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Sample records for passive smap mission

  1. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen f...

  2. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Nijoku, Eni G.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Crow, Wade T.; Edelstein, Wendy N.; Entin, Jared K.; Goodman, Shawn D.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Joel; Kimball, John; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Koster, Randal D.; McDonald, Kyle C.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Moran, Susan; Reichle, Rolf; Shi, J. C.; Spencer, Michael W.; Thurman, Samuel W.; Tsang, Leung; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. Direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing observations will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance by helping to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. The SMAP mission concept would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer. These instruments will share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. The SMAP instruments provide direct measurements of surface conditions. In addition, the SMAP project will use these observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root-zone soil moisture and estimates of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon. SMAP is scheduled for a 2014 launch date

  3. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Peggy; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; Kellogg, Kent

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council?s Decadal Survey [1]. Its mission design consists of L-band radiometer and radar instruments sharing a rotating 6-m mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. The combined active/passive microwave soil moisture product will have a spatial resolution of 10 km and a mean latency of 24 hours. In addition, the SMAP surface observations will be combined with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP is expected to launch in the late 2014 - early 2015 time frame.

  4. The Soil Moisture Active/Passive Mission (SMAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission will deliver global views of soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state that are critical terrestrial water cycle state variables. Polarized measurements obtained with a shared antenna L-band radar and radiometer system will allow accurate estima...

  5. Fostering Application Opportunites for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. Susan; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni G.; Kellogg, Kent H.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. We outline how priority applications contributed to the SMAP mission measurement requirements and how the SMAP mission plans to foster applications and applied science.

  6. NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Kent; Njoku, Eni; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Jai, Ben; Spencer, Mike; Chen, Gun-Shing; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Brown, Molly; Savinell, Chris; Entin, Jared; Ianson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of soil moisture at the Earth's land surface and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission concept will utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna flying in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day exact ground track repeat aboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. In addition, the SMAP project will use these surface observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide estimates of deeper root-zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP recently completed its Phase A Mission Concept Study Phase for NASA and transitioned into Phase B (Formulation and Detailed Design). A number of significant accomplishments occurred during this initial phase of mission development. The SMAP project held several open meetings to solicit community feedback on possible science algorithms, prepared preliminary draft Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs) for each mission science product, and established a prototype algorithm testbed to enable testing and evaluation of the

  7. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; ONeill, Peggy; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier projects recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission is in formulation phase and it is scheduled for launch in 2014. The SMAP mission is designed to produce high-resolution and accurate global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using an instrument architecture that incorporates an L-band (1.26 GHz) radar and an L-band (1.41 GHz) radiometer. The simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements will be combined to derive global soil moisture mapping at 9 [km] resolution with a 2 to 3 days revisit and 0.04 [cm3 cm-3] (1 sigma) soil water content accuracy. The radar measurements also allow the binary detection of surface freeze/thaw state. The project science goals address in water, energy and carbon cycle science as well as provide improved capabilities in natural hazards applications.

  8. NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and opportunities for applications users

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. Set to launch in 2014, SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will have an accuracy, resolution, and glob...

  9. The soil moisture active passive experiments (SMAPEx): Towards soil moisture retrieval from the SMAP mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch in 2014, will carry the first combined L-band radar and radiometer system with the objective of mapping near surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state globally at near-daily time step (2-3 days). SMAP will provide three soil ...

  10. FOSTERING APPLICATIONS OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. SMAP will ma...

  11. The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in October 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development o...

  12. The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Mission Radar: A Novel Conically Scanning SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael; Chan, Samuel; Veilleux, Louise; Wheeler, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC "decadal survey" to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive chan-nels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. The active radar will further utilize SAR processing in order to obtain the sub-footprint resolution necessary for the geophysical retrievals. The SMAP radar has a unique geometry where the antenna footprint is continuously rotated about nadir in a conical fashion, as opposed to the more common side-looking SAR design. In additional to the unconventional scan geometry, the SMAP radar must address the effects of Faraday rotation and radio frequency interference (RFI), both consequences of the L-Band frequency of operation.

  13. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Science and Data Product Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nloku, E.; Entekhabi, D.; O'Neill, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has the objective of frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. The SMAP measurement system utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate on a spacecraft in a 685 km polar orbit with 6am/6pm nodal crossings, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments will yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively, every two to three days. The 10-km soil moisture product will be generated using a combined radar and radiometer retrieval algorithm. SMAP will also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution and a radar-only soil moisture product at 3-km resolution. The relative accuracies of these products will vary regionally and will depend on surface characteristics such as vegetation water content, vegetation type, surface roughness, and landscape heterogeneity. The SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of the fluxes of water, energy and carbon between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture and freeze/thaw controls of these fluxes are key factors in the performance of models used for weather and climate predictions and for quantifYing the global carbon balance. Soil moisture measurements are also of importance in modeling and predicting extreme events such as floods and droughts. The algorithms and data products for SMAP are being developed in the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) Testbed. In the Testbed algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated SMAP observations as well as observational data from current airborne and spaceborne L-band sensors including data from the SMOS and Aquarius missions. We report here on the development status

  14. The Planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission L-Band Radar/Radiometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael; Wheeler, Kevin; Chan, Samuel; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hudson, Derek; Medeiros, James

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC 'decadal survey' to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. The instrument system has completed the preliminary design review (PDR) stage, and detailed instrument design has begun. In addition to providing an overview of the instrument design, two recent design modifications are discussed: 1) The addition of active thermal control to the instrument spun side to provide a more stable, settable thermal environment for the radiometer electronics, and 2) A 'sequential transmit' strategy for the two radar polarization channels which allows a single high-power amplifier to be used.

  15. Monte Carlo Analysis of the Commissioning Phase Maneuvers of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; You, Tung-Han

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will perform soil moisture content and freeze/thaw state observations from a low-Earth orbit. The observatory is scheduled to launch in October 2014 and will perform observations from a near-polar, frozen, and sun-synchronous Science Orbit for a 3-year data collection mission. At launch, the observatory is delivered to an Injection Orbit that is biased below the Science Orbit; the spacecraft will maneuver to the Science Orbit during the mission Commissioning Phase. The delta V needed to maneuver from the Injection Orbit to the Science Orbit is computed statistically via a Monte Carlo simulation; the 99th percentile delta V (delta V99) is carried as a line item in the mission delta V budget. This paper details the simulation and analysis performed to compute this figure and the delta V99 computed per current mission parameters.

  16. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer, that share a deployable-mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological (10 km) and hydroclimatological (40 km) spatial scales. The rotating antenna configuration provides conical scans of the Earth surface at a constant look angle. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state with 2-3 days revisit. Freeze/thaw in boreal latitudes will be mapped using the radar at 3 km resolution with 1-2 days revisit. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit.

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  18. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  19. Cost-Effective Telemetry and Command Ground Systems Automation Strategy for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Joshua S.; Sanders, Antonio L.

    2012-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is an Earth-orbiting, remote-sensing NASA mission slated for launch in 2014.[double dagger] The ground data system (GDS) being developed for SMAP is composed of many heterogeneous subsystems, ranging from those that support planning and sequencing to those used for real-time operations, and even further to those that enable science data exchange. A full end-to-end automation of the GDS may result in cost savings during mission operations, but it would require a significant upfront investment to develop such comprehensive automation. As demonstrated by the Jason-1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) missions, a measure of "lights-out" automation for routine, orbital pass ground operations can still reduce mission cost through smaller staffing of operators and limited work hours. The challenge, then, for the SMAP GDS engineering team is to formulate an automated operations strategy--and corresponding system architecture--to minimize operator intervention during operations, while balancing the development cost associated with the scope and complexity of automation. This paper discusses the automated operations approach being developed for the SMAP GDS. The focus is on automating the activities involved in routine passes, which limits the scope to real-time operations. A key subsystem of the SMAP GDS--NASA's AMMOS Mission Data Processing and Control System (AMPCS)--provides a set of capabilities that enable such automation. Also discussed are the lights-out pass automations of the Jason-1 and WISE missions and how they informed the automation strategy for SMAP. The paper aims to provide insights into what is necessary in automating the GDS operations for Earth satellite missions.

  20. Cost-Effective Telemetry and Command Ground Systems Automation Strategy for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Josh; Sanders, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is an Earth-orbiting, remote-sensing NASA mission slated for launch in 2014. The ground data system (GDS) being developed for SMAP is composed of many heterogeneous subsystems, ranging from those that support planning and sequencing to those used for real-time operations, and even further to those that enable science data exchange. A full end-to-end automation of the GDS may result in cost savings during mission operations, but it would require a significant upfront investment to develop such a comprehensive automation. As demonstrated by the Jason-1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) missions, a measure of "lights-out" automation for routine, orbital pass, ground operations can still reduce mission costs through smaller staffing of operators and limiting their working hours. The challenge, then, for the SMAP GDS engineering team, is to formulate an automated operations strategy--and corresponding system architecture -- to minimize operator intervention during routine operations, while balancing the development costs associated with the scope and complexity of automation. This paper discusses the automated operations approach being developed for the SMAP GDS. The focus is on automating the activities involved in routine passes, which limits the scope to real-time operations. A key subsystem of the SMAP GDS -- NASA's AMMOS Mission Data Processing and Control System (AMPCS) -- provides a set of capabilities that enable such automation. Also discussed are the lights-out pass automations of the Jason-1 and WISE missions and how they informed the automation strategy for SMAP. The paper aims to provide insights into what is necessary in automating the GDS operations for Earth satellite missions.

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  2. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  3. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  4. Assessment of the SMAP level 2 passive soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2–3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. SMAP provides ...

  5. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Algorithm and Cal/Val Activities and Synergies with SMOS and Other L-Band Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Jackson, Tom; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has as its key measurement objective the frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements at 10 km and 3 km resolutions respectively, would enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture control of these fluxes is a key factor in the performance of atmospheric models used for weather forecasts and climate projections Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing floods and for monitoring drought. In addition, observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes can help reduce uncertainties in quantifying the global carbon balance. The SMAP measurement concept utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP radiometer and radar flight hardware and ground processing designs are incorporating approaches to identify and mitigate potential terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). The radar and radiometer instruments are planned to operate in a 680 km polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments would yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state to be provided at 10 km and 3 km resolutions respectively, every two to three days. Plans are to provide also a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the underlying brightness temperatures have characteristics similar to those provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are unique opportunities for common data product development and continuity between the two missions. SMAP also has commonalities with other satellite missions having L-band radiometer and/or radar sensors

  6. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  7. The soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) mission: How we got here and what it will provide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in October 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development o...

  8. Active–passive soil moisture retrievals during the SMAP validation experiment 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study is to assess the performance of the active–passive algorithm for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) using airborne and ground observations from a field campaign. The SMAP active–passive algorithm disaggregates the coarse-resolution radiometer brightness tempe...

  9. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon Product calibration and validation using eddy covariance observations across North America, Australia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavros, E. N.; Kimball, J. S.; Jones, L. A.; Colliander, A.; Glassy, J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Schimel, D.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Beringer, J.; Cleverly, J. R.; Desai, A. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Hutley, L. B.; Isaac, P. R.; Law, B. E.; Macfarlane, C.; Oechel, W. C.; Prober, S. M.; Jouni, P.; Scott, R. L.; Wheater, H. S.; Zona, D.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission was successfully launched January 31st 2015, inaugurating global operational low frequency (L-band) microwave observations of land surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw dynamics with 3-day mean temporal fidelity. The novelty of SMAP is in the high quality of the geophysical observations, global monitoring of dynamic landscape freeze-thaw (FT) and soil moisture (SM) conditions, and the model-enhanced estimation of root zone soil moisture (0-100 cm) and terrestrial carbon fluxes (constrained by environmental controls). The SMAP Level 4 Carbon Product (L4_C) uses lower-level geophysical data to constrain estimates of terrestrial net CO2 exchange and addresses a key science objective of the SMAP mission, which is to understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, particularly in boreal landscapes. Here we present the L4_C calibration and validation infrastructure, which uses eddy covariance tower flux observations. A metric of L4_C product success is to estimate NEE in northern (≥45°N) boreal and arctic biomes to within 30 gCm-2yr-1 or ~1.6 gCm-2 d-1 RMSE, similar to the level of uncertainty for tower observations. We present initial L4_C product comparisons against independent observations from a global network of 33 in situ tower sites, 8 of which are considered primary sites in the high latitudes (≥45°N). Although only primary sites are used to determine product success, all sites are integrated into diagnostic plots to evaluate land cover heterogeneity between local tower footprints and overlying L4_C grid cells, algorithm handling and data quality, thus providing a framework for evaluating environmental constraints on ecosystem productivity and respiration. In addition to mission success, we examine the added value of including FT and SM to constrain terrestrial carbon flux estimates.

  10. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Kent; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Spencer, Michael; Chen, Gun-Shing; Underwood, Mark; Njoku, Eni; Goodman, Shawn; Jai, Benhan

    2013-01-01

    The SMAP mission will produce high-resolution and accurate global maps of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using data from a non-imaging synthetic aperture radar and a radiometer, both operating at L-band.

  11. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  12. Spacecraft Environmental Testing SMAP (Soil, Moisture, Active, Passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Testing a complete full up spacecraft to verify it will survive the environment, in which it will be exposed to during its mission, is a formidable task in itself. However, the ''test like you fly'' philosophy sometimes gets compromised because of cost, design and or time. This paper describes the thermal-vacuum and mass properties testing of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) earth orbiting satellite. SMAP will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state (the hydrosphere state). SMAP hydrosphere state measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. It will explain the problems encountered, and the solutions developed, which minimized the risk typically associated with such an arduous process. Also discussed, the future of testing on expensive long lead-time spacecraft. Will we ever reach the ''build and shoot" scenario with minimal or no verification testing?

  13. SMAP Mission Applications; Post Launch Research and the Early Adopter Program Socioeconomic Impact Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission, launched January 31, 2015, has grown an Early Adopter (EA) community since 2010. Over the next two years, the mission Applications Team will conduct socioeconomic impact analyses on thematic EA research in an effort to demonstrate the value of SMAP products in societally relevant, decision support applications. The SMAP mission provides global observations of the Earth's surface soil moisture, providing high accuracy, resolution and continuous global coverage. The SMAP Applications Team will document and evaluate the use of SMAP science products in applications related to weather forecasting, drought, agriculture productivity, floods, human health and national security. SMAP EA research in applied science cases such as sea ice and sea surface winds will also be evaluated. SMAP EAs provide a thematically scaled perspective on the use and impact of SMAP data. This analysis will demonstrate how the investments in pre-launch applications and early adopter efforts contributed to the mission value, product impact and fueled new research that contributes to the use of mission products, thereby enhancing mission success. This paper presents a set of Early Adopter case studies that show how EAs plan to use SMAP science products to enhance decision support systems, and about how the SMAP data stream affects these users. Detailed tracking of this comprehensive set of case studies will enable quantification and monetization of the benefits of an application by the end of the first two years after launch.

  14. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara; Cosh, Michael H.; Caldwell, Todd; Walker, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoling; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Pacheco, Anna; McNairn, Heather; Thibeault, Marc; Martinez-Fernandez, Jose; Gonzalez-Zamora, Angel; Seyfried, Mark; Bosch, David; Starks, Patrick; Goodrich, David; Prueger, John; Palecki, Michael; Small, Eric E.; Zreda, Marek; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Crow, Wade T.; Kerr, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  15. Pre-Launch phase 2 rehearsal of the calibration and validation of soil moisture active passive (SMAP) geophysical data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in early November 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes L-band radar and radiometer measurements sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna...

  16. Comparison of airborne passive and active L-band System (PALS) brightness temperature measurements to SMOS observations during the SMAP validation experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) campaign was to collect data for the pre-launch development and validation of SMAP soil moisture algorithms. SMAP is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) satellite mission designed for the m...

  17. The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) Science Data Products: Results of Testing with Field Experiment and Algorithm Testbed Simulation Environment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni E.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Entin, Jared K.

    2010-01-01

    Talk outline 1. Derivation of SMAP basic and applied science requirements from the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey applications 2. Data products and latencies 3. Algorithm highlights 4. SMAP Algorithm Testbed 5. SMAP Working Groups and community engagement

  18. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Data and Services at the NASA NSIDC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Amanda; Jodha Singh Khalsa, Siri; Leslie, Shannon

    2016-04-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched on 31 January 2015, provides a capability for global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. The SMAP instrument includes both a radiometer and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating at the L-band (1.20-1.41 GHz) and provides global coverage at the equator every 3 days. The SMAP mission will play a critical role in understanding the Earth's water and energy cycles, improving weather and climate forecasting, and developing disaster prediction and monitoring services. The NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) are jointly distributing and supporting SMAP data products. The DAACs draw upon their unique expertise - NSIDC with cryospheric and remotely-sensed soil moisture data and ASF with SAR data - as well as their shared technologies to provide synergistic data access and support for SMAP products. NSIDC DAAC provides distribution and support of the SMAP Level-1 radiometer products, the Level-2 through Level-4 soil moisture products, the Level-3 freeze/thaw product, and the Level-4 carbon net ecosystem exchange product. By leveraging NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) data systems, NSIDC DAAC provide data discovery, access, and visualization services for SMAP that are common across all NASA Earth science data archived at the DAACs. NSIDC DAAC also provides custom services aimed at meeting the unique needs of their SMAP user communities. This presentation strives to educate and expand the SMAP user community as well as engage with current and potential users for areas of opportunity in the support and services that NSIDC DAAC provides.

  19. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Data and Services at the NASA NSIDC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A.; Booker, L.; Leslie, S. R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; LeFevre, K.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched on 31 January 2015, provides a capability for global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. The SMAP instrument includes both a radiometer and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating at the L-band (1.20-1.41 GHz) and provides global coverage at the equator every 3 days. The SMAP mission will play a critical role in understanding the Earth's water and energy cycles, improving weather and climate forecasting, and developing disaster prediction and monitoring services. The NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) are jointly distributing and supporting SMAP data products. The DAACs draw upon their unique expertise - NSIDC with cryospheric and remotely-sensed soil moisture data and ASF with SAR data - as well as their shared technologies to provide synergistic data access and support for SMAP products. NSIDC DAAC provides distribution and support of the SMAP Level-1 radiometer products, the Level-2 through Level-4 soil moisture products, the Level-3 freeze/thaw product, and the Level-4 carbon net ecosystem exchange product. By leveraging NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) data systems, NSIDC DAAC provide data discovery, access, and visualization services for SMAP that are common across all NASA Earth science data archived at the DAACs. NSIDC DAAC also provides custom services aimed at meeting the unique needs of their SMAP user communities. This presentation strives to educate and expand the SMAP user community as well as engage with current and potential users for areas of opportunity in the support and services that NSIDC DAAC provides.

  20. An Overview of Production and Validation of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S.; O'Neill, P.; Njoku, E.; Jackson, T.; Bindlish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is an L-band mission scheduled for launch in Jan. 2015. The SMAP instruments consist of a radar and a radiometer to obtain complementary information from space for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state research and applications. By utilizing novel designs in antenna construction, retrieval algorithms, and acquisition hardware, SMAP provides a capability for global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. This improvement in hydrosphere state measurement is expected to advance our understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, improve our capability in flood prediction and drought monitoring, and enhance our skills in weather and climate forecast. For swath-based soil moisture measurement, SMAP generates three operational geophysical data products: (1) the radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) posted at 36-kilometer resolution, (2) the radar-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_A) posted at 3-kilometers resolution, and (3) the radar-radiometer combined soil moisture product (L2_SM_AP) posted at 9-kilometers resolution. Each product draws on the strengths of the underlying sensor(s) and plays a unique role in hydroclimatological and hydrometeorological applications. A full suite of SMAP data products is given in Table 1.

  1. Multi-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring and Modeling at ARS Watersheds for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Calibration/Validation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's SMAP satellite, launched in November of 2014, produces estimates of average volumetric soil moisture at 3, 9, and 36-kilometer scales. The calibration and validation process of these estimates requires the generation of an identically-scaled soil moisture product from existing in-situ networks. This can be achieved via the integration of NLDAS precipitation data to perform calibration of models at each ­in-situ gauge. In turn, these models and the gauges' volumetric estimations are used to generate soil moisture estimates at a 500m scale throughout a given test watershed by leveraging, at each location, the gauge-calibrated models deemed most appropriate in terms of proximity, calibration efficacy, soil-textural similarity, and topography. Four ARS watersheds, located in Iowa, Oklahoma, Georgia, and Arizona are employed to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The South Fork watershed in Iowa represents the simplest case - the soil textures and topography are relative constants and the variability of soil moisture is simply tied to the spatial variability of precipitation. The Little Washita watershed in Oklahoma adds soil textural variability (but remains topographically simple), while the Little River watershed in Georgia incorporates topographic classification. Finally, the Walnut Gulch watershed in Arizona adds a dense precipitation network to be employed for even finer-scale modeling estimates. Results suggest RMSE values at or below the 4% volumetric standard adopted for the SMAP mission are attainable over the desired spatial scales via this integration of modeling efforts and existing in-situ networks.

  2. Landscape freeze/thaw retrievals from soil moisture active passive (SMAP) L-band radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Derksen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission produces a daily landscape freeze/thaw product (L3_FT_A) which provides categorical (frozen, thawed, or [inverse] transitional) classification of the surface state (for land areas north of 45°N) derived from ascending and descending orbits of SMAP high-resolution L-band radar measurements. The FT retrievals are output to 3 km resolution polar and global grids with temporal revisit of 2 days or better north of ~55°N and 3 days or better north of 45°N. The algorithm classifies the land surface freeze/thaw state based on the time series of L-band radar backscatter compared to frozen and thawed reference states. This presentation will describe pre-launch L3_FT_A algorithm implementation and evaluation using NASA/SAC-D Aquarius L-band radar data, and provide an update on the current status of the SMAP L3_FT_A product. In advance of SMAP measurements, the L3_FT_A algorithm was configured and evaluated using Aquarius measurements. While the temporal (weekly) and spatial (~100 km) resolution is much coarser than SMAP, Aquarius provides L-band radar measurements at an incidence angle (normalized to 40 degrees) which is close to SMAP. Evaluation of FT retrievals derived using both Aquarius freeze/thaw references and backscatter time series as inputs identified good agreement during the fall freeze-up period with FT flag agreement (Aquarius versus in situ) exceeding the 80% SMAP mission requirement when summarized on a monthly basis. Disagreement was greater during the spring thaw transition due in part to uncertainty in characterizing the surface state from in situ measurements and backscatter sensitivity to the onset of snow melt, independent of the soil temperature beneath the snowpack. Initial challenges for SMAP derived FT retrievals include the scale difference between the Aquarius references (~100 km) and the SMAP measurements (3 km) which is particularly problematic in areas of complex topography and/or mixed

  3. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  4. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  5. L-band active/passive time series measurements over a growing season usign the COMRAD ground-based SMAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheduled to launch in October 2014, NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide high-resolution global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. These new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth’s surface will build on data from European Spa...

  6. Investigating Baseline, Alternative and Copula-based Algorithm for combining Airborne Active and Passive Microwave Observations in the SMAP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, C.; Lorenz, C.; Jagdhuber, T.; Laux, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kunstmann, H.; Entekhabi, D.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states. SMAP integrates L-band radar and radiometer instruments as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. Airborne instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment, Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system F-SAR of DLR were flown simultaneously on the same platform on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites with in situ sensors. Here, we used the obtained data sets as a test-bed for the analysis of three active-passive fusion techniques: A) The SMAP baseline algorithm: Disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, B), the SMAP alternative algorithm: Estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter and C) Copula-based combination of active and passive microwave data. For method C empirical Copulas were generated and theoretical Copulas fitted both on the level of the raw products brightness temperature and backscatter as well as two soil moisture products. Results indicate that the regression parameters for method A and B are dependent on the radar vegetation index (RVI). Similarly, for method C the best performance was gained by generating separate Copulas for individual land use classes. For more in-depth analyses longer time series are necessary as can obtained by airborne campaigns, therefore, the methods will be applied to SMAP data.

  7. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for Conceptual SMAP Mission Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Podest, E.

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond [1]. Scheduled to launch late in 2014, the proposed SMAP mission would provide high resolution and frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, utilizing enhanced Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation approaches to collect new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth's surface. The SMAP instrument design incorporates an L-band radar (3 km) and an L band radiometer (40 km) sharing a single 6-meter rotating mesh antenna to provide measurements of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state [2]. These observations would (1) improve our understanding of linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, (2) benefit many application areas including numerical weather and climate prediction, flood and drought monitoring, agricultural productivity, human health, and national security, (3) help to address priority questions on climate change, and (4) potentially provide continuity with brightness temperature and soil moisture measurements from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) and NASA's Aquarius missions. In the planned SMAP mission prelaunch time frame, baseline algorithms are being developed for generating (1) soil moisture products both from radiometer measurements on a 36 km grid and from combined radar/radiometer measurements on a 9 km grid, and (2) freeze/thaw products from radar measurements on a 3 km grid. These retrieval algorithms need a variety of global ancillary data, both static and dynamic, to run the retrieval models, constrain the retrievals, and provide flags for indicating retrieval quality. The choice of which ancillary dataset to use for a particular SMAP product would be based on a number of factors

  8. Overview of the NASA soil moisture active/passive mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is currently in design Phase C and scheduled for launch in October 2014. Its mission concept is based on combined L-band radar and radiometry measurements obtained from a shared, rotating 6-meter antennae. These measurements will be used to retrie...

