrast, the passive dosing concentration-response curves were more reproducible, and shifted towards lower concentrations by several orders of magnitude. This study raises fundamental questions about how to introduce hydrophobic test substances in the Ames II assay with biotransformation, since the measured mutagenicity not only depends on the compound potency but also on its supply, sorption and consumption during the assay. PMID:22989744

  10. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  11. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  12. Nondestructive assay of small PuO{sub 2} samples by neutron-gamma counting-expectations and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, H.; Schubert, A.; Cromboom, O.; Eberle, H.

    1995-12-31

    The accurate determination of the plutonium content in samples of plutonium oxide powders will constitute an important part of the analytical work at future on-site laboratories (OSL) to be installed at the Sellafield and the La Hague reprocessing plants. In this concept, the major part of the work has been assigned to neutron-gamma counter combining the techniques of passive neutron-coincidence counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry. This paper reviews the development of this technique.

  13. A Paradigm for the Nondestructive Assay of Spent Fuel Assemblies and Similar Large Objects, with Emphasis on the Role of Photon-Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolind, Alan Michael

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials has, until now, been focused primarily (1) on smaller objects (2) with less fissile material and (3) with less self-generated radiation. The transition to the application of NDA to spent fuel assemblies and similar large objects violates these three conditions, thereby bringing the assumptions and paradigm of traditional NDA practice into question for the new applications. In this paper, a new paradigm for these new applications is presented which is based on the fundamental principles of nuclear engineering. It is shown that the NDA of spent fuel assemblies is mostly a three-dimensional problem that requires the integration of three independent NDA measurements in order to achieve a unique and accurate assay. The only NDA techniques that can avoid this requirement are those that analyze signals that are characteristic to specific isotopes (such as those caused by characteristic resonance interactions), and that are neither distorted nor overly attenuated by the other surrounding material. Some photon-based NDA techniques fall into this exceptional category. Such exceptional NDA techniques become essential to employ when assaying large objects that, unlike spent fuel assemblies, do not have a consistent geometry. With this new NDA paradigm, the advanced photon-based NDA techniques can be put into their proper context, and their development can thereby be properly motivated.

  14. Laser-Compton Scattered x-rays for non-destructive assay of surrogate fuel-cycle samples and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Syed F.

    One of our research goals at the Idaho Accelerator Center focuses on Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS) based nuclear science applications such as non-destructively quantifying concentrations of transuranic (TRIJ) elements in a surrogate of spent nuclear fuel and imaging. Non-destructive techniques include x-ray transmission and x-ray fluorescence. Both of these can be very sensitive techniques with tunable monochromatic x-rays. We investigated quasi-monochromatic x-rays from LCS for this purpose. Four sharp ˜20 keV, ˜36.7 keV, ˜99 keV, and ˜122 keV LCS peaks were produced in four separate experiments using electron beams tuned to ˜33 MeV, -˜32 MeV, ˜37 MeV, and ˜41 MeV that were brought in collision with the Nd:YAG laser (the peak laser power was 4 GW) operating at 1064 nm, 532 nm and 266 nm wavelengths respectively. The linac was operating at 60 Hz with an electron beam pulse length of about 50 ps and a peak current of about 7 A. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) experiments were first carried out to identify elemental XRF emission from Ag, Cd, and Sn foils with thicknesses ranging from 25--500 mum, following the absorption of ˜36.7 keV LCS x-rays. The intensities of the measured Kalpha1 emission lines were then compared to the predicted Kalpha1 intensities; based on the comparison, there was an estimated deviation of up to ≈10.4% between the predicted and measured Kalpha1 intensities. Next, the transmission experiments were carried out by transmitting a ˜99 keV LCS x-ray beam through Bi foils of thicknesses ranging from 50--250 mum to measure the transmission of the interrogating LCS x-ray beam. There was a relative deviation of up to ≈9.4 % between the predicted and measured transmission respectively. We then focused on exploiting the Hybrid K-Edge Densitometry (HKED) technique for the purpose of quantifying the concentrations of Uranium in the surrogate of spent nuclear fuel using a ˜122 keV LCS x-ray beam. The measured concentrations deviated by about 2

  15. A technical review of non-destructive assay research for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies being conducted under the US DOE NGSI

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-12-06

    There is a growing belief that expansion of nuclear energy generation will be needed in the coming decades as part of a mixed supply chain to meet global energy demand. At stake is the health of the economic engine that delivers human prosperity. As a consequence renewed interest is being paid to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the plutonium it contains. In addition to being an economically valuable resource because it can be used to construct explosive devices, Pu must be placed on an inventory and handled securely. A multiinstitutional team of diverse specialists has been assembled under a project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to address ways to nondestructively quantify the plutonium content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, and to also detect the potential diversion of pins from those assemblies. Studies are underway using mostly Monte Carlo tools to assess the feasibility, individual and collective performance capability of some fourteen nondestructive assay methods. Some of the methods are familiar but are being applied in a new way against a challenging target which is being represented with a higher degree of realism in simulation space than has been done before, while other methods are novel. In this work we provide a brief review of the techniques being studied and highlight the main achievements to date. We also draw attention to the deficiencies identified in for example modeling capability and available basic nuclear data. We conclude that this is an exciting time to be working in the NDA field and that much work, both fundamental and applied, remains ahead if we are to advance the state of the practice to meet the challenges posed to domestic and international safeguards by the expansion of nuclear energy together with the emergence of alternative fuel cycles.

  16. Comparison of different antigen preparations as substrates for use in passive hemagglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibody against bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F; Raybould, T J

    1983-01-01

    Purified coronavirus, detergent extracts of purified coronavirus, and virus-infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells were evaluated as antigen substrates in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and passive hemagglutination systems. Only detergent-extracted and -unextracted, purified viruses were reactive as antigen substrates in ELISA, whereas all three antigen preparations could be used for sensitization of erythrocytes in the passive hemagglutination assay. The passive hemagglutination system with infected cell extracts exhibited a similar level of sensitivity and specificity to the ELISA system employing purified coronavirus but enabled 300 times more tests to be performed per volume of virus-infected cell culture. PMID:6309897

  17. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  18. Development of a Lentivirus Vector-Based Assay for Non-Destructive Monitoring of Cell Fusion Activity

    PubMed Central

    Neshati, Zeinab; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Guangqian; Schalij, Martin J.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell fusion can be quantified by endowing acceptor and donor cells with latent reporter genes/proteins and activators of these genes/proteins, respectively. One way to accomplish this goal is by using a bipartite lentivirus vector (LV)-based cell fusion assay system in which the cellular fusion partners are transduced with a flippase-activatable Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpLuc) expression unit (acceptor cells) or with a recombinant gene encoding FLPeNLS+, a nuclear-targeted and molecularly evolved version of flippase (donor cells). Fusion of both cell populations will lead to the FLPe-dependent generation of a functional PpLuc gene. PpLuc activity is typically measured in cell lysates, precluding consecutive analysis of one cell culture. Therefore, in this study the PpLuc-coding sequence was replaced by that of Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpLuc), a secretory protein allowing repeated analysis of the same cell culture. In myotubes the spread of FLPeNLS+ may be limited due to its nuclear localization signal (NLS) causing low signal outputs. To test this hypothesis, myoblasts were transduced with LVs encoding either FLPeNLS+ or an NLS-less version of FLPe (FLPeNLS−) and subsequently co-cultured in different ratios with myoblasts containing the FLPe-activatable GpLuc expression cassette. At different times after induction of cell-to-cell fusion the GpLuc activity in the culture medium was determined. FLPeNLS+ and FLPeNLS− both activated the latent GpLuc gene but when the percentage of FLPe-expressing myoblasts was limiting, FLPeNLS+ generally yielded slightly higher signals than FLPeNLS− while at low acceptor-to-donor cell ratios FLPeNLS− was usually superior. The ability of FLPeNLS+ to spread through myofibers and to induce reporter gene expression is thus not limited by its NLS. However, at high FLPe concentrations the presence of the NLS negatively affected reporter gene expression. In summary, a rapid and simple chemiluminescence assay for

  19. Development of a lentivirus vector-based assay for non-destructive monitoring of cell fusion activity.

    PubMed

    Neshati, Zeinab; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Guangqian; Schalij, Martin J; de Vries, Antoine A F

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell fusion can be quantified by endowing acceptor and donor cells with latent reporter genes/proteins and activators of these genes/proteins, respectively. One way to accomplish this goal is by using a bipartite lentivirus vector (LV)-based cell fusion assay system in which the cellular fusion partners are transduced with a flippase-activatable Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpLuc) expression unit (acceptor cells) or with a recombinant gene encoding FLPeNLS+, a nuclear-targeted and molecularly evolved version of flippase (donor cells). Fusion of both cell populations will lead to the FLPe-dependent generation of a functional PpLuc gene. PpLuc activity is typically measured in cell lysates, precluding consecutive analysis of one cell culture. Therefore, in this study the PpLuc-coding sequence was replaced by that of Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpLuc), a secretory protein allowing repeated analysis of the same cell culture. In myotubes the spread of FLPeNLS+ may be limited due to its nuclear localization signal (NLS) causing low signal outputs. To test this hypothesis, myoblasts were transduced with LVs encoding either FLPeNLS+ or an NLS-less version of FLPe (FLPeNLS-) and subsequently co-cultured in different ratios with myoblasts containing the FLPe-activatable GpLuc expression cassette. At different times after induction of cell-to-cell fusion the GpLuc activity in the culture medium was determined. FLPeNLS+ and FLPeNLS- both activated the latent GpLuc gene but when the percentage of FLPe-expressing myoblasts was limiting, FLPeNLS+ generally yielded slightly higher signals than FLPeNLS- while at low acceptor-to-donor cell ratios FLPeNLS- was usually superior. The ability of FLPeNLS+ to spread through myofibers and to induce reporter gene expression is thus not limited by its NLS. However, at high FLPe concentrations the presence of the NLS negatively affected reporter gene expression. In summary, a rapid and simple chemiluminescence assay for quantifying

  20. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  1. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S; Lamb, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ

  2. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E

    1998-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal is to provide cutting-edge technologies, that show promise for quantitative inspection and characterization tools two to three years into the future. The NDE thrust area supports a multidisciplinary team, consisting of mechanical and electronics engineers, physicists, materials and computer scientists, chemists, technicians, and radiographers. These team members include personnel that cross departments within LLNL, and some are from academia and industry, within the US and abroad. This collaboration brings together the necessary and diver disciplines to provide the key scientific and technological advancements required to meet LLNL programmatic and industrial NDE challenges. The primary contributions of the NDE thrust area this year are described in these five reports: (1) Image Recovery Techniques for X-Ray Computed Tomography for Limited-Data Environments; (2) Techniques for Enhancing Laser Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation; (3) Optical Inspection of Glass-Epoxy Bonds; (4) Miniature X-Ray Source Development; and (5) Improving Computed Tomography Design and Operation Using Simulation Tools.

  3. Passive dosing versus solvent spiking for controlling and maintaining hydrophobic organic compound exposure in the Microtox® assay.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kilian E C; Jeong, Yoonah; Kim, Jongwoon

    2015-11-01

    Microbial toxicity bioassays such as the Microtox® test are ubiquitously applied to measure the toxicity of chemicals and environmental samples. In many ways their operation is conducive to the testing of organic chemicals. They are of short duration, use glass cuvettes and take place at reduced temperatures in medium lacking sorbing components. All of these are expected to reduce sorptive and volatile losses, but particularly for hydrophobic organics the role of such losses in determining the bioassay response remains unclear. This study determined the response of the Microtox® test when using solvent spiking compared to passive dosing for introducing the model hydrophobic compounds acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. Compared to solvent spiking, the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test with passive dosing was 3.4 and 12.4 times higher for acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively. Furthermore, fluoranthene only gave a consistent response with passive dosing. Benzo(a)pyrene did not result in a response with either spiking or passive dosing even at aqueous solubility. Such differences in the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test can be traced back to the precise definition of the dissolved exposure concentrations and the buffering of losses with passive dosing. This highlights the importance of exposure control even in simple and short-term microbial bioassays such as the Microtox® test. PMID:26117202

  4. Nondestructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  5. DNA damage and repair capacity by comet assay in lymphocytes of white-collar active smokers and passive smokers (non- and ex-smokers) at workplace.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Doria, Denise; Franceschetti, Paola; Perbellini, Luigi; Romeo, Luciano

    2006-12-01

    The comet assay has been widely used to quantify DNA damage in isolated lymphocytes from subjects exposed to several environmental or occupational substances, especially for estimation of oxidative damage in the DNA, which is well-known to be induced by tobacco smoke. Passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been included among those substances that cause cancer with sufficient evidence in humans. In this study, we analyzed, by the alkaline version of comet assay, the lymphocyte DNA damage of white-collar active smokers and non- and ex-smokers exposed to ETS at the workplace. We investigated basal DNA damage, DNA oxidation by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), the repair capacity H2O2-induced DNA damage by kinetics studies and lymphocyte GSH levels, the major intracellular defense against exogenous oxidative stress imposed by cigarette smoking. Our results indicated high basal DNA damage with clear significant correlations with urinary nicotine and cotinine, number of cigarettes/day, and an inverse significant correlation with GSH cellular content in active smokers. Significant Fpg-sensitive sites were found in smokers (> 85%), considerably high but not significant in passive non- and ex-smokers (> 51% and 37%, respectively). The DNA repair capacity had seriously decreased in non-smokers > smokers > ex-smokers, while the same damage was repaired in a short time in never smokers. PMID:17027201

  6. Analysis of the impact of random summing on passive assay of pebble bed reactor fuel using gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hawari, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) are characterized by multi-pass fuel systems in which spherical fuel pebbles are circulated through the core until they reach a proposed burnup limit. The fuel is assayed on-line to ensure that the burnup limit is not breached. However, random summing effects can impact the response of the burnup measurement system and result in distortions that degrade the accuracy of the assay results. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to estimate the magnitude and effect of random summing on the absolute and relative indicators that have been identified as usable in on-line assay. For a throughput rate of 10 5 counts/s and trapezoidal pulse shaping of the signals, the results show that absolute indicators suffer from severe distortions due to this effect. Relative indicators are found to be resistant to random summing with the deviation in the ratio of peak areas remaining less than 5-15% depending on pulse width.

  7. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive

  8. Qualification and application of a surface plasmon resonance-based assay for monitoring potential HAHA responses induced after passive administration of a humanized anti Lewis-Y antibody.