  9. Initial validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission using USDA-ARS watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission was launched in January 2015 to measure global surface soil moisture. The calibration and validation program of SMAP relies upon an international cooperative of in situ networks to provide ground truth references across a variety of landscapes. The U...

  10. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  11. Implementation of Active Thermal Control (ATC) for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Kwack, Eug; French, Richard; Dawson, Douglas; Hoffman, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 kilometer near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its three year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 revolutions per minute, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within three days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, the electronics and hardware associated with the radiometer must meet tight short-term (instantaneous and orbital) and long-term (monthly and mission) thermal stabilities. Maintaining these tight thermal stabilities is quite challenging because the sensitive electronics are located on a fast spinning platform that can either be in full sunlight or total eclipse, thus exposing them to a highly transient environment. A passive design approach was first adopted early in the design cycle as a low-cost solution. With careful thermal design efforts to cocoon and protect all sensitive components, all stability requirements were met passively. Active thermal control (ATC) was later added after the instrument Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to mitigate the threat of undetected gain glitches, not for thermal-stability reasons. Gain glitches are common problems with radiometers during missions, and one simple way to avoid gain glitches is to use the in-flight set point programmability that ATC

  12. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007). The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  13. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007)]. The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  14. SMAP Science Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.; Gluck, S.; Hua, H.; Weiss, B.; Wong, C.; Kwoun, O.; Cruz, J.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than October 2014 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and a synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will use the Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) from Apache Software Foundation to control the 13 standard data product processors and additional 15 preprocessors. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  15. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Radar: Measurements at High Latitudes and of Surface Freeze/Thaw State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael; Dunbar, Scott; Chen, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for a late 2014 launch date. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band in order to achieve the science objectives of measuring soil moisture and land surface freeze-thaw state. To achieve requirements for a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. In this paper, focus will be placed on the radar design. The radar will employ synthetic-aperture processing to achieve a "moderate" resolution dual-pol product over a 1000 km swath. Because the radar is operating continuously, very frequent temporal coverage will be achieved at high latitudes. This data will be used to produce a surface freeze/thaw state data product.

  16. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP): Radar Measurements at High Latitudes and of Freeze/Thaw State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael; Dunbar, Scott; Chen, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for a late 2014 launch date. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. In this paper, a focus will be places on the radar design and associated data products at high latitudes. The radar will employ synthetic-aperture processing to achieve a "moderate" resolution dual-pol product over a 1000 km swath. Because the radar is operating continuously, very frequent temporal coverage will be achieved at high latitudes. This data will be used, among other things, to produce a surface freeze/thaw state data product.

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Calibration and Validation Plan and Current Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Cosh, M.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E.; McDonald, K.; Kimball, J.; Belair, S.; Walker, J.; Entekhabi, P.; O'Neill, P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) program is demonstrating that the science requirements (product accuracy and bias) have been met over the mission life. This begins during pre-launch with activities that contribute to high quality products and establishing post-launch validation infrastructure and continues through the mission life. However, the major focus is on a relatively short Cal/Val period following launch. The general approach and elements of the SMAP Cal/Val plan will be described and along with details on several ongoing or recent field experiments designed to address both near- and long-term Cal/Val.

  18. Soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite status and cal/val activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development ...

  19. The soil moisture active passive validation experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12): pre-launch calibration and validation of the SMAP satellite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite is scheduled for launch in November 2014. In order to develop robust soil moisture retrieval algorithms that fully exploit the unique capabilities of SMAP, algorithm developers had identified a nee...

  20. Global High Resolution Mapping and Assimilation of Soil Moisture Observations for the SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is being developed by NASA for launch in 2015. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, SMAP high-resolution so...

  1. Inter-comparison of SMAP, Aquarius and SMOS L-band brightness temperature observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch on January 29, 2015. SMAP will make observations with an L-band radar and radiometer using a shared 6 m rotating reflector antenna. SMAP is a fully polarimetric radiometer with the center frequency of 1.41 GHz. The target accuracy o...

  2. SMAP Science Data System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit for a three-year mission. The SMAP instrument suite includes a L-band radiometer and a L-band synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the architecture of the Science Data System (SDS) that processes the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. All of the SMAP products appear in the Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. Metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard accompany each product. SMAP products range from raw data (Level 0) through parsed and organized telemetry (Level 1A), calibrated signals (Level 1B/1C), retrieved geophysical values (Level 2), daily composite maps (Level 3), to analysis and modeling data (Level 4). This paper will describe an architecture that automates the challenge of delivering multiple products with large data volumes within a few hours to a few days of instrument acquisition. Additional challenges include handling data for a diverse user community as well as rapid data visualization. SMAP faces the additional complexity that the archive and access to the SMAP data processes through two NASA Data Active Archive Centers (DAAC): The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) hosts and distributes SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) hosts and distributes all other SMAP products.

  3. PALS (Passive Active L-band System) Radiometer-Based Soil Moisture Retrieval for the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Bindlish, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Chazanoff, S. L.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Powers, J.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in early January 2015. For pre-launch soil moisture algorithm development and validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June 7-July 19, 2012. Coincident active and passive airborne L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) on 17 days during the experiment. Simultaneously with the PALS measurements, soil moisture ground truth data were collected manually. The vegetation and surface roughness were sampled on non-flight days. The SMAP mission will produce surface (top 5 cm) soil moisture products a) using a combination of its L-band radiometer and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements, b) using the radiometer measurement only, and c) using the SAR measurements only. The SMAPVEX12 data are being utilized for the development and testing of the algorithms applied for generating these soil moisture products. This talk will focus on presenting results of retrieving surface soil moisture using the PALS radiometer. The issues that this retrieval faces are very similar to those faced by the global algorithm using the SMAP radiometer. However, the different spatial resolution of the two observations has to be accounted for in the analysis. The PALS 3 dB footprint in the experiment was on the order of 1 km, whereas the SMAP radiometer has a footprint of about 40 km. In this talk forward modeled brightness temperature over the manually sampled fields and the retrieved soil moisture over the entire experiment domain are presented and discussed. In order to provide a retrieval product similar to that of the SMAP passive algorithm, various ancillary information had to be obtained for the SMAPVEX12 domain. In many cases there are multiple options on how to choose and reprocess these data

  4. Generating large-scale estimates from sparse, in-situ networks: multi-scale soil moisture modeling at ARS watersheds for NASA’s soil moisture active passive (SMAP) calibration/validation mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s SMAP satellite, launched in November of 2014, produces estimates of average volumetric soil moisture at 3, 9, and 36-kilometer scales. The calibration and validation process of these estimates requires the generation of an identically-scaled soil moisture product from existing in-situ networ...

  5. SMAP Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will produce 14 standard data product processors. This paper will discuss the standard data products, their format, metadata, quality assessment products, as well as the planned release dates for the products both Beta and Validated quality. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  6. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document SMAP L1B Radiometer Data Product: L1B_TB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; De Amici, Giovanni; Kim, Edward; Peng, Jinzheng; Ruf, Christopher; Hanna, Maher; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer calibration algorithm is to convert Level 0 (L0) radiometer digital counts data into calibrated estimates of brightness temperatures referenced to the Earth's surface within the main beam. The algorithm theory in most respects is similar to what has been developed and implemented for decades for other satellite radiometers; however, SMAP includes two key features heretofore absent from most satellite borne radiometers: radio frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation, and measurement of the third and fourth Stokes parameters using digital correlation. The purpose of this document is to describe the SMAP radiometer and forward model, explain the SMAP calibration algorithm, including approximations, errors, and biases, provide all necessary equations for implementing the calibration algorithm and detail the RFI detection and mitigation process. Section 2 provides a summary of algorithm objectives and driving requirements. Section 3 is a description of the instrument and Section 4 covers the forward models, upon which the algorithm is based. Section 5 gives the retrieval algorithm and theory. Section 6 describes the orbit simulator, which implements the forward model and is the key for deriving antenna pattern correction coefficients and testing the overall algorithm.

  7. Global Evaporation Estimates from SMAP Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals Using Conditional Sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Konings, A. G.; Salvucci, G.; Hogan, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evaporation links the water, energy and carbon cycles over land yet even its climatology on global scale is not observed. Tower-based flux measurements are sparse and do not cover diverse biomes and climates. In the last decades, many strategies to derive evaporation based on remote sensing measurements have been developed. However, these methods are dependent on a variety of assumptions and auxiliary data, making them more prone to error propagation. A more data-driven method was developed by Salvucci (2001), who found that under statistical stationary conditions the expected change in soil moisture storage is zero when conditioned to a certain storage for a certain time interval. Consequently, using the water balance, precipitation conditionally averaged to the soil moisture storage is equal to the total loss: evaporation and drainage. Using only soil moisture and precipitation data as model inputs reduces the sources of uncertainty. In this presentation we provide the first estimates of global evaporation from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission by applying the conditional sampling method to passive microwave soil moisture time series and in situ precipitation data. The obtained evaporation estimates show a good correspondence to measured evaporation from eddy correlation towers over selected field sites. Subsequently, a simple approach is developed to directly estimate evaporation from SMAP soil moisture data. This approach enables the investigation of dynamics in evaporation during the dry-down after storms. The timing of the transition between the different stages of evaporation is assessed for different climates especially the transition from stage 1 to stage 2 evaporation; atmosphere limited evaporation to soil limited evaporation respectively. Investigations into the dynamics of unstressed evaporation and transpiration and the transition from stage 1 to stage 2 evaporation increases our understanding of water stress and soil desiccation. It also

  8. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission using USDA-ARS experimental watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation program of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) relies upon an international cooperative of in situ networks to provide ground truth references across a variety of landscapes. The USDA Agricultural Research Service operates several experimental watersheds wh...

  9. SMAP Algorithms & Cal/Val Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is one of four Decadal Survey missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council for launch in the early part of the next decade ("Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond," NRC, Committ...

  10. Evaluation of sea surface salinity retrieval from SMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong; Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Lagerloef, Gary

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, launched on January 29, 2015, has been delivering measurements since April 2015. Although SMAP's primary mission objective is to measure soil moisture, its L-band radiometer-radar design that is similar to Aquarius (NASA's ocean salinity measuring satellite that ended its operation in June 2015) provides a potential mean to continue Aquarius' legacy. SMAP's radiometer, designed for land applications, has less precision than its Aquarius counterpart. However, the spatial resolution of SMAP's measurements is better than that of Aquarius by several times. SMAP's radar, which would have provided wind measurements needed to correct for surface roughness effect on SSS retrieval, stopped functioning in July 2015. Despite this, the Aquarius team has used the Aquarius experience to retrieve SSS from SMAP's radiometer measurements using auxiliary wind measurements. This presentation evaluates the fidelity of the SMAP SSS in depicting various oceanographic features from open oceans to coastal regions. A quantitative comparison between SMAP SSS and in-situ Argo float measurements and between SMAP and satellite SSS from Aquarius and SMOS during their overlapping periods will be presented. The evaluation demonstrates the very encouraging SSS retrieval from SMAP, which provides temporal continuity of SSS measurements beyond Aquarius.

  11. Application oft triple collocation in ground-based validation of soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) level 2 data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validation of the soil moisture retrievals from the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite is important prior to their full public release. Uncertainty in attempts to characterize footprint-scale surface-layer soil moisture using point-scale ground observations has ...

  12. Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity and Wind from The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Tang, W.; Hayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, the first Earth Science Decadal Survey mission, was launched January 31, 2015 to provide high-resolution, frequent-revisit global mapping of soil moisture. SMAP has two instruments, a polarimetric radiometer and a multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar. Both instruments operate at L-band frequencies (~ 1GHz) and share a single 6-m rotating mesh antenna, producing a fixed incidence angle conical scan at 40⁰ across a 1000-km swath and a 2-3 day global revisit. The SMAP SSS and ocean surface wind retrieval algorithm developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory leverages the QuikSCAT and Aquarius algorithms to account for the two-look geometry (fore and aft looks from the conical scan) and dual-polarization observations for simultaneous retrieval of SSS and wind speed. The retrieval algorithm has been applied to more than three months of SMAP radiometer data. Comparison with the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) wind speed suggests that the SMAP wind speed reaches an accuracy of about 0.7 ms-1. The preliminary assessment of the SMAP SSS products gridded at 50 km spatial resolution and weekly intervals is promising. The spatial patterns of the SSS agree well with climatological distributions, but exhibit several unique spatial and temporal features. The temporal evolutions of freshwater plumes from several major rivers, such as the Amazon, Niger, Congo, Ganges, and Mississippi, are all consistent with the timing of rainy and dry seasons, indicated in the SMAP's soil moisture products. Rigorous accuracy assessment will be performed by comparison with in situ SSS data from buoys and ARGO floats. The SMAP evaluation products will be released to the public prior to November 2015.

  13. Evaluation of SMAP radiometer level 2 soil moisture algorithms using four years of SMOS data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission include global measurements of soil moisture at three different spatial resolutions. SMAP will provide soil moisture with a 3-day revisit time at an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3 The 36 km gridded soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) is primar...

  14. The SMAP level 4 surface and root zone soil moisture data assimilation product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in January 2015 and will provide L-band radar and radiometer observations that are sensitive to surface soil moisture (in the top few centimeters of the soil column). For several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, ho...

  15. SMAP Radar Processing and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is part of the NASA space-based Earth observation program, and consists of an L-band radar and radiometer scheduled for launch into sun synchronous orbit in late 2014. A joint effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the SMAP mission draws heavily on the design and risk reduction heritage of the Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission [1], [2]. The SMAP science and applications objectives are to: 1) understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, 2) estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface, 3) quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes, 4) enhance weather and climate forecast skill, and 5) develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability. To meet these science objectives, SMAP ground processing will combine the attributes of the radar and radiometer observations (in terms of their spatial resolution and sensitivity to soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation) to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB (1 sigma) at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This paper will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation.

  16. SMAP Data Assimilation at the GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, R.; De Lannoy, G.; Liu, Q.; Ardizzone, J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has been providing L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave brightness temperature (Tb) observations since April 2015. These observations are sensitive to surface(0-5 cm) soil moisture. Several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, require knowledge of deeper-layer, root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture, which is not directly measured by SMAP. The NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) contributes to SMAP by providing Level 4 data, including the Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture(L4_SM) product, which is based on the assimilation of SMAP Tb observations in the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-5 land surface data assimilation system. The L4_SM product offers global data every three hours at 9 km resolution, thereby interpolating and extrapolating the coarser- scale (40 km) SMAP observations in time and in space (both horizontally and vertically). Since October 31, 2015, beta-version L4_SM data have been available to the public from the National Snow and Ice Data Center for the period March 31, 2015, to near present, with a mean latency of approx. 2.5 days.

  17. Integrating SMOS in SMAP Cal/Val

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP, scheduled launch 2014) ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS, launched 2009) and satellite missions share two characteristics; both provide L-band brightness temperature and surface soil moisture at the same nominal spatial resolution and frequency. To d...

  18. Reducing Earth Topography Resolution for SMAP Mission Ground Tracks Using K-Means Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    The K-means clustering algorithm is used to reduce Earth topography resolution for the SMAP mission ground tracks. As SMAP propagates in orbit, knowledge of the radar antenna footprints on Earth is required for the antenna misalignment calibration. Each antenna footprint contains a latitude and longitude location pair on the Earth surface. There are 400 pairs in one data set for the calibration model. It is computationally expensive to calculate corresponding Earth elevation for these data pairs. Thus, the antenna footprint resolution is reduced. Similar topographical data pairs are grouped together with the K-means clustering algorithm. The resolution is reduced to the mean of each topographical cluster called the cluster centroid. The corresponding Earth elevation for each cluster centroid is assigned to the entire group. Results show that 400 data points are reduced to 60 while still maintaining algorithm performance and computational efficiency. In this work, sensitivity analysis is also performed to show a trade-off between algorithm performance versus computational efficiency as the number of cluster centroids and algorithm iterations are increased.

  19. SMAP Verification and Validation Project - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murry, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) released the Decadal Survey of Earth science. In the future decade, the survey identified 15 new space missions of significant scientific and application value for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to undertake. One of these missions was the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission that NASA assigned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 2008. The goal of SMAP1 is to provide global, high resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw states. The SMAP project recently passed its Critical Design Review and is proceeding with its fabrication and testing phase.Verification and Validation (V&V) is widely recognized as a critical component in system engineering and is vital to the success of any space mission. V&V is a process that is used to check that a system meets its design requirements and specifications in order to fulfill its intended purpose. Verification often refers to the question "Have we built the system right?" whereas Validation asks "Have we built the right system?" Currently the SMAP V&V team is verifying design requirements through inspection, demonstration, analysis, or testing. An example of the SMAP V&V process is the verification of the antenna pointing accuracy with mathematical models since it is not possible to provide the appropriate micro-gravity environment for testing the antenna on Earth before launch.

  20. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  1. SMAP Radar Data and Services at the ASF DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, S. A.; Dixon, I. R.; Wolf, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    In January 2015 NASA launched the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) spacecraft. SMAP's mission was to create high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw products using the combination of an L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and an L-band radiometer. Two NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) were tasked with distribution of the SMAP data products. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) DAAC was tasked to archive and distribute the SMAP radar products. In order to best support distribution of SMAP swath radar products and SMAP users, the ASF DAAC enhanced the DAAC data system in a number of ways that will be detailed in this presentation. SMAP radar data are unique for SAR in that they are provided as half-orbit swaths over 1000km wide. This presentation will focus on two primary areas of DAAC support for SMAP. First, the ASF data discovery client, Vertex, has been updated to better support SMAP SAR data. This included enhancements to the user interface to better support swath visualizations as well as increased search capability. Utilizing NASA's Common Metadata Repository (CMR), Vertex will allow users to download both the Level 1 SAR product as well as the higher-level products that it contributed to. In this way, the distributed nature of the data archives is better abstracted from the user experience and users have quick access to a greater variety of data. Beyond enabling data search, ASF DAAC is also supporting data utilization through the development of polar mosaics using the SAR data. SMAP is able to achieve nearly complete coverage of the Arctic north of 55 degrees every 24 hours. Based on the polarimetric SMAP data, Arctic mosaics are generated each day in geotiff format at a fixed grid spacing to allow for easy incorporation to existing workflows. Prototype ice motion products will also be shown that directly demonstrate the utility of these daily mosaics.

  2. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  3. Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation for the Soil, Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Damon; Brambora, Cliff; Wong, Mark Englin; Miles, Lynn; Durachka, David; Farmer, Brian; Mohammed, Priscilla; Piepmier, Jeff; Medeiros, Jim; Martin Neil; Garcia, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The presence of anthropogenic RFI is expected to adversely impact soil moisture measurement by NASA s Soil Moisture Active Passive mission. The digital signal processing approach and preliminary design for detecting and mitigating this RFI is presented in this paper. This approach is largely based upon the work of Johnson and Ruf.

  4. Evaluation of SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithms Using SMOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann; Shi, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission are global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolution, respectively. SMAP will provide soil moisture with a spatial resolution of 10 km with a 3-day revisit time at an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3 [1]. In this paper we contribute to the development of the Level 2 soil moisture algorithm that is based on passive microwave observations by exploiting Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite observations and products. SMOS brightness temperatures provide a global real-world, rather than simulated, test input for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture algorithm. Output of the potential SMAP algorithms will be compared to both in situ measurements and SMOS soil moisture products. The investigation will result in enhanced SMAP pre-launch algorithms for soil moisture.

  5. Mission 119 passive microwave results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Mennella, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the sea surface were made for determining surface wind speeds from the NP3A aircraft (NASA-927). Observations were made at frequencies of 1.4, 10.6, and 31.4 GHz during NASA mission 119, undertaken off Bermuda in the vicinity of Argus Island sea tower during January 1970. Passive microwave observations from Argus Island ocean showed that the surface roughness effect, dependent on wind speed, is also dependent on observational frequency, increasing with increasing frequency. The roughness effect appears to be dominant for wind speeds less than 30 to 40 knots (2).

  6. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  7. Soil Moisture ActivePassive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth’s surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  8. Automating the SMAP Ground Data System to Support Lights-Out Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is a first tier mission in NASA's Earth Science Decadal Survey. SMAP will provide a global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw states. This mapping will be used to enhance the understanding of processes that link the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to enhance weather and forecast capabilities. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been selected as the lead center for the development and operation of SMAP. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has an extensive history of successful deep space exploration. JPL missions have typically been large scale Class A missions with significant budget and staffing. SMAP represents a new area of JPL focus towards low cost Earth science missions. Success in this new area requires changes to the way that JPL has traditionally provided the Mission Operations System (MOS)/Ground Data System (GDS) functions. The operation of SMAP requires more routine operations activities and support for higher data rates and data volumes than have been achieved in the past. These activities must be addressed by a reduced operations team and support staff. To meet this challenge, the SMAP ground data system provides automation that will perform unattended operations, including automated commanding of the SMAP spacecraft.

  9. SMAP Validation and Accuracy Assessment of Soil Moisture Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and will begin its calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase in May, 2015. This will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical produ...

  10. RFI Mitigation and Detection for the SMAP Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel; Fischman, Mark; Spencer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band to measure and monitor both soilmoisture and freeze/thaw state globally. The frequency band allocated for the SMAP radar is shared with the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and ground-basedradiolocation services. Signals from those users present significant sources of anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI) which contaminate the radarmeasurements. To mitigate RFI, the radar is designed with tunable operating frequency, which allows the center frequency to be tuned to avoid RFI. The filtering scheme in the receiver is configured to get a high level of RFI suppression. To meet the high accuracy measurement requirements, RFI detection and correction will be required during ground data processing. Some candidate algorithms have been evaluated, and they have been tested against simulated SMAP data derived from the PALSAR data.

  11. Assessing pre-launch application feasibility using the SMAP science data system algorithm and application simulation testbed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slated for launch in 2014, the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission represents a significant advance in our ability to globally observe time and space variations in surface soil moisture fields. The SMAP mission concept is based on the integrated use of L-band active radar and passive radiomet...

  12. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  13. Evaluation of the SMAP radiometer lever 2 pre-launch soil moisture algorithms using SMOS data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the upcoming SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission include global measurements of soil moisture at 40 km, 10 km and 3 km resolutions with a 3-day revisit time at an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3. The 40 km resolution soil moisture product is based primarily on the passiv...

  14. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite has been proposed to provide global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively. SMAP would also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the supporting brightness temperature observations are common to both SMAP and European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are opportunities for synergies between the two missions. These include exploiting the data for calibration and validation and establishing longer term L-band brightness temperature and derived soil moisture products. In this investigation we will be using SMOS brightness temperature, ancillary data, and soil moisture products to develop and evaluate a candidate SMAP L2 passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm. This work will begin with evaluations based on the SMOS product grids and ancillary data sets and transition to those that will be used by SMAP. An important step in this analysis is reprocessing the multiple incidence angle observations provided by SMOS to a global brightness temperature product that simulates the constant 40 degree incidence angle observations that SMAP will provide. The reprocessed brightness temperature data provide a basis for evaluating different SMAP algorithm alternatives. Several algorithms are being considered for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval. In this first phase, we utilized only the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the radiative transfer equation and uses the channel that is most sensitive to soil moisture (H-pol). Brightness temperature is corrected sequentially for the effects of temperature, vegetation, roughness (dynamic ancillary data sets) and soil texture (static ancillary data set). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) estimates of soil temperature for the top layer (as provided as part of the SMOS

  15. SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

  16. The Use of Modeling for Flight Software Engineering on SMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander; Jones, Chris G.; Reder, Leonard; Cheng, Shang-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission proposes to deploy an Earth-orbiting satellite with the goal of obtaining global maps of soil moisture content at regular intervals. Launch is currently planned in 2014. The spacecraft bus would be built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), incorporating both new avionics as well as hardware and software heritage from other JPL projects. [4] provides a comprehensive overview of the proposed mission

  17. Assimilation of Smos Observations to Generate a Prototype SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Crow, Wade T.; Koster, Randal D.; Kimball, John

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP; [1]) mission is being implemented by NASA for launch in October 2014. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high-resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [2]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. In this paper we describe our use of SMOS brightness temperature observations to generate a prototype of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product [5].

  18. Applications of SMAP data to retrieval of ocean surface wind and salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, Simon; Fore, Alexander; Tang, Wenqing; Hayashi, Akiko; Stiles, Bryan; Zhang, Fuqing; Weng, Yonghui; Real, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    We have examined the L-band radiometer and radar data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for ocean research and applications. We find that the SMAP data are in excellent agreement with the geophysical model function (GMF) derived from the Aquarius data up to a wind speed of 20 ms-1. For severe wind conditions, the higher resolution data from SMAP allowed us to assess the sensitivity of L-band radiometer signals to hurricane force winds. We applied the L-band GMF to the retrieval of ocean surface wind and SSS from the SMAP data. Comparison with the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting, WindSat and RapidSCAT wind speeds suggests that SMAP's radiometer wind speed reaches an excellent accuracy of about 1.1-1.7 ms-1 below a wind speed of 20 ms-1. We have also found that the maximum wind speed derived from the SMAP radiometer data can reach 140 knots for severe storms and are generally in good agreement with the hurricane track analysis and operational aircraft Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer wind speeds. The spatial patterns of the SMAP SSS agree well with climatological distributions, but exhibit several unique spatial and temporal features.

  19. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for SMAP Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P.; Podest, E.; Njoku, E.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission require a variety of both static and ancillary data. The selection of the most appropriate source for each ancillary data parameter is driven by a number of considerations, including accuracy, latency, availability, and consistency across all SMAP products and with SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). It is anticipated that initial selection of all ancillary datasets, which are needed for ongoing algorithm development activities on the SMAP algorithm testbed at JPL, will be completed within the year. These datasets will be updated as new or improved sources become available, and all selections and changes will be documented for the benefit of the user community. Wise choices in ancillary data will help to enable SMAP to provide new global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at the targeted accuracy necessary to tackle hydrologically-relevant societal issues.

  20. An initial assessment of SMAP soil moisture retrievals using high-resolution model simulations and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ming; Cai, Xitian; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Entekhabi, Dara; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-09-01

    At the end of its first year of operation, we compare soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to simulations from a land surface model with meteorological forcing downscaled from observations/reanalysis and in situ observations from sparse monitoring networks within continental United States (CONUS). The radar failure limits the duration of comparisons for the active and combined products (~3 months). Nevertheless, the passive product compares very well against in situ observations over CONUS. On average, SMAP compares to the in situ data even better than the land surface model and provides significant added value on top of the model and thus good potential for data assimilation. At large scale, SMAP is in good agreement with the model in most of CONUS with less-than-expected degradation over mountainous areas. Lower correlation between SMAP and the model is seen in the forested east CONUS and significantly lower over the Canadian boreal forests.

  1. The SMAP In Situ Soil Moisture Sensor Testbed: Comparing in situ sensors for satellite validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most valuable tools in validating satellite based soil moisture estimates, such as those from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission are large scale in situ networks. Global validation involves networks operated by many different organizations. Existing in situ soil moisture netw...

  2. SMAP L2/L3 Soil moisture product validation with core validation sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched by NASA in January, 2015 and entered its one year calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. This began with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and has now evolved to the geophysical p...

  3. SMAP validation of soil moisture products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in October 2014. SMAP will also incorporate a rigorous calibration and validation program that will support algorithm refinement and provide users with information on the accuracy ...

  4. Seasonal Parameterizations of the Tau-Omega Model Using the ComRAD Ground-Based SMAP Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Joseph, A.; Srivastava, P.; Cosh, M.; Lang, R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in November 2014. In the prelaunch time frame, the SMAP team has focused on improving retrieval algorithms for the various SMAP baseline data products. The SMAP passive-only soil moisture product depends on accurate parameterization of the tau-omega model to achieve the required accuracy in soil moisture retrieval. During a field experiment (APEX12) conducted in the summer of 2012 under dry conditions in Maryland, the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) truck-based SMAP simulator collected active/passive microwave time series data at the SMAP incident angle of 40 degrees over corn and soybeans throughout the crop growth cycle. A similar experiment was conducted only over corn in 2002 under normal moist conditions. Data from these two experiments will be analyzed and compared to evaluate how changes in vegetation conditions throughout the growing season in both a drought and normal year can affect parameterizations in the tau-omega model for more accurate soil moisture retrieval.

  5. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

  6. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission using USDA-ARS experimental watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Bindlish, R.; Colliander, A.; Kim, S.; Das, N. N.; Yueh, S. H.; Bosch, D. D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Prueger, J. H.; Starks, P. J.; Livingston, S.; Seyfried, M. S.; Coopersmith, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration and validation program of the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) relies upon an international cooperative of in situ networks to provide ground truth references across a variety of landscapes. The USDA Agricultural Research Service operates several experimental watersheds which contribute to the validation of SMAP soil moisture products. These watersheds consist of a network of in situ sensors that measure soil moisture at a variety of depths including the 5 cm depth, which is critical for satellite validation. Comparisons of the in situ network estimates to the satellite products are ongoing, but initial results have shown strong correlation between satellite estimates and in situ soil moisture measurements once scaling functions were applied. The scaling methodologies for the in situ networks are being reviewed and evaluated. Results from the Little Washita, Fort Cobb, St. Joseph's and Little River Experimental Watersheds show good agreement between the satellite products and in situ measurements. Walnut Gulch results show high accuracy, although with the caveat that these domains are semi-arid with a substantially lower dynamic range. The South Fork Watershed is examined more closely for its detailed scaling function development as well as an apparent bias between satellite and in situ values.

  7. The SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data assimilation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Crow, W. T.; Kimball, J. S.; Koster, R. D.; Liu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in January 2015 and will provide L-band radar and radiometer observations that are sensitive to surface soil moisture (in the top few centimeters of the soil column). For several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, knowledge of root zone soil moisture (defined here nominally as soil moisture in the top 1 m of the soil column) is needed. The SMAP mission will therefore provide a value-added Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product with the two key objectives: (i) to provide estimates of root zone soil moisture based on SMAP observations, and (ii) to provide a global surface and root zone soil moisture product that is spatially and temporally complete. The L4_SM algorithm uses an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to merge SMAP observations with soil moisture estimates from the NASA GEOS-5 Catchment land surface model. The model describes the vertical transfer of soil moisture between the surface and root zone reservoirs and will be driven with observation-based surface meteorological forcing data, including precipitation, on a global 9 km Earth-fixed grid. The presentation provides an overview of the SMAP L4_SM algorithm and pre-launch validation. Specifically, an L4_SM prototype product based on the assimilation of observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was validated using in situ measurements from SMAP core validation sites (densely instrumented watersheds) and from more than 100 single-profile sensors scattered across the United States. The validation results indicate that the prototype soil moisture product satisfies the formal RMSE requirement for the L4_SM product of 0.04 m3/m3 (after removal of the long-term mean bias). An examination of the observation-minus-forecast residuals from the L4_SM system suggests where the system could be improved further.

  8. Some Issues in Validating Satellite-based Soil Moisture Retrievals with In Situ Observations and Their Impact on SMAP Validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite is scheduled for launch in the fall of 2014. As the first of NASA’s Decadal Survey missions, efforts are being made to implement both best practices and innovations, which include calibration and validation of the remote sensing products (Cal/Val). ...

  9. SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Cosh, M. H.; Misra, S.; Crow, W. T.; Chae, C. S.; Moghaddam, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. For soil moisture algorithm validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated SMAPVEX15 around the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in Tombstone, Arizona on August 1-19, 2015. The main goals of SMAPVEX15 are to understand the effects and contribution of heterogeneity on the soil moisture retrievals, evaluate the impact of known RFI sources on retrieval, and analyze the brightness temperature product calibration and heterogeneity effects. Additionally, the campaign aims to contribute to the validation of GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) data products. The campaign will feature three airborne microwave instruments: PALS (Passive Active L-band System), UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). PALS has L-band radiometer and radar, and UAVSAR and AirMOSS have L- and P-band synthetic aperture radars, respectively. The PALS instrument will map the area on seven days coincident with SMAP overpasses; UAVSAR and AirMOSS on four days. WGEW was selected as the experiment site due to the rainfall patterns in August and existing dense networks of precipitation gages and soil moisture sensors. An additional temporary network of approximately 80 soil moisture stations was deployed in the region. Rainfall observations were supplemented with two X-band mobile scanning radars, approximately 25 tipping bucket rain gauges, three laser disdrometers, and three vertically-profiling K-band radars. Teams were on the field to take soil moisture samples for gravimetric soil moisture, bulk density and rock fraction determination as well as to measure surface roughness and vegetation water content. In this talk we will present preliminary results from the experiment including

  10. Near-Real-Time, Global Radar Data at the Alaska Satellite Facility DAAC from NASA's SMAP Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, S. A.; Allen, A. R.; Dixon, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission, which launches in January 2015. SMAP will measure global soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state every 3 days using an L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometer. ASF, along with the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC and NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS), is identifying and developing tools and technologies to facilitate use of global, near-real-time data by the SMAP user community. ASF will host the SMAP Level 1 radar data and make them available for download through ASF's data discovery interface, Vertex, and the ASF Application Programming Interface. Vertex allows a user to search, visualize and download SAR data, browse images and relevant metadata, and will offer the complete SMAP L1 radar archive to the public. The entire SMAP archive consisting of level 1-4 data can be accessed via Reverb, the NASA EOSDIS metadata and service discovery tool. In anticipation of the SMAP launch and data release, ASF has developed and released a new website (https://www.asf.alaska.edu/smap/) and a suite of web resources, including interactive media, technical information, a product guide, related publications, and tools for working with the HDF5 data format. The ASF SMAP team is exploring OPeNDAP and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Webification technologies for enhancing in-browser data visualization and analysis. These technologies, and tools developed with them, represent opportunities for exposing this valuable dataset to areas with limited bandwidth or understanding of radar data. This presentation will highlight the enabling technologies and techniques ASF is employing to bring these data to new scientific and applications users and respond to ever-changing user needs.

  11. The SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf; Crow, Wade; Koster, Randal; Kimball, John

    2010-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is being developed by NASA for launch in 2013 as one of four first-tier missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space in 2007. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. In this paper we describe the assimilation of SMAP observations for the generation of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product. The SMAP mission makes simultaneous active (radar) and passive (radiometer) measurements in the 1.26-1.43 GHz range (L-band) from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. Measurements will be obtained across a 1000 km wide swath using conical scanning at a constant incidence angle (40 deg). The radar resolution varies from 1-3 km over the outer 70% of the swath to about 30 km near the center of the swath. The radiometer resolution is 40 km across the entire swath. The radiometer measurements will allow high-accuracy but coarse resolution (40 km) measurements. The radar measurements will add significantly higher resolution information. The radar is however very sensitive to surface roughness and vegetation structure. The combination of the two measurements allows optimal blending of the advantages of each instrument. SMAP directly observes only surface soil moisture (in the top 5 cm of the soil column). Several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, require knowledge of root zone soil moisture (approximately top 1 m of the soil column), which is not directly measured by SMAP. The foremost objective of the SMAP L4_SM product is to fill this gap and provide estimates of root zone soil moisture

  12. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201l. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record -- provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica--parameters such as surface temperature.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of SMAP Brightness Temperatures for Use in Level 1 TB Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    1. IntroductionThe recent launch of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission [Entekhabi, et al] has opened the door to improved brightness temperature (TB) calibration of satellite L-band microwave radiometers, through the use of SMAP's lower noise performance and better immunity to man-made interference (vs. ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [Kerr, et al]), better spatial resolution (vs. NASA's Aquarius sea surface salinity mission [Le Vine, et al]), and cleaner antenna pattern (vs. SMOS). All three radiometers use/used large homogeneous places on Earth's surface as calibration targets—parts of the ocean, Antarctica, and tropical forests. Despite the recent loss of Aquarius data, there is still hope for creating a longer-term L-band data set that spans the timeframe of all 3 missions. 2. Description of Analyses and Expected Results In this paper, we analyze SMAP brightness temperature data to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of external target areas in the oceans, Antarctica, forests, and other areas. Existing analyses have examined these targets in terms of averages, standard deviations, and other basic statistics (for Aquarius & SMOS as well). This paper will approach the problem from a signal processing perspective. Coupled with the use of SMAP's novel RFI-mitigated TBs, and the aforementioned lower noise and cleaner antenna pattern, it is expected that of the 3 L-band missions, SMAP should do the best job of characterizing such external targets. The resulting conclusions should be useful to extract the best possible TB calibration from all 3 missions, helping to inter-compare the TB from the 3 missions, and to eventually inter-calibrate the TBs into a single long-term dataset.

  14. Science Data System Contribution to Calibrating and Validating SMAP Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission retrieves global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state using measurements acquired by a radiometer and a synthetic aperture radar that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on January 31, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. This paper describes the contribution of the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) to the calibration and on-going validation of the radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures. The Science Data System designed, implemented and operated the software that generates data products that contain various geophysical parameters including soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that processes the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporates spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and uses both dynamic and static ancillary products provided by the scientific community. The standard data products appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. These products contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) hosts and distributes SMAP radar data products. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) hosts and distributes all of the other SMAP data products.

  15. SMAP L2/L3 Soil Moisture Product Validation using In Situ Based Core Validation Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Dunbar, R. S.; Bindlish, R.; Dang, L. B.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Caylor, K. K.; Cosh, M. H.; AlJassar, H. K.; Lopez-baeza, E.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Gonzales-Zamora, A.; McNairn, H.; Pacheco, A. M.; Moghaddam, M.; Montzka, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Niedrist, G.; Pellarin, T.; Pulliainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Ramos, J.; Seyfried, M. S.; Su, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Van der Velde, R.; Temimi, M.; Thibeault, M.; Dorigo, W.; Vreugdenhil, M.; Walker, J.; Wu, X.; Caldwell, T. G.; Spencer, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission was launched in January 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes L-band radar and radiometer instruments sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. Merging of active and passive L-band observations enables an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, global coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw retrievals. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Well characterized sites with calibrated in situ measurements will be used to determine the quality of the data products; these sites are designated as core validation sites. The mission success criteria will be evaluated with respect to these core site comparisons. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources to expand the spatial and temporal scope of the evaluation. In an effort to ensure the geographic distribution and diversity of conditions of the core validation sites, SMAP has partnered with investigators across the globe. Because different SMAP Level 2 soil moisture products have different spatial scales, the suitability of the various sites for validation of the different products must be done for each site while considering several factors. The main factors are gravimetric calibration of the sensors within a site and determination of a spatial scaling function of the sensor measurements up to the SMAP resolution scales. The mission has been able to utilize the core site measurements since the launch of the satellite because the infrastructure for data transmission and processing was established well before the launch. The validated soil moisture products will be released by May 2016. In this presentation we will show the performance of the beta version of the soil moisture products (released by November 2015) and discuss the status of the validation process.

  16. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 2011. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission: Fault Management Design Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    As a general trend, the complexities of modern spacecraft are increasing to include more ambitious mission goals with tighter timing requirements and on-board autonomy. As a byproduct, the protective features that monitor the performance of these systems have also increased in scope and complexity. Given cost and schedule pressures, there is an increasing emphasis on understanding the behavior of the system at design time. Formal test-driven verification and validation (V&V) is rarely able to test the significant combinatorics of states, and often finds problems late in the development cycle forcing design changes that can be costly. This paper describes the approach the SMAP Fault Protection team has taken to address some of the above-mentioned issues.

  18. NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission and Opportunities For Applications Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa; Moran, Susan; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni G.; Doorn, Brad; Entin, Jared K.

    2013-01-01

    Water in the soil, both its amount (soil moisture) and its state (freeze/thaw), plays a key role in water and energy cycles, in weather and climate, and in the carbon cycle. Additionally, soil moisture touches upon human lives in a number of ways from the ravages of flooding to the needs for monitoring agricultural and hydrologic droughts. Because of their relevance to weather, climate, science, and society, accurate and timely measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with global coverage are critically important.

  19. Assimilation of soil moisture retrievals or brightness temperature observations from SMOS and SMAP into the GEOS-5 land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Reichle, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Two L-band microwave missions are currently collecting passive microwave observations and aiming at an improved estimation of soil moisture. The ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission both provide Level 1 brightness temperature products and derived Level 2 soil moisture retrieval products. The assimilation of these products into land surface models has potential to improve global estimates of soil moisture and other land surface variables. This presentation investigates the benefits and challenges of assimilating either retrievals or brightness temperature observations from either SMOS or SMAP into the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) land surface model. It will be shown that the seasonal corrections introduced by retrieval assimilation are slightly different from those with brightness temperature assimilation as a result of the technical implementation of the assimilation scheme. Various resulting land surface variables will also be evaluated against the results from the operational SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product, which assimilates SMAP brightness temperature data.

  20. SMAP and SMOS soil moisture validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS and SMAP satellite missions each produce global soil moisture products using L-band radiometry. Both missions begin with the same fundamental equations in developing their soil moisture retrieval algorithm but implement it differently due to design differences of the instruments. SMOS with ...

  1. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  2. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR...

  3. The Soil Moisture Active Passive Marena Oklahoma In Situ Sensor Testbed (SMAP-MOISST): Design and initial results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ soil moisture monitoring networks are critical to the development of soil moisture remote sensing missions as well as agricultural and environmental management, weather forecasting and many other endeavors. These in situ networks are composed of a variety of sensors and installation practic...

  4. End-of-Mission Passivation: Successes and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Matney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The passivation of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages at end-of-mission has been a principal space debris mitigation measure world-wide since the 1980 s. Space vehicle passivation includes the removal of stored energies, especially those associated with propulsion and electrical power systems. Prior to 2007 the breakup of non-functioning, non-passivated space vehicles was the major source of hazardous debris in Earth orbit. The United Nations and the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee have both included passivation in their formal space debris mitigation guidelines. This often simple countermeasure has been adopted by many spacefaring countries and organizations and has undoubtedly prevented numerous major satellite breakups. For some existing space vehicle designs, passivation requires changes in hardware, software, and/or operational procedures. Questions about the permissible degree of passivation for both current and future space vehicles have arisen and are addressed herein. An important element to be considered is the potentially long period in which the space vehicle will remain in orbit, i.e., up to 25 years after mission termination in LEO and for centuries in orbits above LEO. Finally, the issue of passivation of space vehicles which have failed prematurely is addressed.

  5. SMAP Post-launch Field Campaign Planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...

  6. Using Smos Passive Microwave Data to Develop Smap Freeze/thaw Algorithms Adapted for the Canadian Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, P.; Bernier, M.; McDonal, K. C.; Poulin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal terrestrial Freeze/Thaw cycle in Northern Quebec Tundra (Nunavik) was determined and evaluated with passive microwave observations. SMOS time series data were analyzed to examine seasonal variations of soil freezing, and to assess the impact of land cover on the Freeze/Thaw cycle. Furthermore, the soil freezing maps derived from SMOS observations were compared to field survey data in the region near Umiujaq. The objective is to develop algorithms to follow the seasonal cycle of freezing and thawing of the soil adapted to Canadian subarctic, a territory with a high complexity of land cover (vegetation, soil, and water bodies). Field data shows that soil freezing and thawing dates vary much spatially at the local scale in the Boreal Forest and the Tundra. The results showed a satisfactory pixel by pixel mapping for the daily soil state monitoring with a > 80% success rate with in situ data for the HH and VV polarizations, and for different land cover. The average accuracies are 80% and 84% for the soil freeze period, and soil thaw period respectively. The comparison is limited because of the small number of validation pixels.

  7. Evaluation of the Validated Soil Moisture Product from the SMAP Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Chan, S.; Colliander, A.; Dunbar, S.; Njoku, E.; Bindlish, R.; Chen, F.; Jackson, T.; Burgin, M.; Piepmeier, J.; Yueh, S.; Entekhabi, D.; Cosh, M.; Caldwell, T.; Walker, J.; Wu, X.; Berg, A.; Rowlandson, T.; Pacheco, A.; McNairn, H.; Thibeault, M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez-Zamora, A.; Seyfried, M.; Bosch, D.; Starks, P.; Goodrich, D.; Prueger, J.; Palecki, M.; Small, E.; Zreda, M.; Calvet, J-C.; Crow, W.; Kerr, Y.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on January 31, 2015 into a sun-synchronous 6 am/6 pm orbit with an objective to produce global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. The SMAP radiometer began acquiring routine science data on March 31, 2015 and continues to operate nominally. SMAP's radiometer-derived soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 km fixed Earth grid using brightness temperature observations from descending (6 am) passes and ancillary data. A beta quality version of L2_SM_P was released to the public in September, 2015, with the fully validated L2_SM_P soil moisture data expected to be released in May, 2016. Additional improvements (including optimization of retrieval algorithm parameters and upscaling approaches) and methodology expansions (including increasing the number of core sites, model-based intercomparisons, and results from several intensive field campaigns) are anticipated in moving from accuracy assessment of the beta quality data to an evaluation of the fully validated L2_SM_P data product.

  8. SMAP Data Assimilation at NASA SPoRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center maintains a near-real- time run of the Noah Land Surface Model within the Land Information System (LIS) at 3-km resolution. Soil moisture products from this model are used by several NOAA/National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices for flood and drought situational awareness. We have implemented assimilation of soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active/ Passive (SMAP) satellites, and are now evaluating the SMAP assimilation. The SMAP-enhanced LIS product is planned for public release by October 2016.

  9. Model-Based Verification and Validation of the SMAP Uplink Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Dubos, Gregory F.; Tirona, Joseph; Standley, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    This case study stands as an example of how a project can validate a system-level design earlier in the project life cycle than traditional V&V processes by using simulation on a system model. Specifically, this paper describes how simulation was added to a system model of the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission's uplink process.Also discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of the methods employed and the lessons learned; which are intended to benefit future model-based and simulation-based V&V development efforts.

  10. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  11. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima; Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP satellite was successfully launched January 31st 2015, and began acquiring Earth observation data following in-orbit sensor calibration. Global data products derived from the SMAP L-band microwave measurements include Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 23 surface soil moisture and freezethaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and terrestrial carbon (CO2) fluxes. The post-launch SMAP mission CalVal Phase had two primary objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product pertaining to the validated release. The L4_C validated product release effectively replaces an earlier L4_C beta-product release (Kimball et al. 2015). The validated release described in this report incorporates a longer data record and benefits from algorithm and CalVal refinements acquired during the SMAP post-launch CalVal intensive period. The SMAP L4_C algorithms utilize a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and component carbon fluxes for vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and

  12. Pre-launch Research to Integrate NASA SMAP Soil Moisture and Freeze/Thaw State Products in Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S. M.; Bilair, S.; Isaksen, L.; de Rosnay, P.; Zhan, X.; Ghedira, H.; Yang, Z.; Mueller, R.; Ines, A. M.; Zebiak, S. E.; Champagne, C.; Brown, M.; Escobar, V.; Weiss, B.

    2011-12-01

    The SMAP Mission is currently planned for launch in late 2014 to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. For mission planning, a Testbed Facility is in place to test software that will be used to automatically generate the science data products once SMAP is in orbit. Early distribution of a subset of these testbed data products and calibration/validation data sets to SMAP "Early Adopters" has enabled pre-launch applications research. Early Adopters are those groups who have a direct need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze/thaw data, and who are planning to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. A set of 7 SMAP Early Adopters were selected in March 2011, with applications including weather forecasts, food security and mapping dust emissions [http://smap.jpl.nasa.gov/files/smap2/adopter1.pdf]. Research projects will be completed with quantitative metrics prior to the launch of SMAP. The feedback from these projects is providing a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into hydrologic applications to improve decision-making. A second round of selections for SMAP Early Adopters is planned for February 2012.

  13. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 40; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Assessment Report for the Beta-Release L4_SM Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public beta release scheduled for 30 October 2015. The primary objective of the beta release is to allow users to familiarize themselves with the data product before the validated product becomes available. The beta release also allows users to conduct their own assessment of the data and to provide feedback to the L4_SM science data product team. The assessment of the L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to upscaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 1 validation and supports the beta release of the data. The validation against

  14. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  15. Status of ESA's EarthCARE mission, passive instruments payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Hélière, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Eisinger, Michael; Wehr, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission allows unique data product synergies to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth's radiation balance. Retrieved data will be used to improve climate and numerical weather prediction models. EarthCARE accommodates two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a BroadBand Radiometer (BBR). The instruments will provide simultaneous, collocated imagery, allowing both individual and common data products. The active instruments provide data on microscopic levels, measured through the atmospheric depth. 3-D models of the atmospheric interactions are constructed from the data, which can be used to calculate radiation balance. The large footprint of the MSI provides contextual information for the smaller footprints of the active instruments. Data from the BBR allows the loop to be closed by providing a macroscopic measurement of the radiation balance. This paper will describe the passive instruments development status. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  16. Ocean Products from the SMAP Radiometer: Surface Salinity and Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Scott, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Though designed to measure soil moisture, the SMAP radiometer is an excellent sensor to measure sea surface salinity and sea surface wind speed. It is possible to retrieve both quantities from passive SMAP observations without using the SMAP radar, whose transmitter likely failed in July 2015. With the demise of Aquarius the ability of the SMAP sensor to measure ocean salinity has gained importance. The main part of our presentation discusses the adaption of the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm to SMAP. It includes corrections for spurious signals coming from cold space, the galaxy, the sun and the moon as well as sidelobe and cross polarization effects from the SMAP antenna. Based on Aquarius observations, we have developed a radiative transfer model that characterizes the surface emission of a wind roughened ocean. Our surface roughness correction for the SMAP salinity retrieval will use match-ups of SMAP radiometer observations and surface wind speeds from WindSat or SSMIS. Our presentation will also address several important differences between the Aquarius and SMAP sensors that impact the ocean salinity retrievals. The full 360o look capability of SMAP makes it possible to take observations from the forward and backward looking direction basically at the same instance of time. We expect that this two-look capability will strongly aid the salinity retrievals. It will be possible to observe some of the spurious contamination sources like the reflected galaxy or the reflected sun from two different directions. Finally, we will address the capability to measure ocean surface wind speed with the SMAP radiometer. As it has been demonstrated with Aquarius and SMOS the L-band passive ocean surface emission exhibits very good sensitivity to surface wind speeds to at least 35 m/s and it is very little affected by precipitation. This allows the retrieval of ocean surface winds, in particular in storms and even under rainy conditions.

  17. Utilization of Airborne and in Situ Data Obtained in SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 Field Campaigns for SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithm Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Chan, Steven; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Michael; Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment data sets that include coincident remote sensing measurements and in situ sampling will be valuable in the development and validation of the soil moisture algorithms of the NASA's future SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. This paper presents an overview of the field experiment data collected from SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 campaigns. Common in these campaigns were observations of the airborne PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument, which was developed to acquire radar and radiometer measurements at low frequencies. The combined set of the PALS measurements and ground truth obtained from all these campaigns was under study. The investigation shows that the data set contains a range of soil moisture values collected under a limited number of conditions. The quality of both PALS and ground truth data meets the needs of the SMAP algorithm development and validation. The data set has already made significant impact on the science behind SMAP mission. The areas where complementing of the data would be most beneficial are also discussed.