    PubMed

    Szolar, O H J; Stranner, S; Zinoecker, I; Mudde, G C; Himmler, G; Waxenecker, G; Nechansky, A

    2006-06-16

    A sensitive, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay monitoring potential human-anti-human antibody (HAHA) reactions against the monoclonal antibody (mAb) IGN311 is presented. The latter is a fully humanized Lewis-Y carbohydrate specific mAb that is currently tested in a passive immune therapy approach in a clinical phase I trial. For the SPR experiments a BIACORE 3000 analyzer was used. The ligand IGN311 was covalently coupled to the carboxy-methylated dextran matrix of a CM5 research grade chip (BIACORE). In the course of a fully nested experimental design, a four parameter logistic equation was identified as appropriate calibration model ranging from 0.3 microg/mL (lower limit of quantitation, LLOQ) to 200 microg/mL (upper limit of quantitation, ULOQ) using an anti-idiotypic mAb ('HAHA mimic') as calibrator. The bias ranged from -2.4% to 5.5% and the intermediate precision expressed as 95% CI revealed values from 5.6% to 8.3%. Specificity was evaluated using six human serum matrices from healthy donors spiked with calibrator at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) with >80% of values being recovered with less than 25% relative error. The qualified assay was applied to monitor potentially induced HAHA reactivity in 11 patients from a clinical phase I trial with passively administered IGN311. Of the 11 patients, one high HAHA responder and several low responders were identified. Protein-G depletion experiments with human serum samples revealed that the observed response is predominantly caused by IgG binding to the ligand. The characteristics of these HAHA responses were all of the so-called 'Type I' which is defined by a peak response around day 15 that decreases from this point steadily suggesting that some kind of tolerance is established. Therefore, this type of HAHA response is regarded as non critical for the patient's safety.

  9. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Moran, Bruce W; Lebrun, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step

  10. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs

  11. Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2007-07-01

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

  12. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  13. Active and passive mode calibration of the Combined Thermal Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) system

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, J. M.

    2002-06-01

    The Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) non-destructive assay (NDA) system was designed to assay transuranic waste by employing an induced active neutron interrogation and/or a spontaneous passive neutron measurement. This is the second of two papers, and focuses on the passive mode, relating the net double neutron coincidence measurement to the plutonium mass via the calibration constant. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) calibration standards were used and the results verified with NIST-traceable verification standards. Performance demonstration program (PDP) 'empty' 208-L matrix drum was used for the calibration. The experimentally derived calibration constant was found to be 0.0735 {+-} 0.0059 g {sup 240}Pu effective per unit response. Using this calibration constant, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria was satisfied with five minute waste assays in the range from 3 to 177g Pu. CTEN also participated in the PDP Cycle 8A blind assay with organic sludge and metal matrices and passed the criteria for accuracy and precision in both assay modes. The WIPP and EPA audit was completed March 1, 2002 and full certification is awaiting the closeout of one finding during the audit. With the successful closeout of the audit, the CTEN system will have shown that it can provide very fast assays (five minutes or less) of waste in the range from the minimum detection limit (about 2 mg Pu) to 177 g Pu.

  14. Applications Where Snap is BPM for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2008-07-01

    Historically, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston in the United Kingdom (UK), has used a variety of assay techniques to measure the radioactive content of a diverse range of waste packages from decommissioning, operational and legacy sources. The regulator, the Environment Agency in the UK, places conditions and limits on AWE through an authorisation within the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA93). The conditions and limits require Best Practical Means (BPM) measurements to be used to demonstrate compliance with the authorisation. Hence, the assay technique employed needs to achieve a balance between risk of exposure, environmental considerations, technological considerations, health and safety considerations and cost effectiveness, without being grossly disproportionate in terms of money, time or trouble. Recently published work has concluded that the Spectral Non-destructive Assay Platform (SNAP) assay system is BPM for Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay at AWE (1) and low level plutonium in soft drummed waste, HEPA filters and soils (2-4). The purpose of this paper is to highlight other applications where SNAP represents BPM for radioactive waste assay. This has been done by intercomparison studies of SNAP with other assay techniques, such as Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and Passive Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC). It has been concluded that, for a large range of waste packages encountered at AWE, SNAP is BPM. (author)

  15. Nondestructive analysis and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  16. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  17. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  18. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J. ); Caldwell, J.T. )

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  20. Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, B.A.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system.

  1. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition in contact sensitivity reactions in the mouse. Sensitivity of the assay for quantitating reactions after active or passive sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Mekori, Y.A.; Dvorak, H.F.; Galli, S.J.

    1986-03-15

    The clotting associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DH) responses in the mouse by sensitizing the animals to the contactant oxazolone (Ox), and then administering /sup 125/I-guinea pig fibrinogen i.v. 10 to 30 min before antigen challenge 5 days later. Early (4 to 8 hr) contact sensitivity (CS) responses in immunized mice were barely detectable by three conventional measures of CS, but the total /sup 125/I-cpm in ears challenged with hapten was 3.6 to 4.5 x that in control ears challenged with vehicle alone; moreover, the amount of urea-insoluble cpm (cross-linked /sup 125/I-fibrin-associated cpm) in the reactions to Ox was 6.5-fold to 8.2-fold that present in the control reactions. In 24 hr reactions that were near peak intensity by measurements of ear swelling, ear weight ratios, and ratios of /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled leukocyte infiltration, the cpm in antigen-challenged ears exceeded that in control ears by 13-fold to 53-fold. In addition, antigen-challenged ears contained 27 to 300 x the urea-insoluble cpm present in control ears. /sup 125/I-Fibrin deposition was not a specific characteristic of CS reactions, because a small amount of urea-insoluble reactivity was also detected in some reactions to Ox in native mice. Nevertheless, the assay was exquisitely sensitive and readily detected quantitative differences between the immunologically specific and nonspecific reactions at very early intervals after challenge or with suboptimal doses of antigen.

  2. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  3. [Comparison of antibody responses to hepatitis B surface antigen among four recipient groups of hepatitis B vaccines that have been approved in Japan: evaluation using passive hemagglutination assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio

    2009-10-01

    In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-preventing programs, serum or plasma levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are important to determine whether individuals are protective or not. We compared anti-HBs responses using passive hemagglutination assay (Mycell) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (Architect) among four recipient groups of HB vaccines, Meinyu, HBY, Bimmugen and Heptavax II, that have been approved in Japan. Overall, in a total of 1875 vaccinees Mycell results showed recipient groups of Meinyu and HBY acquired higher anti-HBs levels than those of Bimmugen and Heptavax II. Comparison of anti-HBs responses by both Mycell and Architect in recipient groups of Meinyu (n=150), HBY (n=218), Bimmugen (n=260), and Heptavax II (n=47) demonstrated the order of vaccinees' responses, such as geometric mean titers, ratios of acquiring high antibody levels (Mycell titers over 1024, Architect measurements over 1000 mIU/mL), and ratios of having unsuccessful antibody responses (Mycell titers under 8, Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL), were somewhat different between the two assays. Comparison of Architect measurements at given Mycell titers revealed Bimmugen-recipients showed significantly lower values than HBY- or Heptavax II-recipients. Around critical protective levels, 5 of 22 Bimmugen-recipients with Mycell titers 16 or 32 showed Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL, while 8 of 11 Heptavax II-recipients with Mycell titers below 8 demonstrated Architect measurements over 10 mIU/mL. Thus, discrepancies in anti-HBs evaluation between Mycell and Architect seemed to partly depend on administered vaccines. These results indicate anti-HBs concentration should be evaluated carefully so that we could completely prevent HBV infection.

  4. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; et al

    2016-06-04

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden’s Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in themore » past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.« less

  5. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  6. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  8. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  9. Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

  10. Passive Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.; Baugher, Charles; Alexander, Iwan

    1992-01-01

    Motion of ball in liquid indicates acceleration. Passive accelerometer measures small accelerations along cylindrical axis. Principle of operation based on Stokes' law. Provides accurate measurements of small quasi-steady accelerations. Additional advantage, automatically integrates out unwanted higher-frequency components of acceleration.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  12. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  13. Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1995-04-01

    The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  15. [Passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Grandjean, E; Weber, A; Fischer, T

    1979-03-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inspiration of smoky indoor air. Based on the information available today, it may be assumed that passive smoking normally is no health hazard as far as the classical smoker's diseases (lung cancer, myocardial infarct, etc.) are concerned. Nevertheless, it is probable that irritations caused by tobacco smoke have an unfavorable influence on the health of small children and that of already sick persons. The main problem of passive smoking is annoyance due to odor and irritations of eyes and respiratory organs. Our investigations in a climatic chamber with healthy subjects show that air pollution caused by tobacco smoke as indicated by 5 ppm CO leads to marked eye irritations--objectively as well as subjectively--in 15 to 20% of the subjects. This corresponds to smoking 10 cigarettes per hour in a small room with an air ventilation rate of four times per hour. If air pollution caused by tobacco smoke lies below the level of 2 ppm CO, irritations and annoyance for healthy persons are regarded as low and tolerable. This corresponds to about four cigarettes per hour under the same circumstances.

  16. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  17. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  19. Nondestructive Material Testing Using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, D.

    The fact that optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on internal structures of scattering tissue in a noninvasive way has led to a broad acceptance of OCT for dedicated biomedical imaging and diagnostics applications. Outside the biomedical field, an irreversible alteration of an object under investigation by the characterization method itself is likewise undesirable, especially in the case that such an object has to be further used with its original state maintained. For this purpose, a variety of so-called nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is nowadays at hand,with OCT as novel technique exhibiting a huge potential to add valuable contributions to nondestructive testing and evaluation of semitransparent, scattering materials with structural features on the micron scale. Therefore, within this chapter, a broad range of applications for OCT in NDT is presented, ranging from examples of industrial quality control over classification and authentication tasks to the evaluation of materials in research and development.The individual applications are listed according to the category of information obtained from the individual measurements, starting with the evaluation of the pure surface structure, proceeding to thickness measurements of layered systems, to imaging of internal 3D structures and finally leading to the determination of functional information.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  1. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  2. Advances in nondestructive evaluation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley's Materials Characterization Instrumentation Section has followed the philosophy of improving the science base of nondestructive evaluation and advancing the state of the art of quantitative interpretability of physical measurements of materials. Details of several R&D programs choosen to highlight the last several years are given. Applications of these technologies are presented in the area of stress measurement, characterization of metal heat treatment, and evaluation of material internal structure. A second focus of the program is on quantitative transducers/measurements that have resulted in better data in irregular inhomogeneous materials such as composites. Examples are presented of new capabilities resulting from these advances that include fatigue and impact damage evaluation.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  4. The Nuclear Renaissance - Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2007-03-21

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad based, reaching across Asia, the United States, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Some countries, such as Italy, that have actually turned away from nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this design. This renaissance provides the opportunity to deploy more advanced reactor designs that are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. In this keynote address, I will briefly present three such advanced reactor designs in whose development Westinghouse is participating. These designs include the advanced passive PWR, AP1000, which recently received design certification for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) which is being demonstrated in South Africa; and the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), which was showcased in the US Department of Energy's recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), program. The salient features of these designs that impact future requirements on quantitative nondestructive evaluations will be discussed. Such features as reactor vessel materials, operating temperature regimes, and new geometric configurations will be described, and mention will be made of the impact on quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches.

  5. Matrix effects of TRU (transuranic) assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of {sup 239}Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  7. Study Of Nondestructive Techniques For Testing Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D.; Kautz, H.; Draper, S.; Bansal, N.; Bowles, K.; Bashyam, M.; Bishop, C.

    1995-01-01

    Study evaluates some nondestructive methods for characterizing ceramic-, metal-, and polymer-matrix composite materials. Results demonstrated utility of two ultrasonic methods for obtaining quantitative data on microstructural anomalies in composite materials.

  8. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  9. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  11. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  12. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  13. Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

    2012-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

  14. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  15. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Nondestructive Assessment of Engineered Cartilage Composition by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McGoverin, Cushla M; Hanifi, Arash; Palukuru, Uday P; Yousefi, Farzad; Glenn, Padraig B M; Shockley, Michael; Spencer, Richard G; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering presents a strategy to overcome the limitations of current tissue healing methods. Scaffolds, cells, external growth factors and mechanical input are combined in an effort to obtain constructs with properties that mimic native tissues. However, engineered constructs developed using similar culture environments can have very different matrix composition and biomechanical properties. Accordingly, a nondestructive technique to assess constructs during development such that appropriate compositional endpoints can be defined is desirable. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis is a modality being investigated to address the challenges associated with current evaluation techniques, which includes nondestructive compositional assessment. In the present study, cartilage tissue constructs were grown using chondrocytes seeded onto polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds in similar environments in three separate tissue culture experiments and monitored using NIRS. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis models of NIR spectra were calculated and used to predict tissue composition, with biochemical assay information used as the reference data. Results showed that for combined data from all tissue culture experiments, PLS models were able to assess composition with significant correlations to reference values, including engineered cartilage water (at 5200 cm(-1), R = 0.68, p = 0.03), proteoglycan (at 4310 cm(-1), R = 0.82, p = 0.007), and collagen (at 4610 cm(-1), R = 0.84, p = 0.005). In addition, degradation of PGA was monitored using specific NIRS frequencies. These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis provides a nondestructive modality to assess engineered cartilage, which could provide information to determine the optimal time for tissue harvest for clinical applications. PMID:26817457

  17. Fundamental studies on passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1993-06-01

    Using photoelectrochemical impedance and admittance spectroscopies, a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the mechanisms for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in contact with aqueous environments is being developed. A point defect model has been extended to explain the breakdown of passive films, leading to pitting and crack growth and thus development of damage due to localized corrosion.

  18. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  19. Genotoxic risk of passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Bos, R P; Henderson, P T

    1984-01-01

    More than 60 chemical components are identified in cigarette smoke which have shown to be carcinogenic. The presence of these chemicals is established in mainstream smoke. However, many of them also appear in sidestream smoke resulting in pollution of indoor air, as is shown by the presence of mutagenic substances. Some rather potent carcinogens like N-nitroso-dimethylamine and benzo(a)pyrene have been established in the air of smoke filled rooms. Only a few studies describe internal exposure of passive smokers. Deposition of sidestream smoke in the human respiratory tract has been established for passive smokers. On the other hand, it was shown that inhalation of air contaminated with sidestream smoke results in an increase in the urinary excretion of products mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Three epidemiological studies showed an increased risk of lung cancer for non-smoking wives having smoking husbands. Since it is generally acknowledged that most of the genotoxic carcinogens can be detected by in vitro mutagenicity tests, mutagenicity in urine of passive smokers can be considered as an indication of exposure to carcinogens. This observation suggests that there is a causality in the association between increased cancer risk and passive smoking as was found in three epidemiological studies. It is generally accepted that genotoxic chemicals exert their effects in direct proportion to the level of exposure, which means that for these agents no safe thresholds can be established. Several studies clearly show the presence of genotoxic substances in indoor air as a consequence of smoking. Therefore, the outcome of the epidemiological studies is not surprising. As long as half of the human population persists in smoking, the problems of involuntary inhalation of genotoxic substances will continue for the other half. Strategies to control the environmental cancer problem can only be successful if the health hazards of passive smoking are taken seriously.

  20. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  1. Waste Examination Assay Facility operations: TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    The ORNL Waste Examination Assay Facility (WEAF) was established to nondestructively assay (NDA) transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present facility charter encompasses the NDA and nondestructive examination (NDE) of both TRU and low-level wastes (LLW). Presently, equipment includes a Neutron Assay System (NAS), a Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), a drum-sized Real-Time Radiography (RTR) system, and a Neutron Slab Detector (NSD). The first three instruments are computer interfaced. Approximately 2300 TRU waste drums have been assayed with the NAS and the SGS. Another 3000 TRU and LLW drums have been examined with the RTR unit. Computer data bases have been developed to collate the large amount of data generated during the assays and examinations. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  3. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description

    SciTech Connect

    East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

  4. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  5. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-03

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  6. Passive sampling reversed: coupling passive field sampling with passive lab dosing to assess the ecotoxicity of mixtures present in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Michiel; Monteyne, Els; Wille, Klaas; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Roose, Patrick; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-04-15

    This study presents a new approach in aquatic toxicity testing combining passive sampling and passive dosing. Polydimethylsiloxane sheets were used to sample contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. These sheets were subsequently transferred to ecotoxicological test medium in which the sampled contaminant mixtures were released through passive dosing. 4 out of 17 of these mixtures caused severe effects in a growth inhibition assay with a marine diatom. These effects could not be explained by the presence of compounds detected in the sampling area and were most likely attributable to unmeasured compounds absorbed to the passive samplers during field deployment. The findings of this study indicate that linking passive sampling in the field to passive dosing in laboratory ecotoxicity tests provides a practical and complimentary approach for assessing the toxicity of hydrophobic contaminant mixtures that mimics realistic environmental exposures. Limitations and opportunities for future improvements are presented.

  7. Cellulase Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H. Percival; Hong, Jiong; Ye, Xinhao

    Cellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide, and its enzymatic hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase), and β-glucosidase to work together. We summarize the most commonly used assays for individual enzymes and cellulase mixture.

  8. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  9. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  10. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  14. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-08-21

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques.

  15. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic...

  16. Large Area Nondestructive Evaluation of a Fatigue Loaded Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2016-01-01

    Large area nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections are required for fatigue testing of composite structures to track damage initiation and growth. Of particular interest is the progression of damage leading to ultimate failure to validate damage progression models. In this work, passive thermography and acoustic emission NDE were used to track damage growth up to failure of a composite three-stringer panel. Fourteen acoustic emission sensors were placed on the composite panel. The signals from the array were acquired simultaneously and allowed for acoustic emission location. In addition, real time thermal data of the composite structure were acquired during loading. Details are presented on the mapping of the acoustic emission locations directly onto the thermal imagery to confirm areas of damage growth leading to ultimate failure. This required synchronizing the acoustic emission and thermal data with the applied loading. In addition, processing of the thermal imagery which included contrast enhancement, removal of optical barrel distortion and correction of angular rotation before mapping the acoustic event locations are discussed.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of the SWEPP PAN assay system for glass waste (content codes 440, 441 and 442)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    INEL is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to WIPP. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Action Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper discusses a modified statistical sampling and verification approach used to determine the total uncertainty of SWEPP PAN measurements for glass waste (content codes 440, 441, and 442) contained in 208 liter drums. In the modified statistical sampling and verification approach, the total performance of the SWEPP PAN nondestructive assay system for specifically selected waste conditions is simulated using computer models. A set of 100 cases covering the known conditions exhibited in glass waste was compiled using a combined statistical sampling and factorial experimental design approach. Parameter values assigned in each simulation were derived from reviews of approximately 100 real-time radiography video tapes of RFP glass waste drums, results from previous SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums, and shipping data from RFP where the glass waste was generated. The data in the 100 selected cases form the multi-parameter input to the simulation model. The reported plutonium masses from the simulation model are compared with corresponding input masses. From these comparisons, the bias and total uncertainty associated with SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums are estimated. The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from calibration measurements using known plutonium sources and two glass waste calibration drums.

  18. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  19. Overcoming Passive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Passivity in learning disabled children is identified as either inborn or as "learned helplessness," and the role of the teacher in overcoming passivity is noted. Teachers can help students understand themselves, become active agents in learning, and use self monitoring devices. (CL)

  20. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  1. Nondestructive technique for detecting diseased poultry carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren

    1993-04-01

    In response to the need of the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, the Agriculture Research Service has undertaken a project to develop an accurate, reliable, and nondestructive sensor for detecting poultry diseased carcasses on-line at poultry processing plants. This paper presents some results of a study on the development of a nondestructive technique for the detection of abnormal poultry carcasses based on the spectroscopy of the carcasses. A diode array spectrophotometer equipped with a fiber optic probe was used to obtain optical spectra of the breasts of normal, septicemic, and cadaver poultry carcasses in visible and near-infrared regions (500 - 1100 nm). Optimal wavelengths of reflectance and interactance in the range of 500 to 850 nm were obtained for classifying the carcasses into normal and abnormal (septicemic and cadaver) classes. A back-propagation neural network model was used to develop classifiers for the classification of poultry carcasses into normal, septicemic, and cadaver classes.

  2. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  3. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  4. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  5. Passive solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claridge, David E.; Mowris, Robert J.

    1985-11-01

    Buildings have been designed to use solar gains for winter heating for several millenia, but the quantitative basis for passive solar design has only been developed in the last decade. A simplified lumped capacitance model is used to provide insight into the physics of passive building behavior. Three passive design methods are described: the Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method based on correlations to simulation results; the Gordon/Zarmi closed form analytical mode;; and the ``unutilizability'' model of Monsen and Klein. Model predictions are compared with measured results; agreement is good if measured building characteristics are used. Numerous passive houses use less than 2 Btu/ft2-DD for auxiliary heating and consensus is developing that modest levels of passive glazing combined with superinsulation techniques can provide the best feature of both approaches.

  6. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of pyroshock propagation using hydrocodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juho; Hwang, Dae-Hyeon; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Pyroshock or pyrotechnic shock generated by explosive events of pyrotechnic devices can induce fatal failures in electronic payloads. Therefore, understanding and estimation of pyroshock propagation through complex structures are necessary. However, an experimental approach using real pyrotechnic devices is quite burdensome because pyrotechnic devices can damage test structures and newly manufactured test structures are necessary for each experiment. Besides, pyrotechnic experiments are quite expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous. Consequently, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of pyroshock propagation without using real pyrotechnic devices is necessary. In this study, nondestructive evaluation technique for pyroshock propagation estimation using hydrocodes is proposed. First, pyroshock propagation is numerically analyzed using AUTODYN, a commercial hydrocodes. Hydrocodes can handle stress wave propagation including elastic, plastic, and shock wave in the time domain. Test structures are modeled and pyroshock time history is applied to where the pyroshock propagation originates. Numerical NDE results of pyroshock propagation on test structures are analyzed in terms of acceleration time histories and acceleration shock response spectra (SRS) results. To verify the proposed numerical methodology, impact tests using airsoft gun are performed. The numerical analysis results for the impact tests are compared with experimental results and they show good agreements. The proposed numerical techniques enable us to nondestructively characterize pyroshock propagation.

  9. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  11. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  12. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  13. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  14. Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

  15. Microwave sensors for nondestructive testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Tuami; Glay, David; Mamouni, Ahmed; Leroy, Yves

    1999-10-01

    Much of today's applications in nondestructive testing by microwaves use an automatic network analyzer. As a result, there is a need for systems to reduce the cost of this kind of techniques. Fortunately, now we can benefit from the cost reduction of the microwave components, induced by the considerable development of the communication market, around 2 and 10 GHz. So, it seems reasonable to think that microwaves will take advantage of this new situation to assert themselves in this application field. In this context we conceive and develop original equipment competitive in term of price and reliability.

  16. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  17. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  18. Nondestructive Technique To Assess Embrittlement In Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research at NASA Langley Research Center led to identification of nondestructive technique for detection of temper embrittlement in HY80 steel. Measures magnetoacoustic emission associated with reversible motion of domain walls at low magnetic fields. Of interest to engineers responsible for reliability and safety of various dynamically loaded and/or thermally cycled steel parts. Applications include testing of landing gears, naval vessels, and parts subjected to heat, such as those found in steam-pipe fittings, boilers, turbine rotors, and nuclear pressure vessels.

  19. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  20. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-10

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R(2), 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  1. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  2. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  3. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  6. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of thick concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2015-03-01

    Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to three primary properties: its low cost, structural strength, and ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants include the containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Use in these structures has made concrete's long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial NPPs. Extending LWR operating period to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. New mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. This creates the need to be able to nondestructively evaluate the current subsurface concrete condition of aging concrete material in NPP structures. The size and complexity of NPP containment structures and heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. Specially designed and fabricated test specimens can provide realistic flaws that are similar to actual flaws in terms of how they interact with a particular nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique. Artificial test blocks allow the isolation of certain testing problems as well as the variation of certain parameters. Representative large heavily reinforced concrete specimens would allow for comparative testing to evaluate the state-of-the-art NDE in this area and to identify additional developments necessary to address the challenges potentially found in NPPs.

  8. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  9. Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

  10. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  12. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  13. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  14. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  15. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  16. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  17. Nondestructive detection and measurement of hydrogen embrittlement

    DOEpatents

    Alex, Franklin; Byrne, Joseph Gerald

    1977-01-01

    A nondestructive system and method for the determination of the presence and extent of hydrogen embrittlement in metals, alloys, and other crystalline structures subject thereto. Positron annihilation characteristics of the positron-electron annihilation within the tested material provide unique energy distribution curves for each type of material tested at each respective stage of hydrogen embrittlement. Gamma radiation resulting from such annihilation events is detected and statistically summarized by appropriate instrumentation to reveal the variations of electron activity within the tested material caused by hydrogen embrittlement therein. Such data from controlled tests provides a direct indication of the relative stages of hydrogen embrittlement in the form of unique energy distribution curves which may be utilized as calibration curves for future comparison with field tests to give on-site indication of progressive stages of hydrogen embrittlement.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  19. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  20. Nondestructive verification of continuous-variable entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Alencar J.

    2016-07-01

    An optical procedure in the context of continuous variables to verify bipartite entanglement without destroying both systems and their entanglement is proposed. To perform the nondestructive verification of entanglement, the method relies on beam-splitter and quantum nondemolition (QND) interactions of the signal modes with two ancillary probe modes. The probe modes are measured by homodyne detections, and the obtained information is used to feed forward modulation of signal modes, concluding the procedure. Characterizing the method by figures of merit used in QND processes, we can establish the conditions for an effectively quantum scheme. Based on such conditions, it is shown that the classical information acquired from the homodyne detections of probe modes is sufficient to verify the entanglement of the output signal modes. The processing impact due to added noise on the output entanglement is assessed in the case of Gaussian modes.

  1. Nondestructive characterization of woven fabric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K.; Saini, V.; Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.; Miriyala, N.; McHargue, C.J.; Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Woven fabric ceramic composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method are susceptible to high void content and inhomogeneity. The condition of such materials may be characterized nondestructively with ultrasonic methods. In this work, longitudinal and shear waves were used in the quantitative determination of elastic constants of Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites as a function of volume percent of porosity. Elastic stiffness constants were obtained for both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with respect to fiber fabric. The effect of porosity on the modulus of woven fabric composites was also modeled and compared to the measured results. Scan images based on the amplitude and time-of-flight of radio frequency (RF) ultrasonic pulses were used for evaluating the material homogeneity for the purpose of optimizing the manufacturing process and for correlation with the mechanical testing results.

  2. Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

  3. Nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in Haematococcus pluvialis via whole-cell optical density spectra.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Aflalo, Claude; Lukyanov, Alexander; Boussiba, Sammy

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of rapid, nondestructive assay of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll (Car/Chl) ratio and total carotenoids (Car) in cell suspensions of the carotenogenic chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow under stressful conditions. Whole-cell spectra are characterized by variable nonlinear contributions of Car and chlorophylls (Chl), with a strong influence of Car packaging and sieve effect inherent to stressed H. pluvialis cells. Nevertheless, nondestructive assay of Car/Chl in the range of 0.55-31.2 (Car content up to 188 mg L(-1); 5.4 % of the cell dry weight) turned to be achievable with a simple spectrophotometer lacking an integrating sphere upon deposition of the cells on glass fiber filters. The scattering-corrected optical density (OD) in the blue-green region of the whole-cell spectrum, normalized to that in the red maximum of Chl absorption (OD500/OD678), was tightly related (r (2) = 0.96) with the Car/Chl ratio found in extracts. Some features such as the amplitude and position of the minimum of the normalized first-derivative OD whole-cell spectra also exhibited a strong (r (2) > 0.90) nonlinear correlation with Car/Chl. These spectral indices were also tightly related with Car, but the slope of the relationship varied with the stressor intensity. The importance of calibration over the widest possible range of pigment contents and a correct choice of biomass load per filter are emphasized. The advantages and limitations of nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in H. pluvialis are discussed in view of its possible application in optical sensors for laboratory cultivation and mass production systems of the algae.

  4. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Residual Detergent Detection Method for Nondestructive Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Decellularized Whole Lung Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zvarova, Barbora; Uhl, Franziska E; Uriarte, Juan J; Borg, Zachary D; Coffey, Amy L; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Weiss, Daniel J; Wagner, Darcy E

    2016-05-01

    The development of reliable tissue engineering methods using decellularized cadaveric or donor lungs could potentially provide a new source of lung tissue. The vast majority of current lung decellularization protocols are detergent based and incompletely removed residual detergents may have a deleterious impact on subsequent scaffold recellularization. Detergent removal and quality control measures that rigorously and reliably confirm removal, ideally utilizing nondestructive methods, are thus critical for generating optimal acellular scaffolds suitable for potential clinical translation. Using a modified and optimized version of a methylene blue-based detergent assay, we developed a straightforward, noninvasive method for easily and reliably detecting two of the most commonly utilized anionic detergents, sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in lung decellularization effluents. In parallel studies, we sought to determine the threshold of detergent concentration that was cytotoxic using four different representative human cell types utilized in the study of lung recellularization: human bronchial epithelial cells, human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (CBF12), human lung fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells. Notably, different cells have varying thresholds for either SDC or SDS-based detergent-induced cytotoxicity. These studies demonstrate the importance of reliably removing residual detergents and argue that multiple cell lines should be tested in cytocompatibility-based assessments of acellular scaffolds. The detergent detection assay presented here is a useful nondestructive tool for assessing detergent removal in potential decellularization schemes or for use as a potential endpoint in future clinical schemes, generating acellular lungs using anionic detergent-based decellularization protocols.