  18. Dual stage passive vibration isolation for optical interferometer missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowicki, Allen J.; MacDonald, Rhonda; Gürsel, Yekta; Goullioud, Renaud; Neville, Timothy; Platus, David L.

    2003-02-01

    Future space-based optical instruments such as the Space Interferometer Mission have vibration-induced error allocations at the levels of a few nano-meters and milli-arc-seconds. A dual stage passive isolation approach has been proposed using isolation first at the vibration-inducing reaction wheels, and a second isolation layer between the bus portion of the space vehicle (the backpack) and the optical payload. The development of the backpack isolator is described, with unit transmissibility results for individual isolator struts. The dual stage isolation approach is demonstrated on a dynamically feature-rich, 7-meter structural testbed (STB3). A new passive suspension that mitigates ground vibrations above 0.4 Hz has been integrated into the testbed. A series of OPD performance predictions have been made using measured transfer functions. These indicate that the 5-nm dynamic OPD allocation is within reach using the dual isolator approach. Demonstrating these low response levels in a noisy air environment has proven to be difficult. We are sequentially executing a plan to mitigate acoustic transmission between backpack and flight structure, as well as developing techniques to mitigate effects of background acoustic noise.

  19. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_SM Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf Helmut; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Chen, Fan; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John; Koster, Randal D.; Smith, E. Brent

    2016-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public Version 2 validated release scheduled for 29 April 2016. The assessment of the Version 2 L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to up-scaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the wide geographic range of the sparse network sites, and the global assessment of the assimilation diagnostics, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 2 validation and supports the validated release of the data. An analysis of the time average surface and root zone soil moisture shows that the global pattern of arid and humid regions are captured by the L4_SM estimates. Results from the

  20. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  1. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  2. SMAP observes flooding from land to sea: The Texas event of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, S.; Reager, J. T.; Lee, T.; Vazquez-Cuervo, J.; David, C. H.; Gierach, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Floods can have damaging impacts on both land and sea, yet studies of flooding events tend to focus on only one side of the land/sea continuum. Here we present the first two-sided analysis, focusing on the May 2015 severe flooding in Texas. Our investigation benefits from simultaneous measurements of land surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity from NASA's recent Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission as well as ancillary data. We report the comprehensive chronology of the flooding: above average rainfall preceding the flood caused soils to saturate; record rainfall then generated record river discharge; and subsequently, an unusual freshwater plume associated with anomalous ocean currents formed in the north central Gulf of Mexico. Together with the Mississippi River plume, a rare "horseshoe" pattern was created that may have significant biogeochemical implications. Such integrated land/sea analysis of flood evolution can improve impact assessments of future extreme flooding events.

  3. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Holifield Collins, C.; McKee, L.; Kim, S.; Yueh, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR Watershed provides the infrastructure for the experiment with its extensive soil moisture and soil temperature network. A total of seven aircraft flights are planned for the Passive Active L-Band Scanning instrument (PALS) to provide a high resolution soil moisture map for a variety of soil moisture conditions across the domain. Extensive surface roughness, vegetation and soil rock fraction mapping was conducted to provide a ground truth estimate of the many ancillary datasets used in the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. A review of the methodologies employed in the experiment, as well as initial findings will be discussed.

  4. The SoilSCAPE Network Multiscale In-situ Soil Moisture Measurements: Innovations in Network Design and Approaches to Upscaling in Support of SMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Clewley, D.; Silva, A.; Akbar, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture at 3, 9, and 36 km scales through the use of radar and radiometer data. To validate SMAP products, in-situ sensors are required. Typically, validation plans consist of several sensors installed nearly uniformly in the scene. To upscale the soil moisture estimates to the scales of SMAP products requires a large number of sensors, distributed throughout the instrument footprint. Even for the higher resolution SMAP products (3 km) there are often insufficient sensors available within a resolution cell. The Soil moisture Sensing Controller and oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) project provides a new adaptive validation strategy, including upscaled estimates of soil moisture. By utilizing smarter network technology and optimized sensor placement, more representative measurements of soil moisture are obtained, at a range of spatial scales with lower costs than traditional networks. A large network was established around the Tonzi Ranch site in central California. The network design comprises multiple sites, each with a 10-30 node cluster taking measurements from up to 4 sensors installed at different depths. The nodes wirelessly communicate to a Local Coordinator, which collects data and transmits to a server (http://soilscape.usc.edu). Each node can communicate with the Coordinator up to a distance of 400m. Each station supports up to 60 nodes. Currently 111 nodes have been installed over 6 sites. The SoilSCAPE nonuniform placement of sensors requires novel upscaling methods. Previous studies have used regression, which works well when the measurement is well correlated with other variables. However, soil moisture dependence on various variables could be complex and nonlinear. To account for such complexities, we use the Random Forests algorithm, which is capable of modeling complex non-linear system and can handle continuous and categorical data. The algorithm has not previously been applied to

  5. Evaluation of the validated soil moisture product from the SMAP radiometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a multilinear regression approach to retrieve surface soil moisture from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite data to create a global dataset of surface soil moisture which is consistent with ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite retrieved sur...

  6. Soil moisture sensor intercomparisons at the SMAP marena in situ testbed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 2010, a soil moisture sensor intercomparison study was begun in Marena, Oklahoma. This effort is designed to serve as a foundation for incorporating diverse soil moisture networks into the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Calibration and Validation program. Various soil moisture sensors, w...

  7. Upscaling sparse, irregularly spaced in situ soil moisture measurements for calibration and validation of SMAP soil moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, J.; Clewley, D.; Moghaddam, M.; Akbar, R.; Silva, A. R. D.

    2015-12-01

    There is a large difference in the footprints over which remote sensing instruments, such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, retrieve soil moisture and that of in situ networks. Therefore a method for upscaling in situ measurements is required before they can be used to validate remote sensing instruments. The upscaling problem is made more difficult when measurements are sparse and irregularly spaced within the footprint. To address these needs, we have developed a method for producing upscaled estimates of soil moisture based on a network of in situ soil moisture measurements and airborne P-band SAR data, and utilizing a Random Forests-based regression algorithm. Sites within the SoilSCAPE network, for which the technique was developed, typically contains sensors at ~30 locations, with each location sampled at multiple depths. Measurements are taken at 20 minute intervals and averaged over a selectable time interval, thereby supporting near-real time generation of soil moisture maps. The collected measurements are automatically uploaded to a central database from which they can be accessed for use in the regression algorithm. Our regression-based approach works well with irregularly-spaced sensors by incorporating a set of data layers that correlate well with soil moisture. The layers include thematic land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, flow accumulation, clay fraction, air temperature, precipitation, and P-Band HH, VV, and HV backscatter. Values from these data layers are extracted for each sensor location and applied to train the Random Forests algorithm. The decision trees generated are then applied to estimate soil moisture at a 100 m spacing throughout the network region, after which the evenly-spaced values are averaged to accord with the 3-, 9-, and 36-km SMAP measurement grids. The resulting set of near-real time soil moisture estimates suitable for SMAP calibration and validation is placed online for use by the SMAP Cal/Val team

  8. Data Assimilation of SMAP Observations and the Impact on Weather Forecasts and Heat Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Blankenship, Clay; Crosson, William; White, Khristopher

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT produces real-time LIS soil moisture products for situational awareness and local numerical weather prediction over CONUS, Mesoamerica, and East Africa ?Currently interact/collaborate with operational partners on evaluation of soil moisture products ?Drought/fire ?Extreme heat ?Convective initiation ?Flood and water borne diseases ?Initial efforts to assimilate L2 soil moisture observations from SMOS (as a precursor for SMAP) have been successful ?Active/passive blended product from SMAP will be assimilated similarly and higher spatial resolution should improve on local-scale processes

  9. Passive Aerogravity Assisted Trajectories for a Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklyanskiy, Evgeniy; You, Tung-Han; Cheatwood, Neil; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Bowes, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that aerodynamic lift during a planetary low-altitude atmospheric flyby can increase the V(sub infinity) bending angle and the total delta V achievable from gravity assist. Aero-Gravity Assist (AGA) trajectories of this type require a significantly high spacecraft L/D (lift-to-drag) ratio and a fairly robust closed-loop guidance algorithm capable of providing a desired control authority for level, nearly constant-altitude atmospheric flight. The AGA concept has been described in some previous publications as one of the techniques for Mars and Venus atmospheric sample return mission design strategies. Recent analysis has demonstrated that passive, ballistic (zero-lift) aeropass trajectories could equally satisfy potential future sample return mission objectives and provide quite robust and simple alternatives to a complex guided AGA lifting trajectory design.

  10. Compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Danny J; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X; Lindauer, Steven J; Afzal, Robert S; Yu, Anthony W

    2005-03-20

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter, an instrument on the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4% efficiency with a near-diffraction-limited beam. It passed all space-flight environmental tests at subsystem, instrument, and satellite integration testing and successfully completes a postlaunch aliveness check en route to Mercury. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite and the Mars Global Surveyor, but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  11. Model-based verification and validation of the SMAP uplink processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. O.; Dubos, G. F.; Tirona, J.; Standley, S.

    Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is being used increasingly within the spacecraft design community because of its benefits when compared to document-based approaches. As the complexity of projects expands dramatically with continually increasing computational power and technology infusion, the time and effort needed for verification and validation (V& V) increases geometrically. Using simulation to perform design validation with system-level models earlier in the life cycle stands to bridge the gap between design of the system (based on system-level requirements) and verifying those requirements/validating the system as a whole. This case study stands as an example of how a project can validate a system-level design earlier in the project life cycle than traditional V& V processes by using simulation on a system model. Specifically, this paper describes how simulation was added to a system model of the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission's uplink process. Also discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of the methods employed and the lessons learned; which are intended to benefit future model-based and simulation-based development efforts.

  12. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  13. SMAP/SMOS Soil moisture brightness temperature virtual observations to study data assimilation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, P.; Simmer, C.

    2015-12-01

    A multidisciplinary research unit has been established in order to develop a data assimilation framework for coupled subsurface-land surface-atmosphere systems (SLASs), i.e. the coupled suit of models TerrSysMP comprised by ParFlow (subsurface), Community Land Model (CLM, surface), and COSMO (atmosphere). It aims to test how different kinds of observations may improve system state estimations with a focus on inter-compartmental fluxes of matter and heat energy. To that goal a simulated virtual reality (VR) catchment is being generated as a tool to test data assimilation schemes for SLAS. The virtual reality overcomes the problem of data scarcity for the different components as subsurface, soil and atmosphere in the real world and provides the full system state as a basis for the evaluation of the effectiveness of data assimilation strategies. The first version of the VR uses TerrSysMP - reduced to COSMO and CLM - to generate virtual observations such as satellite measurements, radar observations and meteorological station data. Currently VR simulations are available for a region encompassing the Neckar catchment located in south-west Germany with 1.1km horizontal resolution for the time period from 2007 to 2013. This contribution focuses on the evaluation of satellite observations of the microwave emission at L-band as observed by the current satellite missions SMAP and SMOS. By adjusting the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM) as a forward operator for the VR framework, a first set of virtual passive microwave observations is generated. SMAP and SMOS observations are simulated taking into account orbit characteristics, revisit times, and angular viewing geometries. The virtual observations will be statistically compared with available real observations to evaluate the degree of reality in terms of mean values and dynamic ranges. These comparisons will hint to systematic differences between TerrSysMP and reality, which need to be addressed by appropriate bias

  14. Analysis of soil moisture retrieval from airborne passive/active L-band sensor measurements in SMAPVEX 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Song, Hongting; Tan, Lei; Li, Yinan; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Soil moisture is a key component in the hydrologic cycle and climate system. It is an important input parameter for many hydrologic and meteorological models. NASA'S upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, to be launched in October 2014, will address this need by utilizing passive and active microwave measurements at L-band, which will penetrate moderately dense canopies. In preparation for the SMAP mission, the Soil Moisture Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was conducted from 6 June to 17 July 2012 in the Carment-Elm Creek area in Manitoba, Canada. Over a period of six weeks diverse land cover types ranging from agriculture over pasture and grassland to forested sites were re-visited several times a week. The Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) provides radiometer products, vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures, and radar products. Over the past two decades, successful estimation of soil moisture has been accomplished using passive and active L-band data. However, remaining uncertainties related to surface roughness and the absorption, scattering, and emission by vegetation must be resolved before soil moisture retrieval algorithms can be applied with known and acceptable accuracy using satellite observations. This work focuses on analyzing the Passive/Active L-band Sensor observations of sites covered during SMAPVEX12, investigating the observed data, parameterizing vegetation covered surface model, modeling inversion algorithm and analyzing observed soil moisture changes over the time period of six weeks. The data and analysis results from this study are aimed at increasing the accuracy and range of validity of SMAP soil moisture retrievals via enhancing the accuracy for soil moisture retrieval.

  15. Advances in Assimilation of Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Observations for Soil-Moisture Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Pauwels, Valentijn; Reichle, Rolf H.; Draper, Clara; Koster, Randy; Liu, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based microwave measurements have long shown potential to provide global information about soil moisture. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, [1]) mission as well as the future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP, [2]) mission measure passive microwave emission at L-band frequencies, at a relatively coarse (40 km) spatial resolution. In addition, SMAP will measure active microwave signals at a higher spatial resolution (3 km). These new L-band missions have a greater sensing depth (of -5cm) compared with past and present C- and X-band microwave sensors. ESA currently also disseminates retrievals of SMOS surface soil moisture that are derived from SMOS brightness temperature observations and ancillary data. In this research, we address two major challenges with the assimilation of recent/future satellite-based microwave measurements: (i) assimilation of soil moisture retrievals versus brightness temperatures for surface and root-zone soil moisture estimation and (ii) scale-mismatches between satellite observations, models and in situ validation data.

  16. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  17. Comparison of SMOS and SMAP Soil Moisture Retrieval Approaches Using Tower-based Radiometer Data over a Vineyard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernecki, Maciej; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Kerr, Yann; DeJeu, Richard; DeLannoy, Gabielle J. M.; Jackson, Tom J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Shwank, Mike; Moran, Roberto Fernandez; Bircher, Simone; Laurence, Heather; Mialon, Arnaud; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Richaume, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare several approaches to soil moisture (SM) retrieval using L-band microwave radiometry. The comparison was based on a brightness temperature (TB) data set acquired since 2010 by the L-band radiometer ELBARA-II over a vineyard field at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site. ELBARA-II, provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) within the scientific program of the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, measures multiangular TB data at horizontal and vertical polarization for a range of incidence angles (30-60). Based on a three year data set (2010-2012), several SM retrieval approaches developed for spaceborne missions including AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS), SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) and SMOS were compared. The approaches include: the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) for horizontal (SCA-H) and vertical (SCA-V) polarizations, the Dual Channel Algorithm (DCA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and two simplified approaches based on statistical regressions (referred to as 'Mattar' and 'Saleh'). Time series of vegetation indices required for three of the algorithms (SCA-H, SCA-V and Mattar) were obtained from MODIS observations. The SM retrievals were evaluated against reference SM values estimated from a multiangular 2-Parameter inversion approach. The results obtained with the current base line algorithms developed for SMAP (SCA-H and -V) are in very good agreement with the reference SM data set derived from the multi-angular observations (R2 around 0.90, RMSE varying between 0.035 and 0.056 m3m3 for several retrieval configurations). This result showed that, provided the relationship between vegetation optical depth and a remotely-sensed vegetation index can be calibrated, the SCA algorithms can provide results very close to those obtained from multi-angular observations in this study area. The approaches based on statistical regressions provided similar results and the

  18. SoilSCAPE in-Situ Observations of Soil Moisture for SMAP Validation: Pushing the Envelopes of Spatial Coverage and Energy Efficiency in Sparse Wireless Sensor Networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A.; Clewley, D.; Akbar, R.; Entekhabi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Sensing Controller and oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) is a wireless in-situ sensor network technology, developed under the support of NASA ESTO/AIST program, for multi-scale validation of soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission. The SMAP sensor suite is expected to produce soil moisture retrievals at 3 km scale from the radar instrument, at 36 km from the radiometer, and at 10 km from the combination of the two sensors. To validate the retrieved soil moisture maps at any of these scales, it is necessary to perform in-situ observations at multiple scales (ten, hundreds, and thousands of meters), representative of the true spatial variability of soil moisture fields. The most recent SoilSCAPE network, deployed in the California central valley, has been designed, built, and deployed to accomplish this goal, and is expected to become a core validation site for SMAP. The network consists of up to 150 sensor nodes, each comprised of 3-4 soil moisture sensors at various depths, deployed over a spatial extent of 36 km by 36 km. The network contains multiple sub-networks, each having up to 30 nodes, whose location is selected in part based on maximizing the land cover diversity within the 36 km cell. The network has achieved unprecedented energy efficiency, longevity, and spatial coverage using custom-designed hardware and software protocols. The network architecture utilizes a nested strategy, where a number of end devices (EDs) communicate to a local coordinator (LC) using our recently developed hardware with ultra-efficient circuitry and best-effort-timeslot allocation communication protocol. The LCs in turn communicates with the base station (BS) via text messages and a new compression scheme. The hardware and software technologies required to implement this latest deployment of the SoilSCAPE network will be presented in this paper, and several data sets resulting from the measurements will be shown. The data are

  19. Integration of radar and radiometric data from SMAP and Sentinel-1 sensors for soil moisture and vegetation monitoring (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paloscia, Simonetta; Santi, Emanuele; Pettinato, Simone; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-10-01

    This work has been focused on the integration of microwave data coming from different sensors (SMAP, Sentinel-1, AMSR2), in order to obtain an improved estimation of hydrological parameters and in particular of the Soil Moisture (SMC). The failure of radar sensor in SMAP satellite induced to look for other available microwave frequencies, both from active (e.g. Sentinel-1, C band) and passive sensors (e.g. AMSR2, from C to Ka bands). The contribution of higher frequencies, which are more suitable for monitoring vegetation and other surface features, has been evaluated for compensating the vegetation and roughness effects on the SM retrieval accuracy. In particular, the contribution of C band SAR from Sentinel-1 and of the multi-frequency AMSR2 radiometer (C to Ka bands) have been considered. Moreover, a disaggregation technique, based on the Smoothing filter based intensity modulation (SFIM), enabled achieving a more suitable ground resolution for comparing SAR and radiometric data. Disaggregated microwave data were used as inputs of a retrieval algorithm based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), able to exploit the synergy between active and passive acquisitions. The algorithm was defined basing on the data available from the SMEX02 and SMAPVEX12 campaigns, and on data simulated by electromagnetic forward models. The algorithm validation on these datasets returned encouraging results, while the disaggregation technique enabled adapting the algorithm to work with Sentinel, SMAP and AMSR2 synergic acquisitions

  20. Dynamic Modeling of the SMAP Rotating Flexible Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic model development in ADAMS for the SMAP project is explained: The main objective of the dynamic models are for pointing error assessment, and the control/stability margin requirement verifications

  1. Cloud and Radiation Mission with Active and Passive Sensing from the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1998-01-01

    A cloud and aerosol radiative forcing and physical process study involving active laser and radar profiling with a combination of passive radiometric sounders and imagers would use the space station as an observation platform. The objectives are to observe the full three dimensional cloud and aerosol structure and the associated physical parameters leading to a complete measurement of radiation forcing processes. The instruments would include specialized radar and lidar for cloud and aerosol profiling, visible, infrared and microwave imaging radiometers with comprehensive channels for cloud and aerosol observation and specialized sounders. The low altitude,. available power and servicing capability of the space station are significant advantages for the active sensors and multiple passive instruments.

  2. Vegetation stress from soil moisture and chlorophyll fluorescence: synergy between SMAP and FLEX approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose; Moran, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation stress detection continues being a focal objective for remote sensing techniques. It has implications not only for practical applications such as irrigation optimization or precision agriculture, but also for global climate models, providing data to better link water and carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmospheric and improved parameterization of the role of terrestrial vegetation in the coupling of water and carbon cycles. Traditional approaches to map vegetation stress using remote sensing techniques have been based on measurements of soil moisture status, canopy (radiometric) temperature and, to a lesser extent, canopy water content, but new techniques such as the dynamics of vegetation fluorescence emission, are also now available. Within the context of the preparatory activities for the SMAP and FLEX missions, a number of initiatives have been put in place to combine modelling activities and field experiments in order to look for alternative and more efficient ways of detecting vegetation stress, with emphasis on synergistic remote sensing approaches. The potential of solar-induced vegetation fluorescence as an early indicator of stress has been widely demonstrated, for different type of stress conditions: light amount (excess illumination) and conditions (direct/diffuse), temperature extremes (low and high), soil water availability (soil moisture), soil nutrients (nitrogen), atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The effects caused by different stress conditions are sometimes difficult to be decoupled, also because different causes are often combined, but in general they then to change the overall fluorescence emission (modulating amplitude) or changing the relative contributions of photosystems PSI and PSII or the relative fluorescence re-absorption effects caused by modifications in the structure of pigment bed responsible for light absorption, in particular for acclimation for persistent stress conditions. While

  3. Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) for STS-1 quick look post-mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.; Miller, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A passively deployed array of contamination-sensitive samples was mounted and flown in the cargo bay of the space shuttle Columbia during the first orbital flight test. A similar unit was mounted in a different location in the cargo bay at Dryden Flight Research Center during the postflight operations there prior to the ferry flight return of Columbia to Kennedy Space Center. The samples in both POSA arrays were subjected to a series of optical and analytical measurements prior to delivery for installation in the cargo bay and after retrieval of the flight hardware. A quick-look summary of the results of a comparison of the series of measurements is presented.

  4. New Combined L-band Active/Passive Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm Optimized for Argentine Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruscantini, C. A.; Grings, F. M.; Salvia, M.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of L-band passive microwave satellite observations to provide soil moisture (mv) measurements is well known. Despite its high sensitivity to near-surface mv, radiometric technology suffers from having a relatively low spatial resolution. Conversely active microwave observations, although their finer resolution, are difficult to be interpreted for mv content due to the confounding effects of vegetation and roughness. There have been and there are strong motivations for the realization of satellite missions that carry passive and active microwave instruments on board. This has also led to important contributions in algorithm development. In this line of work, NASA-CONAE SAC-D/Aquarius mission had on board an L band radiometer and scatterometer. This was followed by the launch of NASA SMAP mission (Soil Moisture Active Passive), as well as several airborne campaigns that provide active and passive measurements. Within this frame, a new combined active/passive mv retrieval algorithm is proposed by deriving an analytical expression of brightness temperature and radar backscattering relation using explicit semi-empirical models. Simple models (i.e. that can be easily inverted and have relatively low amount of ancillary parameters) were selected: ω-τ model (Jackson et al., 1982, Water Resources Research) and radar-only model (Narvekar et al., 2015, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing). A major challenge involves coupling the active and passive models to be consistent with observations. Coupling equations can be derived using theoretical active/passive high-order radiative transfer models, such as 3D Numerical Method of Maxwell equations (Zhou et al., 2004, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing) and Tor Vergata (Ferrazzoli et al., 1995,Remote Sensing of Environment) models. In this context, different coupling equations can be optimized for different land covers using theoretical forward models with specific parametrization for each

  5. Characterization of Schistosome Tegumental Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP)

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rita; Skelly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that currently infect over 200 million people globally. The parasites can live for years in a putatively hostile environment - the blood of vertebrates. We have hypothesized that the unusual schistosome tegument (outer-covering) plays a role in protecting parasites in the blood; by impeding host immunological signaling pathways we suggest that tegumental molecules help create an immunologically privileged environment for schistosomes. In this work, we clone and characterize a schistosome alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), a predicted ∼60 kDa glycoprotein that has high sequence conservation with members of the alkaline phosphatase protein family. The SmAP gene is most highly expressed in intravascular parasite life stages. Using immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy, we confirm that SmAP is expressed at the host/parasite interface and in internal tissues. The ability of living parasites to cleave exogenous adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and generate adenosine is very largely abolished when SmAP gene expression is suppressed following RNAi treatment targeting the gene. These results lend support to the hypothesis that schistosome surface enzymes such as SmAP could dampen host immune responses against the parasites by generating immunosuppressants such as adenosine to promote their survival. This notion does not rule out other potential functions for the adenosine generated e.g. in parasite nutrition. PMID:21483710

  6. Hydrologic opportunities in the GPM mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission mother satellite in early 2014 will offer unprecedented opportunities to the hydrologic community, yet these opportunities are not widely known beyond the relatively small cross-section of the community that has been involved in NASA (and other space agency) funded research. Hydrologists are most familiar with precipitation measurements from traditional gauge-based methods - and to a lesser extent, surface radars. I discuss new opportunities for the community in terms of the potential for a truly global view of land surface hydrologic processes, as well as applications to flood and drought prediction that GPM will provide. I also review briefly the legacy of TRMM precipitation products, including the evolution of the TMPA series of products, particularly those that do not require gauge correction, and ongoing applications, and comment on opportunities for the community in the next generation of satellite based water cycle measurements. These include GPM, as well as NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, also projected for launch in 2014, and the joint U.S.-French Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, planned for launch late in the decade.

  7. Developments in passive shielding for human explorations missions: the ROSSINI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudo, Martina; Lobascio, Cesare

    The aim of the “ROSSINI” (RadiatiOn Shielding by ISRU and INnovative materIals for EVA, vehicles and habitats) project, funded by the European Space Agency, is to investigate shielding materials to be used in deep space and planetary exploration. Simulants of materials that can be found on Moon and Mars planetary surfaces (e.g., regolith) and innovative materials rich in Hydrogen have been selected and tested with high energy (2.5 GeV) protons and 1 GeV/n Fe-56 ions (taken as representative of the whole GCR spectrum). Dose reduction, Bragg peak and neutron yield have been calculated on a subset of the irradiated targets. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations through Geant4 Radiation Analysis for Space (GRAS) tools have been performed and compared to the obtained experimental data, to benchmark the computer codes. A simplified inflatable habitat for exploration missions has been defined choosing the innovative materials evaluated in the ROSSINI study. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing (the project is to be concluded in early spring 2014) with the codes investigated, to compare the dose reduction resulting inside the simplified habitat with different shielding solutions.