  7. Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay

    SciTech Connect

    Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Stephen; Vujie, Jasmina; Hunt, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  9. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  10. Feynman variance-to-mean in the context of passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D. K.; Henzlova, D.; Santi, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) based on shift register autocorrelation time analysis of the detected neutron pulse train is an important Nondestructive Assay (NDA) method. It is used extensively in the quantification of plutonium and other spontaneously fissile materials for purposes of nuclear materials accountancy. In addition to the totals count rate, which is also referred to as the singles, gross or trigger rate, a quantity known as the reals coincidence rate, also called the pairs or doubles, is obtained from the difference between the measured neutron multiplicities in two measurement gates triggered by the incoming events on the pulse train. The reals rate is a measure of the number of time correlated pairs present on the pulse train and this can be related to the fission rates (and hence material mass) since fissions emit neutrons in bursts which are also detected in characteristic clusters. A closely related measurement objective is the determination of the reactivity of systems as they approach criticality. In this field an alternative autocorrelation signature is popular, the so called Feynman variance-to-mean technique which makes use of the multiplicity histogram formed the periodic, or clock-triggered opening of a coincidence gate. Workers in these two application areas share common challenges and improvement opportunities but are often separated by tradition, problem focus and technical language. The purpose of this paper is to recognize the close link between the Feynman variance-to-mean metric and traditional PNCC using shift register logic applied to correlated pulse trains. We, show using relationships for the late-gate (or accidentals) histogram recorded using a multiplicity shift register, how the Feynman Y-statistic, defined as the excess variance-to-mean ratio, can be expressed in terms of the singles and doubles rates familiar to the safeguards and waste assay communities. These two specialisms now have a direct bridge between

  11. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear

  12. Passivated niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  13. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  14. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  15. Passively actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  16. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  17. Nondestructive method for reconnecting aluminum metallization on integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Zubatkin, A D

    1979-07-01

    A failure analysis technique for reconnecting aluminum metallization on planar IC devices is described. The technique, utilizing a conductive paint deposited on the device surface, is nondestructive and easily removable. PMID:18699636

  18. 12. VIEW OF THE NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO DETECT FLAWS IN FABRICATED COMPONENTS. (6/76) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  20. Qualitative impedance-based nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lalande, F.; Rogers, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    A new qualitative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) sensor system to perform in-situ on-line monitoring of critical sections of structures and to provide a warning in the event of damage is the focus of this paper. The proposed technique described in this paper utilizes small PZT patches to provide high-frequency excitation, typically in the high kHz range, to the structure being monitored. At such high frequencies, the response is dominated by local modes and incipient damage like small cracks, loose connections, and delaminations, produce measurable changes in the vibration signature. The high frequencies also limit the actuation/sensing area. The effect of excitation frequency, geometry, material properties, structural joints, etc., on the size of the sensing/actuation area is still under investigation, but it is the authors observation that the sensing area, as a minimum, extends to the boundaries of the solid member to which the PZT is bonded. This limited sensing area helps to isolate the effect of damage on the signature from other far-field changes in mass-loading, stiffness and boundary conditions. The insensitivity to far-field boundary conditions comes at the cost of a limited sensing area. Therefore, this technique will be most useful in identifying and tracking damage in those areas of structures where high structural integrity must be assured at all times.

  1. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Nondestructive electromagnetic characterization of uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Neil G.

    In this dissertation, a method for the simultaneous non-destructive extraction of the permittivity and permeability of a dielectric magnetic uniaxial anisotropic media is developed and several key contributions are demonstrated. The method utilizes a single fixture in which the MUT is clamped between two rectangular waveguides with 6" x 6" PEC flanges. The transmission and reflection coefficients are measured, then compared with theoretically calculated coefficients to find a least squares solution to the minimization problem. One of the key contributions of this work is the development of the total parallel plate spectral-domain Green's function by two independent methods. The Green's function is thereby shown to be correct in form and in physical meaning. A second significant contribution of this work to the scientific community is the evaluation of one of the inverse Fourier transform integrals in the complex plane. This significantly enhances the efficiency of the extraction code. A third significant contribution is the measurement of a number of uniaxial anisotropic materials, many of which were envisioned, designed and constructed in-house using 3D printing technology. The results are shown to be good in the transverse dimension, but mildly unstable in the longitudinal dimension. A secondary contribution of this work that warrants mention is the inclusion of a flexible, complete, working code for the extraction process. Although such codes have been written before, they have not been published in the literature for broader use.

  5. Nondestructive characterization of fatigue damage with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, Henrik; Sathish, Shamachary; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2001-08-01

    A thermal imaging NDE method has been developed for nondestructive characterization of early stages of fatigue damage. The method is based on evaluation of the thermal effects induced in a material by a short-term mechanical loading. The mechanical loading causes in addition to thermoelastic temperature change, an increase due to heat dissipation that depends upon the microstructure of the material in a characteristic manner. The origin of this heat dissipation is the mechanical damping process. Utilizing the initial temperature rise due to a short-term mechanical loading, the dissipated energy per cycle was evaluated as a thermal parameter. This new thermal NDE parameter allows a quantitative characterization of the mechanical hysteresis, without the need for calibration to eliminate influences of thermal boundary conditions. The measurement of the thermal NDE parameters has been performed on Ti-6Al-4V dog-bone specimens, fatigued in low cycle fatigue (LCF) as well as in high cycle fatigue (HCF) experiments. Characteristic dependence of the NDE parameters on the already accumulated fatigue damage has been observed. The advantage of the thermal method is the applicability to components under service conditions because of simplicity, rapid measurements (a few seconds) and the ability of locally resolved evaluations.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft fuselage panels with electronic shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safai, Morteza

    1993-10-01

    With the growing number of aging passenger aircraft in the fleet, improve nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques are being investigated to insure the reliability of the fuselage structures of these aircraft. The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group is evaluating nondestructive testing techniques for detecting disbonds in aircraft structures. One of the techniques under evaluation is electronic shearography. This paper describes the disbond inspection of aluminum lap joint coupons with electronic shearography. Inspection results from the simulated lap joint coupons, containing programmed defects, are reported.

  7. QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-01-27

    This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the various QAOs. A brief description of each test and any significant conclusions is included. Variables which may have affected test outcomes are examined. This report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  8. Non-destructive assay of mechanical components using gamma-rays and thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Erica Silvani; Avelino, Mila R.

    2013-05-06

    This work presents the results obtained in the inspection of several mechanical components through neutron and gamma-ray transmission radiography. The 4.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermal neutron flux available at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear has been used as source for the neutron radiographic imaging. The 412 keV {gamma}-ray emitted by {sup 198}Au, also produced in that reactor, has been used as interrogation agent for the gamma radiography. Imaging Plates - IP specifically designed to operate with thermal neutrons or with X-rays have been employed as detectors and storage devices for each of these radiations.

  9. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Hunt, Alan W.; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather A.

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  10. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ``point defects models`` (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  11. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis.

  12. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

  13. Laser speckle photometry: contactless nondestructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikalova, Ulana; Nicolai, Juergen; Bendjus, Beatrice; Schreiber, Juergen

    2012-10-01

    Laser Speckle Photometry (LSP) is a newly developed contactless, fast and completely optical nondestructive testing method based on the detection and analysis of thermally or mechanically activated characteristic speckle dynamics. The heat propagation or tension process causes locally different degrees of thermal/mechanical expansion, which generates local and time-dependent strain fields, resulting in a local displacement of material surface. During this process, the normal surface slope and absolute height of the microscopic and mesoscopic surface segments, especially at rough sample surfaces, is transformed. These spatiotemporal changes include information about the material structure and conditions. Therefore, the proposed measurement technique includes a pulsed heating source for sample activation, a temperature detection of the sample at the measurement location in a distance from the heading point, a continuous wave laser for sample irradiation and activation of speckle patterns at the measurement point, and in addition, a fast CCD camera for the detection of the speckle movement during heat propagation at the measurement location. Laser Speckle Photometry can be used for evaluating material properties, such as hardness and porosity. The approach is based on the estimation of the "Speckle Thermal Diffusivity" parameter K, that can be determined using the thermal diffusion equation and the modified correlation function from the pixel intensity of the speckle image variations during thermal activation. After testing, the correlation between parameter K and hardness, and porosity respectively, was found. Furthermore, mechanical material stress changes, also at elevated operating temperatures, can be estimated by the presented technique using the calculated parameter K. In this case, the thermal excitation will be partially replaced by mechanical activation, such as the tension process. The technique of LSP and the results of calibration experiments are

  14. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

  16. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  17. Interpixel capacitance in nondestructive focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Andrew C.; Ninkov, Zoran; Forrest, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Inter-pixel capacitive coupling can exist in a non-destructive detector array if the detector nodes change voltage as they integrate charge and the design of the device allows for an electric field to exist between adjacent collection nodes. Small amounts of inter-pixel capacitance can cause large errors in the measurement of poissonian noise versus signal, and all subsequently derived measurements such as nodal capacitance and quantum efficiency. Crosstalk and MTF can also be significantly influenced by interpixel capacitance. Two 1k by 1k Raytheon SB226-based hybridized silicon PIN arrays were tested for nodal capacitance and MTF. Initial results indicated unexpected and unexplainably large nodal capacitance, poor MTF, and odd edge spread. It was hypothesized that inter-pixel capacitive coupling was responsible for these discrepancies. A stochastic method of measuring the coupling using 2D autocorrelation and Fourier Transform techniques was devised and implemented. Autocorrelation of the shot noise in the images revealed a correlation consistent with 3.2% interpixel capacitive coupling. When the effects of the measured interpixel capacitance were taken into account, the initially measured nodal capacitance of 56 fF was found to be 31% higher than the corrected nodal capacitance measurement of 43 fF. Large discrepancies between the theoretical and observed edge spread response were also greatly reduced. A simulation of the electric field in the PIN detector intrinsic region predicted an interpixel coupling very close to the observed coupling. Interpixel capacitance was also observed in a 2k by 2k Raytheon SB304-based InSb detector array, but was not strongly evident in a bare Raytheon SB226 multiplexer.

  18. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  19. Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Timothy J. II; Lafleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Seya, Michio; Bolind, Alan M.

    2012-07-16

    An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  20. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Passive damping technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  3. Volcanic passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent

    2005-12-01

    Compared to non-volcanic ones, volcanic passive margins mark continental break-up over a hotter mantle, probably subject to small-scale convection. They present distinctive genetic and structural features. High-rate extension of the lithosphere is associated with catastrophic mantle melting responsible for the accretion of a thick igneous crust. Distinctive structural features of volcanic margins are syn-magmatic and continentward-dipping crustal faults accommodating the seaward flexure of the igneous crust. Volcanic margins present along-axis a magmatic and tectonic segmentation with wavelength similar to adjacent slow-spreading ridges. Their 3D organisation suggests a connection between loci of mantle melting at depths and zones of strain concentration within the lithosphere. Break-up would start and propagate from localized thermally-softened lithospheric zones. These 'soft points' could be localized over small-scale convection cells found at the bottom of the lithosphere, where adiabatic mantle melting would specifically occur. The particular structure of the brittle crust at volcanic passive margins could be interpreted by active and sudden oceanward flow of both the unstable hot mantle and the ductile part of the lithosphere during the break-up stage. To cite this article: L. Geoffroy, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  5. Passive films on magnesium anodes in primary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the passive films over Mg anodes, which essentially govern the voltage delay of the latter, have been determined nondestructively from an analysis of the transient and steady-state response of the electrode potential to low amplitude galvanostatic polarization under various experimental conditions viz., with different corrosion inhibitor coatings on Mg, after various periods of ageing of anode in solutions containing corrosion inhibitors, at various low temperatures etc. Using these parameters, the kinetics of film build-up or dissolution under these conditions have been monitored. The morphology of the anode film has been verified with scanning electron microscopy. Similar transients at low temperatures point out a steep rise in the film resistivity which is essentially responsible for the severe voltage delay. Finally, possible application of this technique in secondary Li batteries to improve cycling characteristics of the Li anode has been pointed out.

  6. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  7. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  8. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  9. Passive Ball Capture Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

  10. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  11. Passive focus sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Knop, Karl

    1995-05-01

    A focus-sensor module that could take the place of the visual-image control for professional large-format cameras was fabricated. In addition, a passive focus-sensing method was shown to work at arbitrary locations and orientations in the recording plane of large-format professional cameras. A focus resolution of better than 0.1 mm and a range of measurement of +/- 5 mm at the image side were obtained at a minimum level of illuminance and with an aperture f/5.6 of the imaging lens. In the current method, three out of four images that arose from various sections of the camera's objective lens were applied for triangulation. The demonstrated approach was based on a linear photodiode array and employed one-dimensional image information for focus sensing.

  12. Passive magnetic bearing system

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  13. Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2009-01-01

    Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

  14. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  15. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  16. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-02-22

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

  17. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  18. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  19. Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L; Sampson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  1. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

  2. Confocal imaging to quantify passive transport across biomimetic lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Hu, Peichi; Malmstadt, Noah

    2010-09-15

    The ability of a molecule to pass through the plasma membrane without the aid of any active cellular mechanisms is central to that molecule's pharmaceutical characteristics. Passive transport has been understood in the context of Overton's rule, which states that more lipophilic molecules cross membrane lipid bilayers more readily. Existing techniques for measuring passive transport lack reproducibility and are hampered by the presence of an unstirred layer (USL) that dominates transport across the bilayer. This report describes assays based on spinning-disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) that allow for the detailed investigation of passive transport processes and mechanisms. This approach allows the concentration field to be directly observed, allowing membrane permeability to be determined easily from the transient concentration profile data. A series of molecules of increasing hydrophilicity was constructed, and the transport of these molecules into GUVs was observed. The observed permeability trend is consistent with Overton's rule. However, the values measured depart from the simple partition-diffusion proportionality model of passive transport. This technique is easy to implement and has great promise as an approach to measure membrane transport. It is optimally suited to precise quantitative measurements of the dependence of passive transport on membrane properties.

  3. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  4. New passive helicopter detector

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometer for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometers for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications. 6 figs.

  5. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  6. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  7. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  8. Nondestructive method for measuring residual stresses in metals, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwebel, C. D.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive direct measurement of residual surface stresses in metals can be made because metal under stress has a different electrochemical solution potential than in the unstressed condition. The method uses two matched electrolytic cells to cancel extraneous effects on the actual solution potential of the metal specimen.

  9. Nondestructive test determines overload destruction characteristics of current limiter fuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, G. A.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive test predicts the time required for current limiters to blow /open the circuit/ when subjected to a given overload. The test method is based on an empirical relationship between the voltage rise across a current limiter for a fixed time interval and the time to blow.

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  11. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  13. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  15. Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

  16. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  17. Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds from Guided Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A.; Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by interface zones in the fracture and failure of composites and other bonded materials is well known. The existing nondestructive evaluation methods are generally not capable of yielding useful quantitative information of the strength of an interface.

  18. Universal non-destructive testing method in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. Yu; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Yu V.; Kondrakova, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Considered in this paper, a new method of nondestructive control based on the spectra of radio wave radiation of the microwave range wideband scanning receiver. It is experimentally shown that this method has a high accuracy in the determination of the frequency spectrum. This allows the method considered to reach a sensitivity of 5-6 Hz/nm.

  19. An Instructional Program for Training Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Vernon L.

    This document, the second portion of a two-part study, is designed to provide a guide for the formal training of technicians for nondestructive testing and inspection. Information in the guide is based on results of the industrial survey discussed in Part I. The subject matter is intended to be both flexible and comprehensive, and instructional…

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation Quality Procedure: Personnel Qualification and Certification Radiographic Testing-Levels I& II

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, K; Rikard, R D; Rodriquez, J

    2003-07-01

    This Operational Procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification and certification/recertification of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) personnel in the nondestructive testing (NDT) radiographic testing (RT) method. This document is in accordance with the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, 1996, except as amended herein.

  1. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  2. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  3. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  4. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  5. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  6. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  7. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

    2013-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids.

  8. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  9. [Passive smoking. Effects on health].

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Zalcman, G; Boffetta, P; Hirsch, A

    1993-05-15

    Passive smoking--also called involuntary or environmental smoking--is the exposure of non-smokers to the tobacco smoke released by smokers. The physico-chemical composition of tobacco smoke, and notably its contents in toxic and carcinogenic substances, is the same in the secondary stream between puffs as in the primary stream released by the smoker. The pathogenic effects of passive smoking are increasingly well known and accepted. A high incidence of respiratory tract infections and of chronic respiratory and asthmatic symptoms is observed in children. In adults, passive smoking seems to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Its repercussions on the respiratory tracts is difficult to evaluate, but there are marked by an increase of respiratory symptoms and perhaps of chronic obstructive lung diseases. Finally, it is now recognized that passive smoking is a major risk factor for primary lung cancer in non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:8235360

  10. Passivating metals on cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mckay, D.L.

    1980-01-15

    Metals such as nickel, vanadium and iron contaminating a cracking catalyst are passivated by contacting the cracking catalyst under elevated temperature conditions with antimony selenide, antimony sulfide, antimony sulfate, bismuth selenide, bismuth sulfide, or bismuth phosphate.

  11. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  15. Adaptation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to the avian system.

    PubMed

    Slaght, S S; Yang, T J; van der Heide, L

    1979-11-01

    A microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect chicken anti-rovirus antibodies. Studies of the parameters which affect the outcome of the assay with avian serum revealed two aspects for a successful assay. First, enzyme-antibody conjugates prepared by the periodate oxidation technique were found to have retained far more immunological activity than conjugates produced by a glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Second, the results indicated an unusually high affinity of chicken immunoglobulin for the microplate plastic which was mostly eliminated by a pretreatment technique with fixed fetal calf serum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared favorably with the latex passive agglutination test, yielding a titration endpoint of 1:511,000, or approximately 1,300 times more sensitive than the latex passive agglutination assay. The assay proved not only to be sensitive to less than 1 ng of specific antibody, but also to have low to moderate variance and high reliability.

  16. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  17. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  18. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  19. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  20. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  1. Nondestructive Measurement of Orbital Angular Momentum for an Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, Hugo; Bouchard, Frédéric; Grillo, Vincenzo; Sit, Alicia; Frabboni, Stefano; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-10-01

    Free electrons with a helical phase front, referred to as "twisted" electrons, possess an orbital angular momentum (OAM) and, hence, a quantized magnetic dipole moment along their propagation direction. This intrinsic magnetic moment can be used to probe material properties. Twisted electrons thus have numerous potential applications in materials science. Measuring this quantity often relies on a series of projective measurements that subsequently change the OAM carried by the electrons. In this Letter, we propose a nondestructive way of measuring an electron beam's OAM through the interaction of this associated magnetic dipole with a conductive loop. Such an interaction results in the generation of induced currents within the loop, which are found to be directly proportional to the electron's OAM value. Moreover, the electron experiences no OAM variations and only minimal energy losses upon the measurement, and, hence, the nondestructive nature of the proposed technique.

  2. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  3. Magnetic field exposure in a nondestructive testing operation.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Esmen, Nurtan A; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Marsh, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive testing is any technique used to inspect the integrity of a manufactured item without diminishing its future usefulness. Magnetic particle inspection is one type of nondestructive testing that uses electromagnetism in the inspection procedure, thus potentially exposing the operator to magnetic fields. During magnetic particle inspection, investigators took peak magnetic field measurements of 8 turbine engine shafts at a turbine engine overhaul and repair center. They recorded 95 peak magnetic field measurements, ranging from < 0.1 to 29.27 mT. The exposure values measured were among the highest reported in the occupational setting. Further work is needed to characterize magnetic field exposures in magnetic particle inspection operations--in particular, by differentiating magnetic field magnitude by current frequency--and to understand exposure as it relates to different types of magnetic particle inspection devices.

  4. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  5. Investigation into methods of nondestructive evaluation of masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, J. L.; Atkinson, R. H.; Baur, J. C.

    1982-02-01

    Six nondestructive evaluation (NDE) test methods were investigated to assess their potential for strength and condition evaluation of masonry using unmodified commercially available equipment. The methods were: vibration, rebound hammer, penetration, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mechanical pulse velocity, and acoustic-mechanical pulse. These methods were applied to two wythe cantilever wall specimens. Companion small scale specimens, specimens removed from the walls subsequent to the NDE test, and in the wall specimens were tested to destruction to provide compression, shear, and flexural strength data for correlation studies. Results indicated that strength properties of the masonry tested could be estimated generally by some of the NDE methods considered. Investigation of the acoustic-mechanical pulse method indicated that consistent measurements could be obtained and that flaws could be detected. Nondestructive methods offer a means of relative quality assessment and flaw detection, and that some modifications to equipment would enhance efficacy of the methods.

  6. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  7. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  8. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    PubMed

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  9. Evaluation of an electric field sensor for nondestructive material inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanasundaram, Kayatri; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    An electric field sensor is fabricated on a 125 micron thick flexible dielectric substrate for electromagnetic (EM) nondestructive material inspection at 915 MHz. The sensor consists of an electrically short dipole antenna and a radio frequency (RF) diode detector connected to a pair of high impedance screen printed carbon lines. The DC component of the rectified diode voltage conveyed across the high impedance lines is measured using a data acquisition circuit. Sensor measurements are validated with simulated data for a conformal patch antenna operating at 915 MHz. Sensor performance for EM nondestructive testing (NDT) is evaluated using phantom defects in low loss dielectric slabs. Preliminary results indicate sensor utility for EM NDT and support further testing on realistic defects.

  10. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  12. Uranium holdup in concrete floors: a comparison of nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, T.L.; Dedo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, Babcock and Wilcox ceased operations at its high-enriched uranium conversion facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Incorporated in the Company's action was the responsibility to clean up, recover and/or identify any an all uranium that might be held up in processing equipment, piping, and the building. By 1980, most of the historical inventory difference had been recovered from the equipment and piping, which had been removed from the plant. It was anticipated that over the 20-yr history of this facility, some special nuclear material (SNM) would be embedded in the floors of the building. The objective of this work was to develop a method to measure this material nondestructively and as accurately as possible. This paper illustrates two nondestructive methods used at the Apollo facility and then presents a comparison of the NDA to the results of destructive recovery.

  13. Enhancing quality control in transportation construction through nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Martinelli, David R.; Petro, Samer H.

    1999-02-01

    This paper addresses the growing need for modern nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for quality control during the construction/fabrication stages of transportation infrastructure. While the use of NDE techniques for in-service monitoring of infrastructure is increasing, very little effort is currently being made to use NDE for construction quality control. This paper proposes the use of modern NDE techniques for inspection of materials and quality control during construction of transportation infrastructure. The paper also discuses the use of conventional nondestructive and mildly destructive techniques. Examples of potential NDE applications for quality control in transportation construction have been presented. A short discussion on current impediments to NDE field use and possible solutions has been included.

  14. Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

    2002-05-22

    From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

  15. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of critical composite material structural elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, John C., Jr.; Lesko, John J.; Weyers, R.

    1996-11-01

    A small span bridge that has suffered corrosive deterioration of a number of the steel structural members is in the process of being rehabilitated with glass and carbon fiber reinforced, pultruded polymer structural beams. As part of a comprehensive research program to develop methods for modeling long term durability of the composite material, nondestructive evaluation if being used to provide a preliminary assessment of the initial condition of the beams as well as to monitor the deterioration of the beams during service.

  17. Nondestructive Inspection by Using Scattering and Spectra in Terahertz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Takayuki; Yamashita, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki

    In this paper, we show that the nondestructive detection of chemicals hidden in envelopes can be achieved using terahertz waves in a simple two-step procedure: First, scattering of the terahertz waves is an indicator of the presence of powders in the envelope; second, the identification of the chemicals is done by spectral fingerprinting. In addition, we examined the possibility of measurement by diffuse reflection.

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

  19. The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

    2004-08-01

    Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

  20. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  1. Detection and sizing of underbead cracks using ultrasonic nondestructive examination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, J.D.; Wierzbicki, W.M.

    1982-02-11

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) will detect three mil deep underbead cracks in welds joining thin walled iridium hemishells. A correlation was developed to relate the amplitude of the signal reflected from the crack with crack wall area. The observed cracks occur in the weld underbead in the arc taper area during encapsulation of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets for thermoelectric generators used in deep space exploration.

  2. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  3. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-07-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ∼83 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ∼10 nm thick BP flake was used. PMID:27283027

  4. Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H.; Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A.; Beard, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

  5. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  6. The anodic passivation of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.

    1983-10-01

    The anodic passivation of Li has been characterized at room temperature in a variety of electrolytes (propylene carbonate, thionyl chloride, sulfur dioxide), as a function of convection and current density and in the presence of water and other impurities. In thionyl chloride the effect of salt concentration (0.5-4.5M, LiA1C1/sub 4/) and acidity (0.5-3M, A1C1/sub 3/) has been studied. The evidence accumulated suggests that anodic passivation is caused by anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of electrolyte salt in superficial anolyte.

  7. Extraction of thermal Green's function using diffuse fields: a passive approach applied to thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the field of non-destructive evaluation, defect detection and visualization can be performed exploiting different techniques relying either on an active or a passive approach. In the following paper the passive technique is investigated due to its numerous advantages and its application to thermography is explored. In previous works, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the Green's function between any pair of points of a sensing grid by using noise originated from diffuse fields in acoustic environments. The extraction of the Green's function can be achieved by cross-correlating these random recorded waves. Averaging, filtering and length of the measured signals play an important role in this process. This concept is here applied in an NDE perspective utilizing thermal fluctuations present on structural materials. Temperature variations interacting with thermal properties of the specimen allow for the characterization of the material and its health condition. The exploitation of the thermographic image resolution as a dense grid of sensors constitutes the basic idea underlying passive thermography. Particular attention will be placed on the creation of a proper diffuse thermal field, studying the number, placement and excitation signal of heat sources. Results from numerical simulations will be presented to assess the capabilities and performances of the passive thermal technique devoted to defect detection and imaging of structural components.

  8. WASTE CRATE ASSAY SYSTEM (WCAS) : ASSAY SOLUTIONS FOR VERY LARGE REMOTE HANDLED CRATES

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O.; Rinard, Phillip M.; Li, T. K.; Romero, M.; Hiruta, K.; Nasuno, S.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed and fabricated to measure the plutonium content in large remote handled (RH) waste crates. The waste crate assay system (WCAS) was developed under an agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL), and BNFL Instruments Inc. (BII) to measure the plutonium content in the waste generated in the Rokkasho reprocessing facility. The primary goal of the design was to produce an assay system for large waste containers. The system also includes 200-L drum pallet assay capability. The measurements are based on neutron-time correlation counting of the passive neutron emissions from the 240Pu, and the plutonium isotopic ratios are used to calculate the total plutonium. The system is designed for both RH waste and low-activity plutonium waste. The system permits the measurement of the singles, doubles, and triples rates and the multiplicity mode analysis is used together with the 'add-a-source' method to correct for the matrix materials in the crates. In the multiplicity analysis, the efficiency for counting the neutrons emitted from the crate is directly calculated from the three measured rates. For improved detectability limits, advanced methods have been incorporated in the WCAS-A to reduce the cosmic-ray neutron backgrounds. These methods include statistical filters and truncation of high-multiplicity events. The paper describes the WCAS-A design, performance, and calibration.

  9. Infrared thermal wave nondestructive testing for rotor blades in wind turbine generators non-destructive evaluation and damage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi bin; Zhang, Cun-lin; Wu, Nai-ming; Duan, Yu-xia; Li, Hao

    2009-07-01

    The rotor blades are key components in wind turbine generators. A visual inspection of the laminated shells for delaminations, air pockets, missing/disoriented fabric etc. is in most cases also not possible due to the manufacturing process, so Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT & E) techniques for assessing the integrity of rotor blades structure are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of wind turbine generators due to maintenance. Nowadays, Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing (Pulsed thermography) is commonly used for assessing composites. This research work utilizes Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing system (EchoTherm, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc.) to inspect a specimen with embedded defects (i.e. foreign matter and air inclusions) in different depth which is a part of rotor blades in wind turbine generators, we have successfully identified defects including foreign matter and air inclusions, and discovered a defective workmanship. The system software allows us to simultaneously view and analyze the results for an entire transition.

  10. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  11. Lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  12. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  13. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  14. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  15. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  16. [Passive smoking--active killer].

    PubMed

    Palavra, Irena Rojnić; Franelić, Iva Pejnović; Milanović, Sanja Musić; Puljić, Kresimir

    2013-01-01

    Although still not perceived in this way, passive smoking is a public health issue of great importance. World Health Organization estimates that as a result of passive exposure to tobacco smoke each year 600,000 people die, of which 165,000 children. There are 33% of men, 35% of women and 40% of children who do not smoke, but are exposed to second hand smoke, and still only 11% of the world population is protected by adequate smoke-free legislation. Scientific literature provides evidence that passive exposure to tobacco smoke can result in numerous adverse health effects: asthma and allergies, respiratory infections and (middle) ear infections, cancers of various localization, accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, retardation of growth and development in children, and in pregnancy it can lead to congenital anomalies and premature birth as well as lower body weight and length of the child. Certainly, the scariest consequence of all is sudden infant death syndrome, also called "death in the crib". Smoke-free policies have proven their effectiveness, but while implementing the laws, it is necessary to raise public awareness of the hazards of, both active and passive, exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:24490334

  17. Monitored passive-solar buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    Selected performance results from six monitored passive and hybrid solar heated buildings are presented. These employ: a two story trombe wall; a thermosyphoning solar air heater with rock bin storage; a greenhouse; a composite concrete and water trombe wall; two story sunspace; and, for a mobile/modular home, direct gain and roof pond.

  18. New Rapid Spore Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  19. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  20. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  1. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described.

  2. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  3. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  4. Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M., III

    1976-01-01

    Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

  5. Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Griffa, Michele; Bas, Pierre-Yves Le; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique in seismic applications (e.g., to image reservoirs of oil). Its standard implementation cannot account for multiple scattering/reverberation. For this reason it has not yet found application in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper applies RTM imaging to NDE applications in bounded samples, where reverberation is always present. This paper presents a fully experimental implementation of RTM, whereas in seismic applications, only part of the procedure is done experimentally. A modified RTM imaging condition is able to localize scatterers and locations of disbonding. Experiments are conducted on aluminum samples with controlled scatterers.

  6. Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real-time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false-color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real-time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  7. Terahertz real-time imaging for nondestructive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  8. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  9. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  10. Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

  11. Potential techniques for non-destructive evaluation of cable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.; Mattson, Bengt; Stenberg, Bengt; Oestman, Erik

    This paper describes the connection between mechanical degradation of common cable materials, in radiation and elevated temperature environments, and density increases caused by the oxidation which leads to this degradation. Two techniques based on density changes are suggested as potential non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures which may be applicable to monitoring the mechanical condition of cable materials in power plant environments. The first technique is direct measurement of density changes, via a density gradient column, using small shavings removed from the surface of cable jackets at selected locations. The second technique is computed X-ray tomography, utilizing a portable scanning device.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations. [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics

  13. Magnetic mechanisms of magnetic flux leakage nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-10-01

    The widely applied magnetic flux leakage (MFL) nondestructive testing for ferrous materials has been simply explained by "MFL escaping from defects and being induced is exactly the MFL testing principle," with a rough application for evaluation. Hence, we analyze the "escape" course of MFL generation using magnetic refraction and explain the reason why the MFL technology really exists in practice. Furthermore, we also point out that the presently so-called MFL testing technique essentially hides a different signal component arising from bump-shaped defects features unlike the MFL caused by concave-shaped ones, explained by another forming mechanism.

  14. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)

  15. Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

  16. [Ionizing radiation in the aeronautics industry. Non-destructive testing].