  8. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  9. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  10. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  11. Potential of bias correction for downscaling passive microwave and soil moisture data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive microwave satellites such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) or SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) observe brightness temperature (TB) and retrieve soil moisture at a spatial resolution greater than most hydrological processes. Bias correction is proposed as a simple method to disag...

  12. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth’s surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the modern Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) ...

  13. Evaluation of Radar Vegetation Indices for Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using Data from a Ground-Based SMAP Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; O'Neill, Peggy; Cosh, Michael; Lang, Roger; Joseph, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important component of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. This paper aims to estimate VWC using L band active and passive radar/radiometer datasets obtained from a NASA ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator known as ComRAD (Combined Radar/Radiometer). Several approaches to derive vegetation information from radar and radiometer data such as HH, HV, VV, Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), HH/VV ratio, HV/(HH+VV), HV/(HH+HV+VV) and Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) are tested for VWC estimation through a generalized linear model (GLM). The overall analysis indicates that HV radar backscattering could be used for VWC content estimation with highest performance followed by HH, VV, MPDI, RVI, and other ratios.

  14. Using SMAP data to improve drought early warning over the US Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Fernando, N.; Tang, W.

    2015-12-01

    A drought prone region such as the Great Plains of the United States (US GP) requires credible and actionable drought early warning. Such information cannot simply be extracted from available climate forecasts because of their large uncertainties at regional scales, and unclear connections to the needs of the decision makers. In particular, current dynamic seasonal predictions and climate projections, such as those produced by the NOAA North American Multi-Model Ensemble experiment (NMME) are much more reliable for winter and spring than for the summer season for the US GP. To mitigate the weaknesses of dynamic prediction/projections, we have identified three key processes behind the spring-to-summer dry memory through observational studies, as the scientific basis for a statistical drought early warning system. This system uses percentile soil moisture anomalies in spring as a key input to provide a probabilistic summer drought early warning. The latter outperforms the dynamic prediction over the US Southern Plains and has been used by the Texas state water agency to support state drought preparedness. A main source of uncertainty for this drought early warning system is the soil moisture input obtained from the NOAA Climate Forecasting System (CFS). We are testing use of the beta version of NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data, along with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and the long-term Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV-SM) soil moisture data, to reduce this uncertainty. Preliminary results based on ECV-SM suggests satellite based soil moisture data could improve early warning of rainfall anomalies over the western US GP with less dense vegetation. The skill degrades over the eastern US GP where denser vegetation is found. We evaluate our SMAP-based drought early warning for 2015 summer against observations.

  15. Cloning, characterization and chromosome mapping of the human SMAP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Irene; Borrego, Salud; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Galán, José Jorge; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2002-06-12

    Stromal membrane associated protein (smap-1) is a new murine cell surface molecule on the stromal cells. The murine smap-1 protein is induced in stromal cells by the contact with erythroid cells, which suggests that this protein may be involved in the haematopoietic progenitor cells to stromal cells interactions. Here we report the structure, map location and expression analysis of the human SMAP1 gene, which cover approximately 100 kb on chromosome 6 between D6S455 and D6S1673 markers. This gene is composed of 11 exons and encodes a 468-amino-acid protein, which shows an 86% of homology with the murine smap-1 protein. The expression of smap-1 in erythropoietic organs as well as the correlation with the erythropoietic activity of the haematopoietic organs suggest that smap-1 is induced in stromal cells by the contact with erythroid cells, defining smap-1 as a key molecule that induced an erythropoietic microenvironment in haematopoietic organs. The high sequence conservation between murine and human SMAP1, as well as its expression in bone marrow, strongly suggest conserved functions of this protein in both organisms. Recently, a constitutional translocation t(6;10)(q13;q22) has been described in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia. SMAP1 gene localizes to 6q13 and is probably implicated in erythropoiesis, therefore it remains as an interesting candidate gene.

  16. Airborne Active and Passive L-Band Observations in Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Chazanoff, S.; Jackson, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of data record that features long-time series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions (for testing the application of time-series approach) over aerial domain of multiple parallel lines (for spatial disaggregation studies). The coincident active and passive L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS), which is an airborne radiometer and radar developed for testing L-band retrieval algorithms. For SMAPVEX12 PALS was installed on a Twin Otter aircraft. The flight plan included flights at two altitudes. The higher altitude was used to map the whole experiment domain and the lower altitude was used to obtain measurements over a specific set of field sites. The spatial resolution (and swath) of the radar and radiometer from low altitude was about 600 m and from high altitude about 1500 m. The PALS acquisitions were complemented with high resolution (~10 m) L-band SAR measurements carried out by UAVSAR instrument on-board G-III aircraft. The campaign ran from June 7 until July 19. The PALS instrument conducted 17 brightness temperature and backscatter measurement flights and the UAVSAR conducted 14 backscatter measurement flights. The airborne data acquisition was supported by

  17. Synergistic Use of SMOS Measurements with SMAP Derived and In-situ Data over Valencia Anchor Station by Using Downscaling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari Amoli, Abdolreza; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mahmoudi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Synergistic Use of SMOS Measurements with SMAP Derived and In-situ Data over the Valencia Anchor Station by Using a Downscaling Technique Ansari Amoli, A.(1),Mahmoodi, A.(2) and Lopez-Baeza, E.(3) (1) Department of Earth Physics and Thermodynamics, University of Valencia, Spain (2) Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère (CESBIO), France (3) Department of Earth Physics and Thermodynamics, University of Valencia, Spain Soil moisture products from active sensors are not operationally available. Passive remote sensors return more accurate estimates, but their resolution is much coarser. One solution to overcome this problem is the synergy between radar and radiometric data by using disaggregation (downscaling) techniques. Few studies have been conducted to merge high resolution radar and coarse resolution radiometer measurements in order to obtain an intermediate resolution product. In this paper we present an algorithm using combined available SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) radar and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) radiometer measurements to estimate surface soil moisture over the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS), Valencia, Spain. The goal is to combine the respective attributes of the radar and radiometer observations to estimate soil moisture at a resolution of 3 km. The algorithm disaggregates the coarse resolution SMOS (15 km) radiometer brightness temperature product based on the spatial variation of the high resolution SMAP (3 km) radar backscatter. The disaggregation of the radiometer brightness temperature uses the radar backscatter spatial patterns within the radiometer footprint that are inferred from the radar measurements. For this reason the radar measurements within the radiometer footprint are scaled by parameters that are derived from the temporal fluctuations in the radar and radiometer measurements.

  18. Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided

  19. A Self-Consistent Radiative Transfer Model for Simulating Active and Passive Observations of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    Current generation sensors suites such as those included on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active / Passive (SMAP) exploit a combination to provide a greater understanding of geophysical phenomena. While "operationalized" retrieval algorithms require fast forward models, the ability to perform higher fidelity simulations is necessary for understanding the physics of remote sensing problems to test assumptions and to develop parameterizations for the fast models. To ensure proper synergy between active and passive modeling, forward models must be consistent between the two sensor types. This work presents a self-consistent active and passive radiative transfer model for simulating radar and radiometer responses to precipitation. To accomplish this, we extend the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) version 2.3 to solve the radiative transfer equation for radar under multiple scattering conditions using Monte Carlo integration. Early versions of ARTS (1.1 and later) included a passive Monte Carlo solver, and ARTS is capable of handling atmospheres of up to three dimensions with ellipsoidal planetary geometries. The modular nature of ARTS facilitates extensibility, and the well-developed ray-tracing tools are suited for implementation of Monte Carlo algorithms. Finally, since ARTS handles the full Stokes vector, co- and cross-polarized reflectivity products are possible for scenarios that include nonspherical particles, with or without preferential alignment. The accuracy of the forward model will be demonstrated, and the effects of multiple scattering will be detailed. The three-dimensional nature of the radiative transfer model will be useful for understanding the effects of nonuniform beamfill and multiple scattering for spatially heterogeneous precipitation events. This targets of this forward model are GPM (the Dual-wavelength Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI)) and airborne sensors

  20. Data Management System Reuse for Visualization of JPL's SMAP Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Quach, N. T.; De Cesare, C.; Hall, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Imagery Exchange (TIE) is a scalable and efficient imagery data management system that powers the WMS web server OnEarth. Designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), TIE's primary purpose was to power the NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. The SMAP project at JPL had just about all of its requirements met with GIBS but required very project-specific behavior and automation for the Cal-Val phase of the project. Thanks to the extendable design of TIE (already an extension of JPL's Horizon framework) and Amazon's GovCloud services, we were able to meet the needs of the project without any rewrite of the system while significantly expanding the capabilities of an already robust system through well modularized feature additions. In this presentation, we will talk about the efforts made to re-use the already developed data system TIE for SMAP with minimal turn around. Leveraging cloud resources and standard interfaces, we were able to satisfy new project requirements in a very short amount of time.

  1. Detecting soil moisture pulses and associated vegetation response in a southern Arizona watershed using SMAP and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M.; Moran, M. S.; Scott, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems, rainfall pulses and associated vegetation responses play a crucial role in ecosystem and hydrologic functioning. While rainfall pulses are generally correlated with increased photosynthetic activity, the effect of these rainfall pulses in the context of persistent drought is unclear. Rainfall events during drought can lead to an overall reduction in primary productivity due to reduced soil infiltration and increased erosion. To assess the effective rainfall available for initiating biological processes, measurements of soil moisture are necessary. Rainfall pulses in drylands are generally localized in time and space making them difficult to detect remotely. Our objective was to determine whether space-based observations of soil moisture have the necessary spatial and temporal resolution to detect soil moisture pulses resulting from rain events in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southern Arizona. Using pre-beta-release soil moisture observations from the newly launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory, we examined the effects of rainfall pulses on soil moisture over the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed from April to July 2015. To assess whether soil moisture pulses were associated with increased vegetation production, we monitored increases in vegetation greenness using the NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) following increases in soil moisture. Regional-scale results were supported with local-scale in situ measurements of soil moisture, vegetation greenness from phenocams, precipitation and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) associated with two eddy covariance flux towers at WGEW. In conclusion, SMAP observations have the potential to detect large rainfall pulses at the 9 km resolution, and the associated soil moisture pulses can result in increased EVI at the watershed scale. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecosystem and hydrologic functioning of dryland ecosystems.

  2. Design and Development of the SMAP Microwave Radiometer Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Medeiros, James J.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Brambora, Clifford K.; Estep, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer will measure land surface brightness temperature at L-band (1413 MHz) in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI) for soil moisture remote sensing. The radiometer design was driven by the requirements to incorporate internal calibration, to operate synchronously with the SMAP radar, and to mitigate the deleterious effects of RFI. The system design includes a highly linear super-heterodyne microwave receiver with internal reference loads and noise sources for calibration and an innovative digital signal processor and detection system. The front-end comprises a coaxial cable-based feed network, with a pair of diplexers and a coupled noise source, and radiometer front-end (RFE) box. Internal calibration is provided by reference switches and a common noise source inside the RFE. The RF back-end (RBE) downconverts the 1413 MHz channel to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 120 MHz. The IF signals are then sampled and quantized by high-speed analog-to-digital converters in the radiometer digital electronics (RDE) box. The RBE local oscillator and RDE sampling clocks are phase-locked to a common reference to ensure coherency between the signals. The RDE performs additional filtering, sub-band channelization, cross-correlation for measuring third and fourth Stokes parameters, and detection and integration of the first four raw moments of the signals. These data are packetized and sent to the ground for calibration and further processing. Here we discuss the novel features of the radiometer hardware particularly those influenced by the need to mitigate RFI.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  4. Combined active and passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for vegetated surfaces at L-band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distorted Born approximation (DBA) combined with the numerical solutions of Maxwell equations (NMM3D) has been used for the radar backscattering model for the SMAP mission. The models for vegetated surfaces such as wheat, grass, soybean and corn have been validated with the Soil Moisture Active ...

  5. Scanning L Band Active Passive Validation Experiment 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Patel, H.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    SLAP (Scanning L-band Active Passive) comprises of a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer and fully polarimetric L-band radar with a shared antenna. SLAP is designed to be compatible with several aircrafts; specifically, C-23, Twin Otter, P-3, and C-130. SLAP is designed for simplicity, accuracy, & reliability. It leverages, as much as possible, existing instruments, hardware, and software in order to minimize cost, time, and risk.The SLAP airborne/ground campaign is designed to conduct flight testing and ground truth for the airborne instrument. The campaign took place the third week of December 2013 in Eastern Shore, MD. SLAP contributes to the NASA's core mission because of its ability to serve as an airborne simulator for the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission, one of NASA's flagship missions scheduled to launch in January 2015. A 3-day aircraft validation campaign was conducted where the new SLAP instrument flew three separate days over the proposed sampling region. The study area is a mixed agriculture and forest site located about 1 hour east of Washington, DC on the Eastern Shore (of the Chesapeake Bay). This region is located on the Delmarva Peninsula. The advantages of the selected site are: (1) Site was used before in previous field campaign (SMAPVEX08) (2) ARS HRSL has some established sampling sites within region (3) Dynamic variation in land cover (4) Variety of plant structures and densities. The goal of this campaign was to fly the instrument over the proposed site before a rain event, then have 2 other flights after the rain event to capture a dry down. In conjunction with the aircraft, there was in-situ ground sampling. Ground observations were collected concurrent with aircraft flights. These included soil moisture, soil temperature, surface temperature, surface roughness and vegetation parameters. Forest sites were monitored with small temporary networks of in situ sensors installed prior to the first flight. Soil moisture was

  6. PolarCube: A High Resolution Passive Microwave Satellite for Sounding and Imaging at 118 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. L.; Gallaher, D. W.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B.; Periasamy, L.; Hwang, K.; Alvarenga, G.; Hickey, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    PolarCube is a 3U CubeSat hosting an eight-channel passive microwave spectrometer operating at the 118.7503 GHz oxygen resonance that is currently in development. The project has an anticipated launch date in early 2015. It is currently being designed to operate for approximately12 months on orbit to provide the first global 118-GHz spectral imagery of the Earth over full seasonal cycle and to sound Arctic vertical temperature structure. The principles used by PolarCube for temperature sounding are well established in number of peer-reviewed papers going back more than two decades, although the potential for sounding from a CubeSat has never before been demonstrated in space. The PolarCube channels are selected to probe atmospheric emission over a range of vertical levels from the surface to lower stratosphere. This capability has been available operationally for over three decades, but at lower frequencies and higher altitudes that do not provide the spatial resolution that will be achieved by PolarCube. While the NASA JPSS ATMS satellite sensor provides global coverage at ~32 km resolution, the PolarCube will improve on this resolution by a factor of two, thus facilitating the primary science goal of determining sea ice concentration and extent while at the same time collecting profile data on atmospheric temperature. Additionally, we seek to correlate freeze-thaw line data from SMAP with our near simultaneously collected atmospheric temperature data. In addition to polar science, PolarCube will provide a first demonstration of a very low cost passive microwave sounder that if operated in a fleet configuration would have the potential to fulfill the goals of the Precipitation Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, as defined in the NRC Decadal Survey. PolarCube 118-GHz passive microwave spectrometer in deployed configuration

  7. Development of a High Resolution Passive Microwave 3U Cubesat for High Resolution Temperature Sounding and Imaging at 118 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Gallaher, D. W.; Periasamy, L.; Alvarenga, G.; Weaver, R.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarCube is a 3U CubeSat based on the CU ALL-STAR bus hosting an eight-channel passive microwave scanning spectrometer operating at the 118.7503 GHz (1-) O2 resonance. The anticipated launch date is in late 2015. It is being designed to operate for 12 months on orbit to provide global 118-GHz spectral imagery of the Earth over a full seasonal cycle. The mission will focus on the study of Arctic vertical temperature structure and its relation to sea ice coverage, but include the secondary goals of assessing the potential for convective cloud mass detection and cloud top altitude measurement and hurricane warm core sounding. The principles used by PolarCube for sounding and cloud measurement have been well established in number of peer-reviewed papers, although measurements using the 118 GHz oxygen line over the dry polar regions (unaffected by water vapor) have never been demonstrated from space. The PolarCube channels are selected to probe clear-air emission over vertical levels from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Operational spaceborne microwave soundings have available for decades but using lower frequencies (50-57 GHz) and from higher altitudes. While the JPSS ATMS sensor provides global coverage at ~32 km resolution PolarCube will improve on this resolution by a factor of two (~16 km), thus facilitating a key science goal of mapping sea ice concentration and extent while obtaining temperature profile data. Additionally, we seek to correlate freeze-thaw line data from the NASA SMAP mission with atmospheric temperature structure to help understand the relationship between clouds, temperature, and surface energy fluxes during seasonal transitions. PolarCube will also provide the first demonstration of a very low cost passive microwave sounder that if operated in a fleet configuration would have the potential to fulfill the goals of the Precipitation Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, as defined in the NRC Decadal Survey.

  8. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM has proven extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, mission scientists, instrument scientists and program managers alike appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. We have received numerous plaudits from a wide variety of scientists who used RTMM during recent field campaigns including the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) missions, the 2007-2008 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane flights and the 2008 Soil Moisture Active-Passive Validation Experiment (SMAP-VEX). Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated for altitude, latitude, longitude, flight leg distance, cumulative distance, flight leg time, cumulative time, and

  9. Early results of the SMAP In Situ Sensor Testbed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, an ambitious soil moisture sensor intercomparison study was begun in Marena, Oklahoma. This effort is designed to serve as a foundation for incorporating diverse soil moisture networks into the Soil Moisture Active Passive Calibration and Validation program Using technology which is curr...

  10. Using SMOS observations in the development of the SMAP level 4 surface and root-zone soil moisture project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [1]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. Along with these brightness temperature observations, ESA also disseminates retrievals of surface soil moisture that are derived ...

  11. Assimilation of Synchronous and Asynchronous Active/Passive Microwave Observations at Different Spatial Scales for Improved Soil Moisture and Crop Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Liu, P. W.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Assimilation of active and passive (AP) microwave observations at L-band in the crop simulation models is able to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and crop growth in the models. These observations provide complementary information for dynamic heterogeneous landscapes. Active observations are more sensitive to soil surface roughness and vegetation structure, while passive observations are more sensitive to SM. These observations may be available at different spatial and temporal resolutions from different satellite platforms. For example, the present ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides passive observations at 1.41 GHz at 25 km every 2-3 days, while the NASA/CONAE Aquarius mission provides L-band AP observations at spatial resolution of 150 km with a repeat coverage of 7 days for global SM products. The planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) will provide AP observations at 1.26 and 1.41 GHz at the spatial resolutions of 3 and 30 km, respectively, with a repeat coverage of 2-3 days, starting early 2015. The goal of this study is to develop an Ensemble Kalman Filter-based methodology that assimilates synchronously and asynchronously available backscattering coefficients (σ0) and brightness temperatures (TB) at different spatial scales from SMOS and Aquarius. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) that contains a suite of crop simulation models will be linked to microwave emission and scattering models (DSSAT-A-P) for the assimilation. The methodology will be implemented in the rain fed agricultural region of the Brazilian La Plata Basin in South America, where soybean is the primary crop. The augmented state vector will include both model states and parameters related to soil and vegetation during the growing season. The methodology will be evaluated using a synthetic experiment and also using observations from SMOS and Aquarius. In preliminary results with synthetic experiment, using asynchronous

  12. Uncertainty in SMAP Soil Moisture Measurements Caused by Dew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is an important reservoir of the hydrologic cycle that regulates the exchange of moisture and energy between the land surface the atmosphere. Two satellite missions will soon make the first global measurements of soil moisture at the optimal microwave wavelength within L-band: ESA's So...

  13. Lack of SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 1 (SMAP1) causes increased sensitivity to an inhibitor of RUB/NEDD8-activating enzyme in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yutaka; Nakasone, Akari

    2013-10-01

    SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 1 (SMAP1) functions upstream of the degradation of AUX/IAA-proteins in the response to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and physically interacts with the COP9 SIGNALOSOME (CSN). Also, its function is linked to RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB) modification. To further investigate the relationship between SMAP1 and the RUB modification system, we examined the effect of MLN4924, an inhibitor of RUB/NEDD8-activating E1 enzyme, on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the anti-auxin resistant 1 mutants, which lack SMAP1, are more sensitive to MLN4924 than wild type and that SMAP1 is responsible for this hypersensitivity. This new evidence supports our previous speculation that SMAP1 acts in Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase regulated signaling processes via its interaction with components associated with the RUB modification system.

  14. Feasibility of inter-comparing airborne and spaceborne obsevations of radar backscattering coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide global soil moisture products that will facilitate new science and application areas. The SMAP mission, scheduled for launch in November 2014, will offer synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of backscattering coefficients for the re...

  15. Robust Platinum Resistor Thermometer (PRT) Sensors and Reliable Bonding for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucullu, Gordy C. III; Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Petkov, Mihail; Hills, David; Uribe, Jose; Okuno, James; De Los Santos, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) provide accurate temperature measurements over a wide temperature range and are used extensively on space missions due to their simplicity and linearity. A standard on spacecraft, PRTs are used to provide precision temperature control and vehicle health assessment. This paper reviews the extensive reliability testing of platinum resistor thermometer sensors (PRTs) and bonding methods used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission and for the upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. During the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, several key, JPL-packaged PRTs failed on those rovers prior to and within 1-Sol of landing due to thermally induced stresses. Similar failures can be traced back to other JPL missions dating back thirty years. As a result, MSL sought out a PRT more forgiving to the packaging configurations used at JPL, and extensively tested the Honeywell HRTS-5760-B-U-0-12 sensor to successfully demonstrate suitable robustness to thermal cycling. Specifically, this PRT was cycled 2,000 times, simulating three Martian winters and summers. The PRTs were bonded to six substrate materials (Aluminum 7050, treated Magnesium AZ231-B, Stainless Steel 304, Albemet, Titanium 6AL4V, and G-10), using four different aerospace adhesives--two epoxies and two silicones--that conformed to MSL's low out-gassing requirements. An additional epoxy was tested in a shorter environmental cycling test, when the need for a different temperature range adhesive was necessary for mobility and actuator hardware late in the fabrication process. All of this testing, along with electrostatic discharge (ESD) and destructive part analyses, demonstrate that this PRT is highly robust, and not subject to the failure of PRTs on previous missions. While there were two PRTs that failed during fabrication, to date there have been no in-flight PRT failures on MSL, including those on the Curiosity rover. Since MSL, the sensor has gone through

  16. Robust Platinum Resistor Thermometer (PRT) Sensors and Reliable Bonding for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucullu, Gordy C., III; Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Rajeshuni, Ramesham; Petkov, Mihail; Hills, David; Uribe, Jose; Okuno, James; De Los Santos, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) provide accurate temperature measurements over a wide temperature range and are used extensively on space missions due to their simplicity and linearity. A standard on spacecraft, PRTs are used to provide precision temperature control and vehicle health assessment. This paper reviews the extensive reliability testing of platinum resistor thermometer sensors (PRTs) and bonding methods used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission and for the upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. During the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, several key, JPL-packaged PRTs failed on those rovers prior to and within 1-Sol of landing due to thermally induced stresses. Similar failures can be traced back to other JPL missions dating back thirty years. As a result, MSL sought out a PRT more forgiving to the packaging configurations used at JPL, and extensively tested the Honeywell HRTS-5760-B-U-0-12 sensor to successfully demonstrate suitable robustness to thermal cycling. Specifically, this PRT was cycled 2,000 times, simulating three Martian winters and summers. The PRTs were bonded to six substrate materials (Aluminum 7050, treated Magnesium AZ231-B, Stainless Steel 304, Albemet, Titanium 6AL4V, and G-10), using four different aerospace adhesives--two epoxies and two silicones--that conformed to MSL's low out-gassing requirements. An additional epoxy was tested in a shorter environmental cycling test, when the need for a different temperature range adhesive was necessary for mobility and actuator hardware late in the fabrication process. All of this testing, along with electrostatic discharge (ESD) and destructive part analyses, demonstrate that this PRT is highly robust, and not subject to the failure of PRTs on previous missions. While there were two PRTs that failed during fabrication, to date there have been no in-flight PRT failures on MSL, including those on the Curiosity rover. Since MSL, the sensor has gone through

  17. On the identification of representative in situ soil moisture monitoring stations for the validation of SMAP soil moisture products in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Mei Sun; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Monerris, Alessandra; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2016-06-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture complicates the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products using in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, a standard methodology for selecting the most representative stations for the purpose of validating satellites and land surface models is essential. Based on temporal stability and geostatistical studies using long-term soil moisture records, intensive ground measurements and airborne soil moisture products, this study investigates the representativeness of soil moisture monitoring stations within the Yanco study area for the validation of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products at 3 km for radar, 9 km for radar-radiometer and 36 km for radiometer pixels. This resulted in the identification of a number of representative stations according to the different scales. Although the temporal stability method was found to be suitable for identifying representative stations, stations based on the mean relative difference (MRD) were not necessarily the most representative of the areal average. Moreover, those identified from standard deviation of the relative difference (SDRD) may be dry-biased. It was also found that in the presence of heterogeneous land use, stations should be weighted based on proportions of agricultural land. Airborne soil moisture products were also shown to provide useful a priori information for identifying representative locations. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the design of future networks for satellite validation, and specifically the most representative stations for the Yanco area.

  18. Comparing SMAP to Macro-scale and Hyper-resolution Land Surface Models over Continental U. S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, M.; Cai, X.; Chaney, N.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    SMAP sensors collect moisture information in top soil at the spatial resolution of ~40 km (radiometer) and ~1 to 3 km (SAR). Such information is extremely valuable for understanding various terrestrial hydrologic processes and their implications on human life. At the same time, soil moisture is a joint consequence of numerous physical processes (precipitation, temperature, radiation, topography, crop/vegetation dynamics, soil properties, etc.) that happen at a wide range of scales from tens of kilometers down to tens of meters. Therefore, a full and thorough analysis/exploration of SMAP data products calls for investigations at multiple spatial scales - from regional, to catchment, and to field scales. Here we first compare the SMAP retrievals to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale land surface model simulations over the continental U. S. region at 3-km resolution. The forcing inputs to the model are merged/downscaled from a suite of best available data products including the NLDAS-2 forcing, Stage IV and Stage II precipitation, GOES Solar Insolation Product, and fine elevation data. The near real time VIC simulation is intended to provide a source of large scale comparisons at the active sensor resolution. Beyond the VIC model scale, we perform comparisons at 30-m resolution against the recently developed HydroBloks hyper-resolution land surface model over several densely gauged USDA experimental watersheds. Comparisons are also made against in-situ point-scale observations from various SMAP Cal/Val sites.

  19. SMOS, ASCAT, SMAP and ERA soil moisture comparison through the triple and quadruple collocation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fascetti, F.; Pierdicca, N.; Pulvirenti, L.; Crapolicchio, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a comparison between soil moisture products derived from satellite and land model data was performed; in particular, the soil moisture retrievals of SMOS and ASCAT were compared with those of the ERA-Interim/Land model, produced by the ECMWF in a timeframe of 3 years. Subsequently, for a limited period of time, the product from the SMAP radiometer was joined to SMOS, ASCAT and ERA-Interim model data as a fourth dataset. In both cases, the whole H-SAF region of interest, which includes Northern Africa and Europe, was analysed. In order to validate the products, the Triple Collocation technique was applied to estimate the independent error standard deviation of three systems that observe the same target parameter. When more than three datasets were available, the Quadruple Collocation technique was used to jointly estimate the error standard deviation of four sources. Moreover, when the SMOS and SMAP radiometer products were considered, the Extended Collocation was adopted in order to evaluate the error variances of the systems, taking into account the possible presence of an error cross-correlation between the radiometer retrievals.

  20. Reliability of Sn/Pb and lead-free (SnAgCu) solders of surface mounted miniaturized passive components for extreme temperature (-185°C to +125°C) space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2011-02-01

    Surface mount electronic package test boards have been assembled using tin/lead (Sn/Pb) and lead-free (Pb-free or SnAgCu or SAC305) solders. The soldered surface mount packages include ball grid arrays (BGA), flat packs, various sizes of passive chip components, etc. They have been optically inspected after assembly and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature environmental missions. In this study, the employed temperature range (-185°C to +125°C) covers military specifications (-55°C to +100°C), extreme cold Martian (-120°C to +115°C), asteroid Nereus (-180°C to +25°C) and JUNO (-150°C to +120°C) environments. The boards were inspected at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and bake duration. Electrical resistance measurements made at room temperature are reported and the tests to date have shown some change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and some showed increase in resistance. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work will be carried out to understand the reliability of packages under extreme temperature applications (-185°C to +125°C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance for BGA, Flat-packs, lead less chip packages, etc. This paper will describe the experimental reliability results of miniaturized passive components (01005, 0201, 0402, 0603, 0805, and 1206) assembled using surface mounting processes with tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys under extreme temperature environments.

  1. Reliability of Sn/Pb and Lead-Free (SnAgCu) Solders of Surface Mounted Miniaturized Passive Components for Extreme Temperature (-185 C to +125 C) Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2011-01-01

    Surface mount electronic package test boards have been assembled using tin/lead (Sn/Pb) and lead-free (Pb-free or SnAgCu or SAC305) solders. The soldered surface mount packages include ball grid arrays (BGA), flat packs, various sizes of passive chip components, etc. They have been optically inspected after assembly and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess their reliability or future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature environmental missions. In this study, the employed temperature range (-185oC to +125oC) covers military specifications (-55oC to +100oC), extreme old Martian (-120oC to +115oC), asteroid Nereus (-180oC to +25oC) and JUNO (-150oC to +120oC) environments. The boards were inspected at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and bake duration. Electrical resistance measurements made at room temperature are reported and the tests to date have shown some change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and some showed increase in resistance. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work will be carried out to understand the reliability of packages under extreme temperature applications (-185oC to +125oC) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance for BGA, Flat-packs, lead less chip packages, etc. This paper will describe the experimental reliability results of miniaturized passive components (01005, 0201, 0402, 0603, 0805, and 1206) assembled using surface mounting processes with tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys under extreme temperature environments.

  2. Application of triple collocation for the ground-based validation of soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) soil moisture products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contrast in horizontal spatial support between ground-based soil moisture observations and satellite-derived soil moisture estimates represents a long-standing challenge for the validation of satellite soil moisture data products [Crow et al., 2014]. This challenge can be alleviated by limiting ...

  3. Early conclusions of the soil moisture active passive Marena Oklahoma in situ sensor testbed (SMAP-Moisst)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring soil moisture state has been increasing in importance as climate patterns become more unpredictable. Remote sensing technologies have been developed and are approaching operational use, however, there is still a need to monitor soil moisture via in situ networks to maintain satellite vali...

  4. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  5. How Does Dew Affect L-band Backscatter? Analysis of PALS Data at the Iowa Validation Site and Implications for SMAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite mission will use both an L-band radiometer and radar to produce global-scale measurements of soil moisture. L-band backscatter is also sensitive to the water content of vegetation. We found that a moderate dew increased the L-band backscatter of a soybea...

  6. The decadal survey tier 2 missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Maring, Hal; Turner, Woody

    2008-10-01

    In January 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) released the first decadal survey addressing Earth science entitled "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond". The study, initiated in 2004, conducted a decadal survey to generate consensus recommendations from the Earth and environmental science and applications communities regarding a systems approach to the space-based and ancillary observations encompassing the research programs of NASA, the related operational programs of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and associated programs, such as Landsat, a joint initiative of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA. Among its many recommendations, were that NOAA and NASA should undertake a set of 17 missions, phased over the next decade in three year groupings. Of these 17 missions, 15 were designated to NASA. The four NASA Phase 1 missions are currently in Pre-Phase A study at different levels of development with SMAP, a soil moisture monitoring mission, targeting a launch date of 2013 and ICESat-II, intended to continue the record initiated by ICESat-I to monitor ice sheet height changes for climate change diagnosis, targeting a launch date of 2015. The CLARREO solar and earth radiation monitoring mission and the DESDynI Earth surface and ice deformation monitoring mission are preparing to enter Pre-Phase A in 2009. The five NASA Phase 2 missions are: SWOT, a wide swath altimeter mission measuring ocean, lake, and river water levels; HyspIRI, a hyperspectral mission for measuring land surface composition for agriculture and mineral characterization and vegetation types for ecosystem health; ASCENDS, a day/night, all-latitude, all-season CO2 column measuring mission; ACE, an aerosol and cloud profiling mission for climate and water cycle research with an ocean color measuring capability for open ocean biogeochemistry; and GEO-CAPE, a geostationary mission for measuring atmospheric

  7. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  8. Aquarius Active-Passive RFI Environment at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Active/Passive instrument combinations (i.e., radiometer and radar) are being developed at L-band for remote sensing of sea surface salinity and soil moisture. Aquarius is already in orbit and SMAP is planned for launch in the Fall of 2014. Aquarius has provided for the first time a simultaneous look at the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) environment from space for both active and passive instruments. The RFI environment for the radiometer observations is now reasonably well known and examples from Aquarius are presented in this manuscript that show that RFI is an important consideration for the scatterometer as well. In particular, extensive areas of the USA, Europe and Asia exhibit strong RFI in both the radiometer band at 1.41 GHz and in the band at 1.26 GHz employed by the Aquarius scatterometer. Furthermore, in areas such as the USA, where RFI at 1.4 GHz is relatively well controlled, RFI in the scatterometer band maybe the limiting consideration for the operation of combination active/passive instruments.

  9. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  10. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  11. Evaluation of the SMAP model calculated snow albedo at the SIGMA-A site, northwest Greenland, during the 2012 record surface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwano, M.; Aoki, T.; Matoba, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Kuchiki, K.; Motoyama, H.

    2015-12-01

    The snow and ice on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) experienced the extreme surface melt around 12 July, 2012. In order to understand the snow-atmosphere interaction during the period, we applied a physical snowpack model SMAP to the GrIS snowpack. In the SMAP model, the snow albedo is calculated by the PBSAM component explicitly considering effects of snow grain size and light-absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust. Temporal evolution of snow grain size is calculated internally in the SMAP model, whereas mass concentrations of snow impurities are externally given from observations. In the PBSAM, the (shortwave) snow albedo is calculated from a weighted summation of visible albedo (primarily affected by snow impurities) and near-infrared albedo (mainly controlled by snow grain size). The weights for these albedos are the visible and near-infrared fractions of the downward shortwave radiant flux. The SMAP model forced by meteorological data obtained from an automated weather station at SIGMA-A site, northwest GrIS during 30 June to 14 July, 2012 (IOP) was evaluated in terms of surface (optically equivalent) snow grain size and snow albedo. Snow grain size simulated by the model was compared against that retrieved from in-situ spectral albedo measurements. Although the RMSE and ME were reasonable (0.21 mm and 0.17 mm, respectively), the small snow grain size associated with the surface hoar could not be simulated by the SMAP model. As for snow albedo, simulation results agreed well with observations throughout the IOP (RMSE was 0.022 and ME was 0.008). Under cloudy-sky conditions, the SMAP model reproduced observed rapid increase in the snow albedo. When cloud cover is present the near-infrared fraction of the downward shortwave radiant flux is decreased, while it is increased under clear-sky conditions. Therefore, the above mentioned performance of the SMAP model can be attributed to the PBSAM component driven by the observed near-infrared and

  12. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  13. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  14. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  15. Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

    1998-11-01

    A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

  16. Passive solar technology

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  17. Geospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Geospace Missions - Understanding and being able to predict the behavior of the Earth's near space environment, called Geospace, is important for several reasons. These include the fact that most of the space-based commercial, military, and space research assets are exposed to this environment and that investigating fundamental plasma processes at work through out the solar system can most readily be accomplished in Geospace, the only place we can access the processes. NASA missions that are directed toward understanding, characterizing, and predicting the Geospace environment are described in this presentation. Emphasis is placed on those missions that investigate those phenomena that most affect life and society. The significance of investigating ionospheric irregularities, the radiation belt dynamics with the LWS Geospace Mission will be discussed.

  18. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  19. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  20. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  1. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  2. Evaluation of the SMAP model-simulated snow internal physical properties at Sapporo, Japan from 2005 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwano, Masashi; Aoki, Teruo; Kuchiki, Katsuyuki; Matoba, Sumito; Kodama, Yuji; Tanikawa, Tomonori

    2016-04-01

    Temporal evolution of snow internal physical properties such as grain size, density, temperature, and water content are controlled by changes in meteorological conditions. On the other hand, in a snow covered area, surface atmospheric conditions are modulated in response to variations of snow albedo, which is affected by (optically equivalent) snow grain size as well as mass concentration of snow impurities such as black carbon and dust. Therefore, it is necessary for snowpack models incorporated in climate models to simulate realistic snow internal physical properties to perform accurate future climate prediction especially in the cryosphere. In this study, we evaluated snow internal physical properties at Sapporo (43° 05'N, 141° 21'E, 15 m a.s.l.), Japan from 2005 to 2015 simulated with a 1-D multilayered physical snowpack model SMAP (Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process). The model was driven by quality controlled 30-min averaged data for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, surface pressure, snow depth, downward and upward shortwave radiant flux, downward longwave radiant flux, and ground surface soil heat flux. Simulation results were compared against the data obtained from snow pit works performed twice a week at Sapporo. First of all, the model-simulated column integrated SWE (snow water equivalent) were compared against in-situ measurements (273 data were available during the 10 winters). The results show that the model tends to underestimate SWE (mean error; ME was -19 mm); however, root mean square error (RMSE) was 34 mm, and these scores are better than those for simulations driven by not snow depth but precipitation (ME was less than -25 mm and RMSE was more than 40 mm). It suggests that the correction technique for precipitation measurements considering catch efficiency of a rain gauge is still insufficient. Next, the model-simulated profiles for snow density and snow temperature were compared against in-situ measurements. For this purpose

  3. High spatial resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Bonanni, P. G.; Gasiewski, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two extensive series of flights aboard the ER-2 aircraft were conducted with the MIT 118 GHz imaging spectrometer together with a 53.6 GHz nadir channel and a TV camera record of the mission. Other microwave sensors, including a 183 GHz imaging spectrometer were flown simultaneously by other research groups. Work also continued on evaluating the impact of high-resolution passive microwave soundings upon numerical weather prediction models.

  4. SEQUOIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Carone, Timothy; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-06-01

    We describe a mission concept for the SEQUOIA instrument, which would carry out the first wide-field, far ultraviolet, photometric all-sky survey. SEQUOIA will image the astronomical sky in the 912-1050 angstrom spectral region to a limiting magnitude of 19.5(superscript m) over a one degree field of view with a spatial resolution of less than 30 arc seconds. This mission was proposed to the USRA STEDI program in late 1994, and has been designed as a low cost, fast-track program for launch within 3 years. The spacecraft bus is being provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Dulles) and since the entire payload weighs less than 100kg, it can be launched using either a Minuteman or Pegasus rocket.

  5. Enhancing agricultural forecasting using SMOS surface soil moisture retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the onset of data availability from the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (Kerr and Levine, 2008) and the expected 2015 launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission (Entekhabi et al., 2010), the next five years should see a significant expansion in our ab...

  6. Enhancing begetation productivity forecasting using remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the onset of data availability from the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (Kerr and Levine, 2008) and the expected 2015 launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission (Entekhabi et al., 2010), the next five years should see a significant expansion in our ab...

  7. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  8. NASA's Standards Process Support for New Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. There are benefits to the NASA Earth science community for having a repository of endorsed Earth science data systems standards that have been successfully implemented and used within the NASA environment. NASA's Earth science data providers can rely on these endorsed standards to achieve interoperability. The SPG is working with NASA's Decadal Survey Missions (e.g. SMAP, ICESat-2, ..) to facilitate the use of NASA's endorsed standards in these future mission data systems. The Standards Process Group is designing a notional reference architecture that together with an as-built architecture documentation can assist missions in identifying where and what kinds of standards they need to develop their mission data systems. We will discuss an overview of the reference architecture and discuss how to use the reference architecture in evolving data systems and identifying standards that are needed. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format, NetCDF Classic, CF Metadata). We will discuss real examples of the different types of best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented and endorsed as Technical Notes (i.e. Interoperability between OGC CS/W and WCS Protocols, Lessons Learned Regarding WCS Server Design and Implementation, Mapping HDF5 to DAP2, Creating File Format Guidelines - The Aura Experience, ECHO Metadata) But are there any benefits to communities who propose the RFCs for consideration as a NASA Earth science data systems standard? We have seen that the Standards Process encourages consensus within a community during

  9. Inter-comparison of soil moisture sensors from the soil moisture active passive marena Oklahoma in situ sensor testbed (SMAP-MOISST)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of in situ soil moisture network protocols and instrumentation led to the development of a testbed for comparing in situ soil moisture sensors. Located in Marena, Oklahoma on the Oklahoma State University Range Research Station, the testbed consists of four base stations. Each station ...

  10. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  11. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... a certain type of wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful ... A is common. They are typically given before children or adults leave on their ... active vaccination is preferable. Keep in mind that passive immunizations ...

  12. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  13. LASL passive program

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent accomplishments are outlined on the following tasks: (1) solar load ratio for sunspaces; (2) thermal performance of components and buildings; (3) convective loop test; (4) similarity study of interzone convection; (5) evaluation of phase-change thermal storage; (6) off-peak electrical auxiliary heating; (7) passive solar design handbook; (8) program support to DOE; and (9) passive cooling for residences. (WHK)

  14. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  15. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  16. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  17. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept

  18. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  19. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  20. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  1. Sorption cooling: A valid extension to passive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, D. J.; Burger, J. F.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2008-05-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the expander in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of, e.g., hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and on the limitations of passive cooling for lower cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the

  2. Integration of Passive Components for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, E. J.; Wesseling, E.; White, V.; Lieneweg, U.; Mojarradi, M.; Ulrich, R.; Wasef, M.; Mantooth, A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA roadmap outlining future deep space missions to Europa and other outer planetary destinations calls for continued reductions in the mass and volume of the spacecraft avionics. Spacecraft power electronics, including the power switches and converters, remain difficult to miniaturize due to the need for large numbers of discrete passive components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors and transformers. As part of the System-on-a-chip program at the Center for Integrated Space Microsystems and at the University of Arkansas, we are working to develop integrated or embedded passive components geared specifically for use in power management and distribution (PMAD) in future avionics over the next five to ten years. This will not only enable a scaling down of the power subsystems, but will make possible new architectures such as "distributed" PMAD. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  4. Passive cryogenic cooling of electrooptics with a heat pipe/radiator.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B E; Goldstein, G A

    1974-09-01

    The current status of the heat pipe is discussed with particular emphasis on applications to cryogenic thermal control. The competitive nature of the passive heat pipe/radiator system is demonstrated through a comparative study with other candidate systems for a 1-yr mission. The mission involves cooling a spaceborne experiment to 100 K while it dissipates 10 W.

  5. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, David; Neri, Robin

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  6. GPM Constellation Reconfiguration and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission that uses combined active and passive remote sensing techniques to improve global precipitation measurements derived from dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals to (1) advance the knowledge of precipitation physics and the global water cycle variability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation and innovative application methods. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional domestic and international partners in satellite constellation buildup and ground validation activities. The GPM concept is centered on employing a dualfrequency precipitation radar and a microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities on a core satellite to serve as a physics observatory and calibration standard to provide a consistent framework for unifying precipitation measurements from a heterogeneous constellation of passive microwave sensors. Building on the siccess of TRMM, GPM extends combined radadradiometer precipitation measurements into the mid and high latitudes, with new science foci on improved capabilities for light-rain and snowfall measurements, as well as more accurate precipitation retrievals over land. With recent studies indicating that AMSU-B rainfall estimates are comparable in quality to those derived from conically-scanning radiometers over land, it is envisioned that cross-track microwave sounders with high-frequency channels on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), NOAA-N', and MetOp satellites can play a significant role in augmenting conically-scanning microwave radiometers to achieve better

  7. Long term analysis of PALS soil moisture campaign measurements for global soil moisture algorithm development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important component of satellite-based soil moisture algorithm development and validation is the comparison of coincident remote sensing and in situ observations that are typically provided by intensive field campaigns. The planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has unique requi...

  8. Precipitation estimation using L-Band and C-Band soil moisture retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterome...

  9. Challenges in Interpreting and Validating Satellite Soil Moisture Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global soil moisture products are now being generated routinely using microwave-based satellite observing systems. These include the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. In order to fully exploit these observations they must be integrated with both in situ measurements and model-based e...

  10. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  11. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  12. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  13. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  14. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, Jan; Burger, Johannes; ter Brake, Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the restriction in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of e.g. hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and the limitations on passive cooling at low cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the

  15. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  16. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  17. Passive hydrogel fuel generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neefe, Ch. W.

    1985-04-16

    A passive hydrogen oxygen generator in which the long wavelength infrared portion of the sun's spectrum heats water to provide circulation of the water within the generator. The shorter wavelength portion of the spectrum to which water is transparent is used in splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by photoelectrolysis.

  18. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  19. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  20. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.3 Dependence on SNR...71 4.3.3 Dependence on SNR and DNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.4 Interpretations...described as a passive radar network. The topology of such networks is described as bistatic, multistatic, or multiple-input multiple-output, depending on

  1. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  2. Some Activities of MISSE 6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. In this paper, a few laser and optical elements from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that have been flown on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. These items were characterized and packed inside a ruggedized Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that resembles a suitcase. The PEC was tested for survivability due to launch conditions. Subsequently, the MISSE 6 PEC was transported by the STS-123 mission to International Space Station (ISS) on March 11, 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the PEC to external handrails and opened the PEC for long term exposure to the space environment. The plan is to retrieve the MISSE 6 PEC by STS-128 mission in August 2009.

  3. Image Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, N.; Challa, M.; Home, A.; Harman, R.; Burley, R.

    2001-01-01

    The spin-stabilized Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first Medium-class Explorer Mission (MIDEX). IMAGE was launched into a highly elliptical polar orbit on March 25, 2000 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, aboard a Boeing Delta II 7326 launch vehicle. This paper presents some of the observations of the flight dynamics analyses during the launch and in-orbit checkout period through May 18, 2000. Three new algorithms - one algebraic and two differential correction - for computing the parameters of the coning motion of a spacecraft are described and evaluated using in-flight data from the autonomous star tracker (AST) on IMAGE. Other attitude aspects highlighted include support for active damping consequent upon the failure of the passive nutation damper, performance evaluation of the AST, evaluation of the Sun sensor and magnetometer using AST data, and magnetometer calibration.

  4. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  5. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  6. Soil organic carbon as a factor in passive microwave retrievals of soil water content over agricultural croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Hida R.; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing has the potential to deliver global soil water content (SWC) on vast scales with frequent revisit times for progress in the fields of climate, weather forecasting, agriculture and hydrology. Although surface roughness, vegetation and soil texture have been established as sources of variability in passive microwave interpretation, soil organic carbon (SOC) has not typically been considered as a factor that affects SWC estimation during field sampling campaigns. SOC was observed along with soil texture and bulk density during the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment in 2012 (SMAPVEX12), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite algorithm development field sampling campaign held June 6 to July 19 in Southern Manitoba, Canada. Aerial measurements from the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument were recorded over agricultural fields and forest areas from aircraft while SWC was measured simultaneously on the ground with resistance probes on 17 sampling dates. Additionally, fields were sampled for surface roughness, vegetation growth and water content, soil and vegetation temperature and soil physical characteristics. A soil core was collected on each field each sampling time to assess bulk density, soil particle size and SOC. SOC accounted for more variability in the anomalies between PALS and ground sampled SWC than sand, clay or bulk density, although all soil variables explained significant variability. With analysis by partial least squares multiple regression over 11 sampling dates and 39 fields where both ground and PALS data were well represented, only SOC contributed significantly to the regression of SWC beyond the variance all soil variables had in common. The significance of SOC in the relative SWC anomalies was highest in very wet and very dry conditions and in loam soil over all sampling dates, while bulk density was more significant in sand soils. This analysis suggests SOC is a simple variable that incorporates

  7. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  8. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  9. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  10. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Hall, Earl T.; Baker, Donald A.; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1992-08-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  11. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The invention is an ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system. The invention incorporates piezoelectric polymer film combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted from a fetus inside an expectant mother and to provide means for filtering out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  12. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  13. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  14. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  16. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  17. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  18. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  19. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  20. A Passive Earth-Entry Capsule for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Kellas, S.; Dorsey, J. T.; Desai, P. N.; Martin, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of aerodynamic analysis and testing, aerothermodynamic analysis, structural analysis and testing, impact analysis and testing, thermal analysis, ground characterization tests, configuration packaging, and trajectory simulation are employed to determine the feasibility of an entirely passive Earth entry capsule for the Mars Sample Return mission. The design circumvents the potential failure modes of a parachute terminal descent system by replacing that system with passive energy absorbing material to cushion the Mars samples during ground impact. The suggested design utilizes a spherically blunted 45 degree half-angle forebody with an ablative heatshield. The primary structure is a spherical composite sandwich enclosing carbon foam energy absorbing material. Though no demonstration test of the entire system is included, results of the testing and analysis presented indicate that the design is a viable option for the Mars Sample Return Mission.

  1. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

  2. A Passive Earth-Entry Capsule for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Kellas, Sotiris

    1999-01-01

    A combination of aerodynamic analysis and testing, aerothermodynamic analysis, structural analysis and testing, impact analysis and testing, thermal analysis, ground characterization tests, configuration packaging, and trajectory simulation are employed to determine the feasibility of an entirely passive Earth entry capsule for the Mars Sample Return mission. The design circumvents the potential failure modes of a parachute terminal descent system by replacing that system with passive energy absorbing material to cushion the Mars samples during ground impact. The suggested design utilizes a spherically blunted 45-degree half-angle cone forebody with an ablative heat shield. The primary structure is a hemispherical, composite sandwich enclosing carbon foam energy absorbing material. Though no demonstration test of the entire system is included, results of the tests and analysis presented indicate that the design is a viable option for the Mars Sample Return Mission.

  3. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Keegan, R.P.; Frigo, L.A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-03-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this report.

  4. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  5. Applications Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the plans of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications for the Shuttle/Spacelab missions. It is reported that the current program contains dedicated low-gravity mission (Spacelab 3 mission) and several minor missions planned for flight during 1980-1982. It is noted that these missions have either Materials Processing or Earth viewing emphasis. Finally, several representative experiments are used to illustrate the Applications Spacelab Program, such as the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA), and the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Measured by Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment.

  6. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ulysses mission to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension, is discussed. The scientific objectives of the mission are reviewed, and the nine flight experiments which make up the spacecraft payload are summarized. The Ulysses trajectory and mission timeline are described, as are the spacecraft itself and the mission operations. The timing of the mission with the solar cycle is discussed.