    PubMed

    La Verde, R; Travaglini, C

    1983-08-25

    The constant increase in the non-military use of nuclear energy in various fields induced this study of one particular field: the aero industry. Alitalia has been using gammagraphy and industrial metallography for nondestructive testing for over 20 years. Workers exposed to ionising radiations at work are protected by precisely detailed standards based on extremely rigorous national and international legislation. The health and protection of these workers is entrusted to a Company Doctor and a Qualified Specialist. The latter is thought to be indispensable since he is responsible for primary preventions as well as prompt diagnosis.

  17. Nondestructive testing of surface-bonded piezoelectric patch actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Johannes K.; Krohn, Nils; Nixdorf, Klaus; Luetze, Steffen; Herold-Schmidt, Ursula; Busse, Gerhard

    1999-07-01

    Introduction of new technologies to aerospace applications necessarily requires methods of non-destructive testing suitable to evaluate structural integrity. This important task also occurred when it was decided to develop and manufacture a large Fin-Box-Demonstrator equivalent to a fighter aircraft tail equipped with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators between DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Military Aircraft Division and DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology. The objective of this project is to prove that structural vibrations of a fighter aircraft tail fin due to buffeting can be damped actively by means of surface bonded piezoceramic actuators.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  19. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  1. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, P. C.; Schultz, F. J.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1995-05-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis.

  2. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  3. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  4. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1995-01-03

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source) and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field. 7 figures.

  5. Gamma neutron assay method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jerald D.; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Greenwood, Reginald C.

    1995-01-01

    The gamma neutron assay technique is an alternative method to standard safeguards techniques for the identification and assaying of special nuclear materials in a field or laboratory environment, as a tool for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons, and to determine the isotopic ratios for a blend-down program on uranium. It is capable of determining the isotopic ratios of fissionable material from the spontaneous or induced fission of a sample to within approximately 0.5%. This is based upon the prompt coincidence relationships that occur in the fission process and the proton conservation and quasi-conservation of nuclear mass (A) that exists between the two fission fragments. The system is used in both passive (without an external neutron source and active (with an external neutron source) mode. The apparatus consists of an array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors electronically connected to determine coincident events. The method can also be used to assay radioactive waste which contains fissile material, even in the presence of a high background radiation field.

  6. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    PubMed

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  7. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  8. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  9. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  10. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  11. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainieri, C.; Marra, A.; Rainieri, G. M.; Gargaro, D.; Pepe, M.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented.

  12. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies.

  13. Passive immunization in murine mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A R; Halde, C; Vedros, N A

    1983-11-25

    Antibody raised in mice against mycelial homogenates of Rhizomucor pusillus was effective in passive immunization against pulmonary and disseminated mucormycosis (phycomycosis) in immunocompromised mice. Mice intranasally inoculated and infected with Rh. pusillus and treated with antisera had a statistically significant increased resistance to infection and a diminished secondary dissemination of viable fungal fragments. Histological examination of infected lung tissues showed that antibody treated animals were apparently able to degrade hyphal fragments.

  14. Passive Neutron Detection at Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Ely, James H.; Keller, Paul E.; McConn, Ronald J.

    2008-03-01

    Radiation portal monitor systems have been deployed to screen for illicit trafficking of radioactive materials at international border crossings. This report reviews some of the neutron detection requirements and capabilities of passive detection systems used for such applications. Simulations show the effects of cargo materials on neutron spectra, different detector geometries, using a large-array of neutron detectors, and the effects of backgrounds including “ship effect” neutrons.

  15. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  16. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  17. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Deschamps, Frédéric; Jurca, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Exposure to passive smoking at work has been forbidden for few years in France. This study's aim is to estimate the prevalence of passive smoking at work (PSW), the characteristics of illegal passive smoking and to identify eventual respiratory effects. Methods. Occupational practitioners (OPs) of a French county of 320,000 wage earners were contacted by mail. Then OP answered questions from a standardized questionnaire. These questions concerned the practised job, exposure features linked to PSW and health effects in relationship with second-hand smoke in workplace, and the focus on nonsmoker encountered by OP during the most recent occupational medical examination. Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%). Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%), age between 40 and 49 years (41.2%) and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%). Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%). Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers. PMID:21991448

  18. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  19. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Interior design for passive solar homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  1. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  2. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  3. HIGH ENERGY DELAYED GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY FOR PLUTONIUM ASSAY OF SPENT REACTOR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Smith, L. E.; Misner, Alex C.

    2011-07-18

    Nuclear safeguards requires accountancy of plutonium present in spent reactor fuels. Current non-destructive methods do not directly measure plutonium content but instead rely on indirect measurements that require operator declarations of the fuel history. Delayed gamma spectroscopy is one method being investigated which can overcome these limitations. Delayed gamma rays from fission depend on the isotopic fission yield of the fissile isotope, and thus can be used to fingerprint the isotopes undergoing fission. However, difficulties arise because of the intense background due to long lived fission radionuclides already present in the fuel. We report on progress on simulated measurements of the delayed gamma spectrum in the presence of this background, using neutrons from a D-T source thermalized in an interrogation chamber slipped over a fuel assembly. By focusing on delayed gammas in the 3 to 4 MeV range, the passive spectrum becomes negligible, while allowing the preferential attenuation of the passive background to acceptable levels.

  4. Nondestructive characterization of corrosion protective coatings on airframe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Jochen Peter

    Corrosion protective polymeric aircraft coating systems are continuously subject to ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and humidity exposure causing the coating to fail. This leaves the Aluminum alloy aircraft skin unprotected and frequent paint replacement becomes necessary creating huge amounts of hazardous waste. Current efforts are directed to enhance the coating lifetime and new nondestructive inspection methodologies are needed for monitoring the coating performance periodically. In the scope of this dissertation, several methods were considered to identify potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) metrics. The approach then concentrated on Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) which contributed to all main research topics: coating inhomogeneity, coating weathering and interface condition. Developing a new data analysis procedure based on acoustic reflectivity, it became possible to determine the acoustic impedance of the coatings as a function of different weathering exposures. In addition, SAM and thermal techniques were employed to detect microscale sites of coating delamination and early stages of corrosion under a visibly intact coating. Here, the newly developed fan (hot air) thermography was introduced for interface studies. The NDE measurements were benchmarked with results from white light interferometry and electrochemical techniques.

  5. Operation of the EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation Center. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemzek, T.A.; Stone, R.M.; Schoenecke, P.L.; Ammirato, F.V.; Becker, F.L.; Behravesh, M.; Brown, S.D.; Pherigo, G.L.; Wilson, G.H. III

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded nondestructive evaluation (NDE) project activities carried out by the J.A. Jones Applied Research Company. The primary support for this project is provided through Contract RP 1570-2 with supplementary funding provided by interested EPRI Owners' Groups. The purpose of the project is to design, construct, organize, staff, equip and operate a dedicated facility for providing improved and field qualified NDE equipment, procedures, and personnel training to the electric utility industry. The entire scope of this work is presented with major emphasis placed on the activities in 1983, the second full year of operation in the Nondestructive Evaluation Center facility. The NDE Center is providing a bridge to transfer useful research and development results to routine field application. This is being accomplished through qualification and refinement for field use of equipment and techniques developed in EPRI sponsored and other related projects, realistic training of utility designated personnel and organization of greater involvement of the academic community in NDE education. Significant assistance has been provided to the electric utility industry under this project in the form of improved, field ready NDE equipment and procedures; critically needed documentation on present inspection method capability; mechanisms for demonstrating the effectivenesss of techniques being used; rapid response assistance for critical, short-term problems; and training for generic industry needs.

  6. Non-destructive assessment of parchment deterioration by optical methods.

    PubMed

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Schechter, Israel

    2007-08-01

    A non-destructive and non-invasive method for quantitative characterization of parchment deterioration, based on spectral measurements, is proposed. Deterioration due to both natural aging (ancient parchments) and artificial aging (achieved by means of controlled UV irradiation and temperature treatment) was investigated. The effect of aging on parchment native fluorescence was correlated with its deterioration condition. Aging causes fluorescence intensity drop, spectral shift of the main peak, and an overall change in the fluorescence spectral features. Digital color imaging analysis based on visible reflectance from the parchment surface was also applied, and the correspondent color components (RGB) were successively correlated with the state of parchment deterioration/aging. The fluorescence and color imaging data were validated by analysis of historical parchments, aged between 50 and 2000 years and covering a large variety of states of deterioration. The samples were independently assessed by traditional microscopy methods. We conclude that the proposed optical method qualifies well as a non-destructive tool for rapid assessment of the stage of parchment deterioration.

  7. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  8. Nondestructive Biological Evidence Collection with Alternative Swabs and Adhesive Lifters.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Dane T; Mealy, Jamia L; Lane, J Nicholas; Parsons, M Neal; Bathrick, Abigail S; Slack, Donia P

    2016-03-01

    In forensic science, biological material is typically collected from evidence via wet/dry double swabbing with cotton swabs, which is effective but can visibly damage an item's surface. When an item's appearance must be maintained, dry swabbing and tape-lifting may be employed as collection techniques that are visually nondestructive to substrates' surfaces. This study examined the efficacy of alternative swab matrices and adhesive lifters when collecting blood and fingerprints from glass, painted drywall, 100% cotton, and copy paper. Data were evaluated by determining the percent profile and quality score for each STR profile generated. Hydraflock(®) swabs, BVDA Gellifters(®) , and Scenesafe FAST™ tape performed as well as or better than cotton swabs when collecting fingerprints from painted drywall and 100% cotton. Collection success was also dependent on the type of biological material sampled and the substrate on which it was deposited. These results demonstrated that alternative swabs and adhesive lifters can be effective for nondestructive DNA collection from various substrates. PMID:27404622

  9. Microwave nondestructive detection of chloride in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Aaron D.; Bois, Karl J.; Zoughi, Reza; Nowak, Paul S.

    1999-12-02

    Preliminary results pertaining to the near-field microwave nondestructive detection and evaluation of chloride in cement paste and mortar specimens are presented. The technique used for this purpose utilizes an open-ended rectangular waveguide at the aperture of which the reflection properties of the specimens are measured. It is shown that the magnitude of reflection coefficient is a useful parameter for detecting chloride in these specimens. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of chloride present in these various specimens, at the time of mixing, can also be determined. Reflection property measurements were conducted in S-band (2.6 GHz-3.95 GHz) and X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) for two sets of four mortar specimens with 0.50 and 0.60 water-to-cement ratio and varying salt (NaCl) contents added to the mixing water used in producing these specimens. It is shown that the reflection properties of these materials vary considerably as a function of their chloride content. Also, by monitoring the daily variation in the reflection coefficient of each specimen during the curing period, the effect of chloride on curing can be nondestructively ascertained. Finally, it is shown that the detection and evaluation of chloride content in cement based materials can be performed using a simple comparative process with respect to a non-contaminated specimen.

  10. Nondestructive sampling of insect DNA from defensive secretion.

    PubMed

    Donald, H M; Wood, C W; Benowitz, K M; Johnson, R A; Brodie, E D; Formica, V A

    2012-09-01

    Nondestructive techniques to obtain DNA from organisms can further genetic analyses such as estimating genetic diversity, dispersal and lifetime fitness, without permanently removing individuals from the population or removing body parts. Possible DNA sources for insects include frass, exuviae, and wing and leg clippings. However, these are not feasible approaches for organisms that cannot be removed from their natural environment for long periods or when adverse effects of tissue removal must be avoided. This study evaluated the impacts and efficacy of extracting haemolymph from a defensive secretion to obtain DNA for amplification of microsatellites using a nondestructive technique. A secretion containing haemolymph was obtained from Bolitotherus cornutus (the forked fungus beetle) by perturbation of the defensive gland with a capillary tube. A laboratory experiment demonstrated that the sampling methodology had no impact on mortality, reproductive success or gland expression. To evaluate the quality of DNA obtained in natural samples, haemolymph was collected from 187 individuals in the field and successfully genotyped at nine microsatellite loci for 95.7% of samples. These results indicate that haemolymph-rich defensive secretions contain DNA and can be sampled without negative impacts on the health or fitness of individual insects.

  11. Nondestructive Biological Evidence Collection with Alternative Swabs and Adhesive Lifters.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Dane T; Mealy, Jamia L; Lane, J Nicholas; Parsons, M Neal; Bathrick, Abigail S; Slack, Donia P

    2016-03-01

    In forensic science, biological material is typically collected from evidence via wet/dry double swabbing with cotton swabs, which is effective but can visibly damage an item's surface. When an item's appearance must be maintained, dry swabbing and tape-lifting may be employed as collection techniques that are visually nondestructive to substrates' surfaces. This study examined the efficacy of alternative swab matrices and adhesive lifters when collecting blood and fingerprints from glass, painted drywall, 100% cotton, and copy paper. Data were evaluated by determining the percent profile and quality score for each STR profile generated. Hydraflock(®) swabs, BVDA Gellifters(®) , and Scenesafe FAST™ tape performed as well as or better than cotton swabs when collecting fingerprints from painted drywall and 100% cotton. Collection success was also dependent on the type of biological material sampled and the substrate on which it was deposited. These results demonstrated that alternative swabs and adhesive lifters can be effective for nondestructive DNA collection from various substrates.

  12. Nondestructive tribochemistry-assisted nanofabrication on GaAs surface

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Dong, Hanshan; Yu, Bingjun; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-01

    A tribochemistry-assisted method has been developed for nondestructive surface nanofabrication on GaAs. Without any applied electric field and post etching, hollow nanostructures can be directly fabricated on GaAs surfaces by sliding a SiO2 microsphere under an ultralow contact pressure in humid air. TEM observation on the cross-section of the fabricated area shows that there is no appreciable plastic deformation under a 4 nm groove, confirming that GaAs can be removed without destruction. Further analysis suggests that the fabrication relies on the tribochemistry with the participation of vapor in humid air. It is proposed that the formation and breakage of GaAs-O-Si bonding bridges are responsible for the removal of GaAs material during the sliding process. As a nondestructive and conductivity-independent method, it will open up new opportunities to fabricate defect-free and well-ordered nucleation positions for quantum dots on GaAs surfaces. PMID:25761910

  13. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  14. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  15. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  16. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  17. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  18. Assessment of Microstructure in Grade T22 Cr-Mo Steel by Nondestructive Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiattisaksri, P.; Meir, S.; Poncelow, J.; Madeni, J. C.; Hellner, R. L.; Coleman, K.; Liu, S.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    Nondestructive techniques are being developed for rapid inspection to estimate the remaining service life for power generating plants. Low frequency impedance measurements with ultrasonic resonant wave enhancement to evaluate the precipitation of carbides and to characterize the different microstructures during aging are being developed. The simultaneous use of a combination of two nondestructive techniques for assessing microstructure evolution is illustrated.

  19. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The application and interpretation of specific ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques are studied. The Kramers-Kronig or generalized dispersion relationships are applied to nondestructive techniques. Progress was made on an improved determination of material properties of composites inferred from elastic constant measurements.

  20. Automated Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Characterizing Ceramic and Metallic Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Pastila, P.; Koehl, E.R.; Wheeler, B.; Deemer, C.; Forster, G.A.

    2002-09-19

    The objective of this work was to develop a nondestructive (NDE), cost-effective and reliable method to assess the condition of rigid ceramic hot gas filters. The work was intended to provide an end user, as well as filter producers, with a nondestructive method to assess the ''quality'' or status of the filters.