  7. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. Teleoperator control for passivation of satellites possessing angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Certain space shuttle missions may require the retrieval of passive spinning and processing satellites. One proposed means of retrieval utilizes a free-flying teleoperator launched from the shuttle. The feasibility of nulling the combined spin and precession (passivation) of a typical rigid satellite is first established using a Lagrangian formulation. It is shown that a proposed asymmetric teleoperator cannot be used for passivation in its present form because it would quickly tumble over after being spun-up to synchronize with the angular rates of the satellite. In addition, a dynamic analysis is made of the combined teleoperator-satellite system where an initial misalignment of their respective angular momentum vectors is assumed.

  9. Applications Explorer Missions (AEM): Mission planners handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The Applications Explorer Missions (AEM) Program is a planned series of space applications missions whose purpose is to perform various tasks that require a low cost, quick reaction, small spacecraft in a dedicated orbit. The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is the first mission of this series. The spacecraft described in this document was conceived to support a variety of applications instruments and the HCMM instrument in particular. The maximum use of commonality has been achieved. That is, all of the subsystems employed are taken directly or modified from other programs such as IUE, IMP, RAE, and Nimbus. The result is a small versatile spacecraft. The purpose of this document, the AEM Mission Planners Handbook (AEM/MPH) is to describe the spacecraft and its capabilities in general and the HCMM in particular. This document will also serve as a guide for potential users as to the capabilities of the AEM spacecraft and its achievable orbits. It should enable each potential user to determine the suitability of the AEM concept to his mission.

  10. Current Development of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects, particularly those based on use of passive microwave radiometer measurements, have paved the way for a more advanced global precipitation mission. The new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that TRMM research has posed over a range of space-time scales and within a variety of scientific disciplines that are becoming more integrated into earth system science modeling. Added to this success is the realization that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool in understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond. This progress has motivated a comprehensive global measuring strategy -- leading to the "Global Precipitation Mission" (GPM). GPM is planning to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a satellite constellation. The intent is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction & prediction of fresh water resources, the global carbon budget, and biogeochemical cycles. This talk overviews the status and scientific agenda of this mission currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. The GPM notional design involves a 10-member satellite constellation, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (DFPR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other nine members of the constellation will be considered daughters of the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7-85 GHz frequency range -- likely to include a combination of lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., 2 DMSP/SSMISs, GCOM-B1/AMSR-J, & Megha Tropiques/MADRAS). The goal behind the constellation is to achieve no worse than

  11. Passive millimeter wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergande, Al; Dean, Donald D.; O'Donnell, Daniel J.

    1996-05-01

    Passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging provides a breakthrough capability for driver vision enhancement to counter the blinding effects of inclement weather. This type of sensor images in a manner analogous to an infrared or visible camera, but receives its energy from the MMW portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Technology has progressed to the point where MMW radiometric systems offer advantages to a number of vision applications. We report on our developmental 94 GHz radiometric testbed, and the eventual technological evolutions that will help MMW radiometers and radars meet military and commercial market needs.

  12. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  13. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  14. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  15. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  16. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  17. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Peter A.; Kim, Kwiseon; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-06-01

    We describe a systematic and efficient method of determining pseudo-atom positions and potentials for use in nanostructure calculations based on bulk empirical pseudopotentials (EPMs). Given a bulk EPM for binary semiconductor X, we produce parameters for pseudo-atoms necessary to passivate a nanostructure of X in preparation for quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. These passivants are based on the quality of the wave functions of a set of small test structures that include the passivants. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. It enables and/or streamlines surface passivation for empirical pseudopotential calculations.

  18. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  19. Seismometer readings studied in Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Apollo 15 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface is studied by scientists in the Mission Control Center. Dr. Gary Latham (dark suit, wearing lapel button) of Columbia University is responsible for the design and experiment data analysis of the Passive Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). The man on the left, writing, is Nafi Toksos of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Looking on at upper left is Dave Lammlein, also with Columbia.

  20. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  1. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  2. Optical effects module and passive sample array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The Optical Effects Module (OEM) has the objective to monitor the effects of the deposition and adhesion of both molecular species and particles on optical surfaces in the Shuttle cargo bay environment. The OEM performs inflight measurements of the ultraviolet (253.7 nm) transmittance and diffuse reflectance of five optical samples at regular intervals throughout the orbital mission. Most of the obtained results indicates or implies the absence of a significant accumulation of contamination other than particulates on the samples. The contaminant species (or particulates) adhering to the samples of the Passive Sample Array (PSA) were identified by means of Auger and X-ray energy dispersive analyses. The elements silicon, chlorine, and phosphorus were discovered.

  3. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  4. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  5. Passive vs. Parachute System Architecture for Robotic Sample Return Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Henning, Allen B.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is a flexible vehicle concept based on the Mars Sample Return (MSR) EEV design which can be used in the preliminary sample return mission study phase to parametrically investigate any trade space of interest to determine the best entry vehicle design approach for that particular mission concept. In addition to the trade space dimensions often considered (e.g. entry conditions, payload size and mass, vehicle size, etc.), the MMEEV trade space considers whether it might be more beneficial for the vehicle to utilize a parachute system during descent/landing or to be fully passive (i.e. not use a parachute). In order to evaluate this trade space dimension, a simplified parachute system model has been developed based on inputs such as vehicle size/mass, payload size/mass and landing requirements. This model works in conjunction with analytical approximations of a mission trade space dataset provided by the MMEEV System Analysis for Planetary EDL (M-SAPE) tool to help quantify the differences between an active (with parachute) and a passive (no parachute) vehicle concept.

  6. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    APPLICATIONS A useful model of mission mapping is presented in Figure 2. Users and defenders of a network typically have several disjoint types of... Mapping user processes to network capabilities reveals the broader impact of information in the logs, and improves risk analysis by identifying...The final stage of mission mapping connects the user processes with the missions they support. This mapping is critical both for prioritization of

  7. Mission planning with ROSAT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    The mission planning activities for the satellite bourne X-ray observatory ROSAT are discussed. Responsibility is shared between the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), which provides the sientific and calibration program input, and the German Space Operations Center (GSOC), whose responsibility it is to generate a mission timeline satisfying all operational constraints. An optimum solution for the mission timeline is achieved using an efficient networking procedure.

  8. RAF and Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    of the art of command, i.e., the mission command philosophy , by examining six guiding principles. The third section analyzes RAF through the...describes mission command as a “ philosophy and a warfighting function;” it is also the framework for the Army’s execution of military operations in...support of Unified Land Operations (ULO).35 The mission command philosophy is described as “the exercise of authority and direction by the commander

  9. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  10. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  11. Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.; Science Team

    2002-10-01

    This presentation started with a historical perspective of the astronomical discovery of Mars and followed by an overview of previous missions to Mars by the United States and the Soviet Union. Recently launched missions, such as Nozomi, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey were addressed in more detailed, as well as a few other missions soon to be launched. Among these, Mars Express is particularly relevant as the first European mission towards the red planet, and the talk concentrated on it, including both the Mars Express orbiter spacecraft and the Beagle-2 lander to be launched in 2003.

  12. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  13. Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2009-01-01

    Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

  14. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  15. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  16. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  17. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  18. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  19. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  1. Passive retrofits for Navy housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

  2. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  3. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  4. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  5. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  6. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  7. Mervyn's Moving Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's resource packet includes a number of items designed to support teachers in the classroom before and after visiting Mervyn's Moving Mission. The packet includes eight sections: (1) welcome letter in English and Spanish; (2) summary timeline of California mission events in English and Spanish; (3) objectives and curriculum links; (4)…

  8. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  9. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  10. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  11. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  12. The SMOS mission. Project status and next steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Waldteufel, P.; Cabot, F.; Font, J.; Hahne, A.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2009-04-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap . It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS is currently ready to be launched and is scheduled for launch in 2009, slightly before Aquarius and SMAP. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS will achieve an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. This is possible by using a non-rotating thinned 8 m diameter antenna. The imaging capability of such antenna is implemented by aperture synthesis, the same technique of radio-astronomy. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular

  13. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  14. Lessons Learned in Thermal Coatings from the DSCOVR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    Finding solutions to thermal coating issues on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was a very challenging and unique endeavor. As a passive thermal control system, coatings provide the desired thermal, optical, and electrical charging properties, while surviving a harsh space environment. DSCOVR mission hardware was repurposed from the late 1990s satellite known as Triana. As a satellite that was shelved for over a decade, the coating surfaces consequently degraded with age, and became fairly outdated. Although the mission successfully launched in February 2015, there were unfamiliar observations and unanticipated issues with the coating surfaces during the revival phases of the project. For example, the thermal coatings on DSCOVR experienced particulate contamination and resistivity requirement problems, among other issues. While finding solutions to these issues, valuable lessons were learned in thermal coatings that may provide great insight to future spaceflight missions in similar situations.

  15. Integrating and Visualizing Tropical Cyclone Data Using the Real Time Mission Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Conover, Helen; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM is extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, scientists, and managers appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. A broad spectrum of interdisciplinary scientists used RTMM during field campaigns including the hurricane-focused 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane Noel flight, 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), plus a soil moisture (SMAP-VEX) and two arctic research experiments (ARCTAS) in 2008. Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated "on the fly". The resultant flight plan is then immediately posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for interested scientists to view the planned flight track and subsequently compare it to the actual real time flight progress. We are planning additional capabilities to RTMM including collaborations with the Jet Propulsion

  16. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  17. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  18. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  19. Mission Scenario Development Workbench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

    2006-01-01

    The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

  20. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  1. EXCEED (SORA) mission overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, I.

    2013-05-01

    An earth-orbiting Extreme Ultraviolet spectroscopic mission, EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics explore (EXCEED) is ready for the launch. The EXCEED mission will carry out observations of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV: 60 -145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Mercury, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter). It is necessary for planetary EUV spectroscopy to avoid the Earth's atmospheric absorption, therefore we have to observe above the Earth's atmosphere. In this paper, we will introduce the mission overview, the instrument, and the scientific targets.

  2. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  3. Venus 2000 Mission Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.

    1997-05-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  4. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  5. Euclid mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureijs, R.; Racca, G.; Stagnaro, L.; Salvignol, J.-C.; Lorenzo Alvarez, J.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Gaspar Venancio, L.; Short, A.; Strada, P.; Colombo, C.; Buenadicha, G.; Hoar, J.; Kohley, R.; Vavrek, R.; Mellier, Y.; Berthe, M.; Amiaux, J.; Cropper, M.; Niemi, S.; Pottinger, S.; Ealet, A.; Jahnke, K.; Maciaszek, T.; Pasian, F.; Sauvage, M.; Wachter, S.; Israelsson, U.; Holmes, W.; Seiffert, M.; Cazaubiel, V.; Anselmi, A.; Musi, P.

    2014-08-01

    In June 2012, Euclid, ESA's Cosmology mission was approved for implementation. Afterwards the industrial contracts were signed for the payload module and the spacecraft prime, and the mission requirements consolidated. We present the status of the mission in the light of the design solutions adopted by the contractors. The performances of the spacecraft in its operation, the telescope assembly, the scientific instruments as well as the data-processing have been carefully budgeted to meet the demanding scientific requirements. We give an overview of the system and where necessary the key items for the interfaces between the subsystems.

  6. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  7. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  8. Thermal System Verification and Model Validation for NASA's Cryogenic Passively Cooled James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Keith; Cleveland, Paul E.; Glazer, Stu; Thompson, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    A thorough and unique thermal verification and model validation plan has been developed for NASA s James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST observatory consists of a large deployed aperture optical telescope passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin along with a suite of several instruments passively and actively cooled to below 37 Kelvin and 7 Kelvin, respectively. Passive cooling to these extremely low temperatures is made feasible by the use of a large deployed high efficiency sunshield and an orbit location a! !he L2 Lagrange pin!. Another enabling feature is the scale or size of the observatory that allows for large radiator sizes that are compatible with the expected power dissipation of the instruments and large format Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays. This passive cooling concept is simple, reliable, and mission enabling when compared to the alternatives of mechanical coolers and stored cryogens. However, these same large scale observatory features, which make passive cooling viable, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone to most space missions thermal verification plan. JWST is simply too large in its deployed configuration to be properly thermal balance tested in the facilities that currently exist. This reality, when combined with a mission thermal concept with little to no flight heritage, has necessitated the need for a unique and alternative approach to thermal system verification and model validation. This paper describes the thermal verification and model validation plan that has been developed for JWST.

  9. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  10. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  11. Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology and climate investigations. Current and future satellite missions with L-band passive microwave radiometers can provide valuable information for monitoring the global soil moisture. A factor that can play a significant role in the modeling...

  12. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffy, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Acuna, M.; Allen, M.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Farrell, W.; Burchell, M. J.; Burger, M.; Chin, G.; Coates, A. J.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Gerlach, B.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Im, Eastwood; Jennings, D.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  13. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  14. Cassini's Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David; Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the recent approval of NASA's flagship Cassini mission for seven more years of continued operations, dozens more Titan, Enceladus and other icy moon flybys await, as well as many occultations and multiple close passages to Saturn. Seasonal change is the principal scientific theme as Cassini extends its survey of the target-rich system over one full half-season, from just after northern winter solstice at arrival back in 2004, to northern summer solstice at the end of mission in 2017. The new seven-year mission extension requires careful propellant management as well as streamlined operations strategies with smaller spacecraft, sequencing and science teams. Cassini's never-before-envisioned end of mission scenario also includes nearly two dozen high-inclination orbits which pass between the rings and the planet allowing thrilling and unique science opportunities before entry into Saturn's atmosphere.

  15. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  16. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  17. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  18. Microspacecraft missions and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1989-01-01

    The microspacecraft is defined as a fully functional spacecraft whose mass is on the order of 10 kg or less. The results of a recent microspacecraft workshop are reviewed. The workshop concluded that microspacecraft are feasible and can be enabling for missions that require multiple simultaneous measurements displaced in position or very high mission delta-VSDIO-s. The paper includes discussions of science objectives and instruments as well as potential missions. Potential missions include a very close approach to the sun, determining the origin of gamma ray bursters and a search for gravity waves. Technology for microspacecraft is coming from the 'Lightsat' or small satellite community and developments sponsored by the SDIO. Concepts for microspacecraft power and telecommunications subsystems developed at the JPL are presented. Due to their small size, microspacecraft can be launched by traditional chemical rockets and also unconventional launchers such as electromagnetic launchers.

  19. Apollo 15 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  20. The MARSIS Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J J.; Picardi, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) is an integral component of the Mars Express mission. A low-frequency sounding radar was carried on the Russian Mars 96 spacecraft, and in keeping with the concept of re-flying the science experiments lost on that mission, a call for a radar sounder was part of the Announcement of Opportunity for the 2003 ESA Mars Express mission. MARSIS is the only totally new instrument on Mars Express. The instrument was developed, delivered and operated as a joint effort between the Italian Space Agency and the U.S space agency NASA. The MARSIS science mission has been delayed due to concerns about the safety of the antenna deployment. As a testament to the importance placed on the

  1. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  2. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  3. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  4. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  5. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  6. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  7. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  8. Solar passive systems for buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A survey is provided of what is known about the design of solar passive buildings. A systematic presentation is given of proven concepts with suitable illustrations. It is intended as a general guide for architects, designers and other building practitioners. Topics include the various concepts of solar passive heating and cooling, design factors such as location, climate, microclimate, form; building metabolism, thermal and visual comfort; location and form of illumination; and natural cooling via wind towers and cisterns.

  9. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  10. Atmospheric tether mission analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of tethered satellites to explore regions of the atmosphere inaccessible to spacecraft or high altitude research balloons. This report summarizes the Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) effort for the engineering study team assessment of an Orbiter-based atmospheric tether mission. Lockheed Martin responsibilities included design recommendations for the deployer and tether, as well as tether dynamic analyses for the mission. Three tether configurations were studied including single line, multistrand (Hoytether) and tape designs.

  11. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  12. Apollo 17 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  13. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  14. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  15. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  16. The PLATO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, H.; Aerts, C.; Cabrera, J.; PLATO Team

    2016-09-01

    We present the current status of the PLATO space mission, which is currently in its design phase. A brief overview of its capabilities is given, after introducing the core science goals of the mission. We also present the amount of observing time offered to the community as Guest Observer program. This will allow a wealth of complementary science in many areas of astrophysics, ranging from stellar to extragalactic science and covering variability phenomena with time scales from a few seconds to years.

  17. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  18. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  19. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  20. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  1. Alternative to Nitric Acid for Passivation of Stainless Steel Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L.; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The DoD and NASA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational cost. DoD and NASA agreed to collaborate to validate citric acid as an acceptable passivating agent for stainless steel. This paper details our investigation of prior work developing the citric acid passivation process, development of the test plan, optimization of the process for specific stainless steel alloys, ongoing and planned testing to elucidate the process' resistance to corrosion in comparison to nitric acid, and preliminary results.

  2. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  3. An Explorer-Class Astrobiology Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Greene, Thomas; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul K.; Gonzales, Andrew; Haas, Michael; Hanel, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a potential new Explorer-class space mission, the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE), consisting of a relatively modest dedicated space observatory having a 50 cm aperture primary mirror which is passively cooled to T less than 65 K, resides in a low-background orbit (heliocentric orbit at 1 AU, Earth drift-away), and is equipped with a suite of three moderate order (m approx. 10) dispersive spectrographs equipped with first-order cross-dispersers in an "echellette" configuration and large format (1024xl024 pixel) near- and mid-IR detector arrays cooled by a modest amount of cryogen. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The observational program of this mission would make fundamental scientific progress in each of the key areas of the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution and chemistry of organic compounds in the diffuse and dense interstellar media, and the evolution of ices and organic matter in young planetary systems. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting an approximately one year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micrometers spectral range at spectral resolutions of R greater than or equal to 1000 of approximately 1000 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, and young star planetary systems.

  4. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  5. Active shielding for long duration interplanetary manned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2010-04-01

    For long duration interplanetary manned missions the protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem that has been considered by many space agencies. In Europe, during 2002-2004, the European Space Agency supported two research programs on this thematic: one was the constitution of a dedicated study group (on the thematic 'Shielding from cosmic radiation for interplanetary missions: active and passive methods') in the framework of the 'life and physical sciences' report, and the other an industrial study concerning the 'radiation exposure and mission strategies for interplanetary manned missions to Moon and Mars'. Both programs concluded that, outside the protection of the magnetosphere and in the presence of the most intense and energetic solar events, the protection cannot rely solely on the mechanical structures of the spacecraft, but a temporary shelter must be provided. Because of the limited mass budget, the shelter should be based on the use of superconducting magnetic systems. For long duration missions the astronauts must be protected from the much more energetic galactic cosmic rays during the whole mission period. This requires the protection of a large habitat where they could live and work, and not the temporary protection of a small volume shelter. With passive absorbers unable to play any significant role, the use of active shielding is mandatory. The possibilities offered by superconducting magnets are discussed, and recommendations are made about the needed R&D. The technical developments that have occurred in the meanwhile and the evolving panorama of possible near future interplanetary missions, require revising the pioneering studies of the last decades and the adoption of a strategy that considers long lasting human permanence in 'deep' space, moreover not only for a relatively small number of dedicated astronauts but also for citizens conducting there 'normal' activities.

  6. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  7. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  8. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  9. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  10. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2012-07-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for future spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed ESA mission, NGO. The technologies required for NGO are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical NGO technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the NGO constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the NGO interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  11. The DUNE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castander, F. J.

    The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) is a wide-field imaging mission concept whose primary goal is the study of dark energy and dark matter with unprecedented precision. To this end, DUNE is optimised for weak gravitational lensing, and also uses complementary cosmological probes, such as baryonic oscillations, the integrated Sachs-Wolf effect, and cluster counts. Besides its observational cosmology goals, the mission capabilities of DUNE allow the study of galaxy evolution, galactic structure and the demographics of Earth-mass planets. DUNE is a medium class mission consisting of a 1.2m telescope designed to carry out an all-sky survey in one visible and three NIR bands. The final data of the DUNE mission will form a unique legacy for the astronomy community. DUNE has been selected jointly with SPACE for an ESA Assessment phase which has led to the Euclid merged mission concept which combines wide-field deep imaging with low resolution multi-object spectroscopy.

  12. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  13. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  14. Passive solar design: final evaluation, the Passive Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Duncan S.; Rose, Stuart

    1980-08-01

    The further evaluation of the workshops in passive design for practicing architects and engineers through delayed interviews with a sample of the participants is reported with particular emphasis on the extent to which the participants have practiced passive design in the three-four months since attending. Also discussed is an unsuccessful attempt to conduct a lower-cost version of the program outside of normal office hours. Finally, the follow-on programs and improvements that the interviews indicated are needed are identified. (MHR)

  15. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  16. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA LISA mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of space-borne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometer scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimeters, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LPF mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology.

  17. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  18. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2009-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for spaceborne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is currently in the integration and test phase of the development, and is due to be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011, with first results on the performance of the system being available approx 6 months later. This poster will describe the mission in detail, give the current status of the spacecraft development, and highlight the future milestones in the integration and test campaign.

  19. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2015-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology (SMART). The goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is to demonstrate the technologies required for future laser interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave detectors. The development of the LPF hardware is now over, and final integration and testing of the spacecraft and payload is underway. The delivery of the opto-mechanical heart of the payload is scheduled for Q2 2015, following which the final system tests will be performed. Launch is scheduled for September 2015. First results will be available approximately 3 months after launch. In this presentation I will describe the LISA Pathfinder mission, and provide the current status of the mission and remaining activities to launch and operations.

  20. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  1. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  2. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  3. Apollo 13 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo 13 mission, planned as a lunar landing in the Fra Mauro area, was aborted because of an abrupt loss of service module cryogenic oxygen associated with a fire in one of the two tanks at approximately 56 hours. The lunar module provided the necessary support to sustain a minimum operational condition for a safe return to earth. A circumlunar profile was executed as the most efficient means of earth return, with the lunar module providing power and life support until transfer to the command module just prior to entry. Although the mission was unsuccessful as planned, a lunar flyby and several scientific experiments were completed.

  4. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  5. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  6. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  7. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  8. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  9. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwiseon; Graf, Peter A.; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-03-01

    The calculation of the electronic structure of a nanostructure must take into account surface effects. In experiments, the dangling bonds at the surface of a semiconductor nanostructure are passivated by other semiconductors or by organic ligands. In either case, photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission comes from bulk-like, dot-interior states. These observations suggest that an approach to passivating a simulated nanostructure would be to attach “pseudo-atoms” to each dangling bond. Here we present an automated methodology for generating surface passivating pseudo potentials for bulk empirical pseudo potentials. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. We apply it to two materials, CdSe and InP. Incorporated into a larger computational nanoscience infrastructure, our work represents a much needed improvement in the usability of the empirical pseudo potential method.

  10. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important element for weather and climate prediction, hydrological sciences, and applications. Hence, measurements of this hydrologic variable are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and the linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles (Srivastava et al. 2013). The retrieval of soil moisture depends not only on parameterizations in the retrieval algorithm but also on the soil dielectric mixing models used (Behari 2005). Although a number of soil dielectric mixing models have been developed, testing these models for soil moisture retrieval has still not been fully explored, especially with SMAP-like simulators. The main objective of this work focuses on testing different dielectric models for soil moisture retrieval using the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based L-band simulator developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and George Washington University (O'Neill et al., 2006). The ComRAD system was deployed during a field experiment in 2012 in order to provide long active/passive measurements of two crops under controlled conditions during an entire growing season. L-band passive data were acquired at a look angle of 40 degree from nadir at both horizontal & vertical polarization. Currently, there are many dielectric models available for soil moisture retrieval; however, four dielectric models (Mironov, Dobson, Wang & Schmugge and Hallikainen) were tested here and found to be promising for soil moisture retrieval (some with higher performances). All the above-mentioned dielectric models were integrated with Single Channel Algorithms using H (SCA-H) and V (SCA-V) polarizations for the soil moisture retrievals. All the ground-based observations were collected from test site-United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) OPE3, located a few miles away from NASA GSFC. Ground truth data were collected using a theta probe and in situ sensors which were then used for validation. Analysis

  11. The HYDROS Mission: Requirements and Baseline System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Spencer, Michael; McDonald, Kyle; Smith, Joel; Houser, Paul; Doiron, Terence; O'Neill, Peggy; Girard, Ralph; Entekhabi, Dara

    2003-01-01

    The HYDROS mission is under development by NASA as part of its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. HYDROS is designed to provide global maps of the Earth's soil moisture and freezel/thaw state every 2-3 days, for weather and climate prediction, water and carbon cycle studies, natural hazards monitoring, and national security applications. HYDROS uses a unique active and passive L-band microwave system that optimizes measurement accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage. It provides measurements in nearly all weather conditions, regardless of solar illumination. The designs of the radar and radiometer electronics, antenna feedhorn and reflector, and science data system, are driven by specific mission and science objectives. These objectives impose requirements on the frequencies, polarizations, sampling, spatial resolution, and accuracy of the system. In this paper we describe the HYDROS mission requirements, baseline design, and measurement capabilities.

  12. Study of Background Rejection Systems for the IXO Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Philippe; Limousin, O.; Tatischeff, V.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific performances of the IXO mission will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. In APC, Paris, and CEA, Saclay, we got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimising in parallel the high energy detector and the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X mission. Considering that this work may be naturally extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES a R&D project on the study of background rejection systems mainly in view the IXO project. We will detail this activity in the poster.

  13. Collection and management of fecal wastes for space missions.

    PubMed

    Rethke, D W; Steele, J W

    1991-10-01

    An improved type of human waste collection subsystem has been developed for Space Station Freedom which is designed to meet the challenges of zero gravity collection and system performance. Fecal collection is followed by passive storage for relatively short duration missions. The benefits of utilizing components in solid wastes as part of a partial or completely closed Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) become more apparent as the duration of the mission increases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the development issues associated with the current waste management subsystem for Space Station Freedom. Also reviewed are current ideas associated with the evolutionary development of this waste management subsystem for longer duration missions.

  14. The Cassini/Huygens Mission to Saturn and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint endeavor between NASA, the EuropeanSpace Agency, and the Italian Space Agency to send a spacecraft to perform an extensive exploration of the Saturnian system, including an atmospheric probe to go to the surface of Titan. The spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997, and now has completed five years of its nearly seven year journey to Saturn. The cruise period has been a relatively passive time for the spacecraft, but an intensely busy one for the flight team. There is now less than two years to go until arrival at Saturn, and a significant portion of the effort deliberately planned for the post-launch period remains to be completed. Ground activities include the development of flight software, ground software, and science observation plans in order to be prepared to operate the mission after arrival at Saturn. This paper provides an update to the mission status and progress over the past year.

  15. The anodic passivation of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.

    1983-10-01

    The anodic passivation of Li has been characterized at room temperature in a variety of electrolytes (propylene carbonate, thionyl chloride, sulfur dioxide), as a function of convection and current density and in the presence of water and other impurities. In thionyl chloride the effect of salt concentration (0.5-4.5M, LiA1C1/sub 4/) and acidity (0.5-3M, A1C1/sub 3/) has been studied. The evidence accumulated suggests that anodic passivation is caused by anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of electrolyte salt in superficial anolyte.

  16. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  17. Indoor localization using passive RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems based on passive tags are used successfully in a wide range of object identification applications. However, the increasing needs to meet new demands on applications of localization and tracking create a new field for evolution of the RFID technology. This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cost-effective localization system for in-building usage that is able to localize objects that carry passive RFID tags. The RFID reading is performed by a single Reader and an array of directional antennas through multiplexing. Evaluation and experimental results from three localization algorithms based on RSSI are presented.

  18. Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage for the TOPS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Francis, John; Li, Xiaoyi; Purves, Lloyd; DeLee, Hudson; Riall, Sara; McGuinness, Dan; Willis, Dewey; Nixon, Conor; Devine Matt; Hedayat, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) can dramatically enhance NASAs ability to explore the solar system because of their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore technically enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. Employing cryogenic propellants will allow NASA to perform missions to planetary destinations that would not be possible with the use of traditional hypergolic propellants. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LOX as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43 launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a conventional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission.

  19. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, C.

    1980-07-01

    The objectives, instruments, operation and spacecraft design for the Solar Maximum Mission are discussed. The satellite, first in a series of Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft, was launched on February 14, 1980, to take advantage of the current maximum in the solar activity cycle to study solar flares at wavelengths from the visible to the gamma-ray. The satellite carries six instruments for the simultaneous study of solar flares, namely the coronagraph/polarimeter, X-ray polychromator, ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter, hard X-ray imaging spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer and gamma-ray spectrometer, and an active cavity radiometer for the accurate determination of the solar constant. In contrast to most satellite operations, Solar Maximum Mission investigators work together for the duration of the flight, comparing data obtained by the various instruments and planning observing programs daily on the basis of flare predictions and indicators. Thus far into the mission, over 50 data sets on reasonably large flares have been obtained, and important observations of coronal transients, magnetic fields in the transition region, flare time spectra, and material emitting X-rays between flares have been obtained.

  20. Apollo 16 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  1. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  2. Series of JASMINE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2011-02-01

    We are planning three space astrometry missions as a series of JASMINE missions; Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (Medium-sized)JASMINE. JASMINE is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission of INfrared Exploration. The JASMINE mission will measure in an infrared band annual parallaxes, positions on the celestial sphere, and proper motions of many stars in the bulge of the Milky Way (the Galaxy) with high accuracies. A target launch date is the first half of the 2020s. Before the launch of JASMINE, we are planning Nano-JASMINE and Small-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and it is determined to be launched in 2011. Small-JASMINE is a downsized version of the JASMINE satellite, which observes toward restricted small regions of the Galactic bulge. A target launch date is around 2016. A completely new "map" of the Galactic bulge given by Small-JASMINE and JASMINE will bring us many exciting scientific results.

  3. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, P.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixton, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dumbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martin, V.; Mateos, I.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control, and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of spaceborne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometre scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. In this paper I will give a brief overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals.

  5. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  6. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  7. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  8. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  9. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  10. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  11. Manned lunar exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    The objectives, major missions, outlines of the systems, system structures, system configurations of the manned lunar surface site, and manned lunar transportation system are presented. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), pressurized environment conditions, and operation schedule of manned lunar surface site are also outlined. This report is represented in viewgraphs only.

  12. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  13. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  14. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  16. Two-Stage Passive Vibration Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Gursel, Yekta; Neville, Timothy; Bronowicki, Allen J.; Platus, David; MacDonald, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    The design and testing of a structural system were implemented to hold the optics of the planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) at positions and orientations characterized by vibrational translation and rotation errors of no more than a few nanometers or a few milliarcseconds, respectively. Much of the effort was devoted to a test bed for verifying the predicted behavior of a vibration- isolation structural subsystem working together with an active control system for positioning and orienting the SIM optics. There was considerable emphasis on the vibration-isolation subsystem, which was passive and comprised two stages. The main sources of vibration were six reaction wheels in an assembly denoted the "backpack." The first vibration-isolation stage consisted of hexapod isolator mounts - one for each reaction wheel - characterized by a natural vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The second stage was a set of three beams, disposed between the backpack and the structure that held the SIM optics, that were flexured such that they transmitted only bending loads, with a natural vibrational frequency and damping of about 5 Hz and 4 percent, respectively. Preliminary test results were presented and characterized as demonstrating the effectiveness of the two-stage vibration-isolation design.

  17. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests

  18. Kepler Mission: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bryson, S.; Natalie, B.; Caldwell, D. A.; DeVore, E.; Jenkins, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W. D.; Dunham, E. W.; Gautier, T. N.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D.; Gilliland, R. L.; Gould, A.; Howell, S. B.; Monet, D. G.

    2007-12-01

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a high precision photometer with Schmidt-type optics and a focal plane containing 95 million pixels to monitor over 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits generated by planets as small as Mars. The recent reduction in the mission duration is discussed with regard to the impact on the expected science product and null statistics. Both terrestrial and giant planets discoveries will be followed up with ground-based Doppler-velocity observations to determine mass and density. The first meeting of Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium was held in Paris to organize an international team to analyze the Kepler data to determine the characteristics of the brighter target stars including their size and age. Stellar size determinations accurate to a few percent are expected. These will allow very accurate planet sizes to be determined from the depth of the transit signals. NASA HQ received thirty six proposals for the Participating Scientist Program and chose several new members to join the Science Team. Both the 0.95 m Schmidt corrector and 1.4 m aperture primary mirror have been completed and delivered for integration into the photometer. The focal plane with forty-two science CCD detectors and their processing electronics has been assembled and tested. The spacecraft assembly has begun with the mounting of the reaction control system, reaction wheels, attitude determination & control system, and power systems. Both the photometer and spacecraft are nearing final assembly with all subsystems having passed their environmental and performance testing. The photometer to spacecraft integration will begin this spring. The Mission is on schedule for a launch in February 2009. The Kepler Mission is funded by the NASA Astrophysics Division, Science Mission Directorate.

  19. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  20. The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission is a spin-off from NASA's Medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) mission THEMIS, a five identical micro-satellite (hereafter termed "probe") constellation in high altitude Earth-orbit since 17 February 2007. By repositioning two of the five THEMIS probes (P1 and P2) in coordinated, lunar equatorial orbits, at distances of ˜55-65 R E geocentric (˜1.1-12 R L selenocentric), ARTEMIS will perform the first systematic, two-point observations of the distant magnetotail, the solar wind, and the lunar space and planetary environment. The primary heliophysics science objectives of the mission are to study from such unprecedented vantage points and inter-probe separations how particles are accelerated at reconnection sites and shocks, and how turbulence develops and evolves in Earth's magnetotail and in the solar wind. Additionally, the mission will determine the structure, formation, refilling, and downstream evolution of the lunar wake and explore particle acceleration processes within it. ARTEMIS's orbits and instrumentation will also address key lunar planetary science objectives: the evolution of lunar exospheric and sputtered ions, the origin of electric fields contributing to dust charging and circulation, the structure of the lunar interior as inferred by electromagnetic sounding, and the lunar surface properties as revealed by studies of crustal magnetism. ARTEMIS is synergistic with concurrent NASA missions LRO and LADEE and the anticipated deployment of the International Lunar Network. It is expected to be a key element in the NASA Heliophysics Great Observatory and to play an important role in international plans for lunar exploration.

  1. Passive Fiber Optic Gyro Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    34. FORWORD The report summarizes the principles of operation of the passive fiber optic gyro. It starts with a discussion of the Sagnac effect and...polarization and the angle of the " fast " axis varied nonlinearly and that the two effects are partially independent. Based on tests with a 200 meter length of

  2. Solar Array Passive LDEF Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Marshall researcher examines a sample from the Solar Array Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF, which flew in space, measured the number, severity, and effects of micrometeroid hits on various materials. The data will lead to improved spacecraft design in the future.

  3. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  4. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  5. B plant mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ``System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.`` The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline.

  6. Thermal System Verification and Model Validation for NASA's Cryogenic Passively Cooled James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Paul E.; Parrish, Keith A.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough and unique thermal verification and model validation plan has been developed for NASA s James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST observatory consists of a large deployed aperture optical telescope passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin along with a suite of several instruments passively and actively cooled to below 37 Kelvin and 7 Kelvin, respectively. Passive cooling to these extremely low temperatures is made feasible by the use of a large deployed high efficiency sunshield and an orbit location at the L2 Lagrange point. Another enabling feature is the scale or size of the observatory that allows for large radiator sizes that are compatible with the expected power dissipation of the instruments and large format Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays. This passive cooling concept is simple, reliable, and mission enabling when compared to the alternatives of mechanical coolers and stored cryogens. However, these same large scale observatory features, which make passive cooling viable, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone to most space missions thermal verification plan. JWST is simply too large in its deployed configuration to be properly thermal balance tested in the facilities that currently exist. This reality, when combined with a mission thermal concept with little to no flight heritage, has necessitated the need for a unique and alternative approach to thermal system verification and model validation. This paper describes the thermal verification and model validation plan that has been developed for JWST. The plan relies on judicious use of cryogenic and thermal design margin, a completely independent thermal modeling cross check utilizing different analysis teams and software packages, and finally, a comprehensive set of thermal tests that occur at different levels of JWST assembly. After a brief description of the JWST mission and thermal architecture, a detailed description

  7. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  8. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  9. GPS/GNSS reflectometry nanosatellite demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Martin J.; Liddle, J. Douglas; Jason, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of life, injury and huge economic losses are incurred annually due to irregular and insufficient sea-state information. Figures indicate that, each year, the marine insurance industry pays out over $2 billion in claims for weather-related accidents, while bad weather causes one ship of over 500 t to sink somewhere on the globe every week. Accurate knowledge of local ocean conditions is therefore crucial in providing forecasts and early warnings of severe weather conditions. Space-borne systems, particularly satellites, provide the ideal platform for global monitoring of sea conditions via altimetric measurements. As an alternative to active altimetry, another concept is passively receiving reflected signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites. This concept was first developed by Dr Manuel Martin-Neira at ESAESTEC. ESA's Passive Reflectometry and Interferometry System makes use of GPS/GNSS signals from satellites and their reflection off the ocean surface to derive oceanic properties such as surface height, significant wave height, wind speed and wind direction. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd are proposing a nanosatellite demonstration mission to ascertain the feasibility of the GPS ocean reflectometry concept.

  10. Passive Micro Vibration Isolator Utilizing Flux Pinning Effect for Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Information related to the origin of space and evolution of galaxy can be obtained using the observation satellites. In recent years, high pointing accuracy is demanded for getting more detailed data about distant stars and galaxies. As a result, vibration isolators that consist of a main structure and a TTM (Tip Tilt Mirror) have been adopted for observation satellites. However, cutting the low frequency vibrations off passively with the conventional methods is difficult. A vibration isolator that uses pinning effect is proposed for solving this problem. The pinning effect is acquired by cooling the type-II superconductor below the critical temperature and it generates a pinning force to maintain the relative distance and attitude between a type- II superconductor and a material that generates magnetic flux. The mission part and the bus part of the satellite are equipped with superconductors and permanent magnets and these parts perform short distance formation flight by applying the effect. This method can cut vibrations from low to high frequency bands off passively. In addition, Meissner effect can prevent collision of the mission and bus parts. In order to investigate the performance of this system, experiments and simulations are carried out and the results are discussed.

  11. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  12. Some comments on passive microwave measurement of rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, Thomas T.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that because microwave radiation interacts much more strongly with hydrometeors than with cloud particles, microwave measurements from space offer a significant chance of making global precipitation estimates. Over oceans, passive microwave measurements are essentially attenuation measurements that can be very closely related to the rain rate independently of the details of the drop-size distribution. Over land, scattering of microwave radiation by the hydrometeors, especially in the ice phase, can be used to estimate rainfall. In scattering, the details of the drop-size distribution are very important and it is therefore more difficult to achieve a high degree of accuracy. The SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager), a passive microwave imaging sensor that will be launched soon, will have dual-polarized channels at 85.5 GHz that will be very sensitive to scattering by frozen hydrometeors. Other sensors being considered for the future space missions would extend the ability to estimate rain rates from space. The ideal spaceborne precipitation-measurement system would use the complementary strengths of passive microwave, radar, and visible/infrared measurements.

  13. The REPAS Study: Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Bianchi, F.; Burgazzi, L.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.

    2002-07-01

    The strategy of approach to the problem moves from the consideration that a passive system should be theoretically more reliable than an active one. In fact it does not need any external input or energy to operate and it relies only upon natural physical laws (e.g. gravity, natural circulation, internally stored energy, etc.) and/or 'intelligent' use of the energy inherently available in the system (e.g. chemical reaction, decay heat, etc.). Nevertheless the passive system may fail its mission not only as a consequence of classical mechanical failure of components, but also for deviation from the expected behaviour, due to physical phenomena mainly related to thermal-hydraulics or due to different boundary and initial conditions. The main sources of physical failure are identified and a probability of occurrence is assigned. The reliability analysis is performed on a passive system which operates in two-phase, natural circulation. The selected system is a loop including a heat source and a heat sink where the condensation occurs. The system behavior under different configurations has been simulated via best-estimate code (Relap5 mod3.2). The results are shown and can be treated in such a way to give qualitative and quantitative information on the system reliability. Main routes of development of the methodology are also depicted. (authors)

  14. Mission Adaptive UAS Platform for Earth Science Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub

  15. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  16. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  17. STS-44 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Designed by the participating crewmembers, the STS-44 patch shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis ascending to Earth orbit to expand mankind's knowledge. The patch illustrated by the symbolic red, white and blue of the American flag represents the American contribution and strength derived from this mission. The black background of space, indicative of the mysteries of the universe, is illuminated by six large stars, which depict the American crew of six and the hopes that travel with them. The smaller stars represent Americans who work in support of this mission. Within the Shuttle's payload bay is a Defense Support Program Satellite which will help insure peace. In the words of a crew spokesman, the stars of the flag symbolize our leadership in an exciting quest of space and the boundless dreams for humanity's future.

  18. Mars Observer mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Horvat, Glen M.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft for the Mars Observer mission is described, and an interplanetary trajectory design maximizing the spacecraft dry mass delivered into its mapping orbit is presented, along with an orbit insertion strategy minimizing spacecraft propulsive requirements. Emphasis is placed on the mapping orbit designed to meet the science requirements for a low-altitude near-circular near-polar orbit which is sun-synchronous with the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 PM local mean solar time. Additional requirements on the design are that the mapping orbit have a repeating groundtrack of no more than 7 sols and comply with the NASA Planetary Protection requirements. It is planned to operate the spacecraft and instruments in a repetitive fashion to minimize mission operation complexity and cost.

  19. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  20. Apollo 8 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Postflight analysis of Apollo 8 mission. Apollo 8 was the second manned flight in the program and the first manned lunar orbit mission. The crew were Frank Borman, Commander; James A. Lovell, Command Module Pilot; and William A. Anders, Lunar Module Pilot. The Apollo 8 space vehicle was launched on time from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 7:51:00 AM, EST, on December 21, 1968. Following a nominal boost phase, the spacecraft and S-IVB combination was inserted - into a parking orbit of 98 by 103 nautical miles. After a post-insertion checkout of spacecraft systems, the 319-second translunar injection maneuver was initiated at 2:50:37 by reignition of the S-IVB engine.

  1. Suborbital missions: The Joust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Bruce W.

    1991-01-01

    Joust 1 will carry a payload of 10 experiments. The experiments in the payload module will be mated with a service module containing accelerometers, avionics, a low gravity rate control system, and battery packs. This suborbital mission will last approximately 21 minutes, providing at least 13 minutes of microgravity time. The experiments are as follow: study into polymer membrane processes; polymer curing; plasma particle generation; automated generic bioprocessing apparatus; biomodule; thin films; materials dispersion apparatus; foam formation; electrodeposition process; and powdered materials processing.

  2. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  3. NASA's STEREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) mission consists of two nearly identical spacecraft hosting an array of in situ and imaging instruments for studying the sun and heliosphere. Launched in 2885 and in orbit about the Sun near 1 AU, the spacecraft are now swinging towards the farside of the sun. I will provide the latest information with regards to STEREO space weather data and also recent STEREO research.

  4. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  5. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  6. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  7. Future solar system missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's planetary exploration program is discussed, with emphasis on strategy, namely, exploration of all three main classes of solar system bodies (the terrestrial planets, the outer giants and their moons, and the primitive small bodies). Planning of an extensive search for other planetary systems is focused on the application of various approaches to ultra-high precision astrometry and the possible use of a space-based coronagraphic telescope. Program strategy and lunar and Mars outpost precursor missions are illustrated.

  8. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  9. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  10. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  11. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  12. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  13. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  14. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  15. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  16. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  17. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  18. Comparative cost assessment of planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A study to explore the cost differences resulting from implementing a series of representative solar system exploration missions in either ballistic or low-thrust flight modes is presented. Cost comparisons of missions using a solar electric propulsion delivery systems with ballistic equivalent mission designs were made. The mission set, cost elements, and delivery modes are detailed. Objectives for each of the six mission sets including two asteroid missions, a comet mission, a Mercury mission, and two outer planet missions are given.

  19. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  20. The INTEGRAL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, W.; Winkler, C.

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (E/delta E = 500) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12') of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV. The scientific payload consists of two gamma-ray instruments and two monitors: The Ge spectrometer SPI and the CdTe/CsI imager IBIS, the X-ray monitor JEM-X and the optical monitor OMC. INTEGRAL was selected by the ESA Science Programme Committee in 1993 as an ESA medium-size scientific mission (M2) to be launched in 2001. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with contributions from Russia (PROTON launcher) and NASA (Deep Space Network ground stations). The INTEGRAL observatory will provide the science community at large an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopy over a wide range of X-ray and gamma-ray energies including optical monitoring. Most of the observing time will be open to the scientific community interfacing with the INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC). This paper summarizes the key scientific goals of the mission, the current status of the payload, the spacecraft and the ISDC.

  1. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  2. The solar stereo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D. M.

    The principal scientific objective of the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is to understand the origin and consequences of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). CMEs are the most energetic eruptions on the Sun. They are responsible for essentially all of the largest solar energetic particle events and are the primary cause of major geomagnetic storms. They may be a critical element in the solar dynamo because they remove the dynamo-generated magnetic flux from the Sun. Two spacecraft at 1 AU from the Sun, one drifting ahead of Earth and one behind, will image CMEs. They will also map the distribution of magnetic fields and plasmas in the heliosphere and accomplish a variety of science goals described in the 1997 report of the NASA Science Definition Team for the STEREO Mission. Current plans call for the two STEREO launches in early 2003. Simultaneous image pairs will be obtained by the STEREO telescopes at gradually increasing spacecraft separations in the course of the mission. Additionally, in-situ measurements will provide accurate information about the state of the ambient solar wind and energetic particle populations ahead of and behind CMEs. These measurements will allow definitive tests of CME and interplanetary shock models. The mission will include a "beacon mode" to warn of either coronal or interplanetary conditions indicative of impending disturbances at Earth.

  3. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is unique in the history of the exploration of solar system by spacecraft. The path followed by Ulysses will make it possible, for the first time, to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension. Advanced scientific instrumentation carried on board the spacecraft is designed to measure the properties of the heliospheric magnetic field, the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, solar X-rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. Ulysses will also be used to detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts and search for gravitational waves. The mission, a collaboration between ESA and NASA, was launched in October 1990 and employs a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve the trajectory extending to high solar latitudes. The paper describes the characteristics of the Ulysses mission in order to establish a framework within which to better understand the objectives and goals of the scientific investigations.

  4. The Juno Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  5. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  6. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  8. The Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  10. The Space Technology 8 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

  11. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  12. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  13. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  14. Passive millimeter-wave imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stephen K.; Davidheiser, Roger A.; Hauss, Bruce; Lee, Paul S. C.; Mussetto, Michael; Shoucri, Merit M.; Yujiri, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Millimeter-wave hardware systems are being developed. Our approach begins with identifying and defining the applications. System requirements are then specified based on mission needs using our end-to-end performance model. The model was benchmarked against existing data bases and, where data is deficient, it is acquired via field measurements. The derived system requirements are then validated with the appropriate field measurements using our imaging testbeds and hardware breadboards. The result is a final system that satisfies all the requirements of the target mission.

  15. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  16. Design Document for Passive Bioventing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Unfortunately, most of the airflow measurement techniques such as Pitot tubes or orifice plates are not suitable for such low airflows. While there...available, including mechanical (rotary vane ) and thermal (hot wire) anemometers, which are suitable for measuring the flows induced during passive...Hill Air Force Base, UT. Blond, A. N., and P. M. Downing, 1997. Rotating vanes vs. thermal anemometry technology. Technical Topic I003: Airflow

  17. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  18. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission that uses advanced precipitation radar with a constellation of passive microwave radiometers to improve the accuracy, sampling, and coverage of global precipitation measurements. It is a science mission with integrated applications goals focusing on (1) advancing the knowledge of the global watedenergy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional domestic and international partners in satellite constellation buildup and ground validation activities. The GPM Core satellite, which carries a JAXA-provided dual-frequency precipitation radar and a NASAprovided microwave radiometers with high-frequency capabilities for light rain and frozen precipitation measurements, is expected to be launched in the 2010 timeframe. The GPM Core will serve as a precipitation physics laboratory and a calibration system for improved precipitation measurements by a heterogeneous constellation of dedicated and operational microwave radiometers. NASA also plans to provide a "wild card" constellation member with a copy of the radiometer carried on the GPM Core to be placed in an orbit that maximizes the coverage and sampling of the constellation. An overview of the GPM mission concept, instrument capabilities, ground validation plans, and the expected scientific and societal benefits will be presented.

  19. Four NASA submillimeter-wavelength space-astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    For several years studies have been conducted at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on four passively-cooled submillimeter-wavelength, space observatories. Two exploratory missions were studied: a 2.5-m Submillimeter Explorer (SMME) and a more ambitious 3.7-m Submillimeter Imager and Line Survey (SMILS). Only one of these missions would actually be flown, and its goal would be to perform a high-spectral-resolution survey of several hundreds of sources at wavelengths between 100 and about 750 microns with modest angular resolution. Following either SMME or SMILS, the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and/or the Synthesis Array for Lunar Submillimeter Astronomy (SALSA) would be flown. LDR is a 10- to 20-m diameter telescope with greatly increased sensitivity and imaging capabilities compared to the exploratory missions. SALSA is a lunar-based array consisting of twelve 3.5-m diameter telescopes with a maximum baseline of nearly 1-km. With operating wavelengths between 30 and 500 microns, SALSA would achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution, and thus could explore source structure in much greater detail than the other missions. The purpose of this paper is to present the current conceptual designs for these missions, and to discuss the most recent payload analysis.

  20. Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafi, S.; DeLee, C.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuinness, D.; Nixon, C. A.; Purves, L.; Willis, W.; Riall, S.; Devine, M.; Hedayat, A.

    2016-03-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic propellants can dramatically enhance NASA's ability to explore the solar system due to their superior specific impulse (Isp) capability. Although these cryogenic propellants can be challenging to manage and store, they allow significant mass advantages over traditional hypergolic propulsion systems and are therefore enabling for many planetary science missions. New cryogenic storage techniques such as subcooling and the use of advanced insulation and low thermal conductivity support structures will allow for the long term storage and use of cryogenic propellants for solar system exploration and hence allow NASA to deliver more payloads to targets of interest, launch on smaller and less expensive launch vehicles, or both. These new cryogenic storage technologies were implemented in a design study for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission, with LH2 and LO2 as propellants, and the resulting spacecraft design was able to achieve a 43% launch mass reduction over a TOPS mission, that utilized a traditional hypergolic propulsion system with mono-methyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants. This paper describes the cryogenic propellant storage design for the TOPS mission and demonstrates how these cryogenic propellants are stored passively for a decade-long Titan mission that requires the cryogenics propellants to be stored for 8.5 years.