  1. Performance assessment of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry for spent nuclear fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J.; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2013-11-01

    Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is one of several nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques being integrated into systems to measure spent fuel as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Spent Fuel Project. The NGSI Spent Fuel Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration to measure plutonium in, and detect diversion of fuel pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. SINRD shows promising capability in determining the 239Pu and 235U content in spent fuel. SINRD is a relatively low-cost and lightweight instrument, and it is easy to implement in the field. The technique makes use of the passive neutron source existing in a spent fuel assembly, and it uses ratios between the count rates collected in fission chambers that are covered with different absorbing materials. These ratios are correlated to key attributes of the spent fuel assembly, such as the total mass of 239Pu and 235U. Using count rate ratios instead of absolute count rates makes SINRD less vulnerable to systematic uncertainties. Building upon the previous research, this work focuses on the underlying physics of the SINRD technique: quantifying the individual impacts on the count rate ratios of a few important nuclides using the perturbation method; examining new correlations between count rate ratio and mass quantities based on the results of the perturbation study; quantifying the impacts on the energy windows of the filtering materials that cover the fission chambers by tallying the neutron spectra before and after the neutrons go through the filters; and identifying the most important nuclides that cause cooling-time variations in the count rate ratios. The results of these studies show that 235U content has a major impact on the SINRD signal in addition to the 239Pu content. Plutonium-241 and 241Am are the two main nuclides responsible for the variation in the count rate ratio with cooling time. In short, this work

  2. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

  3. Combining Passive Thermography and Acoustic Emission for Large Area Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.Keywords: Thermal nondestructive evaluation, fatigue damage detection, aerospace composite inspection, acoustic emission, passive thermography

  4. Passive monitoring using traffic noise recordings - case study on the Steinachtal Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Stähler, Simon; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Civil structures age continuously. The early recognition of potentially critical damages is an important economical issue, but also one of public safety. Continuous tracking of small changes in the medium by using passive methods would offer an extension to established active non-destructive testing procedures at relatively low cost. Here we present a case study of structural monitoring using continuous recordings of traffic noise on a 200 meter long reinforced concrete highway bridge in Germany. Over two months of continuos geophone records are used in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz. Using passive image interferometry, evaluation of hourly cross-correlations between recordings at pairs of receivers yield velocity variations in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. We were able to correlate our outcomes with temperature measurements of the same two month period. The measured velocity changes scale with the temperature variations with on average a dv/v of 0.064% per degree Celsius. This value is in accordance with other studies of concrete response to temperature, confirming that we are able to observe subtle changes with physical origin. It is shown that traffic noise is temporally homogenenous enough to fulfill the requirements of passive image interferometry.

  5. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  6. Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method.

    PubMed

    Brozovsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures.

  7. Gibbs free energy assisted passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Tansel, T.; Hostut, M.; Ergun, Y.; Aydinli, A.

    2016-05-01

    Reduction of surface leakage is a major challenge in most photodetectors that requires the elimination of surface oxides on etched mesas during passivation. Engineering the passivation requires close attention to chemical reactions that take place at the interface during the process. In particular, removal of surface oxides may be controlled via Gibbs reactivity. We have compared electrical performance of type-II superlattice photodetectors, designed for MWIR operation, passivated by different passivation techniques. We have used ALD deposited Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, PECVD deposited SiO2, Si3N4 and sulphur containing octadecanethiol (ODT) selfassembled monolayers (SAM) passivation layers on InAs/GaSb p-i-n superlattice photodetectors with cutoff wavelength at 5.1 μm. In this work, we have compared the result of different passivation techniques which are done under same conditions, same epitaxial structure and same fabrication processes. We have found that ALD deposited passivation is directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the passivation material. Gibbs free energies of the passivation layer can directly be compared with native surface oxides to check the effectiveness of the passivation layer before the experimental study.

  8. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  9. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  10. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. PMID:6428927

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Developed for Certifying Composite Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Konno, Kevin E.; Martin, Richard E.; Thompson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing readiness of composite rotors and certification of flywheels depend in part on the maturity of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology for process optimization and quality assurance, respectively. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the capabilities and limitations of x-ray-computed tomography and radiography, as well as advanced ultrasonics were established on NDE ring and rotor standards with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches and drilled holes. Also, intentionally seeded delamination, tow break, and insert of bagging material were introduced in hydroburst-rings to study the NDE detection capabilities of such anomalies and their effect on the damage tolerance and safe life margins of subscale rings and rotors. Examples of possible occurring flaws or anomalies in composite rings as detected by NDE and validated by destructive metallography are shown. The general NDE approach to ensure the quality of composite rotors and to help in the certification of flywheels is briefly outlined.

  12. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  13. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-11-01

    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  14. Moving Beyond Nondestructive Examination to Proactive Management of Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-07-01

    There is growing interest in life extensions to enable longer term operation (LTO) for both existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) and proposed new NPPs. In order to justify an initial license extension for the 40-60 year period, new non-destructive examination (NDE) approaches have been developed and deployed by NPP operators in their Aging Management Programs (AMPs). However, to achieve the goals of even longer term operation, and specifically for the USA in looking at methodologies to support subsequent license renewal periods (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), it is necessary to understand the capabilities of current NDE methods to detect, monitor and trend degradation and hence enable timely implementation of appropriate corrective actions. This paper discusses insights from past experience, the state-of-the-art, and current activities in the move towards providing a capacity for proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) to support NPP LTO.

  15. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  16. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.

  17. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds. PMID:24007051

  18. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-15

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  19. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  1. Concrete nondestructive tests conducted in 225-B building

    SciTech Connect

    Vollert, F.R.

    1996-09-19

    In 1982, Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL), Portland Cement Association conducted additional sonic concrete nondestructive testing (NDT) in the Service Gallery on the south process (hot) cell walls and adjacent floor slab, including the locations where significant concrete degradation had been found by the 1981 sonic NDT. In the ceiling slabs, the anchor areas For the monorail hangers, and some visible cracks were sonic NDT inspected. CTL concluded that the hot cell walls have no significant reduction of structural capacity due to concrete degradation. Epoxy injection repairs were recommended by CTL for the damaged anchor areas and through depth cracks in the reinforced concrete ceiling slabs. When completed, the epoxy repairs should be inspected and confirmed with follow on sonic NDT. Lateral bracing for the Monorail system is also recommended to relieve the lateral loads on the hangers.

  2. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  3. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  4. A sparse reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic images in nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Neves Junior, Flávio; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, ω-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan-about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  6. Microwave Nondestructive Evaluation of Dielectric Materials with a Metamaterial Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreiber, Daniel; Gupta, Mool; Cravey, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel microwave Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) sensor was developed in an attempt to increase the sensitivity of the microwave NDE method for detection of defects small relative to a wavelength. The sensor was designed on the basis of a negative index material (NIM) lens. Characterization of the lens was performed to determine its resonant frequency, index of refraction, focus spot size, and optimal focusing length (for proper sample location). A sub-wavelength spot size (3 dB) of 0.48 lambda was obtained. The proof of concept for the sensor was achieved when a fiberglass sample with a 3 mm diameter through hole (perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave) was tested. The hole was successfully detected with an 8.2 cm wavelength electromagnetic wave. This method is able to detect a defect that is 0.037 lambda. This method has certain advantages over other far field and near field microwave NDE methods currently in use.

  7. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  8. Characterization of pottery fragments by nondestructive neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Barone, Germana; Kockelmann, Winfried

    2005-11-15

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of pottery fragments coming from the town of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy). The samples belong to very different historical periods, from 18th century B.C. to 16th century A.D., and have finely decorated surfaces. Time-of-flight neutron-diffraction measurements were performed in order to obtain a quantitative identification of the mineralogical composition of the samples. A good determination of the relative weight fractions of the phases was obtained using the Rietveld analysis method. The application of neutron-diffraction technique allowed us to carry out a detailed analysis in a nondestructive way, so intact large fragments were investigated without damaging the precious decoration on the surface.

  9. Physical model assisted probability of detection in nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q.; Thompson, R. B.

    2011-06-23

    Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

  10. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  11. Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washer, Glenn A.; Brooks, Thomas M. B.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of efforts to investigate the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of Kevlar materials. Raman spectroscopy is a laser technique that is sensitive to molecular interactions in materials such as Kevlar, graphite and carbon used in composite materials. The overall goal of this research reported here is to evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Characterization of the Raman spectra of Kevlar yarn and strands will be presented and compared with analytical models provided in the literature. Results of testing to investigate the effects of creep and high-temperature aging on the Raman spectra will be presented.

  12. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  13. Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, L.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique for assessing bonding. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to apply induction thermography technique to evaluate adhesively bonded steel plates. Samples were fabricated with artificial defects such as air gap, foreign material, and improper adhesive filling. Induction thermography technique was found to detect defects and foreign inclusions. The sample specimen was also inspected using standard techniques such as Ultrasonic testing and Radiography testing. Defect detecting capabilities of the three techniques are compared. Induction thermography heating was FE modelled in 3D using COMSOL 3.5a. The simulated Induction thermography model was compared and validated with experimental results.

  14. Non-destructive Elemental Analysis Using Negative Muon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    A negative muon implanted into materials is captured by an atom and forms a muonic atom with emission of muonic X-rays. The X-ray energy is characteristic to the atomic number of the atom which captured the muon. By measuring the energy of the muonic X-ray induced by the negative muon implanted into the sample material with a kinetic energy tuned to stop at a chosen depth from the sample surface, the elemental composition of the sample at the specific depth from the surface is revealed. This elemental analysis method has unique in non-destructive, multi-element, and depth-selective characteristics. The method is being developed at the J-PARC/MUSE facility.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures by nonstationary thermal wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Panda, Soma Sekhara Balaji; Mude, Rupla Naik; Amarnath, Muniyappa

    2012-06-01

    Reinforced concrete structures (RCS) have potential application in civil engineering and with the advent of nuclear engineering RCS to be capable enough to withstanding a variety of adverse environmental conditions. However, failures/loss of durability of designed structures due to premature reinforcement corrosion of rebar is a major constrain. Growing concern of safety of structure due to pre-mature deterioration has led to a great demand for development of non-destructive and non-contact testing techniques for monitoring and assessing health of RCS. This paper presents an experimental investigation of rebar corrosion by non-stationary thermal wave imaging. Experimental results have been proven, proposed approach is an effective technique for identification of corrosion in rebar in the concrete samples.

  16. Experimental vortex transitional nondestructive read-out Josephson memory cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, S.; Ishida, I.; Ajisawa, Y.; Wada, Y.

    1989-01-15

    A proposal vortex transitional nondestructive read-out Josephson memory cell is successfully fabricated and tested. The memory cell consists of two superconducting loops in which a single flux quantum is stored and a two-junction interferometer gate as a sense gate. The memory cell employs vortex transitions in the superconducting loops for writing and reading data. The vortex transitional memory operation of the cell contributes to improving its sense discrimination and operating margin. The memory cell is activated by two control signals without timing control signals. Memory cell chips have been fabricated using a niobium planarization process. A +- 21% address signal current margin and a +- 33% sense gate current margin have been obtained experimentally. Successful memory operations of a cell driven by two-junction interferometer gates has been demonstrated. The single flux quantum operations of this memory cell makes it an attractive basic element for a high-speed cache memory.

  17. Optical surface contouring for non-destructive inspection of turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modarress, Dariush; Schaack, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Detection of stress cracks and other surface defects during maintenance and in-service inspection of propulsion system components, including turbine blades and combustion compartments, is presently performed visually. There is a need for a non-contact, miniaturized, and fully fieldable instrument that may be used as an automated inspection tool for inspection of aircraft engines. During this SBIR Phase 1 program, the feasibility of a ruggedized optical probe for automatic and nondestructive inspection of complex shaped objects will be established. Through a careful analysis of the measurement requirements, geometrical and optical constraints, and consideration of issues such as manufacturability, compactness, simplicity, and cost, one or more conceptual optical designs will be developed. The proposed concept will be further developed and a prototype will be fabricated during Phase 2.

  18. Remote monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of wind turbine towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Ke, Ying-Tzu; Shih, Yi-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Wind turbine towers are in need of condition monitoring so as to lower the cost of unexpected maintenance. Wind loading from turbulence and gusts can cause damage in horizontal axis wind turbines even the supporting towers. Monitoring of wind turbines in service using embedded data sensor arrays usually is not targeted at the turbine-tower interaction from the perspective of structural dynamics. In this study the remote monitoring of the tower supporting a horizontal-axis wind turbine was attempted using a microwave interferometer. The dominant frequency of one tower was found to be decreased by more than 20% in 16 months. Numerical modeling using spectral finite elements is in progress and should provide further information regarding frequency shift due to stiffness variation and added mass. Expected outcome will contribute to remote monitoring procedures and nondestructive evaluation techniques for local wind turbine structures during operation.

  19. NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD AND MEANS FOR FLAW DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Hochschild, R.

    1959-03-10

    BS>An improved method is presented for the nondestructive detection of flaws in olectrictilly conductivc articles using magnetic field. According to thc method a homogoneous mignetic field is established in the test article;it right angle" to the artyicle. A probe is aligned with its axis transverse to the translates so hat th4 probe scans the surface of the test article while the axis of the robe is transverse to the direction of translation of the article. In this manner any output current obtained in thc probe is an indication of the size and location of a flaw in the article under test, with a miiiimum of signal pick- up in the probe from the established magnetic field.

  20. On-orbit Passive Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2008-01-01

    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  1. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  2. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 150 subjects, including 50 hookah smokers, 50 passive smokers, and 50 non-smokers. Bioassay Technology Laboratory cotinine kit was used to determine salivary levels of cotinine using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at a sensitivity rate of 0.019 pg/ml. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings The highest salivary cotinine levels were recorded in hookah users (20.24 ± 5.62 ng/ml), followed by passive smokers (16.09 ± 3.51 ng/ml), in descending order. No detectable cotinine levels were observed in non-smokers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a strong and positive correlation between use of hookah and salivary cotinine levels (r = 0.932, P = 0.001). Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, salivary cotinine levels were higher in hookah smokers compared with passive smokers and non-smokers, in descending order. PMID:26885355

  3. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  4. The Role of the Russian Methodological and Training Center in providing Nondestructive Assay Technical Assistance to Russian Enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Sergey; Bezhunov, Gennady; Ryazanov, Boris; Talanov, Vladimir; Thomas, Gerald D.; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2009-10-07

    The Russian Methodological and Training center (RMTC) was initially created to provide not only personnel training in the areas of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A), but also methodological and technical assistance to the Russian government and nuclear facilities. The goal of the assistance was to promote enhancement of Russian MC&A infrastructure and modernize the MC&A systems at individual enterprises and facilities.

  5. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  6. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D; Balcomb, S A

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  7. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  8. Passive component manufacturing in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The serious downturn of optical fiber communication industry in the past three years speeds up the consolidation of passive component manufacturing. Automation activity and investment stopped due to no driving force from the volume demand. A lot of skillful but low cost labors must be needed in the future for manufacturing when the demand comes back. Except MEMS based VOA, most of components based on advanced technology seem to get delayed in most applications. Furthermore, the highly integrated products are also delayed and become uncertain, especially AWG technology. Most of the manufacturing of passive components already moved or are moving to Asia especially China. Browave already built its manufacturing factory and is almost doing all the manufacturing in Zhong Shan. Browave tries to optimize the value of Taiwan plus China, i.e., Tawan provides superior management system, quality systems and manufacturing engineering support where China provides a lot of skillful but low cost labors. Browave is now not only providing the basic elements like Couplers, Isolators, TFF add/drop filter, Thin Film based GFF (Gain Flattened Filters), but also providing "Dedicated Lines" for the components/modules/subsystems for the players who need the value as mentioned above.

  9. Applications of passivated silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Richard; Park, Chan Ho

    2012-03-01

    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the study of the applications of passivated silicon detectors, this paper shows following procedures in two categories. Painting on little pieces of silicon (Polyimid and Boxcar Red) :Took clean paint brush and painted on Polyimid and Boxcar red samples onto little pieces of sample silicon and dried for a certain number of hours in different conditions. Cooling test : usually done in 7 cycles, cool until usually -35 degrees or -40 degrees Celsius with thermoelectric cooler, dry out, evapate the moisture in the fume hood, take pictures with the microscope and check for irregularities every 1, 4 and 7 times. The results show us how the passivated silicon will act in the real experiment--the vacuum chamber and x-rays (from the radioactive source), and different atmospheric pressures simulate what it will be like in space.

  10. Passive tamper-indicating secure container

    SciTech Connect

    Bartberger, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a passive tamper-indicating secure container that has been designed to demonstrate concepts, features, and materials that can be used in passive container applications. (In a passive security system, physical phenomena provide visual indication of tampering.) The basic container {open_quotes}volume within a volume{close_quotes} assembly consists of a transparent plastic outer container and an aluminum inner container. Both containers incorporate passive, fingerprinted layers as part of the tamper-indicating container system. Many of the tamper-indicating features can be visually inspected without disassembling the container. The status of container development and potential applications for the container are addressed.

  11. SWEPP assay system version 2.0 software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.D.; East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    The INEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to WIPP, SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of Pu and other transuranic isotopes present. The code NEUT2 was originally used to perform data acquisition and reduction; the SWEPP Assay System (SAS) code replaced NEUT2 in early 1994. This document specifies the requirements for the SAS software as installed at INEL and was written to comply with RWMC (INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex) quality requirements.

  12. Slow positron studies of hydrogen activation/passivation on SiO sub 2 /Si(100) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, K.G.; Asoka-Kumar, P.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrogen atoms are one of the most common impurity species found in semiconductor systems owing to its large diffusivity, and are easily incorporated either in a controlled process like in ion implantation or in an uncontrolled process like the one at the fabrication stage. Hydrogen can passivate dangling bonds and dislocations in these systems and hence can be used to enhance the electrical properties. In a SiO{sub 2}/Si system, hydrogen can passivate electronic states at the interface and can alter the fixed or mobile charges in the oxide layer. Since hydrogen is present in almost all of the environments of SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer fabrication, the activation energy of hydrogen atoms is of paramount importance to a proper understanding of SiO{sub 2}/Si based devices and has not been measured on the technologically most important Si(100) face. There are no direct, nondestructive methods available to observe hydrogen injection into the oxide layer and subsequent diffusion. This study uses the positrons as a sensitive'', nondestructive probe to observe hydrogen interaction in the oxide layer and the interface region. We also describe a new way of characterizing the changes in the density of the interface states under a low-temperature annealing using positrons. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. C. elegans chemotaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Margie, Olivia; Palmer, Chris; Chin-Sang, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms use chemotaxis to seek out food sources, avoid noxious substances, and find mates. Caenorhabditis elegans has impressive chemotaxis behavior. The premise behind testing the response of the worms to an odorant is to place them in an area and observe the movement evoked in response to an odorant. Even with the many available assays, optimizing worm starting location relative to both the control and test areas, while minimizing the interaction of worms with each other, while maintaining a significant sample size remains a work in progress (1-10). The method described here aims to address these issues by modifying the assay developed by Bargmann et al.(1). A Petri dish is divided into four quadrants, two opposite quadrants marked "Test" and two are designated "Control". Anesthetic is placed in all test and control sites. The worms are placed in the center of the plate with a circle marked around the origin to ensure that non-motile worms will be ignored. Utilizing a four-quadrant system rather than one 2 or two 1 eliminates bias in the movement of the worms, as they are equidistant from test and control samples, regardless of which side of the origin they began. This circumvents the problem of worms being forced to travel through a cluster of other worms to respond to an odorant, which can delay worms or force them to take a more circuitous route, yielding an incorrect interpretation of their intended path. This method also shows practical advantages by having a larger sample size and allowing the researcher to run the assay unattended and score the worms once the allotted time has expired. PMID:23644543

  14. Determination of the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly by passive and active interrogation using a differential die-away instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Croft, S.; Richard, J.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Tobin, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimating the total plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly (SFA) that is based on combining information from a passive measurement of the total neutron count rate (PN) of the assayed SFA and a measure of its multiplication. While PN can be measured essentially with any non-destructive assay (NDA) technique capable of neutron detection, the measure of multiplication is, in our approach, determined by means of active interrogation using an instrument based on the Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). The DDA is a NDA technique developed within the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) project focused on the utilization of NDA techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in commercial nuclear SFA's [1]. This approach was adopted since DDA also allows determination of other SFA characteristics, such as burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time, and also allows for detection of certain types of diversion of nuclear material. The quantification of total plutonium is obtained using an analytical correlation function in terms of the observed PN and active multiplication. Although somewhat similar approaches relating Pu content with PN have been adopted in the past, we demonstrate by extensive simulation of the fuel irradiation and NDA process that our analytical method is independent of explicit knowledge of the initial enrichment, burnup, and an absolute value of the SFA's reactivity (i.e. multiplication factor). We show that when tested with MCNPX™ simulations comprising the 64 SFA NGSI Spent Fuel Library-1 we were able to determine elemental plutonium content, using just a few calibration parameters, with an average variation in the prediction of around 1-2% across the wide dynamic range of irradiation history parameters used, namely initial enrichment (IE=2-5%), burnup (BU=15-60 GWd/tU) and cooling time (CT=1-80 y). In this paper we describe the basic approach and the

  15. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  16. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  17. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  18. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.

    2012-04-01

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is investigated as a non-destructive assay technique for the determination of plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel. This approach exploits the unique isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray emission spectra detected following active interrogation with an external neutron source. A high fidelity modeling approach is described that couples radiation transport, analytical decay/depletion, and a newly developed gamma-ray emission source reconstruction code. Initially simulated and analyzed was a “one-pass” delayed gamma-ray assay that focused on the long-lived signatures. Also presented are the results of an independent study that investigated “pulsed mode” measurements, to capture the more isotope-specific, short-lived signatures. Initial modeling results outlined in this paper suggest that delayed gamma-ray assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies can be accomplished with a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available gamma-ray detectors.

  19. Overview of space propulsion systems for identifying nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of space propulsion systems will be designed to incorporate advanced health monitoring and nondestructive inspection capabilities. As a guide to help the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community impact the development of these space propulsion systems, several questions should be addressed. An overview of background and current information on space propulsion systems at both the programmatic and technical levels is provided. A framework is given that will assist the NDE community in addressing key questions raised during the 2 to 5 April 1990 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Nondestructive Evaluation Subcommittee (NDES).

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  1. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  2. Non-destructive investigations at the Dionisiac Frieze in the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Luigia; Erkul, Ercan; Jepsen, Kalle; Meier, Thomas; Vanacore, Stefano; Stefani, Grete

    2014-05-01

    The Villa of Mysteries with its Dionisiac Frieze is one of the well-known buildings of ancient Pompeii. It has been excavated in the early 20th century. Since then many initiatives have been taken for its preservation. Currently, the Frieze is investigated in detail and tests have been made to clean the wall paintings. Non-destructive investigations as infrared thermography (IR), Ground penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic measurements have been performed in order to test if these methods are well suited to reveal the walls' and paintings' structure and to identify the detachments or cracks. IR, GPR and ultrasonic measurements have different penetration capabilities and resolution in depths. So, using these three methods simultaneously can improve the knowledge of the investigated structures at several depths from millimetres and centimetres to metres. It has been tested if detachments of the paintings, cracks, or alterations of the paintings can be detected by passive and active IR measurements. 6 passive and 3 active measurements have been conducted on the Dionisiac Frieze. Lateral temperature differences present at the Frieze are mapped by passive measurements. Here, we show that temperature differences up to about 0.3°C are present and detectable. These small changes in temperature may be related to detachments, cracks, or wet areas. By active IR measurements the paintings are artificially heated by about 1°C and the cooling to normal temperature is observed and analyzed. Lateral differences in the heating and cooling behavior are related to variability in the heat absorption properties and in thermal conductivity. It is shown that detachments as well as restorative treatments are associated with changes in the thermal behavior. In order to image the construction and the condition of the investigated walls, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was measured with a 2 GHz antenna. Each profile was 1.2 m long, the spacing cross-line was 3 cm and in-line 1 mm. The

  3. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  4. Passive Phase Noise Cancellation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M. C.; Lifshitz, Ron; Karabalin, R. B.; Villanueva, L. G.; Matheny, M. H.; Roukes, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new method for reducing phase noise in oscillators, thereby improving their frequency precision. The noise reduction is realized by a passive device consisting of a pair of coupled nonlinear resonating elements that are driven parametrically by the output of a conventional oscillator at a frequency close to the sum of the linear mode frequencies. Above the threshold for parametric instability, the coupled resonators exhibit self-oscillations which arise as a response to the parametric driving, rather than by application of active feedback. We find operating points of the device for which this periodic signal is immune to frequency noise in the driving oscillator, providing a way to clean its phase noise. We present results for the effect of thermal noise to advance a broader understanding of the overall noise sensitivity and the fundamental operating limits. PMID:23004985

  5. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, Jon (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes an antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements spaced apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  6. Passive adaptive imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofsted, David

    2016-05-01

    Standard methods for improved imaging system performance under degrading optical turbulence conditions typically involve active adaptive techniques or post-capture image processing. Here, passive adaptive methods are considered where active sources are disallowed, a priori. Theoretical analyses of short-exposure turbulence impacts indicate that varying aperture sizes experience different degrees of turbulence impacts. Smaller apertures often outperform larger aperture systems as turbulence strength increases. This suggests a controllable aperture system is advantageous. In addition, sub-aperture sampling of a set of training images permits the system to sense tilts in different sub-aperture regions through image acquisition and image cross-correlation calculations. A four sub-aperture pattern supports corrections involving five realizable operating modes (beyond tip and tilt) for removing aberrations over an annular pattern. Progress to date will be discussed regarding development and field trials of a prototype system.

  7. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Kuijlaars, Jennifer S.; Mesters, Ilse; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. Aim To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. Methods All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in Limburg, the Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. Results The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11%) of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. Conclusions Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, the Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed. PMID:24809443

  8. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  9. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  10. The So-Called Japanese Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Irwin

    The principal claim of this paper is that the Japanese passive consists of two different constructions, each derived from a distinct deep structure and each having associated with it a distinct set of syntactic and semantic properties. One of these constructions, the "adversative passive," implies that the grammatical subject of the sentence is…

  11. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  12. Strong local passivity in finite quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Frey, Michael; Funo, Ken; Hotta, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Passive states of quantum systems are states from which no system energy can be extracted by any cyclic (unitary) process. Gibbs states of all temperatures are passive. Strong local (SL) passive states are defined to allow any general quantum operation, but the operation is required to be local, being applied only to a specific subsystem. Any mixture of eigenstates in a system-dependent neighborhood of a nondegenerate entangled ground state is found to be SL passive. In particular, Gibbs states are SL passive with respect to a subsystem only at or below a critical system-dependent temperature. SL passivity is associated in many-body systems with the presence of ground state entanglement in a way suggestive of collective quantum phenomena such as quantum phase transitions, superconductivity, and the quantum Hall effect. The presence of SL passivity is detailed for some simple spin systems where it is found that SL passivity is neither confined to systems of only a few particles nor limited to the near vicinity of the ground state.

  13. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Lee, H.; Spohnholtz, T.; Energy Technology

    1999-01-01

    Rigid ceramic hot gas candle filters are currently under development for high-temperature hot gas particulate cleanup in advanced coal-based power systems. The ceramic materials for these filters include monolithics (usually non-oxides), oxide and non-oxide fiber-reinforced composites, and recrystallized silicon carbide. A concern of end users in using these types of filters, where over 3000 may be used in a single installation, is the lack of a data base on which to base decisions for reusing, replacing or predicting remaining life during plant shutdowns. One method to improve confidence of usage is to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to provide surveillance methods for determination of the extent of damage or of life-limiting characteristics such as thermal fatigue, oxidation, damage from ash bridging such as localized cracking, damage from local burning, and elongation at elevated temperatures. Although in situ NDE methods would be desirable in order to avoid disassembly of the candle filter vessels, the possible presence of filter cakes and/or ash bridging, and the state of current NDE technology prevent this. Thus, off-line NDE methods, if demonstrated to be reliable, fast and cost effective, could be a significant step forward in developing confidence in utilization of rigid ceramic hot gas filters. Recently, NDE methods have been developed which show promise of providing information to build this confidence. Acousto-ultrasound, a totally nondestructive method, together with advanced digital signal processing, has been demonstrated to provide excellent correlation with remaining strength on new, as-produced filters, and for detecting damage in some monolithic filters when removed from service. Thermal imaging, with digital signal processing for determining through-wall thermal diffusivity, has also been demonstrated to correlate with remaining strength in both new (as-received) and in-service filters. Impact acoustic resonance using a

  14. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2010-12-30

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  15. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory.

  16. Bismuth nickel passivation effective in FCCU

    SciTech Connect

    Heite, R.S. ); English, A.R. ); Smith, G.A. )

    1990-06-04

    Bismuth-based nickel passivation has been effective in Mapco Petroleum Inc.'s fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) at its Memphis, Tenn., refinery for the past 2 years. Mapco switched to the bismuth passivator in 1988 after using antimony as a passivator since the early 1980s. Metals (nickel and vanadium) passivators help reduce the catalyst activity suppression that occurs from contamination of the catalyst with feed-born metals. With the switch to bismuth, a hazardous material has been eliminated. Antimony is on the U.S. Environmental protection Agency's lit of hazardous chemicals. The bismuth also reduced the deleterious effects of high nickel content in the feed to the FCCU, at a bismuth quantity equal to, or slightly greater than, the amount of antimony previously used. Trouble-free operation of the unit was maintained at a reduced passivation cost.

  17. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  18. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI) technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory. PMID:26029091

  19. Chemotaxis: Under Agarose Assay.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum represents a superb model for examining chemotaxis. Under vegetative conditions, the amoebae are chemotactically responsive to pterins, such as folate. Under starved conditions, they lose their sensitivity to pterins, and become chemotactically responsive to cAMP. As an NIH model system, Dictyostelium offers a variety of advantages in studying chemotaxis, including its conservation of mammalian signaling pathways, its ease of growth, and its genetic tractability. In this chapter, we describe the use of the under agarose chemotaxis assay to identify proteins involved in controlling motility and directional sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum. Given the similarities between Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, this allows us to dissect the conserved pathways involved in eukaryotic chemotaxis.

  20. Adipose tissue angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, Soyun; Bellve, Karl D; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Corvera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential.