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Sample records for pasteurella hyaluronan synthase

  1. Acceptor Specificity of the Pasteurella Hyaluronan and Chondroitin Synthases and Production of Chimeric Glycosaminoglycans*†

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Breca S.; Avci, Fikri Y.; Linhardt, Robert J.; DeAngelis, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) synthase, PmHAS, and the chondroitin synthase, PmCS, from the Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida polymerize the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sugar chains HA or chondroitin, respectively. The recombinant Escherichia coli-derived enzymes were shown previously to elongate exogenously supplied oligosaccharides of their cognate GAG (e.g. HA elongated by PmHAS). Here we show that oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of certain noncognate GAGs (including sulfated and iduronic acid-containing forms) are elongated by PmHAS (e.g. chondroitin elongated by PmHAS) or PmCS. Various acceptors were tested in assays where the synthase extended the molecule with either a single monosaccharide or a long chain (~102–4 sugars). Certain GAGs were very poor acceptors in comparison to the cognate molecules, but elongated products were detected nonetheless. Overall, these findings suggest that for the interaction between the acceptor and the enzyme (a) the orientation of the hydroxyl at the C-4 position of the hexosamine is not critical, (b) the conformation of C-5 of the hexuronic acid (glucuronic versus iduronic) is not crucial, and (c) additional negative sulfate groups are well tolerated in certain cases, such as on C-6 of the hexosamine, but others, including C-4 sulfates, were not or were poorly tolerated. In vivo, the bacterial enzymes only process unsulfated polymers; thus it is not expected that the PmCS and PmHAS catalysts would exhibit such relative relaxed sugar specificity by acting on a variety of animal-derived sulfated or epimerized GAGs. However, this feature allows the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a variety of chimeric GAG polymers, including mimics of proteoglycan complexes. PMID:17099217

  2. Antisense inhibition of hyaluronan synthase-2 in human osteosarcoma cells inhibits hyaluronan retention and tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ynishida@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Knudson, Warren; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor associated with childhood and adolescence. The results of numerous studies have suggested that hyaluronan plays an important role in regulating the aggressive behavior of various types of cancer cells. However, no studies have addressed hyaluronan with respect to osteosarcomas. In this investigation, the mRNA expression copy number of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases (HAS) was determined using competitive RT-PCR in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. MG-63 are highly malignant osteosarcoma cells with an abundant hyaluronan-rich matrix. The results demonstrated that HAS-2 is the predominant HAS in MG-63. Accumulation of intracellular hyaluronan increased in association with the proliferative phase of these cells. The selective inhibition of HAS-2 mRNA in MG-63 cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in reduced hyaluronan accumulation by these cells. As expected, the reduction in hyaluronan disrupted the assembly of cell-associated matrices. However, of most interest, coincident with the reduction in hyaluronan, there was a substantial decrease in cell proliferation, a decrease in cell motility and a decrease in cell invasiveness. These data suggest that hyaluronan synthesized by HAS-2 in MG-63 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, motility, and invasion.

  3. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Kari; Nikunen, Kaisa; Kärnä, Riikka; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Rilla, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) are unique plasma membrane glycosyltransferases secreting this glycosaminoglycan directly to the extracellular space. The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, but clearly distinct functions have not been established. To overview the expression of different HAS isoenzymes during embryonic development and their subcellular localization, we immunostained mouse embryonic samples and cultured cells with HAS antibodies, correlating their distribution to hyaluronan staining. Their subcellular localization was further studied by GFP-HAS fusion proteins. Intense hyaluronan staining was observed throughout the development in the tissues of mesodermal origin, like heart and cartilages, but also for example during the maturation of kidneys and stratified epithelia. In general, staining for one or several HASs correlated with hyaluronan staining. The staining of HAS2 was most widespread, both spatially and temporally, correlating with hyaluronan staining especially in early mesenchymal tissues and heart. While epithelial cells were mostly negative for HASs, stratified epithelia became HAS positive during differentiation. All HAS isoenzymes showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, both in tissue sections and cultured cells, while plasma membrane staining was also detected, often in cellular extensions. HAS1 had brightest signal in Golgi, HAS3 in Golgi and microvillous protrusions, whereas most of the endogenous HAS2 immunoreactivity was localized in the ER. This differential pattern was also observed with transfected GFP-HASs. The large proportion of intracellular HASs suggests that HAS forms a reserve that is transported to the plasma membrane for rapid activation of hyaluronan synthesis.

  4. Expression of human hyaluronan synthases in response to external stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, A; Brinck, J; Briskin, M J; Spicer, A P; Heldin, P

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated the expression of mRNAs for hyaluronan synthase isoforms (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) in different cells in response to various stimuli. Human mesothelial cells, which synthesize large amounts of hyaluronan, express mRNAs encoding all three HAS isoforms, whereas their transformed counterparts, mesothelioma cells, which produce only minute amounts of hyaluronan, express only HAS3 mRNA. Human lung fibroblasts and the glioma cell line U-118 MG express only the HAS2 and HAS3 genes. The expression of the transcripts was higher in subconfluent than in confluent cultures and was well correlated with the production of hyaluronan by the cells. Stimulation of mesothelial cells with platelet-derived growth factor-BB induced an up-regulation of mRNA for HAS2 to a maximum after 6 h of stimulation; HAS1 and HAS3 genes were only induced slightly. Transforming growth factor-beta1 reduced HAS2 mRNA slightly, and hydrocortisone reduced it strongly, within 6 h of stimulation in mesothelial cell cultures but did not significantly affect the expression of mRNAs for HAS1 and HAS3. Induction of HAS1 and HAS2 protein levels in response to the stimuli above correlated with HAS transcript levels. Thus the expression of the three HAS isoforms is more prominent in growing cells than in resting cells and is differentially regulated by various stimuli suggesting distinct functional roles of the three proteins. PMID:10794710

  5. Rapid evolution of hyaluronan synthase to improve hyaluronan production and molecular mass in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linpei; Huang, Hao; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng; Kang, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    To improve the production and molecular mass of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) in Bacillus subtilis by engineering hyaluronan synthase (HAS) from Streptococcus zooepidemicus. By mutating regions within HAS intracellular domains, five positive variants exhibiting higher HA production (from 1.22 to 2.24 g l(-1)) and molecular mass values (from 1.20 to 1.36 × 10(6) Da) were constructed and characterized. Overexpression of the V5 variant and the genes tuaD and glmU increased HA production and molecular mass to 2.8 g l(-1) and 2.4 × 10(6) Da, respectively. This study provides a novel strategy for improving HA production and its molecular mass.

  6. Hyaluronan synthase 2 regulates fibroblast senescence in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuejuan; Liang, Jiurong; Yang, Ting; Mena, Jessica Monterrosa; Huan, Caijuan; Xie, Ting; Kurkciyan, Adrianne; Liu, Ningshan; Jiang, Dianhua; Noble, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated repair of lung injury often results in lung fibrosis characterized by unremitting deposition of matrix components including the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). HA is mainly produced by hyaluronan synthases (HAS) in mesenchymal cells. We previously demonstrated that over-expression of HAS2 in mesenchymal cells in mice regulates the invasiveness of fibroblasts and promotes severe lung fibrosis. The mechanisms that control the resolution of lung fibrosis are unknown. We propose that a critical step in resolving fibrosis is the induction of senescence in fibrotic fibroblasts and hyaluronan synthase 2 may regulate this process. We found that fibrotic fibroblasts developed the characteristics of replicative senescence in culture and that HAS2 expression was dramatically down-regulated. Furthermore, down-regulation of HAS2 initiated and regulated fibroblast senescence through a p27-CDK2-SKP2 pathway. Deletion of HAS2 in mouse mesenchymal cells increased the cellular senescence of fibroblasts in bleomycin-induced mouse lung fibrosis in vivo. These data suggest that HAS2 may be a critical regulator of the fate of pulmonary fibrosis and we propose a model where over-expression of HAS2 promotes an invasive phenotype resulting in severe fibrosis and down-regulation of HAS2 promotes resolution. Targeting HAS2 to induce fibroblast senescence could be an attractive approach to resolve tissue fibrosis. PMID:26987798

  7. Hyaluronan synthase 2 regulates fibroblast senescence in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuejuan; Liang, Jiurong; Yang, Ting; Monterrosa Mena, Jessica; Huan, Caijuan; Xie, Ting; Kurkciyan, Adrianne; Liu, Ningshan; Jiang, Dianhua; Noble, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    Dysregulated repair of lung injury often results in lung fibrosis characterized by unremitting deposition of matrix components including glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). HA is mainly produced by hyaluronan synthases (HAS) in mesenchymal cells. We previously demonstrated that over-expression of HAS2 in mesenchymal cells in mice regulates the invasiveness of fibroblasts and promotes severe lung fibrosis. The mechanisms that control the resolution of lung fibrosis are unknown. We propose that a critical step in resolving fibrosis is the induction of senescence in fibrotic fibroblasts and hyaluronan synthase 2 may regulate this process. We found that fibrotic fibroblasts developed the characteristics of replicative senescence in culture and that HAS2 expression was dramatically down-regulated. Furthermore, down-regulation of HAS2 initiated and regulated fibroblast senescence through a p27-CDK2-SKP2 pathway. Deletion of HAS2 in mouse mesenchymal cells increased the cellular senescence of fibroblasts in bleomycin-induced mouse lung fibrosis in vivo. These data suggest that HAS2 may be a critical regulator of the fate of pulmonary fibrosis and we propose a model where over-expression of HAS2 promotes an invasive phenotype resulting in severe fibrosis and down-regulation of HAS2 promotes resolution. Targeting HAS2 to induce fibroblast senescence could be an attractive approach to resolve tissue fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  9. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Seldin, M.F.

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  10. SEC-MALLS ANALYSIS OF HYALURONAN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS MADE BY MEMBRANE-BOUND HYALURONAN SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Baggenstoss, Bruce A.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    SEC-MALLS analyses of E. coli membranes expressing Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase (seHAS) demonstrated an inherent artifact (10–100 MDa) that co-eluted with HA, and skewed the apparent weight-average mass of HA to erroneously high values. Briefly heating samples to 65–75°C eliminated this artifact and increased the yield of recovered HA, due to the release of HA chains that were attached to membrane-bound HAS. Inclusion of alkaline phosphatase, which removed UDP produced during the reaction, improved the linearity of HA synthesis - even at high substrate utilization. Surprisingly, addition of EDTA, to chelate Mg+2 ions, did not completely stop the HAS reaction at 30°C or at 4°C. The best conditions for stopping the reaction without altering SEC-MALLS profiles of the product HA were to chill samples on ice in the presence of both EDTA and UDP. Even with excess substrate, the maximum size of product HA decreased as the enzyme concentration increased. Therefore, the maximum HA size made by HAS was determined by extrapolation to zero enzyme concentration. Using the above conditions, membrane-bound seHAS synthesized a cohort of HA products that steadily increased in weight-average molar mass, reaching a final maximal steady-state size of 4–6 MDa within 2–4 hours. PMID:16476403

  11. Human Keratinocytes Respond to Extracellular UTP by Induction of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Expression and Increased Hyaluronan Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Tiina; Kärnä, Riikka; Rauhala, Leena; Bart, Genevieve; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Oikari, Sanna; Tammi, Markku I; Tammi, Raija H

    2017-03-24

    The release of nucleotides into extracellular space is triggered by insults like wounding and ultraviolet radiation, resulting in stimulatory or inhibitory signals via plasma membrane nucleotide receptors. As similar insults are known to activate hyaluronan synthesis we explored the possibility that extracellular UTP or its breakdown products UDP and UMP act as mediators for hyaluronan synthase (HAS) activation in human epidermal keratinocytes. UTP increased hyaluronan both in the pericellular matrix and in the culture medium of HaCaT cells. 10-100 μm UTP strongly up-regulated HAS2 expression, although the other hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1, HYAL2) were not affected. The HAS2 response was rapid and transient, with the maximum stimulation at 1.5 h. UDP exerted a similar effect, but higher concentrations were required for the response, and UMP showed no stimulation at all. Specific siRNAs against the UTP receptor P2Y2, and inhibitors of UDP receptors P2Y6 and P2Y14, indicated that the response to UTP was mediated mainly through P2Y2 and to a lesser extent via UDP receptors. UTP increased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, CREB, and Ser-727 of STAT3 and induced nuclear translocation of pCaMKII. Inhibitors of PKC, p38, ERK, CaMKII, STAT3, and CREB partially blocked the activation of HAS2 expression, confirming the involvement of these pathways in the UTP-induced HAS2 response. The present data reveal a selective up-regulation of HAS2 expression by extracellular UTP, which is likely to contribute to the previously reported rapid activation of hyaluronan metabolism in response to tissue trauma or ultraviolet radiation.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PURIFIED HYALURONAN SYNTHASE FROM STREPTOCOCCUS EQUISIMILIS*

    PubMed Central

    Tlapak-Simmons, Valarie L.; Baron, Christina A.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) utilizes UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc in the presence of Mg2+ to form the GAG hyaluronan (HA). The purified HAS from Streptococcus equisimilis (seHAS) shows high fidelity in that it only polymerizes the native substrates, UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA. However, other uridinyl nucleotides and UDP-sugars inhibited enzyme activity, including UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GalUA, UMP, UDP and UTP. Purified seHAS was ~40% more active in 25 mM, compared to 50 mM, PO4 in the presence of either 50 mM NaCl or KCl, and displayed a slight preference for KCl over NaCl. The pH profile was surprisingly broad, with an effective range of pH 6.5–11.5 and the optimum between pH 9 and 10. SeHAS displayed two apparent pKa values at pH 6.6 and 11.8. As the pH was increased from ~6.5, both Km and Vmax increased until pH ~10.5, above which the kinetic constants gradually declined. Nonetheless, the overall catalytic constant (120/sec) was essentially unchanged from pH 6.5 to pH 10.5. The enzyme is temperature labile, but more stable in the presence of substrate and cardiolipin. Purified seHAS requires exogenous cardiolipin for activity and is very sensitive to the fatty acyl composition of the phospholipid. The enzyme was inactive or highly activated by synthetic cardiolipins containing, respectively, C14:0 or C18:1(Δ9) fatty acids. The apparent Ea for HA synthesis is 40 kJ (9.5 kcal/mol) disaccharide. Increasing the viscosity by increasing concentrations of PEG, ethylene glycol, glycerol, or sucrose inhibited seHAS activity. For PEGs, the extent of inhibition was proportional to their molecular mass. PEGs with average masses of 2.7, 11.7, and 20 Kg/mol caused 50% inhibition of Vmax at 21, 6.5, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The apparent Ki values for ethylene glycol, glycerol, and sucrose were, respectively, 4.5, 3.3 and 1.2 mM. PMID:15248781

  13. Expression of hyaluronan synthases and corresponding hyaluronan receptors is differentially regulated during oocyte maturation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Martin; Einspanier, Ralf

    2003-07-01

    In response to the gonadotropin surge, the compact cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) undergoes expansion by synthesis of the mucopolysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) accompanying oocyte maturation. The objective of the present study was to quantify mRNA transcripts of the HA synthase (HAS) 1, HAS2, and HAS3 and the HA-receptors CD44 and RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility). Additionally, we determined the histological localization of HA and its receptor, CD44, in maturing bovine COCs and cultured granulosa cells (GCs). Full-length transcript of bovine HAS2 and a part of the bovine RHAMM sequence has been made available. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used for individual mRNA expressions of bovine COCs in comparison to follicular GC gonadotropin treatment. Localization of CD44 and HA were done by immunohistochemistry and biotinylated HA-binding protein, respectively. Gonadotropins caused a rapid, 120-fold increase of HAS2 mRNA, whereas a delayed, 2-fold up-regulation of HAS3 mRNA was observed. The HAS1 transcripts were barely detected. Expression of CD44 mRNA greatly increased during in vitro maturation of COCs, indicating an important role when compared to an unchanged, steady-state RHAMM expression. As a consequence, HA was locally enriched after COC expansion, but only limited change was observed in the GCs. In cultured GCs, HAS2 expression was stimulated through FSH application, followed by the effective treatments of FSH+LH and LH. Treatment with LH induced the highest increase of the CD44 receptor, followed by FSH and FSH+LH treatments. These results suggest that HAS2 is mainly responsible for rapid HA synthesis in bovine COCs and GCs. In bovine COCs, the transcriptional up-regulation of both HAS2 and the receptor CD44 appear to be important prerequisites for initiating HA-mediated effects during final oocyte development and sperm-egg interaction.

  14. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  15. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  16. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells.

  17. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering analysis of hyaluronan size distributions made by membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Weigel, Paul H

    2006-05-15

    Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analyses of Escherichia coli membranes expressing Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase (seHAS) demonstrated an inherent artifact (10-100 MDa) that coeluted with hyaluronan (HA) and skewed the apparent weight-average mass of HA to erroneously high values. Briefly heating samples to 65-75 degrees C eliminated this artifact and increased the yield of recovered HA due to the release of HA chains that were attached to membrane-bound HAS. Inclusion of alkaline phosphatase, which removed uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) produced during the reaction, improved the linearity of HA synthesis-even at high substrate use. Surprisingly, the addition of EDTA, to chelate Mg(2+) ions, did not completely stop the HAS reaction at 30 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. The best conditions for stopping the reaction without altering SEC-MALLS profiles of the product HA were to chill samples on ice in the presence of both EDTA and UDP. Even with excess substrate, the maximum size of product HA decreased as the enzyme concentration increased. Therefore, the maximum HA size made by HAS was determined by extrapolation to zero enzyme concentration. Using the above conditions, membrane-bound seHAS synthesized a cohort of HA products that steadily increased in weight-average molar mass, reaching a final maximal steady-state size of 4 to 6 MDa within 2-4 h.

  18. Disruption of hyaluronan synthase-2 abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis and hyaluronan-mediated transformation of epithelium to mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Camenisch, Todd D.; Spicer, Andrew P.; Brehm-Gibson, Tammy; Biesterfeldt, Jennifer; Augustine, Mary Lou; Calabro, Anthony; Kubalak, Steven; Klewer, Scott E.; McDonald, John A.

    2000-01-01

    We identified hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) as a likely source of hyaluronan (HA) during embryonic development, and we used gene targeting to study its function in vivo. Has2–/– embryos lack HA, exhibit severe cardiac and vascular abnormalities, and die during midgestation (E9.5–10). Heart explants from Has2–/– embryos lack the characteristic transformation of cardiac endothelial cells into mesenchyme, an essential developmental event that depends on receptor-mediated intracellular signaling. This defect is reproduced by expression of a dominant-negative Ras in wild-type heart explants, and is reversed in Has2–/– explants by gene rescue, by administering exogenous HA, or by expressing activated Ras. Conversely, transformation in Has2–/– explants mediated by exogenous HA is inhibited by dominant-negative Ras. Collectively, our results demonstrate the importance of HA in mammalian embryogenesis and the pivotal role of Has2 during mammalian development. They also reveal a previously unrecognized pathway for cell migration and invasion that is HA-dependent and involves Ras activation. PMID:10930438

  19. Hydrocellular foam dressing promotes wound healing along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 3 and PPARα gene expression in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takumi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Yoshino, Sawako; Muramatsu, Aimi; Matsui, Sho; Oishi, Yuichi; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Minematsu, Takeo; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocellular foam dressing, modern wound dressing, induces moist wound environment and promotes wound healing: however, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood. This study was aimed to reveal the effect of hydrocellular foam dressing on hyaluronan, which has been shown to have positive effects on wound healing, and examined its regulatory mechanisms in rat skin. We created two full-thickness wounds on the dorsolateral skin of rats. Each wound was covered with either a hydrocellular foam dressing or a film dressing and hyaluronan levels in the periwound skin was measured. We also investigated the mechanism by which the hydrocellular foam dressing regulates hyaluronan production by measuring the gene expression of hyaluronan synthase 3 (Has3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and CD44. Hydrocellular foam dressing promoted wound healing and upregulated hyaluronan synthesis, along with an increase in the mRNA levels of Has3, which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis in epidermis. In addition, hydrocellular foam dressing enhanced the mRNA levels of PPARα, which upregulates Has3 gene expression, and the major hyaluronan receptor CD44. These findings suggests that hydrocellular foam dressing may be beneficial for wound healing along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 3 and PPARα gene expression in epidermis. We believe that the present study would contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of hydrocellular foam dressing-induced moist environment on wound healing and practice evidence-based wound care.

  20. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits the phosphorylation of hyaluronan synthase 2 induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Kasai, Kosuke; Nanashima, Naoki; Nozaka, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Manabu; Chiba, Mitsuru; Yoneda, Masahiko; Nakamura, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    The effect of 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), a hyaluronan synthase-suppressor, on O-linked β-Nacetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) was investigated in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and we found that MU stimulated O-GlcNAcylation of the cellular proteins. Since O-GlcNAcylation affects protein phosphorylation via Ser/Thr kinases, we examined the effect of MU on both the phosphorylation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronan production. The cells were cultured in the presence or absence of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and MU independently or in combination. The protein fraction of each cell culture was extracted and divided into 2 parts-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated fractions-by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The hyaluronan level in the medium was determined by an ELISA-like assay. Addition of MU decreased the level of hyaluronan in the medium and that of HAS2 in the phosphorylated protein fraction. On the contrary, the addition of TPA increased the levels of both of them. Interestingly, the combination of TPA and MU lowered the levels of them in treated cells as compared to those in untreated control cells. These results suggest that TPA activated protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates the phosphorylation of HAS2, and increased hyaluronan production. Further, MU may inhibit the phosphorylation of HAS2 by PKC through the stimulation of O-GlcNAcylation.

  1. Low Dose Ultraviolet B Irradiation Increases Hyaluronan Synthesis in Epidermal Keratinocytes via Sequential Induction of Hyaluronan Synthases Has1–3 Mediated by p38 and Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Rauhala, Leena; Hämäläinen, Lasse; Salonen, Pauliina; Bart, Geneviève; Tammi, Markku; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Tammi, Raija

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan, a major epidermal extracellular matrix component, responds strongly to different kinds of injuries. This also occurs by UV radiation, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The effects of a single ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure on hyaluronan content and molecular mass, and expression of genes involved in hyaluronan metabolism were defined in monolayer and differentiated, organotypic three-dimensional cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes. The signals regulating the response were characterized using specific inhibitors and Western blotting. In monolayer cultures, UVB increased hyaluronan synthase Has1 mRNA already 4 h postexposure, with a return to control level by 24 h. In contrast, Has2 and Has3 were persistently elevated from 8 h onward. Silencing of Has2 and especially Has3 decreased the UVB-induced accumulation of hyaluronan. p38 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways were found to be involved in the UVB-induced up-regulation of Has2 and Has3 expression, respectively, and their inhibition reduced hyaluronan deposition. However, the expressions of the hyaluronan-degrading enzymes Hyal1 and Hyal2 and the hyaluronan receptor Cd44 were also up-regulated by UVB. In organotypic cultures, UVB treatment also resulted in increased expression of both Has and Hyal genes and shifted hyaluronan toward a smaller size range. Histochemical stainings indicated localized losses of hyaluronan in the epidermis. The data show that exposure of keratinocytes to acute, low dose UVB increases hyaluronan synthesis via up-regulation of Has2 and Has3. The simultaneously enhanced catabolism of hyaluronan demonstrates the complexity of the UVB-induced changes. Nevertheless, enhanced hyaluronan metabolism is an important part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to radiation injury. PMID:23645665

  2. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  3. Amelioration of osteoarthritis by intra-articular hyaluronan synthase 2 gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Yang, Quan-Sheng; Zhu, Jin-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Rui; Li, Li-Wen; Zhu, Qing-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disorder of multifactorial aetiology, characterized by loss of articular cartilage and periarticular bone remodelling. Goals of managing OA include controlling pain, maintaining and improving function and health-related quality of life, and limiting functional impairment. Although several managements had been proved to ameliorate the symptoms of osteoarthritis, no methods could cure it thoroughly. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is a major component of synovial joint fluids which physically acts as a viscous lubricant for slow joint movements and as an elastic shock absorber during rapid movements. It also has a variety of biologic effects in vivo, such as inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and suppressing the degradation of cartilage matrix. Intra-articular injection of synthetic HMW-HA has been used as viscosupplement for knee OA and its therapeutic efficacy has been verified. However, repeated injections of HMW-HA which is needed to control symptoms increase the probability of infection and sometimes there will have acute joint pain with effusion, which requires aspiration to exclude sepsis. In order to overcome the disadvantages of repeated injections of HMW-HA, novel strategies should be developed. As HMW-HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthase-2 (HAS2), we postulate that HAS2 gene could be delivered into intra-articular cells by methods of gene therapy to achieve long-lasting synthesis of HMW-HA. In our opinion, this strategy seems to hold interesting future prospects for the treatment of OA.

  4. Potential impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hyaluronan synthase 1 gene in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Adamia, Sophia; Treon, Steven P; Reiman, Tony; Tournilhac, Olivier; McQuarrie, Carrie; Mant, Michael J; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2005-03-01

    The hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane protein that synthesizes hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix molecule. Previously, in patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), we detected upregulation of HAS1 transcripts and identified aberrant splice variants of this gene. Aberrant splicing of HAS1 results from activation of cryptic splice sites. In turn, activation of cryptic donor and acceptor splice sites can be promoted by mutations occurring upstream of these sites and/or at the branch point of slicing. We measured the frequency of the HAS1 833A/G polymorphism (ie, single-nucleotide polymorphism; SNP) in patients with WM and healthy donors. Additionally, HAS1 gene expression was evaluated in the same group of patients. Our observations so far suggest that HAS1 833A/G SNPs contribute to aberrant splicing of this gene; this idea is supported by the fact that 833A/G SNP is located on an exonic splicing enhancer motif. Based on the results obtained thus far, we speculate that individuals with HAS1 833G/G genotype are predisposed toward aberrant HAS1 splicing and expression of HAS1 variants, resulting in an enhanced risk of developing WM. Study of a larger group of patients and healthy donors is needed to confirm these speculations and to evaluate the prognostic significance of these findings.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the authentic hyaluronan synthase from group C Streptococcus equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K; Weigel, P H

    1997-12-19

    We previously reported the first cloning of a functional glycosaminoglycan synthase, the hyaluronan synthase (HAS) from Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (spHAS) (DeAngelis, P. L., Papaconstantinou, J., and Weigel, P. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 19181-19184). Group A spHAS was unrelated to a putative Group C HA synthase reported by others (Lansing, M., Lellig, S., Mausolf, A., Martini, I. , Crescenzi, F., Oregon, M., and Prehm, P. (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 179-184). Here we report the isolation of a bona fide HA synthase gene from a highly encapsulated strain of Group C Streptococcus equisimilis. The encoded protein, designated seHAS, is 417 amino acids long (calculated molecular weight, 47,778; calculated pI, 9.1) and is the smallest member of the HAS family identified thus far. The enzyme migrates anomalously fast in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (approximately 42,000 Da). The seHAS protein shows no similarity (<2% identity) to the previously reported Group C gene, which is not an HA synthase. The seHAS and spHAS protein and coding sequences are 72 and 70% identical, respectively. seHAS is also similar to eukaryotic HAS1 (approximately 31% identical), HAS2 (approximately 28% identical), and HAS3 (28% identical). The deduced protein sequence of seHAS was confirmed by reactivity with a synthetic peptide antibody. Recombinant seHAS expressed in Escherichia coli was recovered in membranes as a major protein (approximately 10% of the total protein) and synthesized very large HA (Mr >7 x 10(6)) in the presence of UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcA. The product contained equimolar amounts of both sugars and was degraded by the specific Streptomyces hyaluronidase. Comparison of the two recombinant streptococcal enzymes in isolated membranes showed that seHAS and spHAS are essentially identical in the steady-state size distribution of HA chains they synthesize, but seHAS has an intrinsic 2-fold faster rate of chain elongation (Vmax) than spHAS. seHAS is the most active HA

  6. Hyaluronan synthase 3 variant and anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy: a report from the children's oncology group.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexia; Liu, Wei; Sun, Can-Lan; Armenian, Saro H; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hageman, Lindsey; Ding, Yan; Landier, Wendy; Blanco, Javier G; Chen, Lu; Quiñones, Adolfo; Ferguson, Daniel; Winick, Naomi; Ginsberg, Jill P; Keller, Frank; Neglia, Joseph P; Desai, Sunil; Sklar, Charles A; Castellino, Sharon M; Cherrick, Irene; Dreyer, ZoAnn E; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Yasui, Yutaka; Relling, Mary V; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-03-01

    The strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and cardiomyopathy is further exacerbated by the co-occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes and hypertension). The high morbidity associated with cardiomyopathy necessitates an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis so that targeted interventions can be developed. By using a two-stage design, we investigated host susceptibility to anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy by using the ITMAT/Broad CARe cardiovascular single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to profile common SNPs in 2,100 genes considered relevant to de novo cardiovascular disease. By using a matched case-control design (93 cases, 194 controls), we identified a common SNP, rs2232228, in the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) gene that exerts a modifying effect on anthracycline dose-dependent cardiomyopathy risk (P = 5.3 × 10(-7)). Among individuals with rs2232228 GG genotype, cardiomyopathy was infrequent and not dose related. However, in individuals exposed to high-dose (> 250 mg/m(2)) anthracyclines, the rs2232228 AA genotype conferred an 8.9-fold (95% CI, 2.1- to 37.5-fold; P = .003) increased cardiomyopathy risk compared with the GG genotype. This gene-environment interaction was successfully replicated in an independent set of 76 patients with anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. Relative HAS3 mRNA levels measured in healthy hearts tended to be lower among individuals with AA compared with GA genotypes (P = .09). Hyaluronan (HA) produced by HAS3 is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix and plays an active role in tissue remodeling. In addition, HA is known to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) -induced cardiac injury. The high cardiomyopathy risk associated with AA genotype could be due to inadequate remodeling and/or inadequate protection of the heart from ROS-mediated injury on high anthracycline exposure.

  7. Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Variant and Anthracycline-Related Cardiomyopathy: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuexia; Liu, Wei; Sun, Can-Lan; Armenian, Saro H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hageman, Lindsey; Ding, Yan; Landier, Wendy; Blanco, Javier G.; Chen, Lu; Quiñones, Adolfo; Ferguson, Daniel; Winick, Naomi; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Keller, Frank; Neglia, Joseph P.; Desai, Sunil; Sklar, Charles A.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Cherrick, Irene; Dreyer, ZoAnn E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Yasui, Yutaka; Relling, Mary V.; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and cardiomyopathy is further exacerbated by the co-occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes and hypertension). The high morbidity associated with cardiomyopathy necessitates an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis so that targeted interventions can be developed. Patients and Methods By using a two-stage design, we investigated host susceptibility to anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy by using the ITMAT/Broad CARe cardiovascular single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to profile common SNPs in 2,100 genes considered relevant to de novo cardiovascular disease. Results By using a matched case-control design (93 cases, 194 controls), we identified a common SNP, rs2232228, in the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) gene that exerts a modifying effect on anthracycline dose-dependent cardiomyopathy risk (P = 5.3 × 10−7). Among individuals with rs2232228 GG genotype, cardiomyopathy was infrequent and not dose related. However, in individuals exposed to high-dose (> 250 mg/m2) anthracyclines, the rs2232228 AA genotype conferred an 8.9-fold (95% CI, 2.1- to 37.5-fold; P = .003) increased cardiomyopathy risk compared with the GG genotype. This gene-environment interaction was successfully replicated in an independent set of 76 patients with anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. Relative HAS3 mRNA levels measured in healthy hearts tended to be lower among individuals with AA compared with GA genotypes (P = .09). Conclusion Hyaluronan (HA) produced by HAS3 is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix and plays an active role in tissue remodeling. In addition, HA is known to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) –induced cardiac injury. The high cardiomyopathy risk associated with AA genotype could be due to inadequate remodeling and/or inadequate protection of the heart from ROS-mediated injury on high anthracycline exposure. PMID:24470002

  8. Differential effects of hyaluronan synthase 3 deficiency after acute vs chronic liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Jennifer M; Jiang, Lu; Deshpande, Krutika T; O'Neil, Maura F; Pritchard, Michele T

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix (ECM) glycosaminoglycan synthesized by three different enzymes, hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1, 2, and 3. HA synthesis mediated by HAS3 promotes inflammation and is pathogenic in animal models of human lung and intestinal disease. Liver fibrosis is a common endpoint to chronic liver injury and inflammation for which there is no cure. Although plasma HA is a commonly used biomarker for liver disease, if and how HA contributes to disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HA synthesized by HAS3 enhances inflammation and fibrosis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed wild-type or Has3-/- mice to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) once (acute) or ten (chronic) times. HAS3-deficient mice exhibited increased hepatic injury and inflammatory chemokine production 48 h after acute CCl4; this was associated with a threefold reduction in plasma HA levels and alterations in the proportions of specific molecular weight HA polymer pools. Hepatic accumulation of fibrosis-associated transcripts was also greater in livers from HAS3-deficient mice compared to controls after acute CCl4 exposure. Surprisingly, fibrosis was not different between genotypes. Hepatic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)13 mRNA and MMP13 activity was greater in livers from Has3-null mice after chronic CCl4; this was prevented by a MMP13-specific inhibitor. Collectively, these data suggest that Has3, or more likely HA produced by HAS3, limits hepatic inflammation after acute injury and attenuates MMP13-mediated matrix metabolism after chronic injury. These data suggest that HA should be investigated further as a novel therapeutic target for acute and chronic liver disease.

  9. Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Null Mice Exhibit Decreased Intestinal Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the DSS-Induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Sean P.; Obery, Dana R.; de la Motte, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction is a hallmark of multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hyaluronan can act as a leukocyte recruitment molecule and in the most common mouse model of intestinal inflammation, the chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis model, we previously determined that changes in colon distribution of HA occur before inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that, during a pathologic challenge, HA promotes inflammation. In this study, we tested the progression of inflammation in mice null for the hyaluronan synthase genes (HAS1, HAS3, or both HAS1 and HAS3) in the DSS-colitis model. Our data demonstrate that both the HAS1/HAS3 double and the HAS3 null mice are protected from colitis, compared to wild-type and HAS1 null mice, as determined by measurement of weight loss, disease activity, serum IL-6 levels, histologic scoring, and immunohistochemistry. Most notable is the dramatic increase in submucosal microvasculature, hyaluronan deposition, and leukocyte infiltration in the inflamed colon tissue of wild-type and HAS1 null mice. Our data suggest, HAS3 plays a crucial role in driving gut inflammation. Developing a temporary targeted therapeutic intervention of HAS3 expression or function in the microcirculation may emerge as a desirable strategy toward tempering colitis in patients undergoing flares of IBD. PMID:26448758

  10. Regulation of Hyaluronan (HA) Metabolism Mediated by HYBID (Hyaluronan-binding Protein Involved in HA Depolymerization, KIAA1199) and HA Synthases in Growth Factor-stimulated Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Aya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Morikawa, Tomohiko; Kawabata, Keigo; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Shingo; Takahashi, Yoshito; Okada, Yasunori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-β1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-β1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-β1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-β1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-β1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients. PMID:26518873

  11. Regulation of Hyaluronan (HA) Metabolism Mediated by HYBID (Hyaluronan-binding Protein Involved in HA Depolymerization, KIAA1199) and HA Synthases in Growth Factor-stimulated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Aya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Morikawa, Tomohiko; Kawabata, Keigo; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Shingo; Takahashi, Yoshito; Okada, Yasunori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2015-12-25

    Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-β1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-β1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-β1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-β1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-β1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients.

  12. Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 Deficiency Increases Hyaluronan Synthesis by Up-regulation of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 through Decreased Ceramide Production and Activation of Akt*

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingdong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Poirer, Christophe; Schwartz, Nancy B.; Dawson, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts from the fro/fro mouse, with a deletion in the Smpd3 gene coding for the active site of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (NSMase2), secreted increased amounts of hyaluronan (HA). This was reversed by transfection with the Smpd3 gene, suggesting a connection between sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. The deficiency of NSMase2 resulted in storage of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol with a 50% reduction in ceramides (Cer). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that increased HA secretion resulted from increased hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) activity localized to sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts. Although cholesterol levels were also elevated in lipid rafts from mouse fibroblasts deficient in lysosomal acid SMase activity (deletion of the Smpd1−/− gene), there was no increase in HA secretion. We then showed that in fro/fro fibroblasts, the reduced ceramide was associated with decreased phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and increased phosphorylation of its substrate Akt-p, together with PI3K, PDK1, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and p70S6K, although PTEN was unaffected. Exogenous ceramide, as well as inhibitors of Akt (Akt inhibitor VIII), PI 3-kinase (LY294002 and wortmannin), and mTOR (rapamycin) reduced secretion of HA, whereas the NSMase2 inhibitor GW4869 increased HA synthesis and secretion. We propose that NSMase2/Cer are the key mediators of the regulation of HA synthesis, via microdomains and the Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:22383528

  13. Differential regulation and expression of hyaluronan synthases in human articular chondrocytes, synovial cells and osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Recklies, A D; White, C; Melching, L; Roughley, P J

    2001-01-01

    Recently three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase (HAS), the enzyme responsible for hyaluronate/hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis, have been cloned, allowing us to study their expression pattern. Our objective was to determine which of the HAS isoenzymes were expressed in human articular chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells, whether their expression could be modulated by growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1) and cytokines [interleukin 1beta1 (IL-1beta)], and whether changes in the rate of HA synthesis by the cells correlated with changes in mRNA levels for one or more of the HAS isoforms. All three HAS isoforms were found to be expressed in the cultured cells analysed in this study, although the relative proportions varied for each cell type. HAS2 mRNA was usually predominant in chondrocytes, whereas synovial cells contained increased amounts of HAS1. HAS3 was always the least abundant message. The rapidly growing osteosarcoma cells contained almost exclusively HAS2 message. HAS usage in uncultured cartilage and synovial tissues was similar to that in the cultured cells, with HAS2 message being the predominant species in cartilage and HAS1 usually being the predominant species in synovium. HA synthesis was stimulated by the growth factors, but the extent of the response was cell-type specific. Synovial cells responded particularly well to IL-1beta, and showed a unique synergistic response when IL-1beta was used in combination with TGF-beta1. This response was much reduced in articular chondrocytes and absent in the osteosarcoma cells. Analysis of changes in HAS message levels indicated that there was often no correlation with the changes in HA secretion following exposure to growth factors. Although HAS-1 mRNA was increased in synovial cells after exposure to TGF-beta1/IL-1beta, the magnitude of the change was far less than the effect on HA synthesis. Our data thus

  14. Molecular evolution of the hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in mammals: implications for adaptations to the subterranean niche and cancer resistance

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Christopher G.; Davies, Kalina T. J.; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is a unique and fascinating mammal exhibiting many unusual adaptations to a subterranean lifestyle. The recent discovery of their resistance to cancer and exceptional longevity has opened up new and important avenues of research. Part of this resistance to cancer has been attributed to the fact that NMRs produce a modified form of hyaluronan—a key constituent of the extracellular matrix—that is thought to confer increased elasticity of the skin as an adaptation for living in narrow tunnels. This so-called high molecular mass hyaluronan (HMM-HA) stems from two apparently unique substitutions in the hyaluronan synthase 2 enzyme (HAS2). To test whether other subterranean mammals with similar selection pressures also show molecular adaptation in their HAS2 gene, we sequenced the HAS2 gene for 11 subterranean mammals and closely related species, and combined these with data from 57 other mammals. Comparative screening revealed that one of the two putatively important HAS2 substitutions in the NMR predicted to have a significant effect on hyaluronan synthase function was uniquely shared by all African mole-rats. Interestingly, we also identified multiple other amino acid substitutions in key domains of the HAS2 molecule, although the biological consequences of these for hyaluronan synthesis remain to be determined. Despite these results, we found evidence of strong purifying selection acting on the HAS2 gene across all mammals, and the NMR remains unique in its particular HAS2 sequence. Our results indicate that more work is needed to determine whether the apparent cancer resistance seen in NMR is shared by other members of the African mole-rat clade. PMID:25948568

  15. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  16. Hyaluronan synthase 3 mediated oncogenic action through forming inter-regulation loop with tumor necrosis factor alpha in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Zih; Fang, Wei-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wang, Yi-Ching; Yang, Chih-Li; Wu, Li-Wha

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular matrix component. However, its role and mediation in oral cancer remains elusive. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), involved in pro-inflammatory short chain HA synthesis, was the predominant synthase in oral cancer cells and tissues. HAS3 overexpression significantly increased oral cancer cell migration, invasion and xenograft tumorigenesis accompanied with the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Conversely, HAS3 depletion abrogated HAS3-mediated stimulation. HAS3 induced oncogenic actions partly through activating EGFR-SRC signaling. HAS3-derived HA release into extracellular milieu enhanced transendothelial monocyte migration and MCP-1 expression, which was attenuated by anti-HAS3 antibodies or a HAS inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The NF-κB-binding site III at -1692 to -1682 bp upstream from the transcript 1 start site in HAS3 proximal promoter was the most responsive to TNF-α-stimulated transcription. ChIP-qPCR analysis confirmed the highest NF-κB-p65 enrichment on site III. Increased HAS3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of oral cancer patients. A concomitant increase of TNF-α, a stimulus for HAS3 expression, with HAS3 expression was not only associated with lymph node metastasis but also negated clinical outcome. Together, HAS3 and TNF-α formed an inter-regulation loop to enhance tumorigenesis in oral cancer. PMID:28107185

  17. Hyaluronan synthase 3 mediated oncogenic action through forming inter-regulation loop with tumor necrosis factor alpha in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Zih; Fang, Wei-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wang, Yi-Ching; Yang, Chih-Li; Wu, Li-Wha

    2017-02-28

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular matrix component. However, its role and mediation in oral cancer remains elusive. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), involved in pro-inflammatory short chain HA synthesis, was the predominant synthase in oral cancer cells and tissues. HAS3 overexpression significantly increased oral cancer cell migration, invasion and xenograft tumorigenesis accompanied with the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Conversely, HAS3 depletion abrogated HAS3-mediated stimulation. HAS3 induced oncogenic actions partly through activating EGFR-SRC signaling. HAS3-derived HA release into extracellular milieu enhanced transendothelial monocyte migration and MCP-1 expression, which was attenuated by anti-HAS3 antibodies or a HAS inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The NF-κB-binding site III at -1692 to -1682 bp upstream from the transcript 1 start site in HAS3 proximal promoter was the most responsive to TNF-α-stimulated transcription. ChIP-qPCR analysis confirmed the highest NF-κB-p65 enrichment on site III. Increased HAS3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of oral cancer patients. A concomitant increase of TNF-α, a stimulus for HAS3 expression, with HAS3 expression was not only associated with lymph node metastasis but also negated clinical outcome. Together, HAS3 and TNF-α formed an inter-regulation loop to enhance tumorigenesis in oral cancer.

  18. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  19. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  20. Altered expression of hyaluronan synthase and hyaluronidase mRNA may affect hyaluronic acid distribution in keloid disease compared with normal skin.

    PubMed

    Sidgwick, Gary P; Iqbal, Syed A; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-05-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterised partly by an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. In fetal scarring, hyaluronic acid (HA) expression is increased, but is reduced in KD tissue compared with normal skin (NS). The expression of Hyaluronan Synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) in KD and NS tissue were investigated for the first time using a range of techniques. Hyaluronan synthase and HYAL mRNA expression were significantly increased in NS tissue compared with KD tissue (P < 0.05). Immunohistological analysis of tissue indicated an accumulation of HAS and HYAL protein expression in KD compared with NS due to the thicker epidermis. No differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression in KD and NS fibroblasts. Reduced expression of HAS and HYAL may alter HA synthesis, degradation and accumulation in KD. Better understanding of the role of HA in KD may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to address the resulting ECM imbalance.

  1. An in situ hybridization study of Hyaluronan synthase (Has) mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Fujikawa, Kaoru; Baba, Otto; Shibata, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major constituent molecule in most extracellular matrices and is synthesized by Hyaluronan synthase (Has). In the present study, we examined expression patterns of Has1, -2, -3 mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs from embryonic day (E) 11.5 to postnatal day (P) 7, focusing on Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the apical bud in particular. Has1 mRNA expression was not detected in all tooth germs examined. Has2 mRNA was expressed in the surrounding mesenchyme from E12.0 to 18.0 in both molar and incisor tooth germs, but disappeared after birth. Meanwhile, Has3 mRNA was exclusively expressed within the enamel organ, especially in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE), stellate reticulum (SR), and stratum intermedium (SI) until the early bell stage at E16.0. Has3 mRNA disappeared as IEE differentiated into differentiating ameloblasts (dABs), but remained in SI until the root developmental stage of the molar tooth germ at P7. Has3 mRNA was also expressed in HERS until P7. In incisors, Has3 mRNA was expressed in the apical bud, especially in the transit-amplifying (TA) cell region from E16.0 to P7, and in the papillary layer (PL) adjacent to the mature enamel. These gene expression patterns suggested that Has3 is the main control factor for prenatal and postnatal HA synthesis of the tooth germ, and may in part regulate crown and root formation of the tooth germ, maintenance of stem cell niches in the apical bud as well as mineral transport in PL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Proximity Ligation Assays Reveal Functionally Relevant Homo- and Heteromeric Complexes among Hyaluronan Synthases HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3*

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Geneviève; Vico, Nuria Ortega; Hassinen, Antti; Pujol, Francois M.; Deen, Ashik Jawahar; Ruusala, Aino; Tammi, Raija H.; Squire, Anthony; Heldin, Paraskevi; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Tammi, Markku I.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, hyaluronan is produced in the plasma membrane from cytosolic UDP-sugar substrates by hyaluronan synthase 1–3 (HAS1–3) isoenzymes that transfer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in alternative positions in the growing polysaccharide chain during its simultaneous extrusion into the extracellular space. It has been shown that HAS2 immunoprecipitates contain functional HAS2 homomers and also heteromers with HAS3 (Karousou, E., Kamiryo, M., Skandalis, S. S., Ruusala, A., Asteriou, T., Passi, A., Yamashita, H., Hellman, U., Heldin, C. H., and Heldin, P. (2010) The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 23647–23654). Here we have systematically screened in live cells, potential interactions among the HAS isoenzymes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and flow cytometric quantification. We show that all HAS isoenzymes form homomeric and also heteromeric complexes with each other. The same complexes were detected both in Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane by using FRET microscopy and the acceptor photobleaching method. Proximity ligation assays with HAS antibodies confirmed the presence of HAS1-HAS2, HAS2-HAS2, and HAS2-HAS3 complexes between endogenously expressed HASs. C-terminal deletions revealed that the enzymes interact mainly via uncharacterized N-terminal 86-amino acid domain(s), but additional binding site(s) probably exist in their C-terminal parts. Of all the homomeric complexes HAS1 had the lowest and HAS3 the highest synthetic activity. Interestingly, HAS1 transfection reduced the synthesis of hyaluronan obtained by HAS2 and HAS3, suggesting functional cooperation between the isoenzymes. These data indicate a general tendency of HAS isoenzymes to form both homomeric and heteromeric complexes with potentially important functional consequences on hyaluronan synthesis. PMID:25795779

  3. Hyaluronan synthase HAS2 promotes tumor progression in bone by stimulating the interaction of breast cancer stem-like cells with macrophages and stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Aya; Xia, Bo; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Hirota, Shigeru; Xing, Fei; Liu, Wen; Pandey, Puspa R; Fukuda, Koji; Modur, Vishnu; Ghosh, Arnab; Wilber, Andrew; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that operate within the organ microenvironment to support metastatic progression remain unclear. Here we report that upregulation of the hyaluronan synthase HAS2 occurs in highly metastatic breast stem-like cancer cells (CSCs) defined by CD44+/CD24−/ESA+ phenotype, where it plays a critical role in the generation of a pro-metastatic microenvironment in breast cancer. HAS2 was critical for interaction of CSCs with tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), leading to enhanced secretion of PDGF-BB from TAMs which then activated stromal cells and enhanced CSC self-renewal. Loss of HAS2 in CSCs or treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthases which blocks hyaluronan production, drastically reduced the incidence and growth of metastatic lesions in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for HAS2 in the development of a pro-metastatic microenvironment and suggest that HAS2 inhibitors can act as anti-metastatic agents that disrupt a paracrine growth factor loop within this microenvironment. PMID:22113945

  4. bFGF induces changes in hyaluronan synthase and hyaluronidase isoform expression and modulates the migration capacity of fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis; Katonis, Pavlos; Karamanos, Nikos K; Tzanakakis, George N

    2009-10-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) a glycosaminoglycan, is capable of transmitting extracellular matrix derived signals to regulate cellular functions. In this study, we investigated whether the changes in HT1080 and B6FS fibrosarcoma cell lines HA metabolism induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are correlated to their migration. Real-time PCR, in vitro wound healing assay, siRNA transfection, enzyme digestions, western blotting and immunofluorescence were utilized. bFGF inhibited the degradation of HA by decreasing hyaluronidase-2 expression in HT1080 cells (p=0.0028), increased HA-synthase-1 and -2 expression as we previously found and enhanced high molecular weight HA deposition in the pericellular matrix. Increased endogenous HA production (p=0.0022) and treatment with exogenous high molecular weight HA (p=0.0268) correlated with a significant decrease of HT1080 cell migration capacity. Transfection with siHAS2 and siHAS1 showed that mainly HAS1 synthesized high molecular weight HA regulates HT1080 cell motility. Induced degradation of the HA content by hyaluronidase treatment and addition of low molecular weight HA, resulted in a significant stimulation of HT1080 cells' motility (p<0.01). In contrast, no effects on B6FS fibrosarcoma cell motility were observed. bFGF regulates, in a cell-specific manner the migration capability of fibrosarcoma cells by modulating their HA metabolism. HA metabolism is suggested to be a potential therapeutic target in fibrosarcoma.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF A MEMBRANE-LOCALIZED CYSTEINE CLUSTER NEAR THE SUBSTRATE BINDING SITES OF THE STREPTOCOCCUS EQUISIMILIS HYALURONAN SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Kshama; Weigel, Paul H.

    2005-01-01

    The membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase (HAS) from Streptococcus equisimilis (seHAS), which is the smallest Class I HAS, has four cysteine residues (positions 226, 262, 281, and 367) that are generally conserved within this family. Although Cys-null seHAS is still active, chemical modification of cysteine residues causes inhibition of wildtype enzyme (Kumari et al., J. Biol. Chem. 277, 13943, 2002). Here we studied the effects of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment on a panel of seHAS Cys-mutants to examine the structural and functional roles of the four cysteine residues in the activity of the enzyme. We found that Cys226, Cys262, and Cys281 are reactive with NEM, but that Cys367 is not. Substrate protection studies of wildtype seHAS and a variety of Cys-mutants revealed that binding of UDP-GlcUA, UDP-GlcNAc or UDP can protect Cys226 and Cys262 from NEM inhibition. Inhibition of the six double Cys-mutants of seHAS by sodium arsenite, which can crosslink vicinyl sulfhydryl groups, also supported the conclusion that Cys262 and Cys281 are close enough to be crosslinked. Similar results indicated that Cys281 and Cys367 are also very close in the active enzyme. We conclude that three of the four Cys residues in seHAS (Cys262, Cys281, and Cys367 ) are clustered very close together, that these Cys residues and Cys226 are located at the inner surface of the cell membrane, and that Cys226 and Cys262 are located in or near a UDP binding site. PMID:15616126

  6. Inherited Polymorphisms in Hyaluronan Synthase 1 Predict Risk of Systemic B-Cell Malignancies but Not of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M.; Baigorri, Eva; Warkentin, Amanda; Steingrimsdottir, Hlif; Haraldsdottir, Vilhelmina; Mant, Michael J.; Mackey, John; Johnston, James B.; Adamia, Sophia; Belch, Andrew R.; Pilarski, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the hyaluronan synthase 1 gene (HAS1) influence HAS1 aberrant splicing. HAS1 is aberrantly spliced in malignant cells from multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), but not in their counterparts from healthy donors. The presence of aberrant HAS1 splice variants predicts for poor survival in multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated the influence of inherited HAS1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the risk of having a systemic B cell malignancy in 1414 individuals compromising 832 patients and 582 healthy controls, including familial analysis of an Icelandic kindred. We sequenced HAS1 gene segments from 181 patients with MM, 98 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 72 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), 169 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as well as 34 members of a monoclonal gammopathy-prone Icelandic family, 212 age-matched healthy donors and a case-control cohort of 295 breast cancer patients with 353 healthy controls. Three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in HAS1 intron3 are significantly associated with B-cell malignancies (range p = 0.007 to p = 10−5), but not MGUS or breast cancer, and predict risk in a 34 member Icelandic family (p = 0.005, Odds Ratio = 5.8 (OR)), a relatively homogeneous cohort. In contrast, exon3 SNPs were not significantly different among the study groups. Pooled analyses showed a strong association between the linked HAS1 intron3 SNPs and B-cell malignancies (OR = 1.78), but not for sporadic MGUS or for breast cancer (OR<1.0). The minor allele genotypes of HAS1 SNPs are significantly more frequent in MM, WM, CLL and in affected members of a monoclonal gammopathy-prone family than they are in breast cancer, sporadic MGUS or healthy donors. These inherited changes may increase the risk for systemic B-cell malignancies but not for solid tumors. PMID:24950197

  7. Aberrant Splice Variants of HAS1 (Hyaluronan Synthase 1) Multimerize with and Modulate Normally Spliced HAS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anirban; Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Pilarski, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Most human genes undergo alternative splicing, but aberrant splice forms are hallmarks of many cancers, usually resulting from mutations initiating abnormal exon skipping, intron retention, or the introduction of a new splice sites. We have identified a family of aberrant splice variants of HAS1 (the hyaluronan synthase 1 gene) in some B lineage cancers, characterized by exon skipping and/or partial intron retention events that occur either together or independently in different variants, apparently due to accumulation of inherited and acquired mutations. Cellular, biochemical, and oncogenic properties of full-length HAS1 (HAS1-FL) and HAS1 splice variants Va, Vb, and Vc (HAS1-Vs) are compared and characterized. When co-expressed, the properties of HAS1-Vs are dominant over those of HAS1-FL. HAS1-FL appears to be diffusely expressed in the cell, but HAS1-Vs are concentrated in the cytoplasm and/or Golgi apparatus. HAS1-Vs synthesize detectable de novo HA intracellularly. Each of the HAS1-Vs is able to relocalize HAS1-FL protein from diffuse cytoskeleton-anchored locations to deeper cytoplasmic spaces. This HAS1-Vs-mediated relocalization occurs through strong molecular interactions, which also serve to protect HAS1-FL from its otherwise high turnover kinetics. In co-transfected cells, HAS1-FL and HAS1-Vs interact with themselves and with each other to form heteromeric multiprotein assemblies. HAS1-Vc was found to be transforming in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo when introduced as a single oncogene to untransformed cells. The altered distribution and half-life of HAS1-FL, coupled with the characteristics of the HAS1-Vs suggest possible mechanisms whereby the aberrant splicing observed in human cancer may contribute to oncogenesis and disease progression. PMID:19451652

  8. Cell protrusions induced by hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) resemble mesothelial microvilli and share cytoskeletal features of filopodia.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Ville; Kärnä, Riikka; Koistinen, Arto; Arjonen, Antti; Tammi, Markku; Rilla, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that overexpression of enzymatically active GFP-HAS induces the growth of long, slender protrusions that share many features of both filopodia and microvilli. These protrusions are dependent on continuing hyaluronan synthesis, and disrupt upon digestion of hyaluronan by hyaluronidase. However, complete understanding of their nature is still missing. This work shows that the protrusions on rat peritoneal surface are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those induced by GFP-HAS3 in MCF-7 cells. Analysis of the actin-associated proteins villin, ezrin, espin, fascin, and Myo10 indicated that the HAS3-induced protrusions share most cytoskeletal features with filopodia, but they do not require adherence to the substratum like traditional filopodia. GFP-HAS3 overexpression was found to markedly enhance filamentous actin in the protrusions and their cortical basis. Analysis of the protrusion dynamics after enzymatic digestion of hyaluronan revealed that while GFP-HAS3 escape from the protrusions and the protrusion collapse takes place immediately, the complete retraction of the protrusions occurs more slowly. This finding also suggests that hyaluronan chain maintains HAS3 in the plasma membrane. The results of this work suggest that protrusions similar to those of HAS3 overexpressing cells in vitro exist also in cells with active hyaluronan synthesis in vivo. These protrusions are similar to common filopodia but are independent of substratum attachment due to the extracellular scaffolding by the hyaluronan coat that accounts for the growth and maintenance of these structures, previously associated to invasion, adhesion and multidrug resistance.

  9. Hyaluronan synthase assembles chitin oligomers with -GlcNAc(α1→)UDP at the reducing end.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Paul H; West, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng; Wells, Lance; Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Washburn, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Class I hyaluronan synthases (HASs) assemble a polysaccharide containing the repeating disaccharide [GlcNAc(β1,4)GlcUA(β1,3)]n-UDP and vertebrate HASs also assemble (GlcNAc-β1,4)n homo-oligomers (chitin) in the absence of GlcUA-UDP. This multi-membrane domain CAZy GT2 family glycosyltransferase, which couples HA synthesis and translocation across the cell membrane, is atypical in that monosaccharides are incrementally assembled at the reducing, rather than the non-reducing, end of the growing polymer. Using Escherichia coli membranes containing recombinant Streptococcus equisimilis HAS, we demonstrate that a prokaryotic Class I HAS also synthesizes chitin oligomers (up to 15-mers, based on MS and MS/MS analyses of permethylated products). Furthermore, chitin oligomers were found attached at their reducing end to -4GlcNAc(α1→)UDP [i.e. (GlcNAcβ1,4)nGlcNAc(α1→)UDP]. These oligomers, which contained up to at least seven HexNAc residues, consisted of β4-linked GlcNAc residues, based on the sensitivity of the native products to jack bean β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Interestingly, these oligomers exhibited mass defects of -2, or -4 for longer oligomers, that strictly depended on conjugation to UDP, but MS/MS analyses indicate that these species result from chemical dehydrogenations occurring in the gas phase. Identification of (GlcNAc-β1,4)n-GlcNAc(α1→)UDP as HAS reaction products, made in the presence of GlcNAc(α1→)UDP only, provides strong independent confirmation for the reducing terminal addition mechanism. We conclude that chitin oligomer products made by HAS are derived from the cleavage of these novel activated oligo-chitosyl-UDP oligomers. Furthermore, it is possible that these UDP-activated chitin oligomers could serve as self-assembled primers for initiating HA synthesis and ultimately modify the non-reducing terminus of HA with a chitin cap.

  10. Use of induction promoters to regulate hyaluronan synthase and UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase of Streptococcus zooepidemicus expression in Lactococcus lactis: a case study of the regulation mechanism of hyaluronic acid polymer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, J Z; Ling, P X; Zhu, X Q; Guo, X P; Zhang, T M; He, Y L; Wang, F S

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effects of the ratios of hyaluronan synthase expression level to precursor sugar UDP-GlcA biosynthesis ability on the molecular weight (MW) of hyaluronic acid (HA) in recombinant Lactococcus lactis. The genes szHasA (hyaluronan synthase gene) and szHasB (UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase gene) of Streptococcus zooepidemicus were introduced into L. lactis under the control of nisA promoter and lacA promoter respectively, resulting in a dual-plasmid controlled expression system. The effects of the ratios of hyaluronan synthase expression level to the precursor sugar UDP-GlcA biosynthesis ability under different induction concentration collocations with nisin and lactose on the MW of HA in recombinant L. lactis were determined. The results showed that the final weight-average molecular weight () of HA correlated with the relative ratios of HasA (hyaluronan synthase) expression level to the concentration of UDP-GlcA. Regulating the relative ratios of HasA expression level to the precursor sugar biosynthesis ability was an efficient method to control the size of HA. This study put forward a guide to establish an efficacious way to control the size of HA in fermentation.

  11. Hyaluronan Synthase: The Mechanism of Initiation at the Reducing End and a Pendulum Model for Polysaccharide Translocation to the Cell Exterior

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis has been studied for over six decades, but our understanding of the biochemical details of how HA synthase (HAS) assembles HA is still incomplete. Class I family members include mammalian and streptococcal HASs, the focus of this review, which add new intracellular sugar-UDPs at the reducing end of growing hyaluronyl-UDP chains. HA-producing cells typically create extracellular HA coats (capsules) and also secrete HA into the surrounding space. Since HAS contains multiple transmembrane domains and is lipid-dependent, we proposed in 1999 that it creates an intraprotein HAS-lipid pore through which a growing HA-UDP chain is translocated continuously across the cell membrane to the exterior. We review here the evidence for a synthase pore-mediated polysaccharide translocation process and describe a possible mechanism (the Pendulum Model) and potential energy sources to drive this ATP-independent process. HA synthases also synthesize chitin oligosaccharides, which are created by cleavage of novel oligo-chitosyl-UDP products. The synthesis of chitin-UDP oligomers by HAS confirms the reducing end mechanism for sugar addition during HA assembly by streptococcal and mammalian Class I enzymes. These new findings indicate the possibility that HA biosynthesis is initiated by the ability of HAS to use chitin-UDP oligomers as self-primers. PMID:26472958

  12. Regulation of the Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Gene by Convergence in Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein and Retinoid Acid Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Katri M.; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Törrönen, Kari; Tammi, Markku I.; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The human hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) gene encodes for an enzyme making hyaluronan, altered concentrations of which are associated with many pathological situations including wounding, several inflammatory conditions, and malignant tumors. In this study we showed that HAS2 is a primary target of the cAMP activator forskolin and the nuclear hormone all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The first 2250 bp of the promoter contain three response elements (REs) for the transcription factor CREB1 as well as two REs for the nuclear receptor RAR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and re-chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using selected fragments of the promoter containing the putative REs showed that forskolin and all-trans-RA modulate the formation of complexes between CREB1 and RAR with various co-regulators at the predicted sites. Interestingly, CREB1 complexes are regulated by all-trans-RA as are RAR complexes by forskolin. Reporter gene assays using nested promoter fragments supported these findings. Forskolin and all-trans-RA co-stimulation reduced the binding of CREB1, RAR, and the co-repressor nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1), but enhanced the association of co-activators MED1 and CREB-binding protein (CBP). RNA interference experiments suggested that MED1 and NCoR1 are central for the all-trans-RA induction of the HAS2 gene and CBP dominates its forskolin response. In general, our findings suggest a convergence of CREB1 and RAR signaling, and demonstrate the individual character of each RE in terms of co-regulator use. PMID:19416972

  13. Hereditary cutaneous mucinosis in shar pei dogs is associated with increased hyaluronan synthase-2 mRNA transcription by cultured dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, María J; Fondevila, Dolors; Bardagí, Mar; Bassols, Anna; Ferrer, Lluís

    2009-10-01

    Shar pei dogs are known for the distinctive feature of thick, wrinkled skin as a consequence of high dermal mucin content. Excessive dermal deposition of mucinous substance leading to severe skin folding, and/or to the more severe vesicular form characterized by dermal vesicles or bullae, is highly prevalent in this breed and is known as idiopathic mucinosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component that accumulates in the dermis, and high levels of HA have also been detected in the serum of shar pei dogs. In this study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cutaneous mucinosis of shar pei dogs were investigated. Thirteen shar pei dogs and four control dogs of other breeds were included. In primary dermal fibroblast cultures, transcription of the family of hyaluronan synthases (HAS) involved in HA synthesis, and of hyaluronidases (HYAL) involved in HA degradation, were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The location of HA in cell cultures was studied by immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. Dermal fibroblasts transcribed HAS2, HAS3, HYAL1 and HYAL2, but no amplification for HAS1 was found. A higher transcription of HAS2 was demonstrated in shar pei dogs compared with control dogs. By confocal microscopy, HA was detected as a more diffuse and intense network-like pattern of green fluorescence in the fibroblast cells of shar pei dogs in comparison with control dogs. Together, these results provide additional evidence that hereditary cutaneous mucinosis in shar pei dogs may be a consequence of over-transcription or increased activity of HAS2.

  14. Overexpression of hyaluronan synthase 2 and gonadotropin receptors in cumulus cells of goats subjected to one-shot eCG/FSH hormonal treatment for ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana D R; Batista, Ribrio I T P; Magalhães, Livia C; Paula, Alexandre R; Souza, Samara S; Salamone, Daniel F; Bhat, Maajid H; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian stimulation may affect transcripts in somatic cells of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and affect the resulting oocyte quality. Here, in parallel with morphological classification and in vitro maturation (IVM) rate analysis, we investigated the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), gonadotropic receptors (FSHR and LHR) and connexin 43 (GJA1) in cumulus cells (CCs) from goat COCs after multi-dose FSH (MD) or one-shot FSH/eCG (OS) treatments, using bovine COCs as control groups. The MD treatment produced more large follicles, and the resulting COCs had a better morphology and IVM rate than were obtained with OS. The OS treatment produced COCs with increased HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression. This gene expression pattern was also observed in the CCs of COCs that showed poor morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the mRNA levels were more similar between groups after IVM; FSHR and LHR were the main genes that showed decreased expression. Some events that occurred in bovine CCs during IVM, such as cell expansion, increased HAS2 expression and decreased GJA1 expression, were less evident or did not occur in goat COCs. In conclusion, increasing HAS2, FSHR, LHR and GJA1 expression in goat COCs does not confer greater meiotic competence to oocytes. Instead, it may result from poor regulation of gene expression in CCs by lower quality oocytes. Finally, cumulus expansion, together with HAS2 upregulation and GJA1 downregulation, seems to be more important for bovine COCs than for goat COCs. Additional studies are needed to investigate the importance of other HAS isoforms and connexins in goat COCs.

  15. Hyaluronan synthase-2 upregulation protects smpd3-deficient fibroblasts against cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, but not against apoptosis evoked by oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Rouahi, Myriam; Mucher, Elodie; Auge, Nathalie; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase (nSMase2) hydrolyzes sphingomyelin and generates ceramide, a major bioactive sphingolipid mediator, involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. The role of nSMase2 in apoptosis is debated, and apparently contradictory results have been observed on fibroblasts isolated from nSMase2-deficient fragilitas ossium (homozygous fro/fro) mice. These mice exhibit a severe neonatal dysplasia, a lack of long bone mineralization and delayed apoptosis patterns of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. We hypothesized that apoptosis induced by nutrient deprivation, which mimics the environmental modifications of the growth plate, requires nSMase2 activation. In this study, we have compared the resistance of fro/fro fibroblasts to different death inducers (oxidized LDL, hydrogen peroxide and nutrient starvation). The data show that nSMase2-deficient fro/fro cells resist to apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation (fetal calf serum/glucose/pyruvate-free DMEM), whereas wt fibroblasts die after 48 h incubation in this medium. In contrast, oxidized LDL and hydrogen peroxide are similarly toxic to fro/fro and wt fibroblasts, indicating that nSMase2 is not involved in the mechanism of toxicity evoked by these agents. Interestingly, wt fibroblasts treated with the SMase inhibitor GW4869 were more resistant to starvation-induced apoptosis. The resistance of fro/fro cells to starvation-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNAs and protein, which is inhibited by ceramide. In wt fibroblasts, this HAS2 rise and its protective effect did not occur, but exogenously added HA exhibited a protective effect against starvation-induced apoptosis. The protective mechanism of HAS2 involves an increased expression of the heat-shock protein Hsp72, a chaperone with antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, these results highlight the role of nSMase2 in apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation that could

  16. Hyaluronidases and hyaluronan synthases expression is inversely correlated with malignancy in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, affecting prognosis

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, V.K.; Rocha, T.P.; Moreira, AL.; Soares, F.A.; Takagaki, T.; Carvalho, L.; Nicholson, A.G.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    We collected a series of 136 lung/bronchial and 56 matched lung parenchyma tissue samples from patients who underwent lung/bronchial biopsies and presented invasive carcinoma after lung surgery. The lung/bronchial samples included basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, moderate dysplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia, severe dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Matched lung parenchyma tissue samples included 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 31 adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze for the distribution of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1 and −3, and hyaluronan synthases (HAS)-1, −2, and −3. Hyal-1 showed significantly higher expression in basal cell hyperplasia than in moderate dysplasia (P=0.01), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.0001), or severe dysplasia (P=0.03). Lower expression of Hyal-3 was found in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia than in basal cell hyperplasia (P=0.01) or moderate dysplasia (P=0.02). HAS-2 was significantly higher in severe dysplasia (P=0.002) and in squamous metaplasia (P=0.04) compared with basal cell hyperplasia. HAS-3 was significantly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia compared with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.05) and severe dysplasia (P=0.02). Lower expression of HAS-3 was found in severe dysplasia compared with squamous metaplasia (P=0.01) and moderate dysplasia (P=0.01). Epithelial Hyal-1 and −3 and HAS-1, −2, and −3 expressions were significantly higher in pre-neoplastic lesions than in neoplastic lesions. Comparative Cox multivariate analysis controlled by N stage and histologic tumor type showed that patients with high HAS-3 expression in pre-neoplastic cells obtained by lung/bronchial biopsy presented a significantly higher risk of death (HR=1.19; P=0.04). We concluded that localization of Hyal and HAS in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions was inversely related to malignancy, which implied that visualizing these factors could be a useful diagnostic

  17. Synthesis and shedding of hyaluronan from plasma membranes of human fibroblasts and metastatic and non-metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lüke, H J; Prehm, P

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of hyaluronan synthesis and shedding was analysed in human fibroblasts and in two melanoma cells that differed in the metastatic potential and proteolysis of the hyaluronan receptor CD44. Dissociation of nascent hyaluronan from plasma membranes isolated from fibroblasts by high salt concentrations led to activation of hyaluronan synthase. Hyaluronan synthesis was also enhanced in plasma membranes from fibroblasts that had been treated with hyaluronidase or trypsin. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides stimulated hyaluronan production in fibroblast cultures. These results indicated that nascent high-molecular-mass hyaluronan inhibited its own chain elongation, if it was retained in the vicinity of the synthase by cell-surface receptors. The results also indicated that increased hyaluronan synthesis and shedding correlated with proteolysis of CD44 on the melanoma cell lines, which has been observed by others. PMID:10493913

  18. Hyaluronan production increases the malignant properties of mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Heldin, P

    2001-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas is in most cases associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan. To investigate the importance of hyaluronan for the malignant properties of mesotheliomas, we have expressed murine hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) in the non-hyaluronan producing mesothelioma cell line, Mero-25. We found that upon hyaluronan overproduction the mesothelioma cells changed their epitheloid character to a fibroblastic phenotype and were surrounded by pericellular matrices, the size of which correlated to the amount of synthesized hyaluronan. HAS2-transfected cells with the ability to synthesize about 520 ng hyaluronan/5 × 104cells/24 h exhibited about a 2-fold increase in the expression of the cell surface hyaluronan receptor CD44 and their locomotion increased compared to that of mock-transfected Mero-25 cells. Furthermore, the malignant properties of mesothelioma cell clones as determined by the ability to grow in a soft agar assay correlated to their hyaluronan production. These results provide evidence for an important role of hyaluronan in the aggressive spread of mesotheliomas in adjacent non-cancerous stromal tissues. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506502

  19. Hyaluronan synthesis by developing cortical neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Tania M.; Karunasinghe, Rashika N.; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Jordan, Shawn; Gunn, Alistair J.; Dean, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a linear glycosaminoglycan that forms the backbone of perineuronal nets around neurons in the cerebral cortex. However, it remains controversial whether neurons are capable of independent hyaluronan synthesis. Herein, we examined the expression of hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases (HASs) throughout cortical neuron development in vitro. Enriched cultures of cortical neurons were established from E16 rats. Neurons were collected at days in vitro (DIV) 0 (4 h), 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for qPCR or immunocytochemistry. In the relative absence of glia, neurons exhibited HAS1–3 mRNA at all time-points. By immunocytochemistry, puncta of HAS2–3 protein and hyaluronan were located on neuronal cell bodies, neurites, and lamellipodia/growth cones from as early as 4 h in culture. As neurons matured, hyaluronan was also detected on dendrites, filopodia, and axons, and around synapses. Percentages of hyaluronan-positive neurons increased with culture time to ~93% by DIV21, while only half of neurons at DIV21 expressed the perineuronal net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin. These data clearly demonstrate that neurons in vitro can independently synthesise hyaluronan throughout all maturational stages, and that hyaluronan production is not limited to neurons expressing perineuronal nets. The specific structural localisation of hyaluronan suggests potential roles in neuronal development and function. PMID:28287145

  20. Regulation of cardiac cushion development by hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Camenisch, Todd D; Biesterfeldt, Jennifer; Brehm-Gibson, Tammy; Bradley, Judy; McDonald, John A

    2001-01-01

    Hyaluronan is an extracellular matrix component implicated in expansion of the extracellular space, organization of supramolecular architecture, cell motility, proliferation, tumour metastases and wound healing. Hyaluronan is highly expressed in the developing heart but it is only a minor component of the mature heart. The loss of hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) results in embryonic lethality with a phenotype remarkably similar to that of the versican-deficient heart defect mouse. Has2-deficient embryos lack hyaluronan-containing cardiac jelly, and at embryonic day 9.5 show arrested development, with an apparent absence of the right ventricle and underdevelopment of the conustruncus segment, and pericardial effusion consistent with heart failure. Cardiac cushions are totally absent, and endocardial cell migration over collagen gels is not detectable in Has2-deficient atrioventricular (AV) canal explants. Endothelial to mesenchymal transformation is also defective in AV explants from Has2-null embryos. The normal phenotype is restored in AV canal explants from Has2-deficient embryos by co-culture with wild type AV canal explants, with conditioned media from wild type AV explants or with exogenous hyaluronan. These results provide evidence for a direct role for hyaluronan during endocardial cushion and AV canal morphogenesis. PMID:20428437

  1. Hyaluronan production enhances shedding of plasma membrane-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Rilla, Kirsi; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Deen, Ashik J; Koistinen, Ville V T; Wojciechowski, Sara; Oikari, Sanna; Kärnä, Riikka; Bart, Genevieve; Törrönen, Kari; Tammi, Raija H; Tammi, Markku I

    2013-08-01

    Many cell types secrete plasma membrane-bound microvesicles, suggested to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and cancer spreading. However, the mechanisms of their formation have remained largely unknown. It was found that the tips of long microvilli induced in cells by overexpression of hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) were detach into the culture medium as microvesicles. Moreover, several cell types with naturally active hyaluronan synthesis released high numbers of plasma membrane-derived vesicles, and inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis reduced their formation. The vesicles contained HAS, and were covered with a thick hyaluronan coat, a part of which was retained even after purification with high-speed centrifugation. HAS3 overexpressing MDCK cells cultured in a 3-D matrix as epithelial cysts released large amounts of HAS- and hyaluronan-positive vesicles from their basal surfaces into the extracellular matrix. As far as we know, hyaluronan synthesis is one of the first molecular mechanisms shown to stimulate the production of microvesicles. The microvesicles have a potential to deliver the hyaluronan synthase machinery and membrane and cytoplasmic materials to other cells, influencing tissue regeneration, inflammation and tumor progression.

  2. The ubiquitous hyaluronan: Functionally implicated in the oviduct?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Tienthai, P; Atikuzzaman, M; Vicente-Carrillo, A; Rubér, M; Alvarez-Rodriguez, M

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) is a simple, nonantigenic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan present everywhere in the extracellular compartments of the body. Noteworthy, it is highly conserved phylogenetically, from sauropsida to mammals; and plays a plethora of roles from embryonic/fetal development to adult physiological and pathological events, including tumor development. In reproduction, hyaluronan has proven related to initial events as sperm survival, buildup of the sperm reservoir in the oviduct, regulation of sperm capacitation, and prefertilization to later participate in embryo, fetal, and placental development. Synthesis, binding (via the CD44 membrane receptor), and degradation of hyaluronan occur in male and female genital organs, the oviduct being no exception. This review discusses our current knowledge on roles of this ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan on the survival of immunologically foreign spermatozoa in the pig oviduct, a relevant event for fertility. During preovulatory storage in the functional tubal sperm reservoir, spermatozoa are entrapped in a mucus-like tubal fluid. This fluid contains fluctuating levels of hyaluronan, which is synthesized by the lining epithelium by hyaluronan synthase 3. Both hyaluronan and its CD44 receptor are particularly evident in the deep mucosal furrows of the sperm reservoir, in which most spermatozoa are embedded in; kept alive, uncapacitated but also undetected by the immune system of the female. Hyaluronan is also present in the seminal plasma, and evidence points toward an involvement of hyaluronan and its receptor in the local (tubal and possibly uterine) production of antiinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, pertaining maternal immune tolerance of these foreign cells.

  3. Hyaluronan synthesis induces microvillus-like cell surface protrusions.

    PubMed

    Kultti, Anne; Rilla, Kirsi; Tiihonen, Riikka; Spicer, Andrew P; Tammi, Raija H; Tammi, Markku I

    2006-06-09

    Hyaluronan synthases (HASs) are plasma membrane enzymes that simultaneously elongate, bind, and extrude the growing hyaluronan chain directly into extracellular space. In cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Has3, the dorsal surface was decorated by up to 150 slender, 3-20-microm-long microvillus-type plasma membrane protrusions, which also contained filamentous actin, the hyaluronan receptor CD44, and lipid raft microdomains. Enzymatic activity of HAS was required for the growth of the microvilli, which were not present in cells transfected with other GFP proteins or inactive GFP-Has3 mutants or in cells incubated with exogenous soluble hyaluronan. The microvilli induced by HAS3 were gradually withered by introduction of an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis and rapidly retracted by hyaluronidase digestion, whereas they were not affected by competition with hyaluronan oligosaccharides and disruption of the CD44 gene, suggesting independence of hyaluronan receptors. The data bring out the novel concept that the glycocalyx created by dense arrays of hyaluronan chains, tethered to HAS during biosynthesis, can induce and maintain prominent microvilli.

  4. Pericellular hyaluronan coat visualized in live cells with a fluorescent probe is scaffolded by plasma membrane protrusions.

    PubMed

    Rilla, Kirsi; Tiihonen, Riikka; Kultti, Anne; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija

    2008-10-01

    Many cell types wear up to 20-mum-wide hyaluronidase-sensitive surface coats, detected by exclusion of sedimenting particles like fixed erythrocytes. The structure of the coat is enigmatic, being apparently too thick to be accounted by random coils or even extended chains of just hyaluronan attached to cell surface. We have shown that hyaluronan synthesis enforced by green fluorescent protein-hyaluronan synthase transfection creates microvillous protrusions. The idea that the plasma membrane protrusions rather than hyaluronan alone is responsible for the exclusion space was studied with a fluorescent probe for hyaluronan and a dye with membrane affinity, applied to live cell cultures. Mesothelial and smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes, all known for their endogenously active hyaluronan synthesis, showed hyaluronan-coated plasma membrane protrusions, barely visible in phase contrast microscopy. Treatment with hyaluronidase and inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis caused retraction of the protrusions unless they were attached to substratum. Hyaluronan and the exclusion space were reduced, but did not disappear, by purified hyaluronan hexasaccharides that compete with hyaluronan attached to CD44. The results suggest that slender plasma membrane protrusions are an inherent feature of hyaluronan coats, form their scaffold, and largely result from ongoing hyaluronan synthesis in their plasma membrane. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

  5. Hyaluronan synthesis in virus PBCV-1-infected chlorella-like green algae.

    PubMed

    Graves, M V; Burbank, D E; Roth, R; Heuser, J; DeAngelis, P L; Van Etten, J L

    1999-04-25

    We previously reported that the chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome encodes an authentic, membrane-associated glycosyltransferase, hyaluronan synthase (HAS). Hyaluronan, a linear polysaccharide chain composed of alternating beta1,4-glucuronic acid and beta1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine groups, is present in vertebrates as well as a few pathogenic bacteria. Studies of infected cells show that the transcription of the PBCV-1 has gene begins within 10 min of virus infection and ends at 60-90 min postinfection. The hyaluronan polysaccharide begins to accumulate as hyaluronan-lyase sensitive, hair-like fibers on the outside of the chlorella cell wall by 15-30 min postinfection; by 240 min postinfection, the infected cells are coated with a dense fibrous network. This hyaluronan slightly reduces attachment of a second chlorella virus to the infected algae. An analysis of 41 additional chlorella viruses indicates that many, but not all, produce hyaluronan during infection.

  6. Hyaluronan in limb morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingcui; Toole, Bryan P; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2007-05-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan that is not only a structural component of extracellular matrices, but also interacts with cell surface receptors to promote cell proliferation, migration, and intracellular signaling. HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix of the distal subapical mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud that are undergoing proliferation, directed migration, and patterning in response to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), and has the functional potential to be involved in these processes. Here we show that the HA synthase Has2 is abundantly expressed by the distal subridge mesodermal cells of the chick limb bud and also by the AER itself. Has2 expression and HA production are downregulated in the proximal central core of the limb bud during the formation of the precartilage condensations of the skeletal elements, suggesting that downregulation of HA may be necessary for the close juxtaposition of cells and the resulting cell-cell interactions that trigger cartilage differentiation during condensation. Overexpression of Has2 in the mesoderm of the chick limb bud in vivo results in the formation of shortened and severely malformed limbs that lack one or more skeletal elements. Skeletal elements that do form in limbs overexpressing Has2 are reduced in length, exhibit abnormal morphology, and are positioned inappropriately. We also demonstrate that sustained HA production in micromass cultures of limb mesenchymal cells inhibits formation of precartilage condensations and subsequent chondrogenesis, indicating that downregulation of HA is indeed necessary for formation of the precartilage condensations that trigger cartilage differentiation. Taken together these results suggest involvement of HA in various aspects of limb morphogenesis.

  7. Selective expression of hyaluronan and receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (Rhamm) in the adult mouse subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream and in ischemic cortex.

    PubMed

    Lindwall, Charlotta; Olsson, Martina; Osman, Ahmed M; Kuhn, H Georg; Curtis, Maurice A

    2013-03-29

    Hyaluronan is a large glycosaminoglycan, which is abundant in the extracellular matrix of the developing rodent brain. In the adult brain however, levels of hyaluronan are significantly reduced. In this study, we used neurocan-GFP as a histochemical probe to analyze the distribution of hyaluronan in the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Interestingly, we observed that hyaluronan is generally downregulated in the adult brain, but notably remains at high levels in the SVZ and RMS; areas in which neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) persist, proliferate and migrate throughout life. In addition, we found that the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (Rhamm) was expressed in migrating neuroblasts in these areas, indicating that Rhamm could be involved in regulating hyaluronan-mediated cell migration. Hyaluronan levels are balanced by synthesis through hyaluronan synthases (Has) and degradation by hyaluronidases (Hyal). We found that Has1 and Has2, as well as Hyal1 and Hyal2 were expressed in GFAP positive cells in the adult rodent SVZ and RMS, indicating that astrocytes could be regulating hyaluronan-mediated functions in these areas. We also demonstrate that hyaluronan levels are substantially increased at six weeks following a photothrombotic stroke lesion to the adult mouse cortex. Furthermore, GFAP positive cells in the peri-infarct area express Rhamm. Thus, hyaluronan may be involved in regulating cell migration in the normal SVZ and RMS and could also be responsible for priming the peri-infarct area following an ischemic lesion for cell migration.

  8. A Rapid Increase in Macrophage-Derived Versican and Hyaluronan in Infectious Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mary Y.; Tanino, Yoshinori; Vidova, Veronika; Kinsella, Michael G.; Chan, Christina K.; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Wight, Thomas N.; Frevert, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize the changes to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and hyaluronan in lungs in the acute response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and to identify cellular components responsible for these changes. Mice were treated with intratracheal (IT) live Escherichia coli, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or PBS. Both E. coli and LPS caused rapid selective increases in mRNA expression of versican and hyaluronan synthase (Has) isoforms 1 and 2 associated with increased immunohistochemical and histochemical staining for versican and hyaluronan in the lungs. Versican was associated with a subset of alveolar macrophages. To examine whether macrophages contribute to versican and hyaluronan accumulation, in vitro studies with primary cultures of bone marrow-derived and alveolar macrophages were performed. Unstimulated macrophages expressed very low levels of versican and hyaluronan synthase mRNA, with no detectible versican protein or hyaluronan product. Stimulation with LPS caused rapid increases in versican mRNA and protein, a rapid increase in Has1 mRNA, and concomitant inhibition of hyaluronidases 1 and 2, the major hyaluronan degrading enzymes. Hyaluronan could be detected following chloroquine pre-treatment, indicating rapid turnover and degradation of hyaluronan by macrophages. In addition, the effects of LPS, the M1 macrophage classical activation agonist, were compared to those of IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10, the M2a and M2c alternative activation agonists, respectively. Versican and Has1 increased only in response to M1 activation. Finally, the up-regulation of versican and Has1 in the whole lungs of wild-type mice following IT LPS was completely abrogated in TLR-4−/− mice. These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection. PMID:24472738

  9. A rapid increase in macrophage-derived versican and hyaluronan in infectious lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mary Y.; Tanino, Yoshinori; Vidova, Veronika; Kinsella, Michael G.; Chan, Christina K.; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Wight, Thomas N.; Frevert, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize the changes in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and hyaluronan in lungs in acute response to gram-negative bacterial infection and to identify cellular components responsible for these changes. Mice were treated with intratracheal (IT) live Escherichia coli, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or PBS. Both E. coli and LPS caused rapid selective increases in mRNA expression of versican and hyaluronan synthase (Has) isoforms 1 and 2 associated with increased immunohistochemical and histochemical staining for versican and hyaluronan in the lungs. Versican was associated with a subset of alveolar macrophages. To examine whether macrophages contribute to versican and hyaluronan accumulation, in vitro studies with primary cultures of bone marrow-derived and alveolar macrophages were performed. Unstimulated macrophages expressed very low levels of versican and hyaluronan synthase mRNA, with no detectible versican protein or hyaluronan product. Stimulation with LPS caused rapid increases in versican mRNA and protein, a rapid increase in Has1 mRNA, and concomitant inhibition of hyaluronidases 1 and 2, the major hyaluronan degrading enzymes. Hyaluronan could be detected following chloroquine pre-treatment, indicating rapid turnover and degradation of hyaluronan by macrophages. In addition, the effects of LPS, the M1 macrophage classical activation agonist, were compared to those of IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10, the M2a and M2c alternative activation agonists, respectively. Versican and Has1 increased only in response to M1 activation. Finally, the up-regulation of versican and Has1 in the whole lungs of wild-type mice following IT LPS was completely abrogated in TLR-4−/− mice. These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection. PMID:24727035

  10. A rapid increase in macrophage-derived versican and hyaluronan in infectious lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Y; Tanino, Yoshinori; Vidova, Veronika; Kinsella, Michael G; Chan, Christina K; Johnson, Pamela Y; Wight, Thomas N; Frevert, Charles W

    2014-02-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize the changes in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and hyaluronan in lungs in acute response to gram-negative bacterial infection and to identify cellular components responsible for these changes. Mice were treated with intratracheal (IT) live Escherichia coli, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or PBS. Both E. coli and LPS caused rapid selective increases in mRNA expression of versican and hyaluronan synthase (Has) isoforms 1 and 2 associated with increased immunohistochemical and histochemical staining for versican and hyaluronan in the lungs. Versican was associated with a subset of alveolar macrophages. To examine whether macrophages contribute to versican and hyaluronan accumulation, in vitro studies with primary cultures of bone marrow-derived and alveolar macrophages were performed. Unstimulated macrophages expressed very low levels of versican and hyaluronan synthase mRNA, with no detectible versican protein or hyaluronan product. Stimulation with LPS caused rapid increases in versican mRNA and protein, a rapid increase in Has1 mRNA, and concomitant inhibition of hyaluronidases 1 and 2, the major hyaluronan degrading enzymes. Hyaluronan could be detected following chloroquine pre-treatment, indicating rapid turnover and degradation of hyaluronan by macrophages. In addition, the effects of LPS, the M1 macrophage classical activation agonist, were compared to those of IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10, the M2a and M2c alternative activation agonists, respectively. Versican and Has1 increased only in response to M1 activation. Finally, the up-regulation of versican and Has1 in the whole lungs of wild-type mice following IT LPS was completely abrogated in TLR-4(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection.

  11. Reprint of: A rapid increase in macrophage-derived versican and hyaluronan in infectious lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Y; Tanino, Yoshinori; Vidova, Veronika; Kinsella, Michael G; Chan, Christina K; Johnson, Pamela Y; Wight, Thomas N; Frevert, Charles W

    2014-04-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize the changes in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and hyaluronan in lungs in acute response to gram-negative bacterial infection and to identify cellular components responsible for these changes. Mice were treated with intratracheal (IT) live Escherichia coli, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or PBS. Both E. coli and LPS caused rapid selective increases in mRNA expression of versican and hyaluronan synthase (Has) isoforms 1 and 2 associated with increased immunohistochemical and histochemical staining for versican and hyaluronan in the lungs. Versican was associated with a subset of alveolar macrophages. To examine whether macrophages contribute to versican and hyaluronan accumulation, in vitro studies with primary cultures of bone marrow-derived and alveolar macrophages were performed. Unstimulated macrophages expressed very low levels of versican and hyaluronan synthase mRNA, with no detectible versican protein or hyaluronan product. Stimulation with LPS caused rapid increases in versican mRNA and protein, a rapid increase in Has1 mRNA, and concomitant inhibition of hyaluronidases 1 and 2, the major hyaluronan degrading enzymes. Hyaluronan could be detected following chloroquine pre-treatment, indicating rapid turnover and degradation of hyaluronan by macrophages. In addition, the effects of LPS, the M1 macrophage classical activation agonist, were compared to those of IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10, the M2a and M2c alternative activation agonists, respectively. Versican and Has1 increased only in response to M1 activation. Finally, the up-regulation of versican and Has1 in the whole lungs of wild-type mice following IT LPS was completely abrogated in TLR-4(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection.

  12. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  13. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  14. Comamonas testosteronan synthase, a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that produces a unique heparosan polysaccharide analog.

    PubMed

    Otto, Nigel J; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Linhardt, Robert J; DeAngelis, Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear hexosamine-containing polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are synthesized by some pathogenic bacteria to form an extracellular coating or capsule. This strategy forms the basis of molecular camouflage since vertebrates possess naturally occurring GAGs that are essential for life. A recent sequence database search identified a putative protein from the opportunistic pathogen Comamonas testosteroni that exhibits similarity with the Pasteurella multocida GAG synthase PmHS1, which is responsible for the synthesis of a heparosan polysaccharide capsule. Initial supportive evidence included glucuronic acid (GlcUA)-containing polysaccharides extracted from C. testosteroni KF-1. We describe here the cloning and analysis of a novel Comamonas GAG synthase, CtTS. The GAG produced by CtTS in vitro consists of the sugars d-GlcUA and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, but is insensitive to digestion by GAG digesting enzymes, thus has distinct glycosidic linkages from vertebrate GAGs. The backbone structure of the polysaccharide product [-4-D-GlcUA-α1,4-D-GlcNAc-α1-](n) was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Therefore, this novel GAG, testosteronan, consists of the same sugars as the biomedically relevant GAGs heparosan (N-acetyl-heparosan) and hyaluronan but may have distinct properties useful for future medical applications.

  15. Comamonas testosteronan synthase, a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that produces a unique heparosan polysaccharide analog

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Nigel J; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Linhardt, Robert J; DeAngelis, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear hexosamine-containing polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are synthesized by some pathogenic bacteria to form an extracellular coating or capsule. This strategy forms the basis of molecular camouflage since vertebrates possess naturally occurring GAGs that are essential for life. A recent sequence database search identified a putative protein from the opportunistic pathogen Comamonas testosteroni that exhibits similarity with the Pasteurella multocida GAG synthase PmHS1, which is responsible for the synthesis of a heparosan polysaccharide capsule. Initial supportive evidence included glucuronic acid (GlcUA)-containing polysaccharides extracted from C. testosteroni KF-1. We describe here the cloning and analysis of a novel Comamonas GAG synthase, CtTS. The GAG produced by CtTS in vitro consists of the sugars d-GlcUA and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, but is insensitive to digestion by GAG digesting enzymes, thus has distinct glycosidic linkages from vertebrate GAGs. The backbone structure of the polysaccharide product [-4-d-GlcUA-α1,4-d-GlcNAc-α1-]n was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Therefore, this novel GAG, testosteronan, consists of the same sugars as the biomedically relevant GAGs heparosan (N-acetyl-heparosan) and hyaluronan but may have distinct properties useful for future medical applications. PMID:21610195

  16. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000–8000 kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200 kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  17. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Mary K; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L; McCarthy, James B; Turley, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000-8000 kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200 kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues.

  18. Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.

  19. Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella species B has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. In the present study, information from 15 recent isolates from different sources, including African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Moholi bushbabies (Galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat, were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpoB gene sequence comparison showed that 17 isolates, including the reference strain (CCUG 19794(T)), had identical sequences, whereas two were closely related and demonstrated 97.9 and 99.6 % similarity to strain CCUG 19794(T), respectively; the type strain of Pasteurella stomatis was the most closely related strain, with 92.3 % similarity. This is within the mean range (76-100 %) of rpoB gene sequence similarity between species of the same genus within the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of four strains selected based on rpoB sequence comparison showed at least 99.7 % similarity between strains of Pasteurella species B, with 96.2 % similarity to the type strain of the closest related species (Pasteurella canis), indicating that Pasteurella species B should have separate species status. Separate species status was also documented when recN sequence comparisons were converted to a genome similarity of 93.7 % within Pasteurella species B and 59.0 % to the type strain of the closest related species (P. canis). Based on analysis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, and since most isolates originate from the oral cavities of a diverse group of animals, it is suggested that these bacteria be classified as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.; the type strain is P683(T) ( = CCUG 19794(T) = CCM 7950(T) = strain 23193(T) = MCCM 00102(T)), obtained from a cat. Previous reports of the type strain have shown ubiquinone-8, demethylmenaquinone-8 and menaquinone-8 as the major quinones. Polyamines in the type

  20. Hyaluronan stimulates pancreatic cancer cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Kohi, Shiro; Koga, Atsuhiro; Hirata, Keiji; Sato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but functional significance of HA in the aggressive phenotype remains unknown. We used different models to investigate the effect of HA on PDAC cell motility by wound healing and transwell migration assay. Changes in cell motility were examined in 8 PDAC cell lines in response to inhibition of HA production by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) and to promotion by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or by co-culture with tumor-derived stromal fibroblasts. We also investigated changes in cell motility by adding exogenous HA. Additionally, mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases were examined using real time RT-PCR. Inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly decreased the migration, whereas promotion of HA by TPA or co-culture with tumor-derived fibroblasts significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. The changes in HA production by these treatments tended to be associated with changes in HAS3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, addition of exogenous HA, especially low-molecular-weight HA, significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. These findings suggest that HA stimulates PDAC cell migration and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target to prevent invasion and metastasis. PMID:26684359

  1. 9 CFR 113.121 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.121 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin. Pasteurella Multocida...

  2. Hyaluronan Controls the Deposition of Fibronectin and Collagen and Modulates TGF-β1 Induction of Lung Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Evanko, Stephen P.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Petty, Loreen J.; Workman, Gail A.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix to TGF-β1-driven induction and maintenance of myofibroblasts is not understood. Hyaluronan is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycosaminoglycan important in cell adhesion, proliferation and migration, and is implicated in myofibroblast formation and maintenance. Reduced turnover of hyaluronan has been linked to differentiation of myofibroblasts and potentiation of lung fibrosis. Fibronectin is a fibril forming adhesive glycoprotein that is also upregulated following induction with TGF-β1. Although they are known to bind each other, the interplay between hyaluronan and fibronectin in the pericellular matrix during myofibroblast induction and matrix assembly is not clear. This study addresses the role of hyaluronan and its interaction with fibrillar matrix components during myofibroblast formation. Hyaluronan and fibronectin were increased and co-localized in the ECM following myofibroblast induction by TGF-β1. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis in TGF-β1-induced lung myofibroblasts over a 4 day period with 4-methyl umbelliferone (4-MU) further enhanced myofibroblast morphology, caused increased deposition of fibronectin and type I collagen in the ECM, and increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA. Hyaluronan oligosaccarides or hyaluronidase treatment, which more effectively disrupted the pericellular matrix, had similar effects. CD44 and β1 integrins co-localized in the cell membrane and along some stress fibers. However, CD44 and hyaluronan were specifically excluded from focal adhesions, and associated primarily with cortical actin. Time-lapse imaging of the immediate effects of hyaluronidase digestion showed that hyaluronan matrix primarily mediates attachment of membrane and cortical actin between focal contacts, suggesting that surface adhesion through hyaluronan and CD44 is distinct from focal adhesion through β1 integrins and fibronectin. Fluorescein

  3. [Unusual pneumonia by Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Duhautois, J; Chabrol, J; Terce, G; Ampere, A; Bart, F; Wallaert, B

    2013-02-01

    Pasteurellosis is an infection caused by inoculation usually through bites or scratches. Pasteurella multocida is involved in 50 to 60% of cases. Cats are the main vectors of the pathogen. Immunodepression increases the risk of systemic disease. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in an 81-year-old patient who had no cutaneous portal of entry. The patient had a past medical history of rectal neoplasia and prostate neoplasia treated with brachytherapy and hormonal therapy respectively. He had an environmental risk factor (the presence of a cat at home). The diagnosis was confirmed by repeated blood cultures. Antimicrobial therapy resulted in clinical, biological and radiological improvement. This case report raises the question of a possible pathogenesis different from the commonly described "inoculation". Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Hematogenous Pasteurella multocida brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Lipsky, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    A case of hematogenously acquired brain abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida is described. CT scans of the head revealed the lesions in a 67 year old man with mild alcoholic liver disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and chest and an echocardiogram failed to reveal a source for the abscess. On autopsy examination three encapsulated brain abscesses were found. 34 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Hyaluronan molecular weight is controlled by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine concentration in Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Yiting; Marcellin, Esteban; Hung, Jacky; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2009-07-03

    The molecular weight of hyaluronan is important for its rheological and biological function. The molecular mechanisms underlying chain termination and hence molecular weight control remain poorly understood, not only for hyaluronan synthases but also for other beta-polysaccharide synthases, e.g. cellulose, chitin, and 1,3-betaglucan synthases. In this work, we manipulated metabolite concentrations in the hyaluronan pathway by overexpressing the five genes of the hyaluronan synthesis operon in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Overexpression of genes involved in UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis decreased molecular weight, whereas overexpression of genes involved in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis increased molecular weight. The highest molecular mass observed was at 3.4 +/- 0.1 MDa twice that observed in the wild-type strain, 1.8 +/- 0.1 MDa. The data indicate that (a) high molecular weight is achieved when an appropriate balance of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid is achieved, (b) UDP-N-acetylglucosamine exerts the dominant effect on molecular weight, and (c) the wild-type strain has suboptimal levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent herewith molecular weight correlated strongly (rho = 0.84, p = 3 x 10(-5)) with the concentration of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Data presented in this paper represent the first model for hyaluronan molecular weight control based on the concentration of activated sugar precursors. These results can be used to engineer strains producing high molecular weight hyaluronan and may provide insight into similar polymerization mechanisms in other polysaccharides.

  6. Hyaluronan Molecular Weight Is Controlled by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Concentration in Streptococcus zooepidemicus*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wendy Yiting; Marcellin, Esteban; Hung, Jacky; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2009-01-01

    The molecular weight of hyaluronan is important for its rheological and biological function. The molecular mechanisms underlying chain termination and hence molecular weight control remain poorly understood, not only for hyaluronan synthases but also for other β-polysaccharide synthases, e.g. cellulose, chitin, and 1,3-betaglucan synthases. In this work, we manipulated metabolite concentrations in the hyaluronan pathway by overexpressing the five genes of the hyaluronan synthesis operon in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Overexpression of genes involved in UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis decreased molecular weight, whereas overexpression of genes involved in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis increased molecular weight. The highest molecular mass observed was at 3.4 ± 0.1 MDa twice that observed in the wild-type strain, 1.8 ± 0.1 MDa. The data indicate that (a) high molecular weight is achieved when an appropriate balance of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid is achieved, (b) UDP-N-acetylglucosamine exerts the dominant effect on molecular weight, and (c) the wild-type strain has suboptimal levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent herewith molecular weight correlated strongly (ρ = 0.84, p = 3 × 10−5) with the concentration of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Data presented in this paper represent the first model for hyaluronan molecular weight control based on the concentration of activated sugar precursors. These results can be used to engineer strains producing high molecular weight hyaluronan and may provide insight into similar polymerization mechanisms in other polysaccharides. PMID:19451654

  7. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan binding proteins are normal components of mouse pancreatic islets and are differentially expressed by islet endocrine cell types.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rebecca L; Johnson, Pamela Y; Braun, Kathleen R; Day, Anthony J; Wight, Thomas N

    2012-10-01

    The pancreatic islet comprises endocrine, vascular, and neuronal cells. Signaling among these cell types is critical for islet function. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key regulator of cell-cell signals, and while some islet ECM components have been identified, much remains unknown regarding its composition. We investigated whether hyaluronan, a common ECM component that may mediate inflammatory events, and molecules that bind hyaluronan such as versican, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6), and components of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IαI), heavy chains 1 and 2 (ITIH1/ITIH2), and bikunin, are normally produced in the pancreatic islet. Mouse pancreata and isolated islets were obtained for microscopy (with both paraformaldehyde and Carnoy's fixation) and mRNA. Hyaluronan was present predominantly in the peri-islet ECM, and hyaluronan synthase isoforms 1 and 3 were also expressed in islets. Versican was produced in α cells; TSG-6 in α and β cells; bikunin in α, β, and δ cells; and ITIH1/ITIH2 predominantly in β cells. Our findings demonstrate that hyaluronan, versican, TSG-6, and IαI are normal islet components and that different islet endocrine cell types contribute these ECM components. Thus, dysfunction of either α or β cells likely alters islet ECM composition and could thereby further disrupt islet function.

  8. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  9. Hyaluronan: towards novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Karbownik, Michał S; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the role of hyaluronan in physiology and various pathological conditions has changed since the complex nature of its synthesis, degradation and interactions with diverse binding proteins was revealed. Initially perceived only as an inert component of connective tissue, it is now known to be involved in multiple signaling pathways, including those involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Hyaluronan presents a mixture of various length polymer molecules from finely fragmented oligosaccharides, polymers intermediate in size, to huge aggregates of high molecular weight hyaluronan. While large molecules promote tissue integrity and quiescence, the generation of breakdown products enhances signaling transduction, contributing to the pro-oncogenic behavior of cancer cells. Low molecular weight hyaluronan has well-established angiogenic properties, while the smallest hyaluronan oligomers may counteract tumor development. These equivocal properties make the role of hyaluronan in cancer biology very complex. This review surveys recent data on hyaluronan biosynthesis, metabolism, and interactions with its binding proteins called hyaladherins (CD44, RHAMM), providing themolecular background underlying its differentiated biological activity. In particular, the article critically presents current ideas on actual role of hyaluronan in cancer. The paper additionally maps a path towards promising novel anti-cancer therapeutics which target hyaluronan metabolic enzymes and hyaladherins, and constitute hyaluronan-based drug delivery systems.

  10. Hyaluronan and hyaluronidase in genitourinary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Melanie A.; Lokeshwar, Vinata B.

    2008-01-01

    Genitourinary cancers are the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and the fifth most common in women. Management of disease through accurate and cost effective early diagnostic markers, as well as identification of valid prognostic indicators, has contributed significantly to improved treatment outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the function, regulation and clinical utility of hyaluronan (HA), genes encoding its metabolic enzymes and receptors that mediate its cellular effects. Specific HA synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HAase) genes encode the enzymes that produce HA polymers and oligosaccharides, respectively. Differential effects of these enzymes in progression of genitourinary tumors are determined by the relative balance between HAS and HAase levels, as well as the distribution of receptors. The genes are regulated in a complex fashion at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, but also by epigenetic events, alternative mRNA splicing, and subcellular localization. Importantly, the major tumor-derived HAase enzyme, HYAL-1, either alone or together with HA, is an accurate diagnostic and prognostic marker for genitourinary tumors. PMID:18508614

  11. An ectoprotein kinase of group C streptococci binds hyaluronan and regulates capsule formation.

    PubMed

    Nickel, V; Prehm, S; Lansing, M; Mausolf, A; Podbielski, A; Deutscher, J; Prehm, P

    1998-09-11

    A 56-kDa protein had been isolated and cloned from protoplast membranes of group C streptococci that had erroneously been identified as hyaluronan synthase. The function of this protein was reexamined. When streptococcal membranes were separated on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel and renatured, a 56-kDa protein was detected that had kinase activity for a casein substrate. When this recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and incubated in the presence of [32P]ATP, it was responsible for phosphorylation of two proteins with 30 and 56 kDa that were not present in the control lysate. The 56-kDa protein was specifically phosphorylated in an immunoprecipitate of a detergent extract of the recombinant E. coli lysate with antibodies against the 56-kDa protein, indicating that it was autophosphorylated. The E. coli lysate containing the recombinant protein could bind hyaluronan, and hyaluronan binding was abolished by the addition of ATP. Kinetic analysis of hyaluronan synthesis and release from isolated protoplast membranes indicated that phosphorylation by ATP stimulated hyaluronan release and synthesis. Incubation of membranes with antibodies to the 56-kDa protein increased hyaluronan release. The addition of [32P]ATP to intact streptococci led to rapid phosphorylation of two proteins, 56 and 75 kDa each at threonine residues. This phosphorylation was neither observed with [32P]phosphate nor in the presence of trypsin, indicating that the kinase was localized extracellularly. The addition of ATP to growing group C streptococci led to increased hyaluronan synthesis and release. However marked differences were found between group A and group C streptococci. Antibodies against the 56-kDa protein from group C streptococci did not recognize proteins from group A strains, and a homologous DNA sequence could not be detected by polymerase chain reaction or Southern blotting. In addition, Group A streptococci did not retain a large hyaluronan capsule like group C strains

  12. Synthesis and Organization of Hyaluronan and Versican by Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Embryoid Body Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shreya; Nair, Rekha; Rolle, Marsha W.; Braun, Kathleen R.; Chan, Christina K.; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Wight, Thomas N.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a convenient model to probe the molecular and cellular dynamics of developmental cell morphogenesis. ESC differentiation in vitro via embryoid bodies (EBs) recapitulates many aspects of early stages of development, including the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pluripotent cells into more differentiated progeny. Hyaluronan and versican are important extracellular mediators of EMT processes, yet the temporal expression and spatial distribution of these extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules during EB differentiation remains undefined. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis and organization of hyaluronan and versican by using murine ESCs during EB differentiation. Hyaluronan and versican (V0 and V1 isoforms), visualized by immunohistochemistry and evaluated biochemically, accumulated within EBs during the course of differentiation. Interestingly, increasing amounts of a 70-kDa proteolytic fragment of versican were also detected over time, along with ADAMTS-1 and -5 protein expression. ESCs expressed each of the hyaluronan synthases (HAS) -1, -2, and -3 and versican splice variants (V0, V1, V2, and V3) throughout EB differentiation, but HAS-2, V0, and V1 were expressed at significantly increased levels at each time point examined. Hyaluronan and versican exhibited overlapping expression patterns within EBs in regions of low cell density, and versican expression was excluded from clusters of epithelial (cytokeratin-positive) cells but was enriched within the vicinity of mesenchymal (N-cadherin-positive) cells. These results indicate that hyaluronan and versican synthesized by ESCs within EB microenvironments are associated with EMT processes and furthermore suggest that endogenously produced ECM molecules play a role in ESC differentiation. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 58

  13. Activation of the FGFR-STAT3 pathway in breast cancer cells induces a hyaluronan-rich microenvironment that licenses tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Laura R; Chuntova, Pavlina; Bade, Lindsey K; Beadnell, Thomas C; Leon, Ronald P; Brady, Nicholas J; Ryu, Yungil; Goldberg, Jodi E; Schmechel, Stephen C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; McCarthy, James B; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) contributes to breast cancer growth, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Because of the complex nature of the FGF/FGFR axis, and the numerous effects of FGFR activation on tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment, the specific mechanisms through which aberrant FGFR activity contributes to breast cancer are not completely understood. We show here that FGFR activation induces accumulation of hyaluronan within the extracellular matrix and that blocking hyaluronan synthesis decreases proliferation, migration, and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, FGFR-mediated hyaluronan accumulation requires activation of the STAT3 pathway, which regulates expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and subsequent hyaluronan synthesis. Using a novel in vivo model of FGFR-dependent tumor growth, we demonstrate that STAT3 inhibition decreases both FGFR-driven tumor growth and hyaluronan levels within the tumor. Finally, our results suggest that combinatorial therapies inhibiting both FGFR activity and hyaluronan synthesis is more effective than targeting either pathway alone and may be a relevant therapeutic approach for breast cancers associated with high levels of FGFR activity. In conclusion, these studies indicate a novel targetable mechanism through which FGFR activation in breast cancer cells induces a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  14. Catabolism of hyaluronan: involvement of transition metals

    PubMed Central

    Šoltés, Ladislav; Kogan, Grigorij

    2009-01-01

    One of the very complex structures in the vertebrates is the joint. The main component of the joint is the synovial fluid with its high-molar-mass glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, which turnover is approximately twelve hours. Since the synovial fluid does not contain any hyaluronidases, the fast hyaluronan catabolism is caused primarily by reductive-oxidative processes. Eight transition metals – V23, Mn25, Fe26, Co27, Ni28, Cu29, Zn30, and Mo42 – naturally occurring in living organism are essential for the control of various metabolic and signaling pathways. They are also the key elements in catabolism of hyaluronan in the joint. In this overview, the role of these metals in physiological and pathophysiological catabolism of hyaluronan is described. The participation of these metals in the initiation and propagation of the radical degradation hyaluronan is critically reviewed. PMID:21217859

  15. Hyaluronan: from biomimetic to industrial business strategy.

    PubMed

    Murano, Erminio; Perin, Danilo; Khan, Riaz; Bergamin, Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide of a linear repeating disaccharide unit consisting of beta-(1-->4)-linked D-glucopyranuronic acid and beta-(1-->3)-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose, which is present in extracellular matrices, the synovial fluid of joints, and scaffolding that comprises cartilage. In its mechanism of synthesis, its size, and its physico-chemical properties, hyaluronan is unique amongst other glycosaminoglycans. The network-forming, viscoelastic and its charge characteristics are important to many biochemical properties of living tissues. It is an important pericellular and cell surface constituent; its interaction with other macromolecules such as proteins, participates in regulating cell behavior during numerous morphogenic, restorative, and pathological processes in the body. The knowledge of HA in diseases such as various forms of cancers, arthritis and osteoporosis has led to new impetus in research and development in the preparation of biomaterials for surgical implants and drug conjugates for targeted delivery. A concise and focused review on hyaluronan is timely. This review will cover the following important aspects of hyaluronan: (i) biological functions and synthesis in nature; (ii) current industrial production and potential biosynthetic processes of hyaluronan; (iii) chemical modifications of hyaluronan leading to products of commercial significance; and (iv) and the global market position and manufacturers of hyaluronan.

  16. [Biochemical tests for identifying Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Karaivanov, L

    1984-01-01

    Studied was the biochemical activity of a total of 168 strains of Pasteurella--73 isolated from birds (48 from cases of acute fowl cholera, and 25--of chronic cholera), and 95 isolated from mammals (3 from lambs, 24 from pigs, 36 from cattle, and 32 from rabbits) with regard to the tests determining the hemolytic activity, production of indol, reduction of nitrates, breakdown of urea, beta galactosidase activity, production of hydrogen sulfide, ornitin-, arginine-, lysine-decarboxylase-, and phosphatase activity, and the fermentation of substrates such as manite, glucose, galactose, saccharose, manose, levulose, dulcite, lactose, maltose, rafinose, trechalose, salicin, melobiose, icelobiose, arabinose, xylose, and sorbite. To differentiate Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from mamals from those isolated from birds the phosphatase activity test on solid media with sodium phenolphtalein diphosphate had to be employed Pasteurella organisms isolated from mammals showed positive phosphatase activity, while those isolated from birds exhibited a negative one. Arabinose and xylose fermentation tests could simultaneously be used. Pasteurellae isolated in cases of acute fowl cholera showed positive reaction for arabinose and a negative one for xylose, while the strains isolated from mammals showed the reverse activity. The strains isolated in cases of chronic fowl cholera were shown to belong to this group.

  17. Layer-by-layer films from hyaluronan and amine modified hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Aurore; Senger, Bernard; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Frisch, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide that is increasingly investigated for its role in cellular adhesion and for the preparation of biomimetic matrices for tissue engineering. Hyaluronan gels are prepared for application as space fillers whereas hyaluronan films are usually obtained by adsorbing or grafting a single hyaluronan layer onto a biomaterial surface. Here, we examine the possibility to employ the layer-by-layer technique to deposit thin films of cationic modified hyaluronan (HA+) and hyaluronan (HA) of controlled thicknesses. The buildup conditions are investigated and growth is compared to that of other polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing either HA as polyanion or HA+ as polycation. The films could be formed in a low ionic strength medium but required to be cross-linked prior to be put in contact with physiological medium. NIH3T3 fibroblasts were perfectly viable on self-assembled hyaluronan films with however a preference for hyaluronan ending films. These findings point out the possibility to tune the thickness of thin hyaluronan films at the nanometer scale. Such architectures could be employed for investigating cell/substrate interactions or for functionalizing biomaterial surfaces. PMID:17309215

  18. Pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after Pasteur.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D; Adler, Ben

    2006-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. Since then, this Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. The mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. Key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. The capsule is clearly involved in bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis and resistance to complement, while complete lipopolysaccharide is critical for bacterial survival in the host. A number of other virulence factors have been identified by both directed and random mutagenesis, including Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), putative surface adhesins and iron acquisition proteins. However, it is likely that many key virulence factors are yet to be identified, including those required for initial attachment and invasion of host cells and for persistence in a relatively nutrient poor and hostile environment.

  19. Pasteurella multocida: from Zoonosis to Cellular Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mengfei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a world where most emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and our contacts with both domestic and wild animals abound, there is growing awareness of the potential for human acquisition of animal diseases. Like other Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella species are highly prevalent among animal populations, where they are often found as part of the normal microbiota of the oral, nasopharyngeal, and upper respiratory tracts. Many Pasteurella species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause endemic disease and are associated increasingly with epizootic outbreaks. Zoonotic transmission to humans usually occurs through animal bites or contact with nasal secretions, with P. multocida being the most prevalent isolate observed in human infections. Here we review recent comparative genomics and molecular pathogenesis studies that have advanced our understanding of the multiple virulence mechanisms employed by Pasteurella species to establish acute and chronic infections. We also summarize efforts being explored to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately identify and distinguish among clinical isolates and to control pasteurellosis by improved development of new vaccines and treatment regimens. PMID:23824375

  20. Pasteurella multocida septicemia and subsequent Pasteurella dagmatis septicemia in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed Central

    Fajfar-Whetstone, C J; Coleman, L; Biggs, D R; Fox, B C

    1995-01-01

    Pasteurella species may cause zoonotic infections of humans. Serious systemic infections with these organisms are unusual, but they may occur in individuals with predisposing underlying illnesses. Occurrences of bacteremia due to P. multocida are infrequent, and P. dagmatis bacteremia is even rarer. We report independent occurrences of P. multocida and P. dagmatis septicemia in the same diabetic patient after contact with two pet dogs. We review the history of Pasteurella species and discuss the biochemical and clinical features of its association with zoonosis. PMID:7699042

  1. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella... established by conducting five replicate titrations on a sample of the bacterial vaccine used. Only plates...

  2. Modulation of TGFβ1-Dependent Myofibroblast Differentiation by Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jason; Jenkins, Robert H.; Meran, Soma; Phillips, Aled; Steadman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are contractile cells that are characterized by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and mediate the closure of wounds and the formation of collagen-rich scars. Their presence in organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney has long been established as a marker of progressive fibrosis. The transforming growth factor beta1-driven differentiation of fibroblasts is a major source of myofibroblasts, and recent data have shown that hyaluronan is a major modulator of this process. This study examines this differentiation mechanism in more detail. Transforming growth factor beta1-dependent differentiation to the myofibroblastic phenotype was antagonized by the inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis, confirming that hyaluronan was necessary for differentiation. This response, however, was not reproduced by simply adding hyaluronan to fibroblasts, as the results implicated hyaladherins, as well as the macromolecular assembly of de novo hyaluronan, as essential in this process. We previously suggested that there is a relocalization of lipid-raft components during myofibroblastic differentiation. The present study demonstrates that the hyaluronan receptor CD44, the hyaluronidase HYAL 2, and the transforming growth factor beta1-receptor ALK5 all relocalized from raft to non-raft locations, which was reversed by the addition of exogenous hyaluronan. These data highlight a role for endogenous hyaluronan in the mediation of myofibroblastic differentiation. While hyaluronan synthesis was both essential and necessary for differentiation, exogenously provided hyaluronan antagonized differentiation, underscoring a pathological role for hyaluronan in such cell fate processes. PMID:19541937

  3. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  4. Hyaluronan as an Immune Regulator in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    NOBLE, PAUL W.; LIANG, JIURONG; JIANG, DIANHUA

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation and turnover of extracellular matrix components are the hallmarks of tissue injury. Fragmented hyaluronan stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes by a variety of immune cells at the injury site. Hyaluronan binds to a number of cell surface proteins on a variety of cell types. Hyaluronan fragments signal through both Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2 as well as CD44 to stimulate inflammatory genes in inflammatory cells. Hyaluronan is also present on the cell surface of epithelial cells and provides protection against tissue damage by interacting with TLR2 and TLR4 on these parenchymal cells. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding proteins regulate inflammation, tissue injury and repair through regulating inflammatory cell recruitment, release of inflammatory cytokines, and stem cell migration. This review focuses on the role of hyaluronan as an immune regulator in human diseases. PMID:21248167

  5. Chondrogenic capacity and alterations in hyaluronan synthesis of cultured human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yohei; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Hamada, Takashi; Omachi, Takaaki; Nakashima, Motoshige; Ishizuka, Shinya; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Knudson, Warren; Knudson, Cheryl B; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2013-06-14

    During osteoarthritis there is a disruption and loss of the extracellular matrix of joint cartilage, composed primarily of type II collagen, aggrecan and hyaluronan. In young patients, autologous chondrocyte implantation can be used to repair cartilage defects. However, for more elderly patients with osteoarthritis, such a repair approach is contraindicated because the procedure requires a large expansion of autologous chondrocytes in vitro leading a rapid, perhaps irreversible, loss of the chondrocyte phenotype. This study investigates whether osteoarthritic chondrocytes obtained from older patients can be expanded in vitro and moreover, induced to re-activate their chondrocyte phenotype. A decrease in chondrocyte phenotype markers, collagen II, aggrecan and SOX9 mRNA was observed with successive expansion of cells in monolayer culture. However, chondrogenic induction in three-dimensional pellet culture successfully rescued the expression of all three marker genes to native levels, even with 4th passage cells-cells representing an approximate 625-fold expansion in cell number. This data supports the use of osteoarthritic cells for autologous implantation repair. In addition, another set of gene products were explored as useful markers of the chondrocyte phenotype. Differentiated primary chondrocytes exhibited a common pattern of hyaluronan synthase isoforms that changed upon cell expansion in vitro and, reverted back to the original pattern following pellet culture. Moreover, the change in isoform pattern correlated with changes in the molecular size of synthesized hyaluronan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of Pasteurella multocida of human origin.

    PubMed Central

    Heddleston, K L; Wessman, G

    1975-01-01

    Physiological, serological, morphological, and cultural differences were observed among 30 Pasteurella multocida cultures of human origin. The usual variations in the fermentation of glycerol, lactose, sorbitol, trehalose, and xylose were observed. Unlike most P. multocida, two cultures did not produce indol. Six serotypes were found. In addition to the widely recognized iridescent, blue, and watery mucoid (circular) colonies, punctiform colonies were observed. None of the cultures were pathogenic for turkeys. Results of the study indicate that one should be aware of the many variable characteristicx of P. multocida of human origin to facilitate indentification. Images PMID:1176608

  7. Hyaluronan turnover and hypoxic brown adipocytic differentiation are co-localized with ossification in calcified human aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Saltarrelli, Jerome G.; Balaoing, Liezl R.; Baggett, L. Scott; Nandi, Indrajit; Anderson, Kristin M.; Morrisett, Joel D.; Reardon, Michael J.; Simpson, Melanie A.; Weigel, Paul H.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Alan R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2012-01-01

    The calcification process in aortic stenosis has garnered considerable interest but only limited investigation into selected signaling pathways. This study investigated mechanisms related to hypoxia, hyaluronan homeostasis, brown adipocytic differentiation, and ossification within calcified valves. Surgically explanted calcified aortic valves (n=14) were immunostained for markers relevant to these mechanisms and evaluated in the center (NodCtr) and edge (NodEdge) of the calcified nodule (NodCtr), tissue directly surrounding nodule (NodSurr); center and tissue surrounding small “prenodules” (PreNod, PreNodSurr); and normal fibrosa layer (CollFibr). Pearson correlations were determined between staining intensities of markers within regions. Ossification markers primarily localized to NodCtr and NodEdge, along with markers related to hyaluronan turnover and hypoxia. Markers of brown adipocytic differentiation were frequently co-localized with markers of hypoxia. In NodCtr and NodSurr, brown fat and ossification markers correlated with hyaluronidase-1, whereas these markers, as well as hypoxia, correlated with hyaluronan synthases in NodEdge. The protein product of tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene-6 strongly correlated with ossification markers and hyaluronidase in the regions surrounding the nodules (NodSurr, PreNodSurr). In conclusion, this study suggests roles for hyaluronan homeostasis and the promotion of hypoxia by cells demonstrating brown fat markers in calcific aortic valve disease. PMID:23017666

  8. Periostin Induces Intracellular Cross-talk between Kinases and Hyaluronan in Atrioventricular Valvulogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Shibnath; Misra, Suniti; Norris, Russell A.; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo A.; Hoffman, Stanley; Levine, Robert A.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Markwald, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Periostin (PN), a novel fasciclin-related matricellular protein, has been implicated in cardiac development and postnatal remodeling, but the mechanism remains unknown. We examined the role of PN in mediating intracellular kinase activation for atrioventricular valve morphogenesis using well defined explant cultures, gene transfection systems, and Western blotting. The results show that valve progenitor (cushion) cells secrete PN into the extracellular matrix, where it can bind to INTEGRINs and activate INTEGRIN/focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways and downstream kinases, PI3K/AKT and ERK. Functional assays with prevalvular progenitor cells showed that activating these signaling pathways promoted adhesion, migration, and anti-apoptosis. Through activation of PI3K/ERK, PN directly enhanced collagen expression. Comparing PN-null to WT mice also revealed that expression of hyaluronan (HA) and activation of hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) are also enhanced upon PN/INTEGRIN/focal adhesion kinase-mediated activation of PI3K and/or ERK, an effect confirmed by the reduction of HA synthase-2 in PN-null mice. We also identified in valve progenitor cells a potential autocrine signaling feedback loop between PN and HA through PI3K and/or ERK. Finally, in a three-dimensional assay to simulate normal valve maturation in vitro, PN promoted collagen compaction in a kinase-dependent fashion. In summary, this study provides the first direct evidence that PN can act to stimulate a valvulogenic signaling pathway. PMID:24469446

  9. Hyaluronan-CD44 Interactions in Cancer: Paradoxes and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Bryan P.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a prominent component of the micro-environment in most malignant tumors and can be prognostic for tumor progression. Extensive experimental evidence in animal models implicates hyaluronan interactions in tumor growth and metastasis, but it is also evident that a balance of synthesis and turnover by hyaluronidases is critical. CD44, a major hyaluronan receptor, is commonly but not uniformly associated with malignancy, and is frequently used as a marker for cancer stem cells in human carcinomas. Multivalent interactions of hyaluronan with CD44 collaborate in driving numerous tumor-promoting signaling pathways and transporter activities. It is widely accepted that hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are crucial in both malignancy and resistance to therapy, but major challenges for future research in the field are the mechanism of activation of hyaluronan-CD44 signaling in cancer cells, the relative importance of variant forms of CD44 and other hyaluronan receptors, e.g. Rhamm, in different tumor contexts, and the role of stromal versus tumor cell production and turnover of hyaluronan. Despite these caveats, it is clear that hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are an important target for translation into the clinic. Among the approaches that show promise are antibodies and vaccines to specific variants of CD44 that are uniquely expressed at critical stages of progression of a particular cancer, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of barriers to drug access, and small hyaluronan oligosaccharides that attenuate constitutive hyaluronan-receptor signaling and enhance chemosensitivity. In addition, hyaluronan is being used to tag drugs and delivery vehicles for targeting of anti-cancer agents to CD44-expressing tumor cells. PMID:20008845

  10. Intranasal immunization of mice against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Babiuk, L A; Stockdale, P H

    1981-01-01

    A potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) extract of Pasteurella multocida serotype III:A was shown to protect mice from an intranasal challenge with up to 300 50% lethal doses of P. multocida. In addition to preventing death, bacteria were rapidly cleared from the lungs of immunized mice so that by 72 to 96 h postchallenge no bacteria were present in the lungs of immunized mice, whereas up to 10(9) bacteria were present in lungs of nonimmunized mice. Immunization by the intranasal route was slightly better than that by the intramuscular route. Protection was considered specific, since immunization with P. multocida protected only against P. multocida and not against Salmonella agona. Furthermore, a similar KSCN extract from P. haemolytica did not protect against P. multocida challenge. A comparison of the KSCN extract with a Formalin-killed bacterin suggested that the KSCN extract may be superior to the bacterin. PMID:7216441

  11. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Jai; Townley, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient's uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient's dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population. PMID:27847521

  12. Secretion of proteases from Pasteurella multocida isolates.

    PubMed

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; de la Garza, M

    1999-01-01

    The capability of Pasteurella multocida to secrete proteases to the culture medium and their characterization were studied in five animal isolates (bovine, chicken, sheep, and two from pig). All the isolates produced proteases in a wide range of molecular mass. It is suggested that they are neutral metalloproteases, since they were optimally active between pH 6 and 7, inhibited by chelating agents but not by other protease inhibitors, and reactivated by calcium. Proteases from isolates were able to degrade IgG. Several proteins from supernatants of cultures precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4 of all the P. multocida isolates were recognized by a polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Protease production might play an important role during tissue colonization and in P. multocida diseases.

  13. Hyaluronan Synthesis, Catabolism, and Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Larry S.; Matsumoto, Steven; Su, Weiping; Srivastava, Taasin; Back, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been implicated in regulating neural differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration, and cell signaling in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). HA is found throughout the CNS as a constituent of proteoglycans, especially within perineuronal nets that have been implicated in regulating neuronal activity. HA is also found in the white matter where it is diffusely distributed around astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Insults to the CNS lead to long-term elevation of HA within damaged tissues, which is linked at least in part to increased transcription of HA synthases. HA accumulation is often accompanied by elevated expression of at least some transmembrane HA receptors including CD44. Hyaluronidases that digest high molecular weight HA into smaller fragments are also elevated following CNS insults and can generate HA digestion products that have unique biological activities. A number of studies, for example, suggest that both the removal of high molecular weight HA and the accumulation of hyaluronidase-generated HA digestion products can impact CNS injuries through mechanisms that include the regulation of progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation. These studies, reviewed here, suggest that targeting HA synthesis, catabolism, and signaling are all potential strategies to promote CNS repair. PMID:26448752

  14. Regulation and roles of the hyaluronan system in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Raheem, Kabir A; Marei, Waleed F; Ghafari, Fataneh; Hartshorne, Geraldine M

    2017-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan polymer naturally occurring in many tissues and fluids of mammals, including the reproductive system. Its biosynthesis by HA synthase (HAS1-3) and catabolism by hyaluronidases (HYALs) are affected by ovarian steroid hormones. Depending upon its molecular size, HA functions both as a structural component of tissues in the form of high-molecular-weight HA or as a signalling molecule in the form of small HA molecules or HA fragments with effects mediated through interaction with its specific cell-membrane receptors. HA is produced by oocytes and embryos and in various segments of the reproductive system. This review provides information about the expression and function of members of the HA system, including HAS, HYALs and HA receptors. We examine their role in various processes from folliculogenesis through oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development, to pregnancy and cervical dilation, as well as its application in assisted reproduction technologies. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the role of the HA system in pre-implantation embryo development and embryo implantation, for which we propose a hypothetical sequential model.

  15. The role of hyaluronan in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Joseph S

    2014-04-01

    The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) (synonyms - hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate) is a versatile, polymorphic, glycosoaminoglycan with vast biological functions. HA is found throughout the body, primarily residing in skin, thus playing an important role in wound healing. Research regarding HA's function has changed over the years, primarily focussing on a particular aspect or function. The contribution of HA in each stage of normal wound healing as well as its clinical wound dressing applications will be examined.

  16. CD44 and hyaluronan expression in human cutaneous scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, D. V.; Bertolami, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders of skin and other organs are typically associated with an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study focuses on a matrix constituent, hyaluronan-which is known to be altered in fibrotic disorders of skin- and on CD44, a cell adhesion molecule and putative receptor for hyaluronan. Tissue samples were obtained from biopsies of human normal skin, normal cutaneous scar; and hypertrophic cutaneous scar. After culturing, cells were studied by single- and double-labeling immunohistochemistry using the two anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, BU-52 and J173, and a biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex probe, b-HABR. Certain cultures were pretreated with Streptomyces hyaluronidase to assess the dependency of CD44 expression on the presence of endogenous hyaluronan. CD44 expression, both in the presence and the absence of exogenous hyaluronan, was quantitated by radioimmunobinding assay. Overall glycosaminoglycan synthesis and identification of hyaluronan were accomplished by precursor incorporation assays and by quantitative cellulose acetate electrophoresis. CD44 was found to be a normal human adult fibroblastic antigen whose expression is markedly increased for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared with normal skin fibroblasts. Although hyaluronan was found to be the predominant glycosaminoglycan constituent of the pericellular matrix for these fibroblasts, CD44 attachment to the cell surface is neither mediated by hyaluronan nor is the presence of hyaluronan a prerequisite for CD44 expression. Exogenous hyaluronan induced a decline in measurable CD44 expression for normal skin fibroblasts but not for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. These observations are compatible with current understanding of the way cells manage the hyaluronan economy of the extracellular matrix and emphasize phenotypic heterogeneities between fibroblasts derived from normal versus scar tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8475990

  17. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.118 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of...

  18. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.118 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of...

  19. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.118 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of...

  20. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.116 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4 shall be prepared from cultures of...

  1. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.118 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of...

  2. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.116 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4 shall be prepared from cultures of...

  3. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.116 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4 shall be prepared from cultures of...

  4. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.116 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4 shall be prepared from cultures of...

  5. Characteristics and biotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from humans.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhofer, T R

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-two isolates of Pasteurella (48 strains of Pasteurella multocida and 4 strains of atypical Pasteurella) were identified by conventional and commercial test systems. All strains fermented glucose, sucrose, and fructose in purple broth base (Difco Laboratories) with bromocresol purple as indicator, although the atypical Pasteurella produced fermentation reactions that were barely perceptible. Eleven different biotypes were identified by fermentation reactions in maltose, mannitol, xylose, sorbitol, and trehalose media. There was a correlation of biotypes to cat bites, with 61% of cat bite isolates falling into biotype A and B. A correlation of biotype and dog bite isolates was not seen. The choice of medium used for fermentation tests was critical as evidenced by the inability of the organisms to grow in a second commercially purchased preparation of purple broth base. The reliability of commercial test systems in identifying Pasteurella was 81% for Oxi/Ferm (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, N.J.), 68% for API (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.), and 11% for Minitek (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD.). PMID:7240390

  6. The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine lung explants.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, I W; Fallding, M H; Shewen, P E; Yager, J A

    1990-01-01

    Bovine lung explants were used in a study designed to compare the pathogenic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica type 1, a nonpathogenic organism Neisseria subflava, or the crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica on alveolar macrophages and lung parenchymal cells. Concentrated, purified peripheral blood neutrophil suspensions were added with the bacteria to some explants. Duplicate pairs of cultures from each treatment group were fixed at regular intervals up to 24 hours after seeding and morphological changes were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Pasteurella haemolytica caused deterioration of alveolar macrophages within one hour but did not affect parenchymal cells for more than 12 hours. Neisseria subflava did not affect alveolar macrophages initially, but caused an accelerated deterioration after four hours. After 24 hours, bacterial overgrowth caused similar deterioration of all cells in explants seeded with either bacterium. Alveolar macrophages phagocytosed large numbers of N. subflava but rarely ingested P. haemolytica. Added neutrophils did not have any discernible effect on any of the explants and did not potentiate bacterial effects. Addition of crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica to the culture medium significantly accelerated alveolar macrophage deterioration without apparent effect on parenchymal cell survival. These results support the hypothesis that the severe tissue destruction of fulminant pneumonic pasteurellosis is not a direct result of bacterial infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2306666

  7. Pasteurella caballi, a new species from equine clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Schlater, L K; Brenner, D J; Steigerwalt, A G; Moss, C W; Lambert, M A; Packer, R A

    1989-01-01

    The name Pasteurella caballi is proposed for a group of organisms represented by 29 strains isolated from respiratory and other infections in horses. P. caballi strains are gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonmotile, fermentative rods with the key characteristics of the genus Pasteurella. These strains differed from other Pasteurella species in that all were aerogenic and catalase negative, and some strains produced acid from myo-inositol and L-rhamnose. The levels of DNA relatedness of 28 P. caballi strains with labeled DNA from the proposed type strain averaged 91 and 85% (hydroxyapatite method at 55 and 70 degrees C). P. caballi was 13 to 53% related to strains representing 22 other species of the family Pasteurellaceae. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA of four strains was 41 to 42 mol%. The type strain is 83851 (=ATCC 49197). PMID:2584369

  8. A numerical taxonomic study of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1985-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study of strains of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia, with some allied bacteria, showed 23 reasonably distinct groups. These fell into three major areas. Area A contained species of Actinobacillus and Pasteurella: A. suis, A. equuli, A. lignieresii, P. haemolytica biovar A, P. haemolytica biovar T, P. multocida, A. actinomycetemcomitans, 'P. bettii', 'A. seminis', P. ureae and P. aerogenes. Also included in A was a composite group of Pasteurella pneumotropica and P. gallinarum, together with unnamed groups referred to as 'BLG', 'Mair', 'Ross' and 'aer-2'. Area B contained species of Yersinia: Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. pestis and a group 'ent-b' similar to Y. enterocolitica. Area C contained non-fermenting strains: Y. philomiragia, Moraxella anatipestifer and a miscellaneous group 'past-b'. There were also a small number of unnamed single strains.

  9. The Myriad Properties of Pasteurella multocida Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Marina; Boyce, John Dallas

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a heterogeneous species that is a primary pathogen of many different vertebrates. This Gram-negative bacterium can cause a range of diseases, including fowl cholera in birds, haemorrhagic septicaemia in ungulates, atrophic rhinitis in swine, and lower respiratory tract infections in cattle and pigs. One of the primary virulence factors of P. multocida is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recent work has shown that this crucial surface molecule shows significant structural variability across different P. multocida strains, with many producing LPS structures that are highly similar to the carbohydrate component of host glycoproteins. It is likely that this LPS mimicry of host molecules plays a major role in the survival of P. multocida in certain host niches. P. multocida LPS also plays a significant role in resisting the action of chicken cathelicidins, and is a strong stimulator of host immune responses. The inflammatory response to the endotoxic lipid A component is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of certain infections. Recent work has shown that vaccines containing killed bacteria give protection only against other strains with identical, or nearly identical, surface LPS structures. Conversely, live attenuated vaccines give protection that is broadly protective, and their efficacy is independent of LPS structure. PMID:28825691

  10. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, M; Sharma, B; Petras, S F; Reese, C P; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M

    1995-01-01

    Two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 that do not produce leukotoxin were isolated. Following mutagenesis, colonies were screened with antiserum by a filter assay for absence of the secreted leukotoxin. The two mutants both appeared to produce normal amounts of other antigens, as judged by reactivity with polyclonal serum from an animal with pasteurellosis, and were not altered in beta-hemolytic activity as seen on blood agar plates. There was no evidence of either cell-associated or secreted leukotoxin protein when Western blots (immunoblots) were carried out with the polyclonal serum or with a monoclonal antibody directed against the leukotoxin. Southern blots revealed that both mutants show the wild-type restriction pattern at the leukotoxin locus, although the strain with the lktA2 mutation showed differences in other regions of the chromosome on analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strain with the lktA2 mutation grew more slowly than did the wild-type strain, while the strain with the lktA1 mutation was indistinguishable from the wild-type strain in its growth properties. The strain with the lktA1 mutation should be valuable in determining the role of the leukotoxin in virulence as well as in identifying other virulence factors of P. haemolytica. PMID:7868223

  11. [Study of Dermanyssus gallinae as a carrier of Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Petrov, D

    1975-01-01

    Microbiologic studies and biologic experiments revealed that Pasteurella multocida persists in the body of Dermanyssus gallinae mites after these engorge with blood from infected birds. Depending on the temperature of the environment the carrier status was shown to last from 42 to 64 days. It is reported that the red mite acts as a vector and does not transmit Pasteurellae directly. However, the parasite is potentially hazardous in maintaining and passing on the infection through other indirect routes. Carrier status has been established in naturally infected Dermanyssus gallinae mites.

  12. A Case of Polyarticular Pasteurella multocida Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nitoslawski, Sarah; McConnell, Todd M.; Semret, Makeda; Stein, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with a history of osteoarthritis presents with right leg erythema and inability to weight-bear and pain in his right shoulder. Synovial fluid cell count of the knee and shoulder showed abundant neutrophils, and cultures of the knee showed growth of Pasteurella multocida. The patient owned four cats with which he had frequent contact, but history and physical examination elicited no evidence of scratches or bites. This case highlights the invasive potential of Pasteurella multocida in an immunocompetent individual and its capacity to cause septic arthritis in the setting of frequent animal contact. PMID:27366169

  13. A transport medium for specimens containing Pasteurella pestis.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, D C; Vivona, S; Do-Van-Quy; Gibson, F L; Deuber, G L; Rust, J H

    1967-01-01

    A medium, originally designed by Stuart and co-workers and later modified by Cary & Blair, for the maintenance and transport, without multiplication, of pathogenic bacteria contained in bacteriological specimens was tested in the laboratory and in the field in Viet-Nam to determine its effectiveness in preserving specimens known to contain Pasteurella pestis.The results indicate that this medium should be useful in diagnostic plague studies in areas where transport facilities are inadequate. Properly collected clinical specimens, sent to a central laboratory by any means and under any climatic conditions likely to be encountered in the hot tropics, should yield viable Pasteurella pestis for at least 30 days.

  14. Hyaluronan is not elevated in urine or serum in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leslie B; Harten, Ingrid A; Calabro, Anthony; Sugumaran, Geetha; Csoka, Antonei B; Brown, W Ted; Hascall, Vincent; Toole, Bryan P

    2003-07-01

    Elevations in urinary hyaluronan have been used as the principal laboratory indicator for diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS). Previous reports have provided evidence suggesting that children with HGPS have altered hyaluronan metabolism as indicated by a mean 17-fold increase in urinary hyaluronan over normal values. In addition, adults with Werner's syndrome have elevated urinary hyaluronan and even more prominent elevations in serum hyaluronan over age-matched controls. It is not known whether serum hyaluronan is elevated or whether serum hyaluronan levels correlate with urinary hyaluronan levels in children with HGPS. In a large cohort of 19 HGPS patients, we sought to confirm elevations in urinary hyaluronan concentration, to establish whether serum hyaluronan is elevated, to measure the size of urinary hyaluronan, and to determine whether serum or urine hyaluronidase levels are altered. We have analyzed urinary and serum hyaluronan levels in patients with HGPS and control patients (1) by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like method in which sample hyaluronan in solution and hyaluronan in solid phase compete for a solution of biotinylated hyaluronan-binding protein, and (2) by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The size of urinary hyaluronan was measured by using Sepharose CL-6B size exclusion chromatography. Serum and urinary hyaluronidases were evaluated quantitatively, by using ELISA, and qualitatively, by using a gel detection method. HGPS patients did not show a significant elevation in either urinary or serum hyaluronan. We detected no difference in the size of urinary hyaluronan between HGPS children and age-matched controls. Serum and urinary hyaluronidase levels were not significantly different in normal and HGPS patients. These studies indicate that neither serum nor urinary hyaluronan concentration is a reliable diagnostic or prognostic marker for HGPS and underscore a difference between adult

  15. Astrocytes in aged nonhuman primate brain gray matter synthesize excess hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Robert; Kohama, Steven G; Struve, Jaime; Su, Weiping; Banine, Fatima; Witkowski, Ellen; Back, Stephen A; Sherman, Larry S

    2012-04-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in central nervous system lesions where it limits astrogliosis but also inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation. The role of hyaluronan in normative brain aging has not been previously investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HA accumulates in the aging nonhuman primate brain. We found that HA levels significantly increase with age in the gray matter of rhesus macaques. HA accumulation was linked to age-related increases in the transcription of HA synthase-1 (HAS1) expressed by reactive astrocytes but not changes in the expression of other HAS genes or hyaluronidases. HA accumulation was accompanied by increased expression of CD44, a transmembrane HA receptor. Areas of gray matter with elevated HA in older animals demonstrated increased numbers of olig2(+) OPCs, consistent with the notion that HA may influence OPC expansion or maturation. Collectively, these data indicate that HAS1 and CD44 are transcriptionally upregulated in astrocytes during normative aging and are linked to HA accumulation in gray matter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-molecule imaging of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, Joachim; Kaminski, Tim P.; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Jerosch, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Human synovial fluid contains a high concentration of hyaluronan, a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that provides viscoelasticity and contributes to joint lubrication. In osteoarthritis synovial fluid, the concentration and molecular weight of hyaluronan decrease, thus impairing shock absorption and lubrication. Consistently, substitution of hyaluronan (viscosupplementation) is a widely used treatment for osteoarthritis. So far, the organization and dynamics of hyaluronan in native human synovial fluid and its action mechanism in viscosupplementation are poorly characterized at the molecular level. Here, we introduce highly sensitive single molecule microscopy to analyze the conformation and interactions of fluorescently labeled hyaluronan molecules in native human synovial fluid. Our findings are consistent with a random coil conformation of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid, and point to specific interactions of hyaluronan molecules with the synovial fluid matrix. Furthermore, single molecule microscopy is capable of detecting the breakdown of the synovial fluid matrix in osteoarthritis. Thus, single molecule microscopy is a useful new method to probe the structure of human synovial fluid and its changes in disease states like osteoarthritis.

  17. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella canis resulting from a dog bite -- limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species.

    PubMed

    Akahane, T; Nagata, M; Matsumoto, T; Murayama, T; Isaka, A; Kameda, T; Fujita, M; Oana, K; Kawakami, Y

    2011-12-02

    Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous organisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the first report of dual infections due to P

  18. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the

  19. Hyaluronan Does Not Regulate Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, Jérémy; Pendaries, Valérie; Hontoir, Fanny; De Glas, Valérie; Van Vlaender, Daniel; Simon, Michel; Lambert de Rouvroit, Catherine; Poumay, Yves; Flamion, Bruno

    2016-03-18

    Hyaluronan (HA) is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) and secreted in the extracellular matrix. In human skin, large amounts of HA are found in the dermis. HA is also synthesized by keratinocytes in the epidermis, although its epidermal functions are not clearly identified yet. To investigate HA functions, we studied the effects of HA depletion on human keratinocyte physiology within in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Inhibition of HA synthesis with 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) did not modify the expression profile of the epidermal differentiation markers involucrin, keratin 10, and filaggrin during tissue reconstruction. In contrast, when keratinocytes were incubated with 4MU, cell proliferation was decreased. In an attempt to rescue the proliferation function, HA samples of various mean molecular masses were added to keratinocyte cultures treated with 4MU. These samples were unable to rescue the initial proliferation rate. Furthermore, treatments with HA-specific hyaluronidase, although removing almost all HA from keratinocyte cultures, did not alter the differentiation or proliferation processes. The differences between 4MU and hyaluronidase effects did not result from differences in intracellular HA, sulfated glycosaminoglycan concentration, apoptosis, or levels of HA receptors, all of which remained unchanged. Similarly, knockdown of UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) using lentiviral shRNA effectively decreased HA production but did not affect proliferation rate. Overall, these data suggest that HA levels in the human epidermis are not directly correlated with keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and that incubation of cells with 4MU cannot equate with HA removal. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Hyaluronan Does Not Regulate Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Proliferation and Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Malaisse, Jérémy; Pendaries, Valérie; Hontoir, Fanny; De Glas, Valérie; Van Vlaender, Daniel; Simon, Michel; Lambert de Rouvroit, Catherine; Poumay, Yves; Flamion, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) and secreted in the extracellular matrix. In human skin, large amounts of HA are found in the dermis. HA is also synthesized by keratinocytes in the epidermis, although its epidermal functions are not clearly identified yet. To investigate HA functions, we studied the effects of HA depletion on human keratinocyte physiology within in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Inhibition of HA synthesis with 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) did not modify the expression profile of the epidermal differentiation markers involucrin, keratin 10, and filaggrin during tissue reconstruction. In contrast, when keratinocytes were incubated with 4MU, cell proliferation was decreased. In an attempt to rescue the proliferation function, HA samples of various mean molecular masses were added to keratinocyte cultures treated with 4MU. These samples were unable to rescue the initial proliferation rate. Furthermore, treatments with HA-specific hyaluronidase, although removing almost all HA from keratinocyte cultures, did not alter the differentiation or proliferation processes. The differences between 4MU and hyaluronidase effects did not result from differences in intracellular HA, sulfated glycosaminoglycan concentration, apoptosis, or levels of HA receptors, all of which remained unchanged. Similarly, knockdown of UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) using lentiviral shRNA effectively decreased HA production but did not affect proliferation rate. Overall, these data suggest that HA levels in the human epidermis are not directly correlated with keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and that incubation of cells with 4MU cannot equate with HA removal. PMID:26627828

  1. Crucial Role of Hyaluronan in Neointimal Formation after Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Masafumi; Shiba, Yuji; Itano, Naoki; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Nakayama, Jun; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Kimata, Koji; Ikeda, Uichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyaluronan (HA) is a primary component of the extracellular matrix of cells, and it is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HA in neointimal formation after vascular injury and determine its tissue-specific role in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by using a cre-lox conditional transgenic (cTg) strategy. Methods and Results HA was found to be expressed in neointimal lesions in humans with atherosclerosis and after wire-mediated vascular injury in mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis using 4-methylumbelliferone markedly inhibited neointimal formation after injury. In vitro experiments revealed that low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) induced VSMC activation, including migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The migration and proliferation of VSMCs were mediated by the CD44/RhoA and CD44/ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Because HA synthase 2 (HAS2) is predominantly expressed in injured arteries, we generated cTg mice that overexpress the murine HAS2 gene specifically in VSMCs (cHAS2/CreSM22α mice) and showed that HA overexpression markedly enhanced neointimal formation after cuff-mediated vascular injury. Further, HA-overexpressing VSMCs isolated from cHAS2/CreSM22α mice showed augmented migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS. Conclusion VSMC-derived HA promotes neointimal formation after vascular injury, and HA may be a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. PMID:23484050

  2. Antitumor effects of hyaluronan inhibition in desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Laura; Buie, Justin D; Rizvi, Hira; Bertagnolli, Monica M; Cho, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare, mesenchymal tumors that exhibit features of an abundant wound healing process. Previously, we showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are constituents of DTs and may contribute to desmoid tumorigenesis via activities associated with wound healing. Hyaluronan (HA) is a long-charged chain of repeating glucuronate and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharides that is synthesized by HA synthases (HAS) and degraded by hyaluronidases (HYAL). HA is secreted into the extracellular matrix by injured stroma and is important for normal tissue repair and neoplastic progression. Here, we investigated the presence of HA in DTs and the antitumor effects of the HA inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), on DT-derived mesenchymal cells. By immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found abundant expression of HA in 29/30 DTs as well as >5-fold increased HA levels in DT-derived cell lines relative to controls. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated high expression of HAS2 in DTs, and quantitative PCR analysis showed increased HAS2 upregulation in frozen DTs and DT-derived cells. 4-MU treatment of DT-derived cells significantly decreased proliferation as well as HA and HAS2 levels. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that MSCs in DTs coexpressed HA, HAS2, HYAL2, as well as the major HA receptor CD44 and HA coreceptor TLR4. Taken together, our results suggest that paracrine regulation of HA signaling in DTs may contribute to MSC recruitment and tumor proliferation. Future studies investigating the role of HA in tumor-stroma crosstalk and inhibition of HA-MSC interactions as a novel therapeutic target in DTs and other solid tumors are warranted.

  3. Hyaluronan and synovial joint: function, distribution and healing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a viscous solution found in the cavities of synovial joints. The principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The presence of high molar mass hyaluronan (HA) in this fluid gives it the required viscosity for its function as lubricant solution. Inflammation oxidation stress enhances normal degradation of hyaluronan causing several diseases related to joints. This review describes hyaluronan properties and distribution, applications and its function in synovial joints, with short review for using thiol compounds as antioxidants preventing HA degradations under inflammation conditions. PMID:24678248

  4. Endotoxin free hyaluronan and hyaluronan fragments do not stimulate TNF-α, interleukin-12 or upregulate co-stimulatory molecules in dendritic cells or macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yifei; Arif , Arif; Olsson, Mia; Cali, Valbona; Hardman, Blair; Dosanjh, Manisha; Lauer, Mark; Midura, Ronald J.; Hascall, Vincent C.; Brown, Kelly L.; Johnson, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has been described as a regulator of tissue inflammation, with hyaluronan fragments reported to stimulate innate immune cells. High molecular mass hyaluronan is normally present in tissues, but upon inflammation lower molecular mass fragments are generated. It is unclear if these hyaluronan fragments induce an inflammatory response or are a consequence of inflammation. In this study, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated with various sizes of hyaluronan from different sources, fragmented hyaluronan, hyaluronidases and heavy chain modified-hyaluronan (HA-HC). Key pro-inflammatory molecules, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-12, CCL3, and the co-stimulatory molecules, CD40 and CD86 were measured. Only human umbilical cord hyaluronan, bovine testes and Streptomyces hyaluronlyticus hyaluronidase stimulated macrophages and DCs, however, these reagents were found to be contaminated with endotoxin, which was not fully removed by polymyxin B treatment. In contrast, pharmaceutical grade hyaluronan and hyaluronan fragments failed to stimulate in vitro-derived or ex vivo macrophages and DCs, and did not induce leukocyte recruitment after intratracheal instillation into mouse lungs. Hence, endotoxin-free pharmaceutical grade hyaluronan does not stimulate macrophages and DCs in our inflammatory models. These results emphasize the importance of ensuring hyaluronan preparations are endotoxin free. PMID:27869206

  5. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Messman, Jamie M; Mays, Jimmy; Baskaran, Durairaj

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  6. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojun; Messman, Jamie; Mays, Jimmy W.; Baskaran, Durairaj

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu-NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (< 0.039) with < 8.6 % by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated non-grafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a β-sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine). PMID:20690642

  7. Late infection after total knee arthroplasty caused by Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Antuña, S A; Méndez, J G; Castellanos, J L; Jimenez, J P

    1997-12-01

    The authors report a case of Pasteurella multocida infection in a total knee arthroplasty as a result of a dog bite. The patient was treated with one-stage reimplantation of a new prosthesis and with intravenous antibiotics, resulting in complete relief of symptoms with no evidence of recurrence of infection after 24 months.

  8. Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida Strain Razi_Pm0001

    PubMed Central

    Tadayon, Keyvan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida Razi_Pm0001 from bovine origin, isolated in Iran in 1936. The genome has a size of 2,360,663 bp, a G+C content of 40.4%, and is predicted to contain 2,052 coding sequences. PMID:28153892

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of Pasteurella multocida in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Aye, P P; Angrick, E J; Morishita, T Y; Harr, B S

    2001-01-01

    The oropharyngeal regions of 680 meat turkeys and 55 breeder turkeys from nine outbreak farms, three history-outbreak farms, and 19 nonoutbreak farms in Ohio, Indiana, and Pennsylvania were cultured to determine the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida in turkeys. Pasteurella multocida was recovered from 32 out of 105 turkeys belonging to outbreak farms. Pasteurella multocida was not recovered from either history-outbreak or nonoutbreak farms. Characterization via capsular and somatic serotyping, biotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all recovered P. multocida isolates. Pasteurella multocida serotype A:1 and somatic serotype 1 with an un-typable capsular serogroup (UT:1) were the most common serogroups found. All isolates belonged to biotype P. multocida ssp. multocida. EcoRI, HpaII, and HindIII restriction enzyme digestions identified three, five, and five restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles, respectively. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin with 2% NaCl, sarafloxacin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim with sulphadiazine and resistant to clindamicin, penicillin, tiamulin, and tylosin.

  10. Perturbation of Hyaluronan Synthesis in the Trabecular Meshwork and the Effects on Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kate E.; Sun, Ying Ying; Yang, Yong-Feng; Bradley, John M.; Acott, Ted S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the aqueous outflow pathway. However, the contribution of HA to human outflow resistance remains unclear. Three HA synthase genes (HAS1-3) have been identified. Here, we evaluate the contribution of each of the HAS proteins to outflow facility in anterior segment perfusion culture. Methods. Two methods were used to reduce HA synthesis: 1 mM 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to inhibit all HAS synthases and shRNA silencing lentivirus was generated to knock down expression of each HAS individually. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting and an HA ELISA assay were used to assess HAS mRNA and protein levels and HA concentration, respectively. The effects of 4MU treatment and HAS gene silencing on outflow facility were assessed in human and porcine perfusion culture. Results. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting showed a reduction of each HAS in response to their respective silencing and 4MU treatment. HA concentration was concomitantly reduced. Treatment with 4MU decreased outflow facility in human anterior segments but increased outflow facility in porcine eyes. Lentiviral delivery of HAS1 and HAS2 silencing vectors caused similar opposite effects on outflow facility. Silencing of HAS3 did not significantly affect outflow resistance in either species. Conclusions. This is the first conclusive evidence for a significant role of HA in the human outflow pathway. HA chains synthesized by HAS1 and HAS2 contribute to outflow resistance, while hyaluronan produced by HAS3 does not appear to play a significant role. PMID:22695958

  11. Inhibition of Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression by in vivo Targeting of Hyaluronan Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oesophageal cancer is a highly aggressive tumour entity with at present poor prognosis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed. Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide present in the matrix of human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Importantly, in vitro ESCC cells critically depend on HA synthesis to maintain the proliferative phenotype. The aim of the present study is (1) to study HA-synthase (HAS) expression and regulation in human ESCC, and (2) to translate the in vitro results into a mouse xenograft model of human ESCC to study the effects of systemic versus tumour targeted HAS inhibition on proliferation and distribution of tumour-bound and stromal hyaluronan. Methods mRNA expression was investigated in human ESCC biopsies by semiquantitative real-time RT PCR. Furthermore, human ESCC were xenografted into NMRI nu/nu mice. The effects on tumour progression and morphology of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an inhibitor of HA-synthesis, and of lentiviral knock down of HA-synthase 3 (HAS3), the main HAS isoform in the human ESCC tissues and the human ESCC cell line used in this study, were determined. Tumour progression was monitored by calliper measurements and by flat-panel detector volume computed tomography (fpVCT). HA content, cellular composition and proliferation (Ki67) were determined histologically. Results mRNA of HAS isoform 3 (HAS3) was upregulated in human ESCC biopsies and HAS3 mRNA was positively correlated to expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF was also proven to be a strong inductor of HAS3 mRNA expression in vitro. During the course of seven weeks, 4-MU inhibited progression of xenograft tumours. Interestingly, remodelling of the tumour into a more differentiated phenotype and inhibition of cell proliferation were observed. Lentiviral knockdown of HAS3 in human ESCC cells prior to xenografting mimicked all effects of 4-MU treatment suggesting that hyaluronan produced by ESCC is accountable

  12. Repair of traumatically ruptured tympanic membrane using hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Stenfors, L E

    1987-01-01

    Three large tympanic membrane (TM) perforations (occupying more than one quadrant) were treated with hyaluronan (1% hyaluronic acid) without delay after the accident. Using the highly viscous hyaluronan as an aid, the margins of the perforations could be noticeably restored. The size of the perforation could be immediately reduced to roughly half of its original size. Immediate restoration and covering of a traumatically ruptured TM wound improve the healing potential of the drum and counteract middle ear infection.

  13. Pasteurella Multocida Peritonitis After Cat Scratch in a Patient with Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Verma, Ajay; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, Sowden

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic agent transmitted by canines and felines, has been very rarely reported to cause bacterial peritonitis in humans. Pasteurella multocida peritonitis is associated with high mortality even with appropriate treatment, therefore its early recognition is essential. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida peritonitis following cat scratch in a patient with Child Pugh Class C alcoholic cirrhosis, culminating in multiple organ failure and death PMID:26294953

  14. Hyaluronan, a Crucial Regulator of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Petrey, Aaron C.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Inflammation is associated with accumulation and turnover of HA polymers by multiple cell types. Increasingly through the years, HA has become recognized as an active participant in inflammatory, angiogenic, fibrotic, and cancer promoting processes. HA and its binding proteins regulate the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and can attenuate the course of inflammation, providing protection against tissue damage. A growing body of evidence suggests the cell responses are HA molecular weight dependent. HA fragments generated by multiple mechanisms throughout the course of inflammatory pathologies, elicit cellular responses distinct from intact HA. This review focuses on the role of HA in the promotion and resolution of inflammation. PMID:24653726

  15. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum, [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Blackall, Patrick J; Christensen, Henrik; Beckenham, Tim; Blackall, Linda L; Bisgaard, Magne

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a phenotypic and genotypic investigation of the taxonomy of [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella gallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium, a major subcluster within the avian 16S rRNA cluster 18 of the family Pasteurellaceae. An extended phenotypic characterization was performed of the type strain of [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, which is NAD-dependent, and eight NAD-independent strains of [Haemophilus] paragallinarum. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained for one NAD-independent and four NAD-dependent [Haemophilus] paragallinarum strains. These five sequences along with existing 16S rRNA gene sequences for 11 other taxa within avian 16S rRNA cluster 18 as well as seven other taxa from the Pasteurellaceae were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The analysis demonstrated that [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella gallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium formed a monophyletic group with a minimum of 96.8 % sequence similarity. This group can also be separated by phenotypic testing from all other recognized and named taxa within the Pasteurellaceae. As both genotypic and phenotypic testing support the separate and distinct nature of this subcluster, the transfer is proposed of Pasteurella gallinarum, [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium to a new genus Avibacterium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. The type strains are NCTC 1118T (Avibacterium gallinarum), NCTC 11296T (Avibacterium paragallinarum), NCTC 11297T (Avibacterium avium) and NCTC 3438T (Avibacterium volantium). Key characteristics that separate these four species are catalase activity (absent only in Avibacterium paragallinarum) and production of acid from galactose (negative only in Avibacterium paragallinarum), maltose (negative only in Avibacterium avium) and mannitol (negative

  16. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.116 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian...

  17. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.118 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian...

  18. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.117 Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian...

  19. The Where, When, How, and Why of Hyaluronan Binding by Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sayer, Sally S. M.; Dong, Yifei; Arif, Arif A.; Olsson, Mia; Brown, Kelly L.; Johnson, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is made and extruded from cells to form a pericellular or extracellular matrix (ECM) and is present in virtually all tissues in the body. The size and form of hyaluronan present in tissues are indicative of a healthy or inflamed tissue, and the interactions of hyaluronan with immune cells can influence their response. Thus, in order to understand how inflammation is regulated, it is necessary to understand these interactions and their consequences. Although there is a large turnover of hyaluronan in our bodies, the large molecular mass form of hyaluronan predominates in healthy tissues. Upon tissue damage and/or infection, the ECM and hyaluronan are broken down and an inflammatory response ensues. As inflammation is resolved, the ECM is restored, and high molecular mass hyaluronan predominates again. Immune cells encounter hyaluronan in the tissues and lymphoid organs and respond differently to high and low molecular mass forms. Immune cells differ in their ability to bind hyaluronan and this can vary with the cell type and their activation state. For example, peritoneal macrophages do not bind soluble hyaluronan but can be induced to bind after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Likewise, naïve T cells, which typically express low levels of the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, do not bind hyaluronan until they undergo antigen-stimulated T cell proliferation and upregulate CD44. Despite substantial knowledge of where and when immune cells bind hyaluronan, why immune cells bind hyaluronan remains a major outstanding question. Here, we review what is currently known about the interactions of hyaluronan with immune cells in both healthy and inflamed tissues and discuss how hyaluronan binding by immune cells influences the inflammatory response. PMID:25926830

  20. Hyaluronan is essential for the expansion of the cranial base growth plates.

    PubMed

    Gakunga, P T; Kuboki, Y; Opperman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Exquisite control of chondrocyte function in the zone of hypertrophy results in expansive growth of cartilaginous growth plates, and is a prerequisite for normal skeletal lengthening. We hypothesize that hyaluronan-mediated hydrostatic pressure causes lacunae expansion in the zone of hypertrophy; an important mechanism in cartilaginous growth plate and associated skeletal expansion. The role of hyaluronan and CD44 in this mechanism was studied using organ culture of the bipolar cranial base synchondroses. Hyaluronan was present in the hypertrophic zones, pericellular to the hypertrophic chondrocytes, while no hyaluronan was detected in the resting, proliferating and maturing zones. This localization of hyaluronan was associated with increased lacunae size, suggesting that chondrocytes deposit and retain pericellular hyaluronan as they mature. In comparison, Toluidine Blue staining was associated with the territorial matrix. Hyaluronidase, the hyaluronan-degrading enzyme, and CD44, the receptor for hyaluronan which also participates in the uptake and degradation of hyaluronan, were co-localized within the zone of ossification. This pattern of expression suggests that cells in the early zone of ossification internalize and degrade hyaluronan through a CD44-mediated mechanism. Treatment of the cultured segments with either Streptomyces hyaluronidase or hyaluronan hexasaccharides inhibited lacunae expansion. These observations demonstrate that hyaluronan-mediated mechanisms play an important role in controlling normal skeletal lengthening.

  1. A cryopreservation method for Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Melody K.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A cryopreservation method and improved isolation techniques for detection of Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples were developed. Wetland water samples were collected in the field, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, final concentration 10%), and frozen at -180 C in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper. Frozen samples were transported to the laboratory where they were subsequently thawed and processed in Pasteurella multocida selective broth (PMSB) to isolate P. multocida. This method allowed for consistent isolation of 2 to 18 organisms/ml from water seeded with known concentrations of P. multocida. The method compared favorably with the standard mouse inoculation method and allowed for preservation of the samples until they could be processed in the laboratory.

  2. VIRULENCE AND CITRULLINE UREIDASE ACTIVITY OF PASTEURELLA TULARENSIS12

    PubMed Central

    Marchette, Nyven J.; Nicholes, Paul S.

    1961-01-01

    Marchette, Nyven J. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City), and Paul S. Nicholes. Virulence and citrulline ureidase activity of Pasteurella tularensis. J. Bacteriol. 82:26–32. 1961.—The presence of a citrulline ureidase system in Pasteurella tularensis strains of high virulence, and its absence in avirulent strains and strains of low virulence was confirmed. The presence of this system, however, was shown to be not directly related to virulence. The only wild strain of P. tularensis tested that lacked a citrulline ureidase system was isolated from a rodent. All the strains, isolated from rabbits, rabbit ticks, a human being, and a horse, that were tested possessed this system. The existence of two North American varieties of P. tularensis was postulated on the basis of virulence and citrulline ureidase activity. PMID:13766500

  3. Virulence and citrulline ureidase activity of Pasteurella tularensis.

    PubMed

    MARCHETTE, N J; NICHOLES, P S

    1961-07-01

    Marchette, Nyven J. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City), and Paul S. Nicholes. Virulence and citrulline ureidase activity of Pasteurella tularensis. J. Bacteriol. 82:26-32. 1961.-The presence of a citrulline ureidase system in Pasteurella tularensis strains of high virulence, and its absence in avirulent strains and strains of low virulence was confirmed. The presence of this system, however, was shown to be not directly related to virulence. The only wild strain of P. tularensis tested that lacked a citrulline ureidase system was isolated from a rodent. All the strains, isolated from rabbits, rabbit ticks, a human being, and a horse, that were tested possessed this system. The existence of two North American varieties of P. tularensis was postulated on the basis of virulence and citrulline ureidase activity.

  4. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  5. Sepsis-induced purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Lisa; Oliveira, Nelson; Cássio, Isabel; Costa, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was admitted with a cutaneous rash associated with septic shock and multiorganic failure, 6 days after a dog bite. He was started on empiric antibiotherapy and supportive measures. The patient's condition aggravated, with need for invasive mechanical ventilation and intermittent haemodialysis, and evolution from a petechiae-like rash to purpura and gangrene, culminating in bilateral lower limb amputation. The blood cultures revealed only Pasteurella multocida, after 10 days of incubation. P multocida infection is a rare cause of soft tissue infection that subsides with oral antibiotherapy. Infections causing sepsis are rare and appear in immunocompromised patients. Purpura fulminans induced by sepsis is a rare, life-threatening disorder. This syndrome should be recognised promptly, so early treatment is instituted. We found no case reports of purpura fulminans caused by Pasteurella infections in our literature review. PMID:24554680

  6. Aortic Endograft Infection by Pasteurella multocida: A Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Thejus T; Keyashian, Brian; Amene, Juliet; Malinowski, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Infection of an aortic endograft is a rare complication following endovascular aneurysm repair. These patients have been treated with explantation of the graft to obtain source control followed by an extra-anatomic bypass to restore circulation. The present case study describes an interesting case of Pasteurella infection involving an aortic endograft managed nonoperatively by percutaneous drainage and graft preservation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Disseminated Pasteurella multocida infection: Cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and myositis.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Yasmin C; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Sachs, Shira; Ting, Kevin; Lee, Jennifer; Mendoza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with poorly controlled type II diabetes mellitus was evaluated for right lower extremity erythema and swelling and left-sided lower back pain. He was found to have Pasteurella multocida bacteremia; magnetic resonance imaging showed osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine with myositis in the adjacent left paraspinal muscles. He was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics and was later transitioned to oral amoxicillin. He recovered completely with six weeks of antimicrobial therapy.

  8. Systemic infection by Pasteurella canis biotype 1 in newborn puppies.

    PubMed

    de la Puente Redondo, V A; Gutiérrez Martín, C B; García del Blanco, N; Antolín Ayala, M I; Alonso Alonso, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella canis biotype 1, usually associated with the oral cavity of dogs and cats, or with human wound infections following dog bites, was isolated from newborn puppies with a fatal systemic infection. The identity of P. canis was confirmed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction and the organism was susceptible to all the penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones tested and to most of the aminoglycosides tested. This represents the first report of systemic pasteurellosis caused by P. canis in dogs.

  9. Pasteurella multocida infection of cats on poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Curtis, P E; Ollerhead, G E

    1982-01-02

    Eight cats on six poultry farms, four of which had a history of recent turkey pasteurellosis were examined for Pasteurella multocida infection. Nine strains were recovered and serotyped and of these five were tested for virulence in chickens and mice. By comparison with a strain from a field outbreak in turkeys three cat strains were considered capable of causing poultry disease. These findings are discussed epidemiologically.

  10. Community-acquired pneumonia due to Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Marinella, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Most cases of community-acquired pneumonia result from infection with predictable common pathogens. However, rare patients develop pneumonia from unusual bacterial species such as Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative oral commensal of most dogs and cats. The majority of P. multocida infections involve skin and soft tissue and complicate a bite or scratch. I report the case of an elderly man who owned 16 cats and developed bacteremic pneumonia with P. multocida. .

  11. Pulmonary surfactant adsorption is increased by hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Taeusch, H William; Dybbro, Eric; Lu, Karen W

    2008-04-01

    In acute lung injuries, inactivating agents may interfere with transfer (adsorption) of pulmonary surfactants to the interface between air and the aqueous layer that coats the interior of alveoli. Some ionic and nonionic polymers reduce surfactant inactivation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested directly whether an ionic polymer, hyaluronan, or a nonionic polymer, polyethylene glycol, enhanced adsorption of a surfactant used clinically. We used three different methods of measuring adsorption in vitro: a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer; a King/Clements device; and a spreading trough. In addition we measured the effects of both polymers on surfactant turbidity, using this assay as a nonspecific index of aggregation. We found that both hyaluronan and polyethylene glycol significantly increased the rate and degree of surfactant material adsorbed to the surface in all three assays. Hyaluronan was effective in lower concentrations (20-fold) than polyethylene glycol and, unlike polyethylene glycol, hyaluronan did not increase apparent aggregation of surfactant. Surfactant adsorption in the presence of serum was also enhanced by both polymers regardless of whether hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol was included with serum in the subphase or added to the surfactant applied to the surface. Therefore, endogenous polymers in the alveolar subphase, or exogenous polymers added to surfactant used as therapy, may both be important for reducing inactivation of surfactant that occurs with various lung injuries.

  12. Lubrication synergy: Mixture of hyaluronan and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles.

    PubMed

    Raj, Akanksha; Wang, Min; Zander, Thomas; Wieland, D C Florian; Liu, Xiaoyan; An, Junxue; Garamus, Vasil M; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Fielden, Matthew; Claesson, Per M; Dėdinaitė, Andra

    2017-02-15

    Phospholipids and hyaluronan have been implied to fulfil important roles in synovial joint lubrication. Since both components are present in synovial fluid, self-assembly structures formed by them should also be present. We demonstrate by small angle X-ray scattering that hyaluronan associates with the outer shell of dipalmitoylphophatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles in bulk solution. Further, we follow adsorption to silica from mixed hyaluronan/DPPC vesicle solution by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation measurements. Atomic Force Microscope imaging visualises the adsorbed layer structure consisting of non-homogeneous phospholipid bilayer with hyaluronan/DPPC aggregates on top. The presence of these aggregates generates a long-range repulsive surface force as two such surfaces are brought together. However, the aggregates are easily deformed, partly rearranged into multilayer structures and partly removed from between the surfaces under high loads. These layers offer very low friction coefficient (<0.01), high load bearing capacity (≈23MPa), and self-healing ability. Surface bound DPPC/hyaluronan aggregates provide a means for accumulation of lubricating DPPC molecules on sliding surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyaluronan cable formation by ocular trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying Ying; Keller, Kate E

    2015-10-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in the ocular trabecular meshwork (TM) is a critical modulator of aqueous humor outflow. Individual HA strands in the pericellular matrix can coalesce to form cable-like structures, which have different functional properties. Here, we investigated HA structural configuration by TM cells in response to various stimuli known to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In addition, the effects of HA cable induction on aqueous outflow resistance was determined. Primary TM cell cultures grown on tissue culture-treated plastic were treated for 12-48 h with TNFα, IL-1α, or TGFβ2. TM cells grown on silicone membranes were subject to mechanical stretch, which induces synthesis and activation of ECM proteolytic enzymes. HA structural configuration was investigated by HA binding protein (HAbp) staining and confocal microscopy. HAbp-labeled cables were induced by TNFα, TGFβ2 and mechanical stretch, but not by IL-1α. HA synthase (HAS) gene expression was quantitated by quantitative RT-PCR and HA concentration was measured by ELISA assay. By quantitative RT-PCR, HAS-1, -2, and -3 genes were differentially up-regulated and showed temporal differences in response to each treatment. HA concentration was increased in the media by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch decreased pericellular HA concentrations. Immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting were used to investigate the distribution and protein levels of the HA-binding proteins, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) and inter-α-inhibitor (IαI). Western immunoblotting showed that TSG-6 and IαI were increased by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch reduced their levels. The underlying substrate appears to affect the identity of IαI·TSG-6·HA complexes since different complexes were detected when TM cells were grown on a silicone substrate compared to a rigid plastic surface. Porcine anterior segments were perfused with 10 μg/ml polyinosinic

  14. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida Strain PMTB, Isolated from a Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Huan Yong; Ghazali, Kamal; Wan Mohamad Nazarie, Wan Fahmi; Mat Isa, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zunita

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2 are the main causative agents of ruminant hemorrhagic septicemia in Asia and Africa, respectively. Pasteurella multocida strain PMTB was isolated from a buffalo with hemorrhagic septicemia and has been determined to be serotype B:2. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain PMTB. PMID:24136854

  16. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  17. Spontaneous Metastasis of Prostate Cancer Is Promoted by Excess Hyaluronan Synthesis and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Kovar, Joy L.; Loughman, Eileen; Elowsky, Christian; Oakley, Gregory G.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular hyaluronan (HA) and its processing enzyme, the hyaluronidase Hyal1, predicts invasive, metastatic progression of human prostate cancer. To dissect the roles of hyaluronan synthases (HAS) and Hyal1 in tumorigenesis and metastasis, we selected nonmetastatic 22Rv1 prostate tumor cells that overexpress HAS2, HAS3, or Hyal1 individually, and compared these cells with co-transfectants expressing Hyal1 + HAS2 or Hyal1 + HAS3. Cells expressing only HAS were less tumorigenic than vector control transfectants on orthotopic injection into mice. In contrast, cells co-expressing Hyal1 + HAS2 or Hyal1 + HAS3 showed greater than sixfold and twofold increases in tumorigenesis, respectively. Fluorescence and histological quantification revealed spontaneous lymph node metastasis in all Hyal1 transfectant-implanted mice, and node burden increased an additional twofold when Hyal1 and HAS were co-expressed. Cells only expressing HAS were not metastatic. Thus, excess HA synthesis and processing in concert accelerate the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype by prostate tumor cells. Intratumoral vascularity did not correlate with either tumor size or metastatic potential. Analysis of cell cycle progression revealed shortened doubling times of Hyal1-expressing cells. Both adhesion and motility on extracellular matrix were diminished in HA-overproducing cells; however, motility was increased twofold by Hyal1 expression and fourfold to sixfold by Hyal1/HAS co-expression, in close agreement with observed metastatic potential. This is the first comprehensive examination of these enzymes in a relevant prostate cancer microenvironment. PMID:19218337

  18. Hyaluronan Expressed by the Hematopoietic Microenvironment Is Required for Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova, Valentina; Serobyan, Naira; Iizuka, Shinji; Schraufstatter, Ingrid; de Ridder, Audrey; Povaliy, Tatiana; Wacker, Valentina; Itano, Naoki; Kimata, Koji; Orlovskaja, Irina A.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of hyaluronan (HA) to the regulatory network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3). The number of hematopoietic progenitors was decreased in bone marrow and increased in extramedullary sites of Prx1-Cre;Has2flox/flox;Has1−/−;Has3−/− triple knock-out (tKO) mice as compared with wild type (WT) and Has1−/−;Has3−/− double knock-out (dKO) mice. In line with this observation, decreased hematopoietic activity was observed in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) from tKO mice, whereas the formation of the adherent layer and generation of hematopoietic cells in WT and dKO cultures was not different. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to pharmacologically inhibit the production of HA in LTBMC. Treatment with 4MU inhibited HA synthesis, decreased expression of HAS2 and HAS3, and eliminated hematopoiesis in LTBMC, and this effect was alleviated by the addition of exogenous HA. Exogenous HA also augmented the cell motility in LTBMC, which correlated with the HA-stimulated production of chemokines and growth factors. Conditioned media from HA-induced LTBMC enhanced the chemotaxis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in response to SDF-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to 4MU decreased their ability to support HSPC rolling and adhesion. In addition, migration of transplanted HSPC into the marrow of 4MU-pretreated mice was lower than in untreated mice. Collectively, the results suggest that HA depletion reduces the ability of the microenvironment to support HSPC, and confirm a role for HA as a necessary regulatory element in the structure of the hematopoietic microenvironment. PMID:22654110

  19. Regulation of hyaluronan and versican deposition by growth factors in fibrosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Berdiaki, A; Zafiropoulos, A; Fthenou, E; Katonis, P; Tsatsakis, A; Karamanos, N K; Tzanakakis, G N

    2008-02-01

    Versican, a large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and hyaluronan (HA), a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan are major constituents of the pericellular matrix. In many neoplastic tissues, changes in the expression of versican and HA affect tumour progression. Here, we analyse the synthesis of versican and hyaluronan by fibrosarcoma cells, and document how the latter is affected by PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGFB2, growth factors endogenously produced by these cells. Fibrosarcoma cell lines B6FS and HT1080 were utilised and compared with normal lung fibroblasts (DLF). The major versican isoforms expressed by DLF and B6FS cells were V0 and V1. Treatment of B6FS cells with TGFB2 showed a significant increase of V0 and V1 mRNAs. Versican expression in HT1080 cells was not significantly affected by any of the growth factors. In addition, TGFB2 treatment increased versican protein in DLF cells. HA, showed approximately a 2-fold and a 9-fold higher production in DLF cells compared to B6FS and HT1080 cells, respectively. In HT1080 cells, HA biosynthesis was significantly increased by bFGF, whereas, in B6FS cells it was increased by TGFB2 and PDGF-BB. Furthermore, analysis of HA synthases (HAS) expression indicated that HT1080 expressed similar levels of all three HAS isoforms in the following order: HAS2> HAS3> HAS1. bFGF shifted that balance by increasing the abundance of HAS1. The major HAS isoform expressed by B6FS cells was HAS2. PDGF-BB and TGFB2 showed the most prominent effects by increasing both HAS2 and HAS1 isoforms. In conclusion, these growth factors modulated, through upregulation of specific HAS isoforms, HA synthesis, secretion and net deposition to the pericellular matrix.

  20. The porcine sperm reservoir in relation to the function of hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    TIENTHAI, Paisan

    2015-01-01

    The oviduct plays a role in successful animal reproduction not only in spermatozoa and ova transport to the fertilization site but also by affording a microenvironment for fertilization and early embryonic development. The sperm reservoir (SR) is restricted in the uterotubal junction (UTJ) and caudal isthmus. Billions of porcine spermatozoa are distributed to the female reproductive tract during/after insemination, and small amounts of them are stored for about 36–40 hours in the SR, which maintains sperm viability in the pre-ovulation period through its surface epithelium and production of fluid. The SR regulates the release of spermatozoa so that only a small population moves towards the fertilization site (ampulla) to decrease polyspermy. This review attempts to provide information about the structure and function of the porcine SR, its intraluminal content (hyaluronan, HA), and the influences of HA on porcine spermatozoa in vivo. In pigs, the spermatozoa are stored in a mucous-like fluid within the UTJ and caudal isthmus in the pre-ovulation period. The oviduct fluid contains sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and non-sulfated GAGs, i.e., HA. It is interesting to note that HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS-3), and its receptor, CD44, is found in the epithelium of the porcine SR site. Additionally, sperm capacitation does not occur in vivo in the SR during the pre- and peri-ovulation periods, but spermatozoa in the SR will attempt to capacitate if exposed to bicarbonate. However, capacitation in the SR will rise in the post-ovulation period, indicating the role of HA in modulating sperm capacitation after ovulation. All data support the understanding that the porcine SR ensures the viability of fertile spermatozoa and maintains the non-capacitated status during the pre-ovulation period. This basic knowledge about the SR is believed to be useful to advance sperm preparation procedures for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and improve the preservation

  1. Hyaluronan in cytosol--microinjection-based probing of its existence and suggested functions.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Hanna; Rilla, Kirsi; Kärnä, Riikka; Bart, Genevieve; Jing, Wei; Haller, Michael F; DeAngelis, Paul L; Tammi, Raija H; Tammi, Markku I

    2013-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan produced by hyaluronan synthases (HAS), enzymes normally active at plasma membrane. While HA is delivered into the extracellular space, intracellular HA is also seen, mostly in vesicular structures, but there are also reports on its presence in the cytosol and specific locations and functions there. We probed the possibility of HA localization and functions in cytosol by microinjecting fluorescent HA binding complex (fHABC), HA fragments and hyaluronidase (HYAL) into cytosol. Microinjection of fHABC did not reveal HA-specific intracellular binding sites. Likewise, specific cytosolic binding sites for HA were not detected, as microinjected fluorescent HA composed of 4-8 monosaccharide units (HA4-HA8) were evenly distributed throughout the cells, including the nucleus, but excluded from membrane-bound organelles. The largest HA tested (∼HA120 or ∼25 kDa) did not enter the nucleus, and HA10-HA28 were progressively excluded from parts of nuclei resembling nucleoli. In contrast, HA oligosaccharides endocytosed from medium remained in vesicular compartments. The activity of HA synthesis was estimated by measuring the HA coat on green fluorescent protein (GFP)-HAS3-transfected MCF-7 cells. Microinjection of HA4 reduced coat size at 4 h, but increased at 24 h after injection, while larger HA-oligosaccharides and HYAL had no influence. As a positive control, microinjection of glucose increased coat size. In summary, no evidence for the presence or function of HA in cytosol was obtained. Also, the synthesis of HA and the active site of HAS were not accessible to competition, binding and degradation by cytosolic effectors, while synthesis responded to increased substrate supply.

  2. Controlled Immobilization Strategies to Probe Short Hyaluronan-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Antoni, Christiane H.; Boehm, Heike

    2016-02-01

    Well-controlled grafting of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides (sHA) enables novel approaches to investigate biological processes such as angiogenesis, immune reactions and cancer metastasis. We develop two strategies for covalent attachment of sHA, a fast high-density adsorption and a two-layer system that allows tuning the density and mode of immobilization. We monitored the sHA adlayer formation and subsequent macromolecular interactions by label-free quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The modified surfaces are inert to unspecific protein adsorption, and yet retain the specific binding capacity of sHA. Thus they are an ideal tool to study the interactions of hyaluronan-binding proteins and short hyaluronan molecules as demonstrated by the specific recognition of LYVE-1 and aggrecan. Both hyaladherins recognize sHA and the binding is independent to the presence of the reducing end.

  3. Rheology of mixed alginate-hyaluronan aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Travan, Andrea; Fiorentino, Simona; Grassi, Mario; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Donati, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript addresses the description of binary systems of hyaluronan (HA) and alginate (Alg) in semi-concentrated solution. The two polysaccharides were completely miscible in the entire range of relative weight fraction explored at a total polymer concentration of up to 3% (w/V). The rheological study encompassed steady flow and mechanical spectra for HA/Alg systems at different weight fractions with hyaluronan at different molecular weights. These extensive analyses allowed us to propose a model for the molecular arrangement in solution that envisages a mutual exclusion between the two polysaccharides even though a clear phase separation does not occur. This result may have profound implications when combinations of alginate and hyaluronan are proposed in the field of biomedical materials.

  4. Reaction of peroxynitrite with hyaluronan and related saccharides.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Maria Michela; Pietraforte, Donatella; Di Lorenzo, Angela Serena; Minetti, Maurizio; Marino, Gennaro

    2004-04-01

    The effects of peroxynitrite on hyaluronan has been studied by using an integrated spectroscopical approach, namely electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). The reaction has been performed with the polymer, the tetrasaccharide oligomer as well as with the monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid. The outcome of the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide has been also evaluated. Although 1H-NMR and ESI-MS experiments did not revealed peroxynitrite-mediated modification of hyaluronan as well as of related saccharides, from spin-trapping EPR experiments it was concluded that peroxynitrite induce the formation of C-centered carbon radicals, most probably by the way of its hydroxyl radical-like reactivity. These EPR data support the oxidative pathway involved in the degradation of hyaluronan, a probable event in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Controlled Immobilization Strategies to Probe Short Hyaluronan-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Antoni, Christiane H; Boehm, Heike

    2016-02-17

    Well-controlled grafting of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides (sHA) enables novel approaches to investigate biological processes such as angiogenesis, immune reactions and cancer metastasis. We develop two strategies for covalent attachment of sHA, a fast high-density adsorption and a two-layer system that allows tuning the density and mode of immobilization. We monitored the sHA adlayer formation and subsequent macromolecular interactions by label-free quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The modified surfaces are inert to unspecific protein adsorption, and yet retain the specific binding capacity of sHA. Thus they are an ideal tool to study the interactions of hyaluronan-binding proteins and short hyaluronan molecules as demonstrated by the specific recognition of LYVE-1 and aggrecan. Both hyaladherins recognize sHA and the binding is independent to the presence of the reducing end.

  6. Controlled Immobilization Strategies to Probe Short Hyaluronan-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Antoni, Christiane H.; Boehm, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Well-controlled grafting of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides (sHA) enables novel approaches to investigate biological processes such as angiogenesis, immune reactions and cancer metastasis. We develop two strategies for covalent attachment of sHA, a fast high-density adsorption and a two-layer system that allows tuning the density and mode of immobilization. We monitored the sHA adlayer formation and subsequent macromolecular interactions by label-free quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The modified surfaces are inert to unspecific protein adsorption, and yet retain the specific binding capacity of sHA. Thus they are an ideal tool to study the interactions of hyaluronan-binding proteins and short hyaluronan molecules as demonstrated by the specific recognition of LYVE-1 and aggrecan. Both hyaladherins recognize sHA and the binding is independent to the presence of the reducing end. PMID:26883791

  7. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms.

  8. Enzymatic production of specifically distributed hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Panhong; Lv, Mengxian; Jin, Peng; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2015-09-20

    High-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA) was controllably depolymerized in pure aqueous solution with recombinant leech hyaluronidase (HAase). The HAase concentration per unit HA and hydrolysis time played important roles in molecular mass distribution. By modulating the concentrations of HAase and controlling the hydrolysis time, any molar-mass-defined HA oligomers could be efficiently and specifically produced on a large scale (40 g/L), such as HA oligosaccharides with weight-average molar mass of 4000, 10,000, and 30,000Da and end hydrolysates containing only HA6 and HA4. High performance liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed low polydispersity of the produced molar-mass-defined HA oligosaccharides. Therefore, large-scale production of defined HA oligosaccharides with narrow molecular mass distribution will significantly promote progress in related research and its potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyaluronan decreases surfactant inactivation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen W; Goerke, Jon; Clements, John A; Taeusch, H William

    2005-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an anionic polymer and a constituent of alveolar fluid that can bind proteins, phospholipids, and water. Previous studies have established that nonionic polymers improve the surface activity of pulmonary surfactants by decreasing inactivation of surfactant. In this work, we investigate whether HA can also have beneficial effects when added to surfactants. We used a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer to measure mixtures of several commercially available pulmonary surfactants or native calf surfactant with and without serum inactivation. Surface properties such as equilibrium surface tension, minimum and maximum surface tensions on compression and expansion of a surface film, and degree of surface area reduction required to reach a surface tension of 10 mN/m were measured. In the presence of serum, addition of HA dramatically improved the surface activities of all four surfactants and in some cases in the absence of serum as well. These results indicate that HA reduces inactivation of surfactants caused by serum and add evidence that endogenous HAs may interact with alveolar surfactant under normal and abnormal conditions.

  10. Hyaluronan, Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Cowman, Mary K.; Telmer, Patrick G.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-induced inflammation in the tumor reactive stroma supports invasion and malignant progression and is contributed to by a variety of host cells including macrophages and fibroblasts. Inflammation appears to be initiated by tumor cells and surrounding host fibroblasts that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a pro-inflammatory “cancerized” or tumor reactive microenvironment that supports tumor expansion and invasion. The tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is an example of an ECM component within the cancerized microenvironment that promotes breast cancer progression. Like many ECM molecules, the function of native high-molecular weight HA is altered by fragmentation, which is promoted by oxygen/nitrogen free radicals and release of hyaluronidases within the tumor microenvironment. HA fragments are pro-inflammatory and activate signaling pathways that promote survival, migration, and invasion within both tumor and host cells through binding to HA receptors such as CD44 and RHAMM/HMMR. In breast cancer, elevated HA in the peri-tumor stroma and increased HA receptor expression are prognostic for poor outcome and are associated with disease recurrence. This review addresses the critical issues regarding tumor-induced inflammation and its role in breast cancer progression focusing specifically on the changes in HA metabolism within tumor reactive stroma as a key factor in malignant progression. PMID:26106384

  11. Hyaluronan: A modulator of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Itano, Naoki

    2016-05-28

    Tumors are cellular masses formed through dynamic interactions between tumor cells and a mixed population of stromal cells. Crosstalk between oncogenic and adjacent stromal cells contributes to the formation of a "tumor microenvironment" influencing the tumor cell behaviors of proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread throughout cancer progression. The composition and structure of the tumor microenvironment vary among different types of tumors and are extensively remodeled in close association with tumor advancement. The tumor microenvironment is composed not only of cellular compartments, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and immune cells, but also of bioactive substances, including growth factors and the extracellular matrix. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix, and the degree of HA accumulation is strongly correlated with a poor prognosis in advanced cancer patients. Emerging evidence has suggested that HA creates a specific microenvironment that is favorable for tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This review highlights the prominent roles of HA as a modulator of the tumor microenvironment and addresses the recent advances regarding HA function in cancer stem cell niches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome integrity, stem cells and hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Balazs, Endre A.

    2012-01-01

    Faithful preservation of genome integrity is the critical mission of stem cells as well as of germ cells. Reviewed are the following mechanisms involved in protecting DNA in these cells: (a) The efflux machinery that can pump out variety of genotoxins in ATP-dependent manner; (b) the mechanisms maintaining minimal metabolic activity which reduces generation of reactive oxidants, by-products of aerobic respiration; (c) the role of hypoxic niche of stem cells providing a gradient of variable oxygen tension; (d) (e) the presence of hyaluronan (HA) and HA receptors on stem cells and in the niche; (f) the role of HA in protecting DNA from oxidative damage; (g) the specific function of HA in protecting DNA in stem cells; (h) the interactions of HA with sperm cells and oocytes that also may shield their DNA from oxidative damage, and (e) mechanisms by which HA exerts the anti-oxidant activity. While HA has multitude of functions its anti-oxidant capabilities are often overlooked but may be of significance in preservation of integrity of stem and germ cells genome. PMID:22383371

  13. The influence of Hofmeister series ions on hyaluronan swelling and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Mrácek, Ales; Varhaníková, Júlia; Lehocký, Marián; Grundelová, Lenka; Pokopcová, Alena; Velebný, Vladimír

    2008-05-01

    The dissolution of hyaluronan in water leads to its degradation, and as a result its molecular weight decreases. The degradation of hyaluronan is mainly influenced by temperature, solution composition, and also its pH. This study describes the influence of Hofmeister series ions on hyaluronan behaviour and hyaluronan film swelling by solutions of these ions. It was found that Hofmeister ions show lyotropic effects influencing the entanglement of hyaluronan coils and their expansion from solid polymer films into swollen gel state. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in the structure of hyaluronan macromolecules are represented by the mutual diffusion coefficient D(c), the mean mutual diffusion coefficient D(s), the expansion work of coil swelling RA(delta,s), the activation enthalpy of diffusion connected with swelling H(D,s) and kinematic viscosity of hyaluronan-ions solutions nu.

  14. Transport of a hyaluronan-binding protein in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Joachim; Hegener, Oliver; Baader, Stephan L; Franken, Sebastian; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Häberlein, Hanns; Rauch, Uwe

    2009-09-01

    Hyaluronan is an unsulfated linear glycosaminoglycan with the ability to nucleate extracellular matrices by the formation of aggregates with lecticans. These matrices are essential during development of the central nervous system. In the prospective white matter of the developing brain hyaluronan is organized into fiber-like structures according to confocal microscopy of fixed slices which may guide the migration of neural precursor cells [Baier, C., S.L. Baader, J. Jankowski, V. Gieselmann, K. Schilling, U. Rauch, and J. Kappler. 2007. Hyaluronan is organized into fiber-like structures along migratory pathways in the developing mouse cerebellum. Matrix Biol. 26: 348-58]. By using plasmon surface resonance, microinjection into brain slices and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the brain-specific lecticans bind to, but also dissociate rather rapidly from hyaluronan. After microinjection into native cerebellar slices a GFP-tagged hyaluronan-binding neurocan fragment was enriched at binding sites in the prospective white matter, which had a directional orientation and formed local stationary concentration gradients in areas where binding sites are abundant. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements at fixed brain slices revealed that fiber-bound neurocan-GFP was mobile with D(fiber(neurocan-GFP))=4x10(-10)cm(2)/s. Therefore, we propose that hyaluronan-rich fibers in the prospective white matter of the developing mouse cerebellum can guide the diffusion of lecticans. Since lecticans bind a variety of growth and mobility factors, their guided diffusion may contribute to the transport of these polypeptides and to the formation of concentration gradients. This mechanism could serve to encode positional information during development.

  15. Hypotheses on the evolution of hyaluronan: A highly ironic acid

    PubMed Central

    Csoka, Antonei B; Stern, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a high-molecular-weight glycosaminoglycan (GAG) prominent in the extracellular matrix. Emerging relatively late in evolution, it may have evolved to evade immune recognition. Chondroitin is a more ancient GAG and a possible hyaluronan precursor. Epimerization of a 4-hydroxyl in N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin to N-acetylglucosamine of hyaluronan is the only structural difference other than chain length between these two polymers. The axial 4-hydroxyl group extends out perpendicular from the equatorial plane of N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin. We suspect that this hydroxyl is a prime target for immune recognition. Conversion of a thumbs-up hydroxyl group into a thumbs-down position in the plane of the sugar endows hyaluronan with the ability to avoid immune recognition. Chitin is another potential precursor to hyaluronan. But regardless whether of chondroitin or of chitin origin, an ancient chondroitinase enzyme sequence seems to have been commandeered to catalyze the cleavage of the new hyaluronan substrate. The evolution of six hyaluronidase-like sequences in the human genome from a single chondroitinase as found in Caenorhabditis elegans can now be traced. Confirming our previous predictions, two duplication events occurred, with three hyaluronidase-like sequences occurring in the genome of Ciona intestinalis (sea squirt), the earliest known chordate. This was probably followed by en masse duplication, with six such genes present in the genome of zebra fish onwards. These events occurred, however, much earlier than predicted. It is also apparent on an evolutionary time scale that in several species, this gene family is continuing to evolve. PMID:23315448

  16. Novel Dual Cyclooxygenase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Targeting Hyaluronan-CD44v6 Pathway and Inducing Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Suniti; Ghatak, Shibnath; Patil, Neha; Dandawate, Prasad; Ambike, Vinita; Adsule, Shreelekha; Unni, Deepak; Swamy, K. Venkateswara; Padhye, Subhash

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme have been found to play a role in promoting growth in colon cancer cell lines. The di-tert-butyl phenol class of compounds has been found to inhibit both COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes with proven effectiveness in arresting tumor growth. In the present study, the structural analogs of 2, 6 di-tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone (BQ) appended with hydrazide side chain were found to inhibit COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes at micromolar concentrations. Molecular docking of the compounds into COX-2 and 5-LOX protein cavities indicated strong binding interactions supporting the observed cytototoxicities. The signaling interaction between endogenous hyaluronan and CD44 has been shown to regulate COX-2 activities through ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. In the present studies it has been observed for the first time, that three of our COX/5-LOX dual inhibitors inhibit proliferation upon hydrazide substitution and prevent the activity of pro-angiogenic factors in HCA-7, HT-29, Apc10.1 cells as well as the hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) enzyme over-expressed in colon cancer cells, through inhibition of the Hyaluronan/CD44v6 cell survival pathway. Since there is a substantial enhancement in the antiproliferative activities of these compounds upon hydrazide substitution, the present work opens up new opportunities for evolving novel active compounds of BQ series for inhibiting colon cancer. PMID:23517721

  17. Viscoelastic Properties of Hyaluronan in Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Raghavan, Preeti; Stecco, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is particularly abundant in soft connective tissues. Solutions of HA can be highly viscous with non-Newtonian flow properties. These properties affect the movement of HA-containing fluid layers within and underlying the deep fascia. Changes in the concentration, molecular weight, or even covalent modification of HA in inflammatory conditions, as well as changes in binding interactions with other macromolecules, can have dramatic effects on the sliding movement of fascia. The high molecular weight and the semi-flexible chain of HA are key factors leading to the high viscosity of dilute solutions, and real HA solutions show additional nonideality and greatly increased viscosity due to mutual macromolecular crowding. The shear rate dependence of the viscosity, and the viscoelasticity of HA solutions, depend on the relaxation time of the molecule, which in turn depends on the HA concentration and molecular weight. Temperature can also have an effect on these properties. High viscosity can additionally affect the lubricating function of HA solutions. Immobility can increase the concentration of HA, increase the viscosity, and reduce lubrication and gliding of the layers of connective tissue and muscle. Over time, these changes can alter both muscle structure and function. Inflammation can further increase the viscosity of HA-containing fluids if the HA is modified via covalent attachment of heavy chains derived from Inter-α-Inhibitor. Hyaluronidase hydrolyzes HA, thus reducing its molecular weight, lowering the viscosity of the extracellular matrix fluid and making outflow easier. It can also disrupt any aggregates or gel-like structures that result from HA being modified. Hyaluronidase is used medically primarily as a dispersion agent, but may also be useful in conditions where altered viscosity of the fascia is desired, such as in the treatment of muscle stiffness

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide as an Effective Disinfectant for Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Won-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida. PMID:24954350

  19. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Price, J.I.; Cooch, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese.

  20. Removal rate of ( sup 3 H)hyaluronan injected subcutaneously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.K.; Laurent, U.B.; Fraser, J.R.; Laurent, T.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Hyaluronan is an important constituent of the extracellular matrix in skin, and recent studies suggest that there is a pool of easily removable (free) hyaluronan drained by lymph. The removal rate of free hyaluronan in skin was measured from the elimination of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronan, injected subcutaneously in 13 rabbits. The removal of radioactivity was determined from appearance of {sup 3}H in plasma. During the first 24 h after injection, 10-87% of the tracer entered blood, less in injectates with high concentrations of hyaluronan. The removal was monoexponential with a half-life of 0.5-1 day when concentration of hyaluronan was 5 mg/ml or less. When hyaluronan concentration was 10 mg/ml or higher, the removal was slow for about 24 h and then became similar to that in experiments with low hyaluronan concentration. Free hyaluronan at physiological concentrations is thus turned over with the same rate as serum albumin, supporting the concept that hyaluronan is removed essentially by lymph flow to be degraded in lymph nodes and liver.

  1. Relation between hyaluronan synthesis and cell morphology in ovarian clear cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriko; Shibata, Kasumi; Uchigasaki, Shinya; Kurose, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinomas often show a spherule-like mucoid stroma. In ascitic fluid, they form spheroids with a hollow acellular space. In spite of the absence of stromal cells, both the mucoid stroma and hollow spheroids contain abundant extracellular matrix, and one of the major components is hyaluronan. It has been suggested that tumor-derived hyaluronan plays a significant role in the formation of these structures. To clarify this, a hyaluronan inhibition assay was performed on HAC-2, a clear cell carcinoma cell line, in vitro. When hyaluronan synthesis was inhibited by 4-methylumbelliferone, HAC-2 failed to show the spherule-like accumulation of hyaluronan or hollow spheroids. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis was associated with the reduction of cell growth. Analysis of 28 archival ascites cytology specimens showed that clear cell carcinomas expressed hyaluronan more frequently than serous carcinomas (11 of 14 vs 3 of 14, respectively, P < 0.05). All of these facts indicate that tumor-derived hyaluronan is essential for the formation of the mucoid stroma or hollow spheroids, and that hyaluronan is also involved in the regulation of cell growth in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. The inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis could be a potential adjunctive therapy for refractory clear cell carcinomas outside the ovary. © 2016 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Preparation of hyaluronan polyaldehyde-a precursor of biopolymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Šedová, Petra; Buffa, Radovan; Kettou, Sofiane; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Hermannová, Martina; Leierová, Veronika; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Moravcová, Martina; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-04-19

    Native hyaluronan (HA) has been oxidized to polyaldehyde polymers with a degree of substitution (DS) of up to 50%. Two different procedures enabling the control of the degree of substitution were followed in this study. Selective oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine of hyaluronan was performed either in an aqueous solution containing AcNH-TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl or in an aprotic solvent containing Dess-Martin periodinane (DMP). It was found that a change of reaction parameters (reaction time and temperature, type of catalyst, oxidant-to-HA ratio, presence of nitrogen, buffer type, and concentration) had an influence on the degree of substitution and molecular weight. The derivatives were characterized by MS, NMR spectroscopy, and SEC-MALLS. Degradation of hyaluronic acid by the oxidant was observed and confirmed by SEC. The effect of oxidized derivatives of hyaluronan on cells was studied by means of NIH 3T3 fibroblast viability, which indicates that prepared hyaluronan polyaldehydes are biocompatible and suitable for medical applications and tissue engineering. The function of polyaldehyde as precursor for other modification was illustrated in the reaction with lysine.

  3. Molecular characteristics of some commercial high-molecular-weight hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Mendichi, R; Lath, D; Mach, M; Bakos, D

    2002-10-01

    Commercially available hyaluronan (HA) samples were investigated by the method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The fractions eluted from the SEC column were on-line molecularly characterized by using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometer. Along with the SEC-MALLS technique, the high-molecular-weight HA biopolymers were (off-line) analyzed by capillary viscometry.

  4. In vitro reconstructed tissues on hyaluronan-based temporary scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Brun, P; Cortivo, R; Zavan, B; Vecchiato, N; Abatangelo, G

    1999-01-01

    Tissue engineering offers the possibility to reconstruct tissue substitutes in order to replace lost or damaged tissues. The availability of appropriate biomaterial devices is essential to allow in vitro cultured cells to behave as in the original tissues in vivo. In our studies we utilized a seminatural biomaterial made up by the benzyl ester of hyaluronan to grow keratinocytes, fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated from human foreskin. Cells were separately cultured on two different hyaluronan based biomaterial devices for the first 15 days and then co-cultured for an additional period of 2 weeks. Keratinocytes gave rise to a well-differentiated epithelial layer, while fibroblasts were able to synthesize all the main extracellular molecules inside the biomaterial spaces, forming dermal-like tissues. When these two tissues were co-cultured, a skin equivalent was formed with a dermal-epidermal junction. Chondrocytes were obtained from chick-embryo sterna and cultured for 21 days inside a non-woven scaffolding made up of a hyaluronan-based biomaterial. Cells were able to organize themselves into nodules embedded in a dense metachromatic substance in which type II collagen was present. Data from this study suggest that this novel class of hyaluronan derived biomaterials is suitable for different cell culture and in vitro tissue reconstruction. Copyright 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  5. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  6. Controlled release of plasmid DNA from hyaluronan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mahor, Sunil; Collin, Estelle; Dash, Biraja C; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-07-01

    Encapsulation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) in nanoparticulate gene delivery systems offers the possibility of control in dosing, enhanced pDNA uptake, increased resistance to nuclease degradation and sustained release of functionally active pDNA over time. Extracellular matrix based biomaterial i.e. hyaluronan (HA) was used to encapsulate pDNA (pCMV-GLuc, Gaussia Luciferase reporter plasmid DNA having CMV promoter) in submicron size particulate system. Nano size range (~400-600 nm) pDNA loaded hyaluronan nanoparticles were formulated by ionic gelation followed by the cross-linking method with high encapsulation efficiency (~75-85%). The particle preparation process was further optimized for molecular weight, cross-linking method, cross-linking time and plasmid/polymer ratio. The entrapped plasmid maintained its structural and functional integrity as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The pDNA was released from the hyaluronan nanoparticles in a controlled manner over a period of one month. In vitro transfection by one-week released pDNA from nanoparticles with transfecting agent branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI) resulted in significantly higher expression levels than those in pDNA alone which demonstrated the functional bioactivity of released pDNA. For cellular localization studies, the hyaluronan nanoparticles encapsulated with FITC-dextran were incubated with adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and localization in the cellular environment were investigated. The results of this study illustrate that hyaluronan nanoparticles were rapidly internalized by the cells through nonspecific endocytosis and remained intact in the cytosol for up to 24 h.

  7. Molecular Analysis of Tetracycline Resistance in Pasteurella aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kehrenberg, Corinna; Schwarz, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Tetracycline-resistant Pasteurella aerogenes isolates obtained from the intestinal tract of swine were investigated for their tet genes by PCR analysis and hybridization experiments. In contrast to Pasteurella isolates from the respiratory tract, tet(H) genes were detected in the chromosomal DNA of only 2 of the 24 isolates, one of which also carried two copies of a tet(B) gene. All other P. aerogenes isolates carried tet(B) genes, which are the predominant tet genes among Enterobacteriaceae. A single isolate harbored a tet(B) gene as part of a truncated Tn10 element on the 4.8-kb plasmid pPAT2. Comparative analysis of the pPAT2 sequence suggested that the Tn10 relic on plasmid pPAT2 is the result of several illegitimate recombination events. The remaining 21 P. aerogenes isolates carried one or two copies of the tet(B) gene in their chromosomal DNA. In the majority of the cases, these tet(B) genes were associated with copies of Tn10 as confirmed by their SfuI and BamHI hybridization patterns. No correlation between the number of tet gene copies and the MICs of tetracycline, doxycyline and minocycline was observed. PMID:11557485

  8. EFFECTS OF BICARBONATE ON GROWTH OF PASTEURELLA PESTIS III.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, C. L.; Andrews, A. W.; Surgalla, M. J.

    1964-01-01

    Baugh, C. L. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), A. W. Andrews, and M. J. Surgalla. Effects of bicarbonate on growth of Pasteurella pestis. III. Replacement of bicarbonate by pyrimidines. J. Bacteriol. 88:1394–1398. 1964.—The effect of carbon dioxide on the growth of virulent Pasteurella pestis cultures at 37 C with aeration was studied by substituting known products of carbon dioxide fixation for bicarbonate in the test system. The growth of the virulent cells in the inoculum is stimulated and the culture remains virulent, if bicarbonate is replaced by orotic acid. The addition of cytosine, uracil, or citrulline also results in the retention of virulence, but the effect on the growth of the virulent cells is not as pronounced as with bicarbonate or orotic acid. It is proposed that an impaired pyrimidine synthesis due to a deficiency in carbomyl phosphate is responsible for the loss of virulence by P. pestis in aerated broth cultures at 37 C. The carbamyl phosphate deficiency may be enhanced by the loss of metabolically produced carbon dioxide at 37 C. PMID:14234798

  9. Effects of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronan on prostaglandin E2 production by cultured equine synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Frean, S P; Lees, P

    2000-05-01

    To investigate effects of the anti-arthritic agents hyaluronan and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) on inflammatory metabolism in cultured equine synoviocytes. Synoviocytes cultured from samples obtained from the metacarpophalangeal joints of 4 horses. Equine synoviocytes were grown in monolayer culture. Synoviocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and simultaneously treated with various concentrations of hyaluronan or PSGAG for 48 hours. Three hyaluronan preparations were compared. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in culture medium were measured, using radioimmunoassay. The highest concentrations of hyaluronan and PSGAG tested inhibited PGE2 production. Clinically achievable concentrations of hyaluronan and PSGAG inhibited PGE2 synthesis by cultured equine synoviocytes. This anti-inflammatory action may be a mechanism through which these agents exert anti-arthritic effects. The effect was obtained at concentrations that can be achieved by use of intra-articular, but not systemic, administration of hyaluronan or PSGAG.

  10. Pasteurella multocida urinary tract infection in a patient with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmeet B; Harrington, Amanda T

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Infections caused by Pasteurella species are commonly associated with contact with dogs and cats, typically involving bites and scratches, but casual contact with household pets can also be a risk factor. Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Pasteurella species is rare and a significant majority of cases have some known risk factor associated with an underlying chronic illness or structural and/or functional urological abnormality. Case presentation. Here, we present a case of a UTI due to Pasteurella multocida in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who also had a household cat. Conclusion. Providers and laboratorians should be aware of risk factors associated with UTIs caused by Pasteurella species.

  11. Pasteurella multocida urinary tract infection in a patient with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmeet B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Infections caused by Pasteurella species are commonly associated with contact with dogs and cats, typically involving bites and scratches, but casual contact with household pets can also be a risk factor. Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Pasteurella species is rare and a significant majority of cases have some known risk factor associated with an underlying chronic illness or structural and/or functional urological abnormality. Case presentation. Here, we present a case of a UTI due to Pasteurella multocida in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who also had a household cat. Conclusion. Providers and laboratorians should be aware of risk factors associated with UTIs caused by Pasteurella species. PMID:28348800

  12. Hyaluronan: a critical component of epithelial-mesenchymal and epithelial-carcinoma transitions.

    PubMed

    Toole, Bryan P; Zoltan-Jones, Alexandra; Misra, Suniti; Ghatak, Shibnath

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronan plays a central role in the transition of epithelia to mesenchyme in the embryo and in the acquisition of transformed properties in carcinoma cells. In some cases, hyaluronan is both essential and sufficient for induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs). Underlying its role are the effects of hyaluronan on receptor kinase activities, cell survival pathways, and multidrug transporters. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms whereby hyaluronan exerts its influences on cell behavior will enhance our understanding of normal and pathological EMTs and may lead to improved therapies for cancer patients.

  13. Effect of intra-articular hyaluronan on pressure-flow relation across synovium in anaesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, J N; Levick, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. Hyaluronan is the major polysaccharide of synovial fluid, responsible for its high viscosity. The effect of hyaluronan on fluid transport across the synovial lining of the joint was investigated. Rate of fluid absorption from the joint cavity (Qs) was measured at intra-articular pressures (Pj) of up to 24 cmH2O in knees of anaesthetized rabbits, in the presence or absence of hyaluronan in intra-articular infusates. 2. Viscometry studies in vitro showed that the commercial hyaluronan used had a molecular weight of 549,000-774,000, a radius of gyration of 48-99 nm and a critical concentration for molecular overlap of 1.3 g l-1. 3. With intra-articular Krebs solution (control) or subnormal, subcritical concentrations of hyaluronan (0.5 g l-1), flow increased with pressure. Hyaluronan reduced the fluid escape rate by reducing slope dQs/dPj by 32-64% relative to Krebs solution. 4. At normal to high hyaluronan concentrations (3-6 g l-1) and low pressures, hyaluronan again reduced slope dQs/dPj, by 39-64%. The reduction in slope was slight, however, when compared with the reduction in bulk fluidity (1/relative viscosity). Fluidity at high shear rates was reduced to 6% of control values by 6 g l-1 hyaluronan. The effect on slope did not correlate significantly with the effect on fluidity. 5. At pressures above approximately 12 cmH2O, 3-6 g l-1 hyaluronan altered the shape of the pressure-flow relation: a flow plateau developed. In some joints raising pressure even reduced trans-synovial flow slightly. The pressure required to drive unit trans-synovial flow (an index of outflow resistance) increased 2.5-fold between 5 and 25 cmH2O in the presence of hyaluronan. By contrast, in the absence of hyaluronan the outflow resistance fell as pressure was raised. 6. It is suggested that the increasing resistance to flow in the presence of hyaluronan may be caused by partial molecular sieving of hyaluronan by the small porosities of the synovial interstitial matrix, leading to

  14. A RHAMM mimetic peptide blocks hyaluronan signaling and reduces inflammation and fibrogenesis in excisional skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R; Zalinska, Ewa; McCulloch, Lori; Amin, Ripal; Akentieva, Natalia; Winnik, Francoise; Savani, Rashmin; Bagli, Darius J; Luyt, Len G; Cowman, Mary K; McCarthy, Jim B; Turley, Eva A

    2012-10-01

    Hyaluronan is activated by fragmentation and controls inflammation and fibroplasia during wound repair and diseases (eg, cancer). Hyaluronan-binding peptides were identified that modify fibrogenesis during skin wound repair. Peptides were selected from 7- to 15mer phage display libraries by panning with hyaluronan-Sepharose beads and assayed for their ability to block fibroblast migration in response to hyaluronan oligosaccharides (10 kDa). A 15mer peptide (P15-1), with homology to receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) hyaluronan binding sequences, was the most effective inhibitor. P15-1 bound to 10-kDa hyaluronan with an affinity of K(d) = 10(-7) and appeared to specifically mimic RHAMM since it significantly reduced binding of hyaluronan oligosaccharides to recombinant RHAMM but not to recombinant CD44 or TLR2,4, and altered wound repair in wild-type but not RHAMM(-/-) mice. One topical application of P15-1 to full-thickness excisional rat wounds significantly reduced wound macrophage number, fibroblast number, and blood vessel density compared to scrambled, negative control peptides. Wound collagen 1, transforming growth factor β-1, and α-smooth muscle actin were reduced, whereas tenascin C was increased, suggesting that P15-1 promoted a form of scarless healing. Signaling/microarray analyses showed that P15-1 blocks RHAMM-regulated focal adhesion kinase pathways in fibroblasts. These results identify a new class of reagents that attenuate proinflammatory, fibrotic repair by blocking hyaluronan oligosaccharide signaling.

  15. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: Implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular endothelial cells and delays the onset of EAE. These effects could be due to the elimination of hyaluronan or the generation of hyaluronan digestion products that influence lymphocytes or endothelial cells. Here, we found that hyaluronan dodecasaccharides impaired activated lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells when applied to lymphocytes but not to the endothelial cells. The effects of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides on lymphocyte rolling were independent of CD44 and a receptor for degraded hyaluronan, toll-like receptor-4. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides or tetrasaccharides delayed the onset of EAE in a manner similar to subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides can therefore act directly on lymphocytes to modulate the onset of inflammatory demyelinating disease. PMID:23333375

  16. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Clayton W; Foster, Scott C; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J T; Sherman, Larry S

    2013-04-24

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular endothelial cells and delays the onset of EAE. These effects could be due to the elimination of hyaluronan or the generation of hyaluronan digestion products that influence lymphocytes or endothelial cells. Here, we found that hyaluronan dodecasaccharides impaired activated lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells when applied to lymphocytes but not to the endothelial cells. The effects of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides on lymphocyte rolling were independent of CD44 and a receptor for degraded hyaluronan, Toll-like receptor-4. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides or tetrasaccharides delayed the onset of EAE in a manner similar to subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides can therefore act directly on lymphocytes to modulate the onset of inflammatory demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyaluronan Export through Plasma Membranes Depends on Concurrent K+ Efflux by Kir Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hagenfeld, Daniel; Borkenhagen, Beatrice; Schulz, Tobias; Schillers, Hermann; Schumacher, Udo; Prehm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronan is synthesized within the cytoplasm and exported into the extracellular matrix through the cell membrane of fibroblasts by the MRP5 transporter. In order to meet the law of electroneutrality, a cation is required to neutralize the emerging negative hyaluronan charges. As we previously observed an inhibiting of hyaluronan export by inhibitors of K+ channels, hyaluronan export was now analysed by simultaneously measuring membrane potential in the presence of drugs. This was done by both hyaluronan import into inside-out vesicles and by inhibition with antisense siRNA. Hyaluronan export from fibroblast was particularly inhibited by glibenclamide, ropivacain and BaCl2 which all belong to ATP-sensitive inwardly-rectifying Kir channel inhibitors. Import of hyaluronan into vesicles was activated by 150 mM KCl and this activation was abolished by ATP. siRNA for the K+ channels Kir3.4 and Kir6.2 inhibited hyaluronan export. Collectively, these results indicated that hyaluronan export depends on concurrent K+ efflux. PMID:22701748

  18. Pasteurella multocida infected total knee arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, KB; Bharadwaj, R; MacDonald, A; Syme, B

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. This infection generally follows significant animal contact, usually licks and scratches. We report a case of P multocida infection that was treated with linezolid with salvage of the implant. Linezolid is generally active against Gram-positive organisms only with the exception of Pasteurella, which is Gram-negative. We extensively review the previous reported cases of implant infection with P multocida. PMID:24780653

  19. A Rare Case of Glossitis due to Pasteurella multocida after a Cat Scratch

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Thien; Revere, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella is one of the zoonotic pathogens that can cause variety of serious infections in animals and humans such as bacteremia, septic shock, endocarditis, meningitis, prosthetic and native valve infections, osteomyelitis, skin and soft tissue infections, abscesses, and even pneumonia with empyema. However, there have been few reports of upper respiratory involvements like tonsillitis and epiglottitis in humans. We present a case of recurrent Pasteurella glossitis after a cat scratch which has not been reported in humans. PMID:27840749

  20. A Rare Case of Glossitis due to Pasteurella multocida after a Cat Scratch.

    PubMed

    Niknam, Negin; Doan, Thien; Revere, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella is one of the zoonotic pathogens that can cause variety of serious infections in animals and humans such as bacteremia, septic shock, endocarditis, meningitis, prosthetic and native valve infections, osteomyelitis, skin and soft tissue infections, abscesses, and even pneumonia with empyema. However, there have been few reports of upper respiratory involvements like tonsillitis and epiglottitis in humans. We present a case of recurrent Pasteurella glossitis after a cat scratch which has not been reported in humans.

  1. Hyaluronan Is Required for Generation of Hematopoietic Cells during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstatter, Ingrid U.; Serobyan, Naira; Loring, Jeanne; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an important component of the microenvironment in bone marrow, but its role in regulation of the development of hematopoietic cells is not well understood. To address the role of HA in regulation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation into the hematopoietic lineage, we screened for genes encoding components of the HA pathway. Using gene arrays, we found that HA synthases and HA receptors are expressed in both undifferentiated and differentiating hESCs. Enzymatic degradation of HA resulted in decreased numbers of hematopoietic progenitors and lower numbers of CD45+ cells generated in HA-deprived embryoid bodies (EBs). In addition, deprivation of HA resulted in the inhibition of generation of CD31+ cells, stromal fibroblast-like cells and contracting myocytes in EBs. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry revealed that HA deprivation did not influence the dynamics of OCT4 expression, but decreased the expression of BRY, an early mesoderm marker, and BMP2, a later mesoderm marker in differentiating EBs. In addition, the endoderm markers α-FP and SOX17 were decreased, whereas the expression of the ectoderm markers GFAP and FGF5 was higher in HA-deprived cultures. Our findings indicate that endogenously produced HA contributes to the network that regulates the differentiation of hESC and the generation of mesodermal lineage in general and hematopoietic cells specifically. PMID:20861924

  2. Hyaluronan Stabilizes Focal Adhesions, Filopodia, and the Proliferative Phenotype in Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Twarock, Sören; Tammi, Markku I.; Savani, Rashmin C.; Fischer, Jens W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide component in the parenchyma and stroma of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinically, esophageal cancer represents a highly aggressive tumor type with poor prognosis resulting in a 5-year survival rate of 5%. The aim of the present study was the detailed analysis of the role of HA synthesis for ESCC phenotype in vitro using the ESCC cell line OSC1. In OSC1 cells, pericellular HA-matrix surrounding extended actin-dependent filopodia was detected. The small molecule inhibitor of HA synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU, 0.3 mm) caused loss of these filopodia and focal adhesions and inhibited proliferation and migration. In search of the underlying mechanism cleavage of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was detected by immunoblotting. In addition, displacing HA by an HA-binding peptide (Pep-1, 500 μg/ml) and digestion of pericellular HA by hyaluronidase resulted in cleavage of focal adhesions. Furthermore, real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that HA synthase 3 (HAS3) > HAS2 are the predominant HA-synthases in OSC1. Lentiviral transduction with shHAS3, and to a lesser extent with shHAS2, reduced intact FAK protein and filopodia as well as proliferation and migration. Furthermore, down-regulation by lentiviral shRNA of RHAMM (receptor of HA-mediated motility) but not CD44 induced loss of filopodia and caused FAK cleavage. In contrast, knockdown of both HA receptors inhibited proliferation and migration of OSC1. In conclusion, HA synthesis and, in turn, RHAMM and CD44 signaling promoted an activated phenotype of OSC1. Because RHAMM appears to support both filopodia, FAK, and the proliferative and migratory phenotype, it may be promising to explore RHAMM as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal cancer. PMID:20463012

  3. Hyaluronan Contributes to Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Stimulates Lung Allograft Rejection through Activation of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingan; Sugimoto, Seichiro; Kennedy, Vanessa E.; Zhang, Helen L.; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N.; Kelly, Fran L.; Huang, Howard; Kreisel, Daniel; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Although innate immunity is increasingly recognized to contribute to lung allograft rejection, the significance of endogenous innate ligands, such as hyaluronan (HA) fragments, in clinical or experimental lung transplantation is uncertain. Objectives: To determine if HA is associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in lung transplant recipients, and evaluate the effect of low- or high-molecular-weight HA on experimental lung allograft rejection, including dependence on innate signaling pathways or effector cells. Methods: HA concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma samples from lung recipients with or without established BOS. BOS and normal lung tissues were assessed for HA localization and expression of HA synthases. Murine orthotopic lung recipients with established tolerance were treated with low- or high-molecular-weight HA under varied experimental conditions, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 and myeloid differentiation protein 88 deficiency and neutrophil depletion. Measurements and Main Results: HA localized within areas of intraluminal small airways fibrosis in BOS lung tissue. Moreover, transcripts for HA synthase enzymes were significantly elevated in BOS versus normal lung tissues and both lavage fluid and plasma HA concentrations were increased in recipients with BOS. Treatment with low-molecular-weight HA abrogated tolerance in murine orthotopic lung recipients in a TLR2/4- and myeloid differentiation protein 88–dependent fashion and drove expansion of alloantigen-specific T lymphocytes. Additionally, TLR-dependent signals stimulated neutrophilia that promoted rejection. In contrast, high-molecular-weight HA attenuated basal allograft inflammation. Conclusions: These data suggest that accumulation of HA could contribute to BOS by directly activating innate immune signaling pathways that promote allograft rejection and neutrophilia. PMID:24471427

  4. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  5. Hyaluronan, a truly "youthful" polysaccharide. Its medical applications.

    PubMed

    Robert, L

    2015-02-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a ubiquitous linear polysaccharide endowed with some exceptional physicochemical properties such as strong hydration and viscoelasticity that depend on the size of the molecule. It plays a variety of important physiological roles in tissue hydration and mechanical protection, for example in the umbilical cord, skin and most other tissues. Since its large scale preparation and the invention by E.A. Balazs of the preparation of its non-inflammatory fraction (NIF-NaHA), there have been several important medical and cosmetic applications, most notably of viscosurgery for eye operation, intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis and also for wrinkle filling on the face, as well as for drug administration. Its concentration in tissues is decreasing with age, source of loss of function and structure of tissues. The purpose of this review is to present a succinct overview of the essential properties of hyaluronan and its medical and esthetic applications.

  6. Role of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding proteins in lung pathobiology

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Frances E.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has diverse functions in normal lung homeostasis and pulmonary disease. HA constitutes the major glycosaminoglycan in lung tissue, with HA degradation products, produced by hyaluronidase enzymes and reactive oxygen species, being implicated in several lung diseases, including acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary hypertension. The differential activities of HA and its degradation products are due, in part, to regulation of multiple HA-binding proteins, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HA-binding protein 2 (HABP2), and receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM). Recent research indicates that exogenous administration of high-molecular-weight HA can serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for lung diseases, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury, sepsis/ventilator-induced lung injury, and airway hyperreactivity. This review focuses on the regulatory role of HA and HA-binding proteins in lung pathology and discusses the capacity of HA to augment and inhibit various lung diseases. PMID:21571904

  7. Hyaluronan peroxidation is required for normal synovial function: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Juranek, I; Stern, R; Soltes, L

    2014-06-01

    Despite widespread use of antioxidants, reactive oxygen species have important functions in normal tissues. Herein, we present an example of a physiological role for free radicals, and in particular, reactive oxygen species, that are suppressed by anti-oxidants. Free radicals catalyze the degradation of hyaluronan in synovial fluid, a tissue in which hyaluronidase activity is barely detectable. Articular cartilage requires a low oxygen environment. The process of hyaluronan peroxidation consumes significant amounts of molecular oxygen, thus keeping the tension of oxygen in the joint at a low but physiologically critical level. One concern is the change in physical activity between day and night, with periods of joint hyperemia and ischemia, respectively. Increased oxygen and the resulting oxidative stress would lead to chondrocyte dysfunction and cartilage damage. A mechanism for keeping oxygen levels low is required. We postulate that a mechanism indeed exists for the removal of excess oxygen. High-molar-mass hyaluronan turnover in synovial fluid utilizes peroxidative degradation, during which oxygen is massively consumed. The peroxidation itself may be initiated by hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by chondrocyte mitochondria, that can diffuse into the synovial fluid. The resulting decrease in available oxygen down-regulates hyaluronan peroxidation. This in turn prevents excessive oxygen consumption. It appears that free radicals and reactive oxygen species may be components of normal physiology, particularly in the synovial fluid of joints and articular cartilage. It is suggested therefore that indiscriminate use of anti-oxidants, vigorously promoted currently by health professionals and the health industry, be approached with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyaluronan Tumor Cell Interactions in Prostate Cancer Growth and Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    shown that Rhamm can replace CD44 as an HA receptor in promoting collagen induced arthritis .[39] The inflamed joints of the knockout mice showed...Mohapatra, S., et al., Soluble hyaluronan receptor RHAMM induces mitotic arrest by suppressing Cdc2 and cyclin B1 expression. J Exp Med, 1996. 183(4): p...increases at this stage of the cell cycle.[ 1 , 12, 13] Small (2500 dalton) HA oligosaccharides, or truncated constructs of cellular HA receptors that

  9. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns among Indian strains of avian Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Shivachandra, S B; Kumar, A A; Biswas, A; Ramakrishnan, M A; Singh, Vijendra P; Srivastava, S K

    2004-11-01

    An investigation was carried out to study the antibiotic sensitivity of avian strains of Pasteurella multocida and to select an effective antimicrobial agent for control of avian pasteurellosis in India. A total of 123 strains of P. multocida recently isolated from different avian species (chicken, duck, turkey, quail, and goose), from different regions of India were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using 20 different antibiotics. Absolute resistance was observed against sulfadiazine. The studies indicated that the strains were most sensitive to chloramphenicol (73.98%), followed by enrofloxacin (71.54%), lincomycin (64.23%), norfloxacin (61.79%) and doxycycline-HCl (56.91%). The majority of the strains were found to exhibit intermediate sensitivity. Chloramphenicol was selected and suggested for treatment. Antibiogram studies also revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of P. multocida among Indian poultry.

  10. Atrophic rhinitis caused by Pasteurella multocida type D: morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Martineau-Doizé, B; Dumas, G; Larochelle, R; Frantz, J C; Martineau, G P

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the distribution and the extent of atrophy caused by Pasteurella multocida in the nasal conchae, experimental piglets were injected intramuscularly at seven days of age with either two or four 50% mouse lethal doses per kg body weight of P. multocida type D dermonecrotoxin. Experimental and control piglets were killed four, six and ten days postinjection. Serial transverse paraffin embedded sections of the noses were cut throughout the entire length of the nasal conchae. The area of the nasal ventral conchae was measured and the morphometric index of the nasal cavity was calculated. It was observed that P. multocida type D dermonecrotoxin induced severe atrophy of the nasal ventral conchae. This atrophy was present along the entire conchae. However, it was most severe at the level of the first and second premolar teeth. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:1889032

  11. Effect of Pasteurella multocida toxin on bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H; Frandsen, P L

    1992-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), which is the primary etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs, was found to stimulate bone resorption in vitro. This stimulation was observed both in cultures of murine calvaria by measuring the release of calcium and of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase and in murine long bone cultures by measuring the release of calcium. Both systems showed the same dose response curve, with the maximal effect at a concentration of 5 ng/ml. The effect on calvaria was studied in more detail. PMT increased bone resorption 24 h after its addition and always had to be present to express an effect. Calcitonin was able to inhibit this increase of resorption completely, and inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis suppressed it partially. Although the data show an effect of PMT on bone tissue, the results do not exclude an action on cells in the nasal cavity, which could indirectly stimulate bone resorption. PMID:1452328

  12. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Noor-Khairul; Zam, Zarifah; Mdnoor, Siti-Suraya; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.

  13. Immunization of Mice with Components of Pasteurella multocida1

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kunwar K.; Foster, John W.; Dawe, Donald L.; Brown, John; Davis, Richard B.

    1970-01-01

    Log-phase cells of Pasteurella multocida strain P-1059 were used to prepare isolated culture filtrate, cell wall, and cytoplasmic components. Culture filtrate was further separated by column chromatography. A portion of cytoplasm and culture filtrate was conjugated to ferritin by means of metaxylylene diisocyanate. Cell walls induced more protection in mice than the conjugated or unconjugated cytoplasm or culture filtrate. The cell walls caused edema and erythema when given intradermally in rabbits, whereas cytoplasm and culture filtrate produced dermal necrosis. The first of four chromatographically separated fractions of culture filtrate was possibly more immunogenic in mice than cell walls. This fraction was less reactive intradermally in rabbits than cell walls but more reactive than the other fractions. PMID:5497393

  14. Recovery of Pasteurella multocida from experimentally-exposed freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Miller, S L; Botzler, R G

    1995-07-01

    We determined how long Pasteurella multocida could survive in experimentally-exposed freshwater snails. Physa virginea were collected from the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Glenn County, California (USA), an enzootic site for avian cholera. Exposure to water containing up to 10(7) P. multocida per ml did not produce observable changes or mortality in snails. A minimum of 84 P. multocida per snail was necessary for detection among the normal snail bacterial flora. When snails were exposed to P. multocida in vials containing 10(7) bacteria per ml, P. multocida was detected for up to 72 hours in snails. When uninoculated snails were placed in aquaria containing 10(6) P. multocida per ml, P. multocida was not detected within the snails; further, P. multocida was detected in the water for only 24 hours at this level. Based on these results, we propose that P. virginea is not an effective reservoir for P. multocida.

  15. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  16. Structural basis of hyaluronan degradation by Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songlin; Kelly, Stephen J.; Lamani, Ejvis; Ferraroni, Marta; Jedrzejas, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase (spnHL) is a pathogenic bacterial spreading factor and cleaves hyaluronan, an important constituent of the extra– cellular matrix of connective tissues, through an enzymatic β–elimination process, different from the hyaluronan degradation by hydrolases in animals. The mechanism of hyaluronan binding and degradation was proposed based on the 1.56 Å resolution crystal structure, substrate modeling and mutagenesis studies on spnHL. Five mutants, R243V, N349A, H399A, Y408F and N580G, were constructed and their activities confirmed our mechanism hypothesis. The important roles of Tyr408, Asn349 and His399 in enzyme catalysis were proposed, explained and confirmed by mutant studies. The remaining weak enzymatic activity of the H399A mutant, the role of the free carboxylate group on the glucuronate residue, the enzymatic behavior on chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate, and the small activity increase in the N580G mutant were explained based on this mechanism. A possible function of the C–terminal β–sheet domain is to modulate enzyme activity through binding to calcium ions. PMID:10716923

  17. On-line separation and characterization of hyaluronan oligosaccharides derived from radical depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals are widely implicated in the oxidation of carbohydrates in biological and industrial processes and are often responsible for their structural modification resulting in functional damage. In this study, the radical depolymerization of the polysaccharide hyaluronan was studied in a reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton Chemistry. A simple method for isolation and identification of the resulting non-sulfated oligosaccharide products of oxidative depolymerization was established. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides were analyzed using ion-pairing reversed phase high performance liquid chromotography coupled with tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. The sequence of saturated hyaluronan oligosaccharides having even- and odd-numbers of saccharide units, afforded through oxidative depolymerization, were identified. This study represents a simple, effective ‘fingerprinting’ protocol for detecting the damage done to hyaluronan by oxidative radicals. This study should help reveal the potential biological outcome of reactive-oxygen radical-mediated depolymerization of hyaluronan. PMID:23768593

  18. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  19. TGF-beta 1 stimulation of cell locomotion utilizes the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM and hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    TGF-beta is a potent stimulator of motility in a variety of cell types. It has recently been shown that hyaluronan (HA) can directly promote locomotion of cells through interaction with the HA receptor RHAMM. We have investigated the role of RHAMM and HA in TGF-beta-stimulated locomotion and show that TGF-beta triggers the transcription, synthesis and membrane expression of the RHAMM receptor and the secretion of HA coincident with the induction of the locomotory response. This was demonstrated by both incubating cells with exogenous TGF-beta 1 and by stimulating the production of bioactive TGF-beta 1 in tumor cells transfected with TGF-beta 1 under the control of the metallothionein promoter. TGF-beta 1-induced locomotion was suppressed by antibodies that prevented HA/RHAMM interaction, using polyclonal antibodies to either RHAMM fusion protein or RHAMM peptides, or mAbs to purified RHAMM. Peptides corresponding to the HA-binding motif of RHAMM also suppressed TGF-beta 1-induced increases in motility rate. Spontaneous locomotion of fibrosarcoma cells was blocked by neutralizing secreted TGF-beta with panspecific TGF-beta antibodies and by inhibition of TGF- beta 1 secretion with antisense oligonucleotides. Polyclonal anti-RHAMM fusion protein antibodies and peptide from the RHAMM HA-binding motif also suppressed the spontaneous motility rate of fibrosarcoma cells. These data suggest that fibrosarcoma cell locomotion requires TGF-beta, and the pathway by which TGF-beta stimulates locomotion uses the HA receptor RHAMM and HA. PMID:7693717

  20. TGF-beta 1 stimulation of cell locomotion utilizes the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM and hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Samuel, S K; Hurta, R A; Spearman, M A; Wright, J A; Turley, E A; Greenberg, A H

    1993-11-01

    TGF-beta is a potent stimulator of motility in a variety of cell types. It has recently been shown that hyaluronan (HA) can directly promote locomotion of cells through interaction with the HA receptor RHAMM. We have investigated the role of RHAMM and HA in TGF-beta-stimulated locomotion and show that TGF-beta triggers the transcription, synthesis and membrane expression of the RHAMM receptor and the secretion of HA coincident with the induction of the locomotory response. This was demonstrated by both incubating cells with exogenous TGF-beta 1 and by stimulating the production of bioactive TGF-beta 1 in tumor cells transfected with TGF-beta 1 under the control of the metallothionein promoter. TGF-beta 1-induced locomotion was suppressed by antibodies that prevented HA/RHAMM interaction, using polyclonal antibodies to either RHAMM fusion protein or RHAMM peptides, or mAbs to purified RHAMM. Peptides corresponding to the HA-binding motif of RHAMM also suppressed TGF-beta 1-induced increases in motility rate. Spontaneous locomotion of fibrosarcoma cells was blocked by neutralizing secreted TGF-beta with panspecific TGF-beta antibodies and by inhibition of TGF-beta 1 secretion with antisense oligonucleotides. Polyclonal anti-RHAMM fusion protein antibodies and peptide from the RHAMM HA-binding motif also suppressed the spontaneous motility rate of fibrosarcoma cells. These data suggest that fibrosarcoma cell locomotion requires TGF-beta, and the pathway by which TGF-beta stimulates locomotion uses the HA receptor RHAMM and HA.

  1. Altered expression of hyaluronan, HAS1-2, and HYAL1-2 in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Siponen, Maria; Kullaa, Arja; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucosal disease of unclear etiology and of unresolved pathogenesis. Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan involved in inflammation and tumor progression. However, its presence in OLP has not been reported. We therefore aimed to study the immunohistochemical expression of HA, its receptor CD44, hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3), and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in OLP. The presence of HA, CD44, HAS1-3, and HYAL1-2 was studied by immunohistochemical methods in 55 OLP and 23 control oral mucosal specimens (CTR). The localization, intensity, and differences of the epithelial expression between OLP and CTRs were analyzed. HA and CD44 were found on cell membranes in the epithelial basal and intermediate layers in CTR and OLP specimens. The HA staining intensity was stronger in the basal layer of the epithelium in OLP than in CTRs (P < 0.001). HAS1 (P = 0.001) and HAS2 (P < 0.001) showed stronger staining in the basal and weaker staining in the superficial (P < 0.001) epithelial layers in OLP than in CTRs. The immunostaining of HAS3 was low in both OLP and CTRs. Positive HYAL1 and HYAL2 staining were mainly found in the basal and intermediate epithelial layers, and their intensities were significantly increased in OLP, except HYAL 2 in the intermediate epithelial layer. HA, HAS1-2, and HYAL1-2 have altered expression in OLP compared to CTRs and may therefore have a role in OLP pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sharing of Pasteurella spp. between free-ranging bighorn sheep and feral goats.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen M; Hunter, David L; Foreyt, William J; Cassirer, E Frances; Rimler, Richard B; Ward, Alton C S

    2003-10-01

    Pasteurella spp. were isolated from feral goats and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area bordering Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (USA). Biovariant 1 Pasteurella haemolytica organisms were isolated from one goat and one of two bighorn sheep found in close association. Both isolates produced leukotoxin and had identical electrophoretic patterns of DNA fragments following cutting with restriction endonuclease HaeIII. Similarly Pasteurella multocida multocida a isolates cultured from the goat and one of the bighorn sheep had D type capsules, serotype 4 somatic antigens, produced dermonecrotoxin and had identical HaeIII electrophoretic profiles. A biovariant U(beta) P.haemolytica strain isolated from two other feral goats, not known to have been closely associated with bighorn sheep, did not produce leukotoxin but had biochemical utilization and HaeIII electrophoretic profiles identical to those of isolates from bighorn sheep. It was concluded that identical Pasteurella strains were shared by the goats and bighorn sheep. Although the direction of transmission could not be established, evidence suggests transmission of strains from goats to bighorn sheep. Goats may serve as a reservoir of Pasteurella strains that may be virulent in bighorn sheep; therefore, goats in bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to prevent contact with bighorn sheep. Bighorn sheep which have nose-to-nose contact with goats should be removed from the habitat.

  3. Pasteurella multocida Toxin Triggers RANKL-Independent Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sushmita; Kloos, Bianca; Harre, Ulrike; Schett, Georg; Kubatzky, Katharina F

    2017-01-01

    Bone remodeling is a continuous process to retain the structural integrity and function of the skeleton. A tight coupling is maintained between osteoclast-mediated resorption of old or damaged bones and osteoblast-mediated formation of new bones for bone homeostasis. While osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclasts are hematopoietic in origin and derived from myeloid precursor cells. Osteoclast differentiation is driven by two cytokines, cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Imbalances in the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts result in the development of bone disorders. Bacterially caused porcine atrophic rhinitis is characterized by a loss of nasal ventral conche bones and a distortion of the snout. While Bordetella bronchiseptica strains cause mild and reversible symptoms, infection of pigs with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida strains causes a severe and irreversible decay. The responsible virulence factor Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) contains a deamidase activity in its catalytical domain that constitutively activates specific heterotrimeric G proteins to induce downstream signaling cascades. While osteoblasts are inhibited by the toxin, osteoclasts are activated, thus skewing bone remodeling toward excessive bone degradation. Still, the mechanism by which PMT interferes with bone homeostasis, and the reason for this unusual target tissue is not yet well understood. Here, we show that PMT has the potential to differentiate bone marrow-derived macrophages into functional osteoclasts. This toxin-mediated differentiation process is independent of RANKL, a cytokine believed to be indispensable for triggering osteoclastogenesis, as addition of osteoprotegerin to PMT-treated macrophages does not show any effect on PMT-induced osteoclast formation. Although RANKL is not a prerequisite, toxin-primed macrophages show enhanced responsiveness to low concentrations of RANKL

  4. Pasteurella multocida Toxin Triggers RANKL-Independent Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sushmita; Kloos, Bianca; Harre, Ulrike; Schett, Georg; Kubatzky, Katharina F.

    2017-01-01

    Bone remodeling is a continuous process to retain the structural integrity and function of the skeleton. A tight coupling is maintained between osteoclast-mediated resorption of old or damaged bones and osteoblast-mediated formation of new bones for bone homeostasis. While osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclasts are hematopoietic in origin and derived from myeloid precursor cells. Osteoclast differentiation is driven by two cytokines, cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Imbalances in the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts result in the development of bone disorders. Bacterially caused porcine atrophic rhinitis is characterized by a loss of nasal ventral conche bones and a distortion of the snout. While Bordetella bronchiseptica strains cause mild and reversible symptoms, infection of pigs with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida strains causes a severe and irreversible decay. The responsible virulence factor Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) contains a deamidase activity in its catalytical domain that constitutively activates specific heterotrimeric G proteins to induce downstream signaling cascades. While osteoblasts are inhibited by the toxin, osteoclasts are activated, thus skewing bone remodeling toward excessive bone degradation. Still, the mechanism by which PMT interferes with bone homeostasis, and the reason for this unusual target tissue is not yet well understood. Here, we show that PMT has the potential to differentiate bone marrow-derived macrophages into functional osteoclasts. This toxin-mediated differentiation process is independent of RANKL, a cytokine believed to be indispensable for triggering osteoclastogenesis, as addition of osteoprotegerin to PMT-treated macrophages does not show any effect on PMT-induced osteoclast formation. Although RANKL is not a prerequisite, toxin-primed macrophages show enhanced responsiveness to low concentrations of RANKL

  5. Promotion of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transformation by Hyaluronan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    resistance in cancer cells by hyaluronan. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 25285-25288, 2003. 4. Krause S, Maffini M , Soto A and Sonnenschein C: A novel 3D in vitro...Johnson, K.R., Lakins, J.N., Rozenberg, G.I., Gefen, A ., Reinhart-King, C.A., Margulies, S.S., Dembo, M ., Boettiger, D., Hammer, D.A., and Weaver, V.M...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection

  6. Activation of the FGFR-STAT3 pathway in breast cancer cells induces a hyaluronan-rich microenvironment that licenses tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Laura R.; Chuntova, Pavlina; Bade, Lindsey K.; Beadnell, Thomas C.; Leon, Ronald P.; Brady, Nicholas J.; Ryu, Yungil; Goldberg, Jodi E.; Schmechel, Stephen C.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; McCarthy, James B.; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) contributes to breast cancer growth, progression and therapeutic resistance. Due to the complex nature of the FGF/FGFR axis, and the numerous effects of FGFR activation on tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment, the specific mechanisms through which aberrant FGFR activity contributes to breast cancer are not completely understood. We show here that FGFR activation induces accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) and that blocking HA synthesis decreases proliferation, migration and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, FGFR-mediated HA accumulation requires activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, which regulates expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and subsequent HA synthesis. Using a novel in vivo model of FGFR-dependent tumor growth, we demonstrate that STAT3 inhibition decreases both FGFR-driven tumor growth and HA levels within the tumor. Finally, our results suggest that combinatorial therapies inhibiting both FGFR activity and HA synthesis is more effective than targeting either pathway alone and may be a relevant therapeutic approach for breast cancers associated with high levels of FGFR activity. In conclusion, these studies indicate a novel targetable mechanism through which FGFR activation in breast cancer cells induces a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:24197137

  7. Evaluation of hyaluronan gel (Gengigel(®) ) as a topical applicant in the treatment of gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Sapna, Nadiger; Vandana, Kharidi Laxman

    2011-08-01

      To clinically and histopathologically evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of 0.2% hyaluronan gel alone and with mechanical therapy on gingivitis. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining technique was attempted to routinely determine its diagnostic and prognostic dependability for periodontal lesions.   In each of the 28 gingivitis patients, the four quadrants were subjected to different treatments: scaling, scaling + topical hyaluronan gel, only topical hyaluronan gel, and topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, and on days 7, 14, and 21. Biopsies were taken from each quadrant, inflammatory infiltrates were graded, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count was measured before and after treatment.   A significant reduction was seen in clinical parameters, inflammatory infiltrates, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count within the groups. The effect of topical + intrasulcular gel was equivalent to scaling (P > 0.05). Topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel application demonstrated a better reduction than topical hyaluronan gel alone.   Hyaluronan gel is an effective topical agent for treating gingivitis, along with scaling and intrasulcular application. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count can be used as a histopathological indicator in cases of non-responsive gingivitis to assess the severity of gingival inflammation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Bronchial epithelial injury in the context of alloimmunity promotes lymphocytic bronchiolitis through hyaluronan expression

    PubMed Central

    Stober, Vandy P.; Szczesniak, Christopher; Childress, Quiana; Heise, Rebecca L.; Bortner, Carl; Hollingsworth, John W.; Neuringer, Isabel P.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial injury is often detected in lung allografts, however, its relation to rejection pathogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that sterile epithelial injury can lead to alloimmune activation in the lung. We performed adoptive transfer of mismatched splenocytes into recombinant activating gene 1 (Rag1)-deficient mice to induce an alloimmune status and then exposed these mice to naphthalene to induce sterile epithelial injury. We evaluated lungs for presence of alloimmune lung injury, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hyaluronan expression, examined the effect of ER stress induction on hyaluronan expression and lymphocyte trapping by bronchial epithelia in vitro, and examined airways from patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and normal controls histologically. We found that Rag1-deficient mice that received mismatched splenocytes and naphthalene injection displayed bronchial epithelial ER stress, peribronchial hyaluronan expression, and lymphocytic bronchitis. Bronchial epithelial ER stress led to the expression of lymphocyte-trapping hyaluronan cables in vitro. Blockade of hyaluronan binding ameliorated naphthalene-induced lymphocytic bronchitis. ER stress was present histologically in >40% of bronchial epithelia of BOS patients and associated with subepithelial hyaluronan deposition. We conclude that sterile bronchial epithelial injury in the context of alloimmunity can lead to sustained ER stress and promote allograft rejection through hyaluronan expression. PMID:24748604

  9. Molecular Identification and Epidemiological Tracing of Pasteurella multocida Meningitis in a Baby

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, Patrick; Siegrist, Hans H.; Burnens, André P.; Kuhnert, Peter; Mendez, Purita; Prétat, Gérard; Lienhard, Reto; Nicolet, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of Pasteurella multocida meningitis in a 1-month-old baby exposed to close contact with two dogs and a cat but without any known history of injury by these animals. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate from the baby allowed identification at the subspecies level and pointed to the cat as a possible source of infection. Molecular typing of Pasteurella isolates from the animals, from the baby, and from unrelated animals clearly confirmed that the cat harbored the same P. multocida subsp. septica strain on its tonsils as the one isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of the baby. This case stresses the necessity of informing susceptible hosts at risk of contracting zoonotic agents about some basic hygiene rules when keeping pets. In addition, this study illustrates the usefulness of molecular methods for identification and epidemiological tracing of Pasteurella isolates. PMID:10699029

  10. Pasteurella multocida infection in a cirrhotic patient: case report, microbiological aspects and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Migliore, E; Serraino, C; Brignone, C; Ferrigno, D; Cardellicchio, A; Pomero, F; Castagna, E; Osenda, M; Fenoglio, L

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurellosis is a zoonosis often caused by cat or dog bites or scratches, or by direct exposure to their secretions. Pasteurella multocida is the main pathogen involved in infections through domestic animal bites; generally a local infection characterized by its particular virulence with consequent rapid onset. Serious infection has also been reported in persons affected by comorbidity without domestic animal bite injuries. Here we report the case of a woman with lower limb exudating vesicular skin ulcers affected by liver cirrhosis, bilateral knee arthritis, septicemia with positive blood culture and synovial fluid culture for Pasteurella multocida. The etiology of Pasteurella multocida must be borne in mind in cases of sepsis in immunodeficient individuals, such as the cirrhotic patient, as well as exposure to domestic animals.

  11. An atypical presentation of a Pasteurella multocida infection following a cat bite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Flanagan, Brigitte; Henning, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial organism that commonly causes cellulitis after animal bites, especially cat bites. We report an unusual vesiculopustular infection of the hand following a domestic cat bite. Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured from the wound and the patient was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium. Further history revealed that the patient's cat had nibbled on her hand. Pasteurella usually is resistant to many of the typical empiric antibiotics used to treat skin infections. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (500 mg 3 times daily) is the treatment of choice for patients who have an infected cat or dog bite with no known bacterial cause. A thorough patient history is needed to promptly arrive at a proper diagnosis for an atypical presentation of a common disease.

  12. Antigenic and virulence properties of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Petras, S F; Chidambaram, M; Illyes, E F; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M; Reese, C P

    1995-01-01

    Antigenic properties of two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica, strains 59B0071 and 59B0072, that do not produce detectable leukotoxin were investigated. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with a number of polyclonal sera from animals recovering from pasteurellosis revealed that both mutants secreted a variety of antigens that were also present in cultures of several wild-type strains. These antigens ranged from about 100 to 15 kDa. Mutant strain 59B0071 was found to be totally deficient in leukotoxin, as judged not only by Western blotting but also by cytotoxicity assays with bovine lymphoma (BL-3) cells or bovine polymorphonuclear cells as targets. The mutant strain 59B0071 had normal levels of a secreted sialylglycoprotease, however. When strains were tested for virulence in goat and cattle challenge experiments, a reduction in mortality and lung lesions was observed with the mutant 59B0071 in comparison with results obtained with wild-type strains. These results are consistent with an important role for leukotoxin in P. haemolytica virulence and suggest that leukotoxin-negative mutants may be useful tools in the investigation of other virulence properties involved in P. haemolytica infections. PMID:7868224

  13. Pasteurella haemolytica antigens associated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, D A; Simons, K R; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J; Clinkenbeard, K D

    1989-01-01

    Antigens associated with whole Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A serotype 1, a capsular carbohydrate-protein extract of the organism, and P. haemolytica leukotoxin were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antigens of the electrophoresed preparations were detected by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with sera from cattle which were either nonvaccinated or vaccinated with live or killed P. haemolytica vaccines and had variable degrees of resistance to experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis. Distinct, easily recognizable antigens of these preparations were identified, and the antibody responses to these antigens were quantified by densitometry. To determine their importance to disease resistance, we then compared antibody responses with experimental lesion scores. Antibody reactivity to surface antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and present in two or more of the preparations were detected at 86, 66, 51, 49, 34, 31, and 16 kilodaltons (kDa). Of these, antibody responses to antigens at 86, 49, and 31 kDa appeared most important based on their concentration and significance levels. Antibody reactivity to leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and common with important surface antigens were detected at 86, 66, and 49 kDa. Antibody responses to unique leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance were present at 92 and 58 kDa. Images PMID:2917783

  14. Biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida on bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ramachandranpillai; Nair, Govindapillai Krishnan; Mini, Mangattumuruppel; Joseph, Leo; Saseendranath, Mapranath Raghavan; John, Koshy

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are structural communities of bacterial cells enshrined in a self produced polymeric matrix. The studies on biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida have become imperative since it is a respiratory pathogen and its biofilm mode could possibly be one of its virulence factors for survival inside a host. The present study describes a biofilm assay for P. multocida on inert hydrophilic material called bentonite clay. The potential of the organism to form in vitro biofilm was assessed by growing the organism under nutrient restriction along with the inert substrate bentonite clay, which will provide a surface for attachment. For quantification of biofilm, plate count by the spread plate method was employed. Capsule production of the attached bacteria was demonstrated by light microscopic examination following Maneval staining and capsular polysaccharide estimation was done using standard procedures. The biofilm formation peaked on the third day of incubation (1.54 ×10(6) cfu/g of bentonite clay) while the planktonic cells were found to be at a maximum on day one post inoculation (8.10 ×10(8) cfu/ml of the broth). Maneval staining of late logarithmic phase biofilm cultures revealed large aggregates of bacterial cells, bacteria appearing as chains or as a meshwork. The capsular polysaccharide estimation of biofilm cells revealed a 3.25 times increase over the planktonic bacteria. The biofilm cells cultured on solid media also produced some exclusive colony morphotypes.

  15. The Pasteurella multocida toxin is encoded within a lysogenic bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; Bevir, Thomas; Lax, Alistair J

    2004-01-01

    Toxigenic strains of Pasteurella multocida produce a 146 kDa toxin (PMT) that acts as a potent mitogen. Sequence analysis of the structural gene for PMT, toxA, previously suggested it was horizontally acquired, because it had a low G + C content relative to the P. multocida genome. To address this, the sequence of DNA flanking toxA was determined. The sequence analysis showed the presence of homologues to bacteriophage tail protein genes and a bacteriophage antirepressor, suggesting that the toxin gene resides within a prophage. In addition to phage genes, the toxA flanking DNA contained a homologue of a restriction/modification system that was shown to be functional. The presence of a bacteriophage was demonstrated in spent medium from toxigenic P. multocida isolates. Its production was increased by mitomycin C addition, a treatment that is known to induce the lytic cycle of many temperate bacteriophages. The genomes of bacteriophages from three different toxigenic P. multocida strains had similar but not identical restriction profiles, and were approximately 45-50 kb in length. The prophages from two of these had integrated at the same site in the chromosome, in a tRNA gene. Southern blot analysis confirmed that these bacteriophages contained the toxA gene.

  16. Antigenicity of partial fragments of recombinant Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida serogroup D strain, which produces P. multocida toxin (PMT), is a widespread and harmful pathogen of respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) in swine. Vaccination has been considered the most desirable and effective approach for controlling the diseases caused by toxigenic P. multocida. To investigate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of partial fragments of recombinant PMT, recombinant proteins of the N-terminal (PMT-A), middle (PMT-B), Cterminal (PMT-C), and middle-C-terminal (PMT2.3) regions of PMT were successfully produced in an Escherichia coli expression system. The molecular masses of PMT-A, PMT-B, PMT-C, and PMT2.3 were ca. 53, 55, 35, and 84 kDa, respectively, purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity column chromatography. All the recombinant proteins except for PMT-A showed immune responses to antisera obtained from a swine showing symptoms of PAR. Moreover, high titers of PMT-specific antibodies were raised from mice immunized with each of the recombinant proteins; however, the immunoreactivities of the antibodies to authentic PMT and heat-inactivated whole bacteria were different, respectively. In the protection study, the highest protection against homologous challenge was shown in the case of PMT2.3; relatively poor protections occurred for the other PMT fragments.

  17. Membrane interaction of Pasteurella multocida toxin involves sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael C; Ho, Mengfei; Maharjan, Ram; Clemons, Nathan C; Bannai, Yuka; Waites, Mark A; Faulkner, Melinda J; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Blanke, Steven R; Rienstra, Chad M; Wilson, Brenda A

    2011-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is an AB toxin that causes pleiotropic effects in targeted host cells. The N-terminus of PMT (PMT-N) is considered to harbor the membrane receptor binding and translocation domains responsible for mediating cellular entry and delivery of the C-terminal catalytic domain into the host cytosol. Previous studies have implicated gangliosides as the host receptors for PMT binding. To gain further insight into the binding interactions involved in PMT binding to cell membranes, we explored the role of various membrane components in PMT binding, utilizing four different approaches: (a) TLC-overlay binding experiments with (125) I-labeled PMT, PMT-N or the C-terminus of PMT; (b) pull-down experiments using reconstituted membrane liposomes with full-length PMT; (c) surface plasmon resonance analysis of PMT-N binding to reconstituted membrane liposomes; (d) and surface plasmon resonance analysis of PMT-N binding to HEK-293T cell membranes without or with sphingomyelinase, phospholipase D or trypsin treatment. The results obtained revealed that, in our experimental system, full-length PMT and PMT-N did not bind to gangliosides, including monoasialogangliosides GM(1) , GM(2) or GM(3) , but instead bound to membrane phospholipids, primarily the abundant sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine with other lipid components. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the importance of sphingomyelin for PMT binding to membranes and suggest the involvement of a protein co-receptor.

  18. Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D C; Jolley, W L; Purdy, C W

    1996-01-01

    Neuraminidases produced by 16 strains of Pasteurella multocida (serotypes 1 to 16) were characterized by molecular weight, substrate specificity, and antigenic identity. After growth in a chemically defined medium, stage I (lyophilized) culture supernatants were assayed for activity with N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase produced by P. multocida A:3 was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified P. multocida A:3 neuraminidase was employed to immunize rabbits, and the resulting antiserum reduced the activity of the P. multocida A:3 enzyme by 40.3%. This antiserum also reduced the activities of the neuraminidases produced by other serotypes by between 30.8 and 59.6%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. Each of the 16 serotypes examined produced a neuraminidase with a molecular weight of approximately 500,000. In addition, all 16 high-molecular-weight neuraminidases showed similar substrate specificities. On the basis of these data, it appears that the high-molecular-weight neuraminidases produced by different P. multocida serotypes are quite similar. PMID:8606116

  19. Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D C; Jolley, W L; Purdy, C W

    1993-01-01

    Neuraminidases produced by 16 strains of Pasteurella haemolytica (serotypes 1 to 16) were characterized by molecular weight, antigenic identity, and substrate specificity. After growth in a chemically defined medium, stage I (lyophilized) culture supernatants were assayed for activity with N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Neuraminidase produced by P. haemolytica serotype A1 (Ph A1) was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified Ph A1 neuraminidase was used to immunize rabbits, and the resultant antiserum reduced the activity of Ph A1 neuraminidase by 46%. This antiserum also reduced the activity of neuraminidase produced by the other serotypes by between 15 and 66%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. Fifteen of the 16 serotypes examined produced a neuraminidase with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000 to 200,000. One serotype (serotype 11) produced no material with neuraminidase activity. In addition, all 15 high-molecular-weight neuraminidases showed similar substrate specificities. That is, they were all most active against N-acetylneuramin lactose and least active against bovine submaxillary mucin. On the basis of these results, it appears that the high-molecular-weight neuraminidases produced by the different P. haemolytica serotypes are quite similar. PMID:8406865

  20. Transcriptional Response of Pasteurella multocida to Nutrient Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Paustian, Michael L.; May, Barbara J.; Kapur, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria often encounter environments where nutrient availability is limited, and they must adapt accordingly. To identify Pasteurella multocida genes that are differentially expressed during nutrient limitation, we utilized whole-genome microarrays to compare levels of gene expression during growth in rich and minimal media. Our analysis showed that the levels of expression of a total of 669 genes, representing approximately one-third of the genome, were detectably altered over the course of the experiment. A large number (n = 439) of genes, including those involved in energy metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and binding, were expressed at higher levels in rich medium, suggesting that, upon exposure to a rich environment, P. multocida immediately begins to turn on many energy-intensive biosynthetic pathways or, conversely, turns these genes off when it is exposed to a nutrient-deficient environment. Genes with increased expression in minimal medium (n = 230) included those encoding amino acid biosynthesis and transport systems, outer membrane proteins, and heat shock proteins. Importantly, our analysis also identified a large number (n = 164) of genes with unknown functions whose expression was altered during nutrient limitation. Overall, the results of our study show that a wide repertoire of genes, many of which have yet to be functionally classified, undergo transcriptional regulation in P. multocida in response to growth in minimal medium and provide a strong foundation to investigate the transcriptional response of this multispecies pathogen to growth in a nutrient-limited environment. PMID:12057970

  1. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50–300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Ampr (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25065983

  2. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-10-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50-300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Amp(r) (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty female turkeys, inoculated into the caudal thoracic air sacs with Pasteurella multocida were examined from 0 to 6 hours post-inoculation (PI). The air sac reacted rapidly and intensely with exudation of heterophils. Circulating leukocyte and thrombocyte numbers remained normal except for an absolute lymphopenia by 6 hours PI. P. multocida was initially isolated from blood at 3 hours PI. Total cell counts increased markedly in air sac lavage fluids by 1.5 hours PI and continued to increase until 6 hours PI. Heterophils predominated in lavage fluids (greater than 94%), with macrophages comprising the remaining cells. Microscopically occasional heterophils were present within air sac blood vessels and perivascularly by 0.5 hour PI. They became more numerous by 1.5 and 3 hours PI when transepithelial migration into the air sac lumen was seen. By 6 hours PI, there was diffuse, severe swelling of air sac epithelium and mesothelium, and bacteria were located in air sac interstitium. Ultrastructurally, endothelial and air sac epithelial cells were swollen and vacuolated Interdigitating processes of air sac epithelial cells were separated. These results indicate that air sacs can be the portal of entry for P. multocida into the systemic circulation, probably via damaged air sac epithelium.

  4. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Glen C; DeLong, Walter J; Paz, Julia L; Shafii, Bahman; Price, William J; Ward, Alton C

    2003-07-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a highly diverse group of bacteria recognized as important pathogens. Although P. multocida is not ordinarily associated with disease in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), numerous isolates were cultured in high numbers from free-ranging bighorn sheep in the Hells Canyon area of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon (USA) during the winter of 1995-96. Animals captured in Hells Canyon and held in captivity, and their offspring, also harbored P. multocida. Biochemical utilization tests on 90 isolates identified three subspecies: P. multocida multocida a (n = 54); P. multocida multocida b (n = 13); and P. multocida gallicida (n = 15); and a non-speciated biotype, U6 (n = 8). Genomic DNA digestion with restriction endonuclease Hha I separated the isolates into 62 unique restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Capsular type A was predominant (72% of isolates). Only one isolate type, which may have been transmitted from a feral goat, was capsular type D, possessed the structural gene, toxA, for dermonecrotoxin detected by polymerase chain reaction, and produced toxin as determined by monoclonal antibody immunoblot. In conclusion, bighorn sheep in this study carried diverse types of generally non-toxigenic P. multocida associated with epizootic pneumonia.

  5. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  6. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in wetlands following avian cholera outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Lehr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, affects waterbirds across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Once an epizootic begins, contamination of the wetland environment likely facilitates the transmission of P. multocida to susceptible birds. To evaluate the ability of P. multocida serotype-1, the most common serotype associated with avian cholera in waterfowl in western and central North America, to persist in wetlands and to identify environmental factors associated with its persistence, we collected water and sediment samples from 23 wetlands during winters and springs of 1996a??99. These samples were collected during avian cholera outbreaks and for up to 13 wk following initial sampling. We recovered P. multocida from six wetlands that were sampled following the initial outbreaks, but no P. multocida was isolated later than 7 wk after the initial outbreak sampling. We found no significant relationship between the probability of recovery of P. multocida during resampling and the abundance of the bacterium recovered during initial sampling, the substrate from which isolates were collected, isolate virulence, or water quality conditions previously suggested to be related to the abundance or survival of P. multocida. Our results indicate that wetlands are unlikely to serve as a long-term reservoir for P. multocida because the bacterium does not persist in wetlands for long time periods following avian cholera outbreaks.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida isolated from swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Szentesi-Samu, Katalin; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Magyar, Tibor

    2009-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes infectious diseases in a wide range of animal species. Antimicrobial therapy is still an effective tool for treatment. Generally, P. multocida isolates are susceptible to most of the widely used commercial antimicrobial agents but their excessive and unjustified use accelerates the emergence of resistant strains. We defined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of 56 P. multocida strains isolated from poultry (20) and swine [16 P. multocida toxin (PMT) positive and 20 PMT negative] to 16 widely applied antibiotics (apramycin, cefquinome, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, neomycin, oxolinic acid, penicillin, trimethoprim potentiated sulphamethoxazole, sulphonamide compounds, tetracycline, tulathromycin) by the disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. However, the resistance to sulphonamides, tetracyclines, first-generation quinolones and aminoglycosides was remarkable, and thus the use of these compounds for the treatment of infection caused by P. multocida is not recommended. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity of the classical penicillin, the newer macrolide (tulathromycin), the third-generation fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin) and the fourth-generation cephalosporin (cefquinome) proved to be satisfactory against this bacterium.

  8. A RHAMM Mimetic Peptide Blocks Hyaluronan Signaling and Reduces Inflammation and Fibrogenesis in Excisional Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R.; Zalinska, Ewa; McCulloch, Lori; Amin, Ripal; Akentieva, Natalia; Winnik, Francoise; Savani, Rashmin; Bagli, Darius J.; Luyt, Len G.; Cowman, Mary K.; McCarthy, Jim B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan is activated by fragmentation and controls inflammation and fibroplasia during wound repair and diseases (eg, cancer). Hyaluronan-binding peptides were identified that modify fibrogenesis during skin wound repair. Peptides were selected from 7- to 15mer phage display libraries by panning with hyaluronan-Sepharose beads and assayed for their ability to block fibroblast migration in response to hyaluronan oligosaccharides (10 kDa). A 15mer peptide (P15-1), with homology to receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) hyaluronan binding sequences, was the most effective inhibitor. P15-1 bound to 10-kDa hyaluronan with an affinity of Kd = 10−7 and appeared to specifically mimic RHAMM since it significantly reduced binding of hyaluronan oligosaccharides to recombinant RHAMM but not to recombinant CD44 or TLR2,4, and altered wound repair in wild-type but not RHAMM−/− mice. One topical application of P15-1 to full-thickness excisional rat wounds significantly reduced wound macrophage number, fibroblast number, and blood vessel density compared to scrambled, negative control peptides. Wound collagen 1, transforming growth factor β-1, and α-smooth muscle actin were reduced, whereas tenascin C was increased, suggesting that P15-1 promoted a form of scarless healing. Signaling/microarray analyses showed that P15-1 blocks RHAMM-regulated focal adhesion kinase pathways in fibroblasts. These results identify a new class of reagents that attenuate proinflammatory, fibrotic repair by blocking hyaluronan oligosaccharide signaling. PMID:22889846

  9. High-molecular weight hyaluronan reduced renal PKC activation in genetically diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Micali, Antonio; Nastasi, Giancarlo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Rinaldi, Maria Grazia; Calatroni, Alberto; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Salvatore

    2010-11-01

    The cluster determinant (CD44) seems to play a key role in tissues injured by diabetes type 2. CD44 stimulation activates the protein kinase C (PKC) family which in turn activates the transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) responsible for the expression of the inflammation mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Regulation of CD44 interaction with its ligands depends greatly upon PKC. We investigated the effect of the treatment with high-molecular weight hyaluronan (HA) on diabetic nephropathy in genetically diabetic mice. BKS.Cg-m+/+Lepr(db) mice had elevated plasma insulin from 15 days of age and high blood sugar levels at 4 weeks. The severe nephropathy that developed was characterized by a marked increased in CD44 receptors, protein kinase C betaI, betaII, and epsilon (PKC(βI), PKC(βII), and PKCε) mRNA expression and the related protein products in kidney tissue. High levels of mRNA and related protein levels were also detected in the damaged kidney for NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, MMP-7, and iNOS. Chronic daily administration of high-molecular mass HA for 2 weeks significantly reduced CD44, PKC(βI), PKC(βII), and PKCα gene expression and the related protein production in kidney tissue and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, MMP-7, and iNOS expression and levels also decreased. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical data. However, blood parameters of diabetes were unchanged. These results suggest that the CD44 and PKC play an important role in diabetes and interaction of high-molecular weight HA with these proteins may reduce inflammation and secondary pathologies due to this disease.

  10. Inhibition of Hyaluronan Synthesis Reduces Versican and Fibronectin Levels in Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kate E.; Sun, Ying Ying; Vranka, Janice A.; Hayashi, Lauren; Acott, Ted S.

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS). Similarities between the HAS2 knockout mouse and the hdf mutant mouse, which has a mutation in the versican gene, suggest that HA and versican expression may be linked. In this study, the relationship between HA synthesis and levels of versican, fibronectin and several other ECM components in trabecular meshwork cells from the anterior segment of the eye was investigated. HA synthesis was inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), or reduced by RNAi silencing of each individual HAS gene. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated a reduction in mRNA and protein levels of versican and fibronectin. Hyaluronidase treatment also reduced versican and fibronectin levels. These effects could not be reversed by addition of excess glucose or glucosamine or exogenous HA to the culture medium. CD44, tenascin C and fibrillin-1 mRNA levels were reduced by 4MU treatment, but SPARC and CSPG6 mRNA levels were unaffected. Immunostaining of trabecular meshwork tissue after exposure to 4MU showed an altered localization pattern of HA-binding protein, versican and fibronectin. Reduction of versican by RNAi silencing did not affect HA concentration as assessed by ELISA. Together, these data imply that HA concentration affects synthesis of certain ECM components. Since precise regulation of the trabecular meshwork ECM composition and organization is required to maintain the aqueous humor outflow resistance and intraocular pressure homeostasis in the eye, coordinated coupling of HA levels and several of its ECM binding partners should facilitate this process. PMID:23139787

  11. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis alters sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation in ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yutaka; Kozawa, Eiji; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Eisuke; Futamura, Naohisa; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In chondrogenic differentiation, expression and collaboration of specific molecules, such as aggrecan and type II collagen, in extracellular matrix (ECM) are crucial. However, few studies have clarified the roles of hyaluronan (HA) in proteoglycan aggregation during chondrogenic differentiation. We assessed the roles of HA in sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation by means of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an HA synthase inhibitor, using ATDC5 cells. ATDC5 cells were treated with 0.5 mM 4-MU for 7 or 21 days after induction of chondrogenic differentiation with insulin. Depositions of sulfated glycosaminoglycans were evaluated with Alcian blue staining. mRNA expression of ECM molecules was determined using real-time RT-PCR. The deposition of aggrecan and versican was investigated with immunohistochemical staining using specific antibodies. Effects of 4-MU on HA concentrations were analyzed by HA binding assay. 4-MU suppressed the positivity of Alcian blue staining, although this delay was reversible. Interestingly, stronger positivity of Alcian blue staining was observed at day 21 in cultures with 4-MU discontinuation than in the control. 4-MU significantly increased the mRNA expression of aggrecan, versican, and type II collagen, which was consistent with increased deposition of aggrecan and versican. The HA concentration in ECM and cell-associated region was significantly suppressed with 4-MU treatment. We conclude that the inhibition of HA synthesis slows sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation despite the increased deposition of other ECM molecules. Transient starvation of HA with 4-MU accelerates chondrogenic ECM formation, suggesting its potential to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation with adequate use.

  12. Collagen Fragments Inhibit Hyaluronan Synthesis in Skin Fibroblasts in Response to Ultraviolet B (UVB)

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Katharina; Grandoch, Maria; Majora, Marc; Krutmann, Jean; Fischer, Jens W.

    2011-01-01

    UVB irradiation causes characteristic features of skin aging including remodeling of the dermal extracellular matrix. A key feature during this process is the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and cleavage of collagen. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a major component of the dermal matrix, decreases after chronic UVB exposure. However, the factors that govern the decline of HA synthesis during the course of actinic aging are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore whether collagen degradation causes inhibition of HA synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. After treatment of fibroblasts with collagen fragments (CF) in vitro, resolution of the actin cytoskeleton and inhibition of HA secretion occurred because of specific down-regulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression. The αvβ3-agonist, RGDS, latrunculin A, and an inhibitor of Rho-activated kinase inhibited HAS2 expression. Conversely, blocking antibodies to αvβ3 abolished the down-regulation of HAS2 and the cytoskeletal effects. Furthermore, inhibition of cofilin phosphorylation in response to CF was prevented by αvβ3-blocking antibodies. The key role of ERK signaling was shown by reduced nuclear accumulation of phosphoERK and of ELK-1 phosphorylation in response to CF. In addition, the ERK inhibitor PD98059 reduced HAS2 expression. Also, UVB irradiation of fibroblasts caused down-regulation of HAS2, which was sensitive to matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and to αvβ3-blocking antibodies. In conclusion, these data suggest that CF activate αvβ3-integrins and in turn inhibit Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphoERK, resulting in reduced HAS2 expression. Therefore, a novel mechanism is presented how proteolytic collagen cleavage may inhibit HA synthesis in dermal fibroblasts during extrinsic skin aging. PMID:21454612

  13. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  14. Hyaluronan Is Crucial for Stem Cell Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Russell M.L.; Hong, Xuechong; Wong, Mei Mei; Karamariti, Eirini; Bhaloo, Shirin Issa; Warren, Derek; Kong, Wei; Hu, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deciphering the extracellular signals that regulate SMC differentiation from stem cells is vital to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and for development of cell‐based therapies and tissue engineering. Hyaluronan (HA) has emerged as an important component of the stem cell niche, however its role during stem cell differentiation is a complicated and inadequately defined process. This study aimed to investigate the role of HA in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation toward a SMC lineage. ESCs were seeded on collagen‐IV in differentiation medium to generate ESC‐derived SMCs (esSMCs). Differentiation coincided with increased HA synthase (HAS) 2 expression, accumulation of extracellular HA and its assembly into pericellular matrices. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4‐methylumbelliferone (4MU), removal of the HA coat by hyaluronidase (HYAL) or HAS2 knockdown led to abrogation of SMC gene expression. HA activates ERK1/2 and suppresses EGFR signaling pathways via its principle receptor, CD44. EGFR inactivation coincided with increased binding to CD44, which was further augmented by addition of high molecular weight (HMW)‐HA either exogenously or via HAS2 overexpression through adenoviral gene transfer. HMW‐HA‐stimulated esSMCs displayed a functional role in vascular tissue engineering ex vivo, vasculogenesis in a matrigel plug model and SMC accumulation in neointimal lesions of vein grafts in mice. These findings demonstrate that HAS2‐induced HA synthesis and organization drives ESC‐SMC differentiation. Thus, remodeling of the HA microenvironment is a critical step in directing stem cell differentiation toward a vascular lineage, highlighting HA as a potential target for treatment of vascular diseases. Stem Cells 2016;34:1225–1238 PMID:26867148

  15. Characterisation of Pasteurella dagmatis-like isolates recovered from the feline oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Wehmann, Eniko; Makrai, László; Magyar, Tibor

    2010-10-26

    Three Pasteurella dagmatis-like strains recovered from the feline oral cavity were analysed by traditional biochemical tests, the Biolog Microstation™ ID System, and 16S rRNA and sodA gene sequence analysis. The molecular biological methods revealed that these strains differ from P. dagmatis, forming a new genomospecies in the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto. Furthermore, sequence analysis and multiple alignments of 16S rRNA and the sodA gene established that the P. pneumotropica NCTC10827 and the P. dagmatis-like strains described here possess high genetic similarity.

  16. The Development of a Novel Therapeutic Strategy to Target Hyaluronan in the Extracellular Matrix of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Daisuke; Suto, Akiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal diseases to affect humans, regardless of whether patients receive multimodal therapy (including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy). This resistance to intervention is currently considered to be caused by the desmoplastic change of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in PDAC tissues, which is characterized by the accumulation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, collagen, proteoglycan, and hyaluronan. Among these ECM components, hyaluronan has attracted interest because various studies have indicated that hyaluronan-rich PDAC is correlated with the progressive properties of cancer cells, both in experimental and clinical settings. Hence, the reduction of hyaluronan in cancer tissue may represent a novel therapeutic approach for PDAC. 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) is a derivative of coumarin that was reported to suppress the synthesis of hyaluronan in cultured human skin fibroblasts in 1995. As an additional study, our group firstly reported that 4-MU reduced the hyaluronan synthesis of mouse melanoma cells and exerted anti-cancer activity. Subsequently, we have showed that 4-MU inhibited liver metastasis in mice inoculated with human pancreatic cancer cells. Thereafter, 4-MU has been accepted as an effective agent for hyaluronan research and is expected to have clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the interaction between PDAC and hyaluronan, the properties of 4-MU as a suppressor of the synthesis of hyaluronan, and the perspectives of PDAC treatment targeting hyaluronan. PMID:28282922

  17. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Rian J.; Christensen, Amanda M.; Quast, Arthur D.; Atzet, Sarah K.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA) with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30–40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45–50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions. PMID:27611817

  18. Hyaluronan mediates airway hyperresponsiveness in oxidative lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Creighton, Judy; Yu, Zhihong; Komarova, Svetlana; Doran, Stephen F.; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Emala, Charles W.; Stober, Vandy P.; Trempus, Carol S.; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) inhalation induces severe oxidative lung injury and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) that lead to asthmalike symptoms. When inhaled, Cl2 reacts with epithelial lining fluid, forming by-products that damage hyaluronan, a constituent of the extracellular matrix, causing the release of low-molecular-weight fragments (L-HA, <300 kDa), which initiate a series of proinflammatory events. Cl2 (400 ppm, 30 min) exposure to mice caused an increase of L-HA and its binding partner, inter-α-trypsin-inhibitor (IαI), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Airway resistance following methacholine challenge was increased 24 h post-Cl2 exposure. Intratracheal administration of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (H-HA) or an antibody against IαI post-Cl2 exposure decreased AHR. Exposure of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells to Cl2 (100 ppm, 10 min) or incubation with Cl2-exposed H-HA (which fragments it to L-HA) increased membrane potential depolarization, intracellular Ca2+, and RhoA activation. Inhibition of RhoA, chelation of intracellular Ca2+, blockade of cation channels, as well as postexposure addition of H-HA, reversed membrane depolarization in HASM cells. We propose a paradigm in which oxidative lung injury generates reactive species and L-HA that activates RhoA and Ca2+ channels of airway smooth muscle cells, increasing their contractility and thus causing AHR. PMID:25747964

  19. Green synthesis of hyaluronan fibers with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Hrdina, Radim; Burgert, Ladislav; Krylová, Gabriela; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Krejčová, Anna; Steinhart, Miloš; Beneš, Ludvík

    2012-06-20

    The application of green chemistry in the nano-science and technology is very important in the area of the preparation of various materials. In this work, an eco-friendly chemical method was successfully used for the preparation of hyaluronan fibers containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Thus, hyaluronic acid (HA) was dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide to prepare a transparent solution, which was used for the preparation of fibers by a wet-spinning technique. Consequently, silver nanoparticles inside the fiber were prepared. Different parameters affecting the preparation of final product, such as concentration of silver nitrate, hyaluronan fiber concentration, time and temperature of the reaction, pH of the reaction mixture, were studied. AgNPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), two-dimensional X-ray scattering (2D SWAXS), UV/Vis spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and scan electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of prepared fibers were also measured.

  20. Drug conjugation to hyaluronan widens therapeutic indications for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, Isabella Monia; Merlo, Anna; Carpanese, Debora; Zuccolotto, Gaia; Renier, Davide; Campisi, Monica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Zanovello, Paola; Rosato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Management of ovarian cancer still requires improvements in therapeutic options. A drug delivery strategy was tested that allows specific targeting of tumor cells in combination with a controlled release of a cytotoxic molecule. To this aim, the efficacy of a loco-regional intraperitoneal treatment with a bioconjugate (ONCOFID-S) derived by chemical linking of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), to hyaluronan was assessed in a mouse model of ovarian carcinomatosis. In vitro, the bioconjugate selectively interacted with ovarian cancer cells through the CD44 receptor, disclosed a dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition efficacy comparable to that of free SN-38 drug, and inhibited Topoisomerase I function leading to apoptosis by a mechanism involving caspase-3 and -7 activation and PARP cleavage. In vivo, the intraperitoneal administration of ONCOFID-S in tumor-bearing mice did not induce inflammation, and evidenced an improved therapeutic efficacy compared with CPT-11. In conclusion, SN-38 conjugation to hyaluronan significantly improved the profile of in vivo tolerability and widened the field of application of irinotecan. Therefore, this approach can be envisaged as a promising therapeutic strategy for loco-regional treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26097871

  1. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Rian J; Christensen, Amanda M; Quast, Arthur D; Atzet, Sarah K; Mann, Brenda K

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA) with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30-40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45-50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions.

  2. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1).

    PubMed

    Richards, A B; Renshaw, H W; Sneed, L W

    1985-05-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates.

  3. Conservation of Expression and N-Terminal Sequences of the Pasteurella haemolytica 31-Kilodalton and Pasteurella trehalosi 29-Kilodalton Periplasmic Iron-Regulated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Frank, Glynn H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the conservation of expression of a 31-kDa iron-regulated protein by serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi associated with pasteurellosis of cattle and sheep. A polyclonal antibody prepared against the purified 31-kDa periplasmic iron-regulated protein from P. haemolytica serotype A1 showed that all P. haemolytica serotypes expressed similar 31-kDa proteins with identical N-terminal sequences, whereas P. trehalosi serotypes expressed immunologically different 29-kDa proteins with a different N-terminal sequence. Antibody to the 31-kDa iron-regulated protein was a useful tool to distinguish similarities and differences of the iron-regulated proteins of P. haemolytica and P. trehalosi. PMID:10391874

  4. The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Surguy, Susan M; Duricki, Denise A; Reilly, Joanne M; Lax, Alistair J; Robbins, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) activates the G-proteins Gαi(₁₋₃), Gα(q), Gα₁₁, Gα₁₂ and Gα₁₃ by deamidation of specific glutamine residues. A number of these alpha subunits have signalling roles in neurones. Hence we studied the action of this toxin on rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurones and NG108-15 neuronal cells. Both Gα(q) and Gα₁₁ could be identified in SCGs with immunocytochemistry. PMT had no direct action on Kv7 or Cav2 channels in SCGs. However PMT treatment enhanced muscarinic receptor mediated inhibition of M-current (Kv7.2 + 7. 3) as measured by a 19-fold leftward shift in the oxotremorine-M concentration-inhibition curve. Agonists of other receptors, such as bradykinin or angiotensin, that inhibit M-current did not produce this effect. However the amount of PIP₂ hydrolysis could be enhanced by PMT for all three agonists. In a transduction system in SCGs that is unlikely to be affected by PMT, Go mediated inhibition of calcium current, PMT was ineffective whereas the response was blocked by pertussis toxin as expected. M1 muscarinic receptor evoked calcium mobilisation in transformed NG108-15 cells was enhanced by PMT. The calcium rises evoked by uridine triphosphate acting on endogenous P2Y₂ receptors in NG108-15 cells were enhanced by PMT. The time and concentration dependence of the PMT effect was different for the resting calcium compared to the calcium rise produced by activation of P2Y₂ receptors. PMT's action on these neuronal cells would suggest that if it got into the brain, symptoms of a hyperexcitable nature would be seen, such as seizures.

  5. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Pasteurella multocida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Dincman, Toros; Clyburn, Benjamin E.; Steed, Lisa L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic infectious organism, has most often been described in patients after an animal bite. Here, we characterize the clinical features and outcomes of P multocida infection in a large cohort of patients according to the presence or absence of an animal bite. We retrospectively searched MUSC's laboratory information system for all patients with positive P multocida cultures from 2000 to 2014. Extensive data were abstracted, including clinical and outcome data. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was used to assess comorbidities among patients. We identified 44 patients with P multocida infections, including 25 with an animal bite. The average age was 64 years and the majority of patients were women (N = 30). There was no difference in age and sex distribution among those with and without a bite (P = 0.38 and 0.75, respectively). A CCI ≥1 was significantly associated with the absence of a bite (P = 0.006). Patients presenting without a bite were more frequently bacteremic (37% vs 4%, respectively, P = 0.001), and were hospitalized more often (84% vs 44%, respectively, P = 0.012). Of the 8 patients who required intensive care unit (ICU)-based care, 7 were non-bite-related. There were 4 deaths, all occurring in patients not bitten. P multocida infections not associated with an animal bite were often associated with bacteremia, severe comorbidity(ies), immune-incompetent states, the need for ICU management, and were associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26356688

  6. Secretion and expression of the Pasteurella haemolytica Leukotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Highlander, S K; Engler, M J; Weinstock, G M

    1990-01-01

    The Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin gene cluster (lktCABD) is homologous to the Escherichia coli hemolysin locus (hlyCABD). Since the cloned leukotoxin (LktA) is not secreted from E. coli cells, a heteroplasmid complementation system was developed that permits secretion of the leukotoxin from cells expressing the hemolysin transport proteins HlyB and HlyD. We observed that the secreted leukotoxin protein had weak hemolytic activity when activated by either the HlyC or LktC proteins and that LktC expressed in E. coli could confer weak hemolytic activity upon hemolysin. Thus, it appears that the accessory proteins of the leukotoxin and hemolysin gene clusters are functionally similar, although their expression in E. coli is not equivalent. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the P. haemolytica leukotoxin gene cluster revealed a major 3.5-kilobase transcript that includes the lktC and lktA genes. The start site for this transcript mapped to a cytosine residue 30 nucleotides upstream from the putative start of lktC; a similar initiation site was observed in E. coli, although adjacent cytosine and adenine residues were also utilized. The 3.5-kilobase transcript terminated near the rho-independent terminator structure between lktA and lktB, but transcription may continue, via antitermination or de novo transcription initiation, into the downstream lktB and lktD genes. We propose that the lack of LktB and LktD function in E. coli is a result, at least in part, of poor lktBD transcription and suggest that a P. haemolytica-specific regulator is required for optimal expression of the leukotoxin genes. Images PMID:2185213

  7. Proteolysis of sialoglycoprotein by Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxic culture supernatant.

    PubMed Central

    Otulakowski, G L; Shewen, P E; Udoh, A E; Mellors, A; Wilkie, B N

    1983-01-01

    Proteolytic enzyme activity releasing sialo glycopeptides from 3H-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts was detected in cytotoxic (leukotoxic) culture supernatants from 9 of 12 Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes. Microcrystalline cellulose thin-layer chromatograms of radioactive water-soluble products showed the following two radioactive peaks: a high-mobility minor peak (Rf, 0.54 to 0.74), identified as sialic acid, and a low-mobility major peak (Rf, 0.18 to 0.21), partially characterized as a trichloroacetic acid-soluble, sialic acid-rich fragment with a molecular weight of greater than 3,500, not extractable by chloroform. The sialic acid content of this fragment after treatment with Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase was estimated to be 7.2 X 10(-2) mumol mg-1. The presence of neuraminidase as a separate activity in some culture supernatants was confirmed. It is considered to be responsible for the observed release of free sialic acid. Preliminary studies with the crude enzyme showed that it has a broad pH optimum around pH 7.0 and that activity is not affected by inhibitors of trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, thio and serine enzymes, nor by an inhibitor of neuraminidase, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Activity was, however, inhibited by o-phenanthroline at a high concentration after prolonged treatment. The enzyme hydrolyzed glycophorin at a rate four times higher than the rate for casein. Free glycophorin inhibited the enzyme-induced release of radioactive products from 3H-labeled ghosts. It is speculated that the novel enzyme is a neutral protease, probably metal-dependent, with specificity for sialoglycopeptides. The possible relationship of this protease to the previously reported host species-specific leukotoxicity of P. haemolytica and its potential role in virulence is discussed. PMID:6352504

  8. Immunogenicity of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Roier, Sandro; Fenninger, Judith C.; Leitner, Deborah R.; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is able to cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal hosts, including fowl cholera in birds, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, and snuffles in rabbits. Together with Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida also represents a major bacterial causative agent of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is one of the most important causes for economic losses for the cattle backgrounding and feedlot industry. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, this study characterized the immunogenicity of P. multocida and M. haemolytica outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) upon intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that OMVs derived from P. multocida or M. haemolytica are able to induce robust humoral and mucosal immune responses against the respective donor strain. In addition, also significant cross-immunogenic potential was observed for both OMV types. Colonization studies showed that a potential protective immune response against P. multocida is not only achieved by immunization with P. multocida OMVs, but also by immunization with OMVs derived from M. haemolytica. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that M. haemolytica OMVs induce a more complex immune response compared to P. multocida OMVs. The outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpH, and P6 were identified as the three major immunogenic proteins of P. multocida OMVs. Amongst others, the serotype 1-specific antigen, an uncharacterized outer membrane protein, as well as the outer membrane proteins P2 and OmpA were found to be the most important antigens of M. haemolytica OMVs. These findings are useful for the future development of broad-spectrum OMV based vaccines against BRD and other infections caused by P. multocida or M. haemolytica. PMID:23731905

  9. Uptake of hyaluronan in hepatic metastases after blocking of liver endothelial cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Mahteme, H; Graf, W; Larsson, B S; Gustafson, S

    1998-09-01

    To follow the biodistribution of exogenous hyaluronan in tumor-bearing animals, a total of seventeen inbred rats with hepatic metastases from a colonic adenocarcinoma received 125I-labelled hyaluronan by intravenous injections. Group I received only labeled hyaluronan (25 microg), whereas group II received 2.5 mg chondroitin sulphate prior to labeled hyaluronan, to block receptor uptake in normal liver endothelial cells. Animals in group III received intravenous, as well as intraperitoneal chondroitin sulphate (2.5 mg), to see if a better and prolonged blocking could be achieved. Radioactivity was visualized by whole body autoradiography, using phosphorimaging and the average radioactivity determined as phosphoimaging density units of the total area of hepatic metastases, normal liver, and skeletal muscle by computer-based image analysis. At 5 h, tumors in groups II and III showed higher uptake (4.8+/-1.8, P = .01 and 3.6+/-1.1, P = .01, respectively), in comparison to group I (1.8+/-0.6), and the mean normal liver/tumor concentration ratio was reduced from 21.4+/-10.1 in group I to 5.7+/-2.7 in group II and 3.5+/-1.1 in group III (P = .008 and P = .01, respectively). Our study shows that hyaluronan targets liver metastases of a colon adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, chondroitin sulphate pretreatment increases tumor uptake, while uptake at normal receptor sites is significantly reduced. The results also suggest that after blocking of normal hyaluronan/chondroitin sulphate receptors in healthy tissue, hyaluronan may be used to deliver drugs to specific hyaluronan receptor-positive sites of pathology.

  10. Proximity-dependent inhibition of growth of mannheimia haemolytica by pasteurella multocida.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia trehalosi have been identified in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis). Of these pathogens, M. haemolytica has been shown to consistently cause fatal pneumonia in BHS under experimental conditions. However, M. hae...

  11. Fatal Pasteurella multocida septicemia and necrotizing fasciitis related with wound licked by a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ko; Siu, L K; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Lin, Chun-Lu

    2007-01-01

    A 68-y-old male had necrotizing fasciitis and bacteremia due to Pasteurella multocida. Saliva culture from his dog grew P. multocida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The human and dog P. multocida strains were of the same antibiogram but not identical tested with ribotyping. The wound licked by his dog was the only risk factor.

  12. Sialic Acid Uptake Is Necessary for Virulence of Pasteurella multocida in turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many pathogenic bacteria employ systems to incorporate sialic acid into their membranes as a means of protection against host defense mechanisms. Pasteurella multocida is an opportunistic pathogen which causes diseases of economic importance in a wide range of animal species and sialic acid uptake p...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Rodent Opportunistic Pathogen Pasteurella pneumotropica ATCC 35149T.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiraku; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Asano, Ryoki; Ueshiba, Hidehiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Boot, Ron; Kawamoto, Eiichi

    2014-08-07

    Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunistic pathogen in rodents that is commonly isolated from upper respiratory tracts in laboratory rodents. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. pneumotropica type strain ATCC 35149, which was first isolated and characterized as biotype Jawetz.

  14. Characterization of TolC Efflux Pump Proteins from Pasteurella multocida▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hatfaludi, Tamas; Al-Hasani, Keith; Dunstone, Michelle; Boyce, John; Adler, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Two TolC homologs, PM0527 and PM1980, were identified for Pasteurella multocida. A pm0527 mutant displayed increased susceptibility to a range of chemicals, including rifampin (512-fold) and acridine orange (128-fold). A pm1980 mutant showed increased susceptibility to rifampin, ceftazidime, and vancomycin. PMID:18725450

  15. Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Household pets as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, Philippe Guillaume; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Verrelli, Mauro; Allen, David W; Embil, John M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that are a part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of numerous domestic animals. They have been recognized as a rare but significant cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). A consensus about management strategies for PD-associated peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species currently does not exist. METHODS: The microbiological database serving the Manitoba Renal Program was searched from 1997 to 2013 for cases of Pasteurella species PD-associated peritonitis, and charts were reviewed. PubMed was searched for case reports and data were abstracted. RESULTS: Seven new local cases and 30 previously reported cases were analyzed. This infection is clinically similar to other forms of PD peritonitis, with household pet exposure appearing to be the strongest risk factor. Cats are the most commonly implicated pet. Direct contact between the pet and the equipment was commonly reported (25 of 37 patients) but was not necessary for infection to develop. The mean duration of treatment was 15 days. Complication rates were low, with only 11% of patients requiring PD catheter removal. There was no mortality reported. CONCLUSION: Pasteurella species are a rare cause of PD-associated peritonitis that can be successfully treated with a two-week course of intraperitoneal antibiotics with a high likelihood of catheter salvage. PMID:25798157

  16. Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Household pets as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Poliquin, Philippe Guillaume; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Verrelli, Mauro; Allen, David W; Embil, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that are a part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of numerous domestic animals. They have been recognized as a rare but significant cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). A consensus about management strategies for PD-associated peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species currently does not exist. The microbiological database serving the Manitoba Renal Program was searched from 1997 to 2013 for cases of Pasteurella species PD-associated peritonitis, and charts were reviewed. PubMed was searched for case reports and data were abstracted. Seven new local cases and 30 previously reported cases were analyzed. This infection is clinically similar to other forms of PD peritonitis, with household pet exposure appearing to be the strongest risk factor. Cats are the most commonly implicated pet. Direct contact between the pet and the equipment was commonly reported (25 of 37 patients) but was not necessary for infection to develop. The mean duration of treatment was 15 days. Complication rates were low, with only 11% of patients requiring PD catheter removal. There was no mortality reported. Pasteurella species are a rare cause of PD-associated peritonitis that can be successfully treated with a two-week course of intraperitoneal antibiotics with a high likelihood of catheter salvage.

  17. Rheological properties of gels formed by physical interactions between hyaluronan and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Venerová, Tereza; Pekař, Miloslav

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this paper is the rheological characterization of the concentrated, gel-like phase, which arises from mixed solutions of sodium hyaluronate and oppositely charged surfactant above its critical micellar concentration. The effects of hyaluronan molecular weight (from 300 to 2kDa) and the concentration of initial solutions (0.5 and 2% for hyaluronan, 50 or 200mM for surfactant) were investigated. All systems demonstrated viscoelastic properties which can be modified over a broad range of several decades of both storage and loss moduli by the hyaluronan molecular weight and initial concentrations. The characteristic relaxation time increased with the molecular weight of hyaluronan at constant initial composition. The effect of molecular weight on characteristic moduli was dependent on initial composition - the modulus increased with molecular weight for systems with 50mM of the surfactant and decreased for the other systems. Whereas no correlation was found between gel rheological properties and the surfactant:hyaluronan charge ratio, the properties were sensitive to structural features of surfactant molecules, particularly when low and moderate hyaluronan molecular weight was used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) levels in pathological human saphenous veins. Effects of procyanidol oligomers].

    PubMed

    Drubaix, I; Maraval, M; Robert, L; Robert, A M

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the hyaluronan content in the pathologic human venous wall using an ELSA assay with hyaluronectin according to the method of Delpech et al. The mean hyaluronan content in the 74 fragments from 12 venous walls studied was 596 +/- 528 ng/mg dry weight. These 12 venous walls could be separated in 3 distinct groups according to their hyaluronan content, low (277 +/- 141 ng/mg dry weight), moderate (552 +/- 361 ng/m dry weight) or high (1299 +/- 568 ng/mg dry weight). The differences between these groups are significant (p < 0.001). The presence of a veino-lymphatic oedema was generally associated with a high hyaluronan level (in 65% of cases). The 3H-glucosamine incorporation in cultured venous wall explants showed a 35% increase (p < 0.002) in varicosis as compared with the non or less modified segments of the vein and a 29% (p < 0.001) increase in presence of a veino-lymphatic oedema. The addition of 1 mg/ml of PCO (Procyanidolic Oligomers) to the culture media induced near to 20% decrease of the 3H-glucosamine incorporation and a 34% decrease of the hyaluronan content. Our results confirm the role of local overproduction of hyaluronan in the establishment of oedema and the potential effect of PCO to counteract it.

  19. A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. PMID:25739081

  20. Potential therapeutic applications of hyaluronan in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Jerome O

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a long-chain polysaccharide, is currently being evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for a number of inflammatory disorders. The effect of HA on inflammation appears to be related to its molecular size, with larger polysaccharide chains having anti-inflammatory activity and smaller ones having proinflammatory properties. This dichotomous behavior is particularly relevant to the work of our laboratory on an aerosolized preparation of HA to treat pulmonary emphysema. The breakdown of inhaled HA into smaller fragments could possibly induce an inflammatory reaction in the lung that counteracts any beneficial effect. Consequently, the proposed therapeutic use of HA will require development of treatment strategies aimed at minimizing its proinflammatory activity. PMID:18229566

  1. Hyaluronan as a promising excipient for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Guter, Michaela; Breunig, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide and well known for its exceptional properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, along with a low immunogenicity. Besides its use for various biomedical applications it recently came into focus as a favorable excipient for the formulation of various ocular therapeutics. This review article summarizes the ocular distribution of HA and its most heavily investigated binding protein "cluster of differentiation 44" (CD44) which is the rationale for the clinical use of HA, primarily as an additive in ocular applications ranging from eye drops to contact lenses. Moreover, examples will be given for using HA in various pre-clinical approaches to generate entirely new therapeutics, most notably in the field of nanotechnology.

  2. A novel photopolymerizable derivative of hyaluronan for designed hydrogel formation.

    PubMed

    Bobula, Tomáš; Buffa, Radovan; Hermannová, Martina; Kohutová, Lenka; Procházková, Pavlína; Vágnerová, Hana; Čepa, Martin; Wolfová, Lucie; Židek, Ondřej; Velebný, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    A new photopolymerizable derivative of hyaluronan (methacrylhydrazide-HA, MAHA) was prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. The reaction conditions were optimized for molecular weight (Mw), reaction time and amount of reagents with a degree of methacrylation (DM) ranging from 2% to 58%. Methacrylhydrazide-HA was hydrolytically stable (PBS, 7days, 37°C) in contrast to commonly used methacrylester analoque (23% hydrolyzed). MAHA readily photopolymerized into densely crosslinked hydrogels under physiological conditions. The varied DM, Mw, irradiation time (texp) and macromer concentration in photocrosslinking afforded hydrogels with different physical (swelling ratio, degradation rate) and mechanical properties (stiffness, toughness). Three-dimensional fabrication and surface patterning of MAHA hydrogels were demonstrated by photolithography and light mediated micromolding. A live-dead assay with skin fibroblasts showed convenient biocompatibility of MAHA (16%, 116kDa) for potential scaffolding applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  3. Hyaluronan- and heparin-reduced silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Melissa M; Kumar, Ashavani; Clement, Dylan; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Aims Silver nanoparticles exhibit unique antibacterial properties that make these ideal candidates for biological and medical applications. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare silver nanoparticles that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with diaminopyridinylated heparin (DAPHP) and hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides and tested for their efficacy in inhibiting microbial growth. Results & discussion The resulting silver nanoparticles exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and modest activity against Escherichia coli. Silver–HA showed greater antimicrobial activity than silver–DAPHP, while silver–glucose nanoparticles exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Neither HA nor DAPHP showed activity against S. aureus or E. coli. Conclusion These results suggest that DAPHP and HA silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial therapeutic applications. PMID:19505245

  4. Treating knee osteoarthritis with intra-articular hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Brzusek, Daniel; Petron, David

    2008-12-01

    Intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) or hylan is approved for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain. The authors review here published evidence of efficacy and safety of intra-articular HA for the treatment of knee pain. Since the systemic safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors for OA knee treatment are a current concern, the authors also offer recommendations for repositioning HA in the OA treatment paradigm. Relevant HA literature was identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to April 2008 using the search words hyaluronan, hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, and hylan G-F 20, with knee and OA. Data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials were reviewed and summarized in this article. While not a systematic review, this article reviews the best available evidence for the use of HA to treat knee OA. For the most part, patients in the reviewed studies were adults over the age of 40 with mild to severe symptomatic OA of the knee. Reviewed studies demonstrated significant improvements in pain and physical function with HA or sodium hyaluronate and hylan G-F 20. HA or hylan products were most effective between 5 and 13 weeks after injection with improvements also observed at 14-26 weeks or sometimes longer, and were well tolerated with a low incidence of adverse events. HA also provides beneficial treatment effects when administered in conjunction with other therapies. Intra-articular HA or hylan has proven to be an effective, safe, and tolerable treatment for symptomatic knee OA. In an effort to limit cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal safety concerns with COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs and maximize HA efficacy, the authors proposed using HA earlier in the treatment paradigm for knee OA and also as part of a comprehensive treatment strategy.

  5. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-04

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  6. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  7. Neonatal Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica Meningitis Traced to Household Cats: Molecular Linkage Analysis Using Repetitive-Sequence-Based PCR

    PubMed Central

    Freij, Bishara J.; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Makin, Jacob; Runge, Jessica K.; Luna, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis. We describe such a case and verify two household cats as the source of infection using repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) molecular fingering. PMID:26491173

  8. Preparation of biologically intact radioiodinated hyaluronan of high specific radioactivity: coupling of /sup 125/I-tyramine-cellobiose to amino groups after partial N-deacetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, L.B.; Laurent, T.C.; Smedsrod, B.

    1988-12-01

    Hyaluronan was substituted with tyramine-cellobiose on amino residues exposed after hydrazinolytic N-deacetylation of the polysaccharide. Nonsubstituted amino groups were reacetylated, and the carboxylic hydrazides were removed by treatment with HIO/sub 3/. The adduct was labeled with /sup 125/I before or after coupling to hyaluronan. N-deacetylation increased with prolonged pretreatment with hydrazine, which also reduced the chain length of hyaluronan. Hydrazinolysis for 30 min produced hyaluronan with Mr 2.2-2.9 x 10(5). This material was substituted with varying amounts of tyramine-cellobiose (from 1 per 20 to 1 per 130 disaccharides). Hyaluronan labeled in this way was recognized by Streptomyces hyaluronidase, hyaluronan affinity protein of cartilage proteoglycan, and receptors for specific endocytosis of hyaluronan in liver endothelial cells. Since tyramine-cellobiose is nondegradable and therefore is arrested intralysosomally at the site of uptake, turnover studies of hyaluronan can be easily carried out with this ligand.

  9. Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Brogden, K A; Lehmkuhl, H D; Cutlip, R C

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory infections which commonly occur in sheep and goats often result from adverse physical and physiological stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. Inevitably, Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia occurs as a result of these interactions. In this review, we present recent advances in research on the complex etiology of pneumonia involving P. haemolytica. Initially stress, induced by factors such as heat, overcrowding, exposure to inclement weather, poor ventilation, handling and transport is a major predisposing factor. Respiratory viruses including parainfluenza 3 (PI-3) virus, adenovirus type 6 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and to a lesser extent bovine adenovirus type 2, ovine adenovirus types 1 and 5, and reovirus type 1 cause respiratory infections and pneumonia. More importantly these viruses also dramatically increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. Primary infection of the lower respiratory tract, with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Bordetella parapertussis can increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. It is possible that initial infections with viral or primary bacterial agents break down the antimicrobial barrier consisting of beta defensins and anionic peptides found in epithelial cells, resident and inflammatory cells, and serous and mucous secretions of the respiratory tract. Loss of barrier integrity may release P. haemolytica from its usual commensal status. Once in the lung, P. haemolytica becomes opportunistic. To grow and colonize, P. haemolytica uses extracellular products like O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, neuraminidase and RTX leukotoxin, as well as cell-associated products such as capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, proteins involved in iron acquisition and a periplasmic superoxide dismutase. In lambs and kids, pneumonic pasteurellosis can be acute, characterized by fever, listlessness, poor

  10. Perturbation of hyaluronan metabolism predisposes patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus to atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Holleman, F.; de Groot, E.; Vink, H.; Gort, J.; Kontush, A.; Chapman, M. J.; Hutten, B. A.; Brouwer, C. B.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Stroes, E. S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Cardiovascular disease contributes to mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus, but the specific pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be established. We recently showed that the endothelial glycocalyx, a protective layer of proteoglycans covering the endothelium, is severely perturbed in type 1 diabetes, with concomitantly increased plasma levels of hyaluronan and hyaluronidase. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between hyaluronan and hyaluronidase with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), an established surrogate marker for cardiovascular disease. Subjects and methods Non-smoking type 1 diabetes patients without micro- or macrovascular complications and matched controls were recruited and cIMT of both carotid arteries was measured. To evaluate the relationship between cIMT and hyaluronan and hyaluronidase as well as other parameters, uni- or multivariate regression analyses were performed. Results We included 99 type 1 diabetes patients (age 10–72 years) and 99 age- and sex-matched controls. Mean cIMT, HbA1c, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hyaluronan and hyaluronidase were significantly increased in type 1 diabetes vs controls. Plasma hyaluronan and hyaluronidase were correlated in type 1 diabetes. In univariate regression analyses, mean IMT was associated with plasma hyaluronan, age and male sex, whereas after multivariate analysis only age and sex remained statistically significant. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that type 1 diabetes patients show structural changes of the arterial wall associated with increased hyaluronan metabolism. These data may lend further support to altered glycosaminoglycan metabolism in type 1 diabetes as a potential mechanism involved in accelerated atherogenesis. PMID:17415544

  11. Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance and Metastasis with Antagonists of Hyaluronan-CD44-CD147 Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    chitosan nanoparticles (Han et al., 2011), which will be used to determine whether these particles, with and without loading with cisplatin, doxorubicin...carcinoma cells to cisplatin treatment in a mouse xenograft model, as well as in cell culture. Hyaluronan oligosaccharide-decorated nanoparticles ...the regulator of hyaluronan synthesis, CD147, sensitize cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells to cisplatin in cell culture. Nanoparticles

  12. Hyaluronan secretion into the synovial cavity of rabbit knees and comparison with albumin turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Ray, J; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1997-01-01

    1. Hyaluronan is not only a lubricant but also enhances the synovial lining's resistance to fluid outflow. This finding led to the proposal that hyaluronan (> 2 x 10(6) Da, approximately 210 nm radius) may escape across the synovial lining less freely than smaller solutes (e.g. albumin, 6.7 x 10(4) Da, 3.6 nm radius) or water. Here multiple washouts were used to measure intraarticular hyaluronan mass and secretion rate in rabbit knees, leading to an estimate of hyaluronan turnover time. Plasma albumin permeation into the joint cavity was also measured to enable comparison of turnover times between molecules of very disparate size. 2. Endogenous hyaluronan mass in the joint cavity, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography of joint washes, was 182 +/- 9.9 micrograms (mean +/- S.E.M; n = 21). Since hyaluronan concentration in synovial fluid averages 3.62 +/- 0.19 micrograms microliters-1, the endogenous synovial fluid volume was calculated to be 50 microliters (mass/concentration), about double the aspiratable volume. 3. The hyaluronan secretion rate over 4 h was 4.80 +/- 0.77 micrograms h-1 (n = 5). The rate was significantly higher in contralateral joints expanded by 2 ml Ringer solution (5.80 +/- 0.84 micrograms h-1, n = 5, P = 0.01, Student's paired t test), indicating a stretch/hydration sensitive secretory mechanism. The newly secreted chains ((2.05-2.48) x 10(6) Da) were not significantly different in length from the endogenous chains (2.95 x 10(6) Da). 4. Hyaluronan turnover time, calculated as mass/secretion rate, was 31.4-37.9 h. This is more than an order of magnitude longer than turnover time for intra-articular albumin. The latter, determined from the intra-articular albumin mass and plasma-to-cavity permeation rate was 1.8 h (95% confidence intervals 1.2-3.5 h, n = 9). The big difference in turnover times support the view that, relative to albumin and water, hyaluronan is partially sieved out and retained in the joint cavity by the synovial

  13. Interaction of Hyaluronan Binding Peptides with Glycosaminoglycans in Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the incorporation of hyaluronan (HA) binding peptides into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a mechanism to bind and retain hyaluronan for applications in tissue engineering. The specificity of the peptide sequence (native RYPISRPRKRC vs non-native RPSRPRIRYKC), the role of basic amino acids, and specificity to hyaluronan over other GAGs in contributing to the peptide–hyaluronan interaction were probed through experiments and simulations. Hydrogels containing the native or non-native peptide retained hyaluronan in a dose-dependent manner. Ionic interactions were the dominating mechanism. In diH2O the peptides interacted strongly with HA and chondroitin sulfate, but in phosphate buffered saline the peptides interacted more strongly with HA. For cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocyte-laden PEG hydrogels containing increasing amounts of HA binding peptide and exogenous HA had increased retention and decreased loss of cell-secreted proteoglycans in and from the hydrogel at 28 days. This new matrix-interactive hydrogel platform holds promise for tissue regeneration. PMID:24597474

  14. Hyaluronan modulates growth factor induced mammary gland branching in a size dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Tolg, Cornelia; Yuan, Han; Flynn, Sarah M; Basu, Kaustuv; Ma, Jenny; Tse, Kenneth Chor Kin; Kowalska, Beatrice; Vulkanesku, Diana; Cowman, Mary K; McCarthy, James B; Turley, Eva A

    2017-11-01

    Mammary gland morphogenesis begins during fetal development but expansion of the mammary tree occurs postnatally in response to hormones, growth factors and extracellular matrix. Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix polysaccharide that has been shown to modulate growth factor-induced branching in culture. Neither the physiological relevance of HA to mammary gland morphogenesis nor the role that HA receptors play in these responses are currently well understood. We show that HA synthase (HAS2) is expressed in both ductal epithelia and stromal cells but HA primarily accumulates in the stroma. HA accumulation and expression of the HA receptors CD44 and RHAMM are highest during gestation when gland remodeling, lateral branch infilling and lobulo-alveoli formation is active. Molecular weight analyses show that approximately 98% of HA at all stages of morphogenesis is >300kDa. Low levels of 7-114kDa HA fragments are also detected and in particular the accumulation of 7-21kDa HA fragments are significantly higher during gestation than other morphogenetic stages (p<0.05). Using these in vivo results as a guide, in culture analyses of mammary epithelial cell lines (EpH4 and NMuMG) were performed to determine the roles of high molecular weight, 7-21kDa (10kDa MWavg) and HA receptors in EGF-induced branching morphogenesis. Results of these assays show that while HA synthesis is required for branching and 10kDa HA fragments strongly stimulate branching, the activity of HA decreases with increasing molecular weight and 500kDa HA strongly inhibits this morphogenetic process. The response to 10kDa HA requires RHAMM function and genetic deletion of RHAMM transiently blunts lateral branching in vivo. Collectively, these results reveal distinct roles for HA polymer size in modulating growth factor induced mammary gland branching and implicates these polymers in both the expansion and sculpting of the mammary tree during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. A Pasteurella sp associated with respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises.

    PubMed

    Snipes, K P; Biberstein, E L; Fowler, M E

    1980-11-01

    Bacteria isolated from captive healthy desert tortoises were compared with bacteria from captive tortoises with respiratory illness and with bacteria from free-ranging tortoises from the Mojave Desert. Major differences were not observed among these groups when bacteria from the mouth, nares, trachea, lungs, and cloaca were compared. Frequently encountered organisms in all 3 groups included: coagulase-negative, catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci; Corynebacterium sp; members of Enterobacteriaceae, including Proteus spp; and a bacterium apparently belonging to the genus Pasteurella. The Pasteurella sp was consistently found to be associated with respiratory lesions in captive tortoises with signs of respiratory disease but was also found to be part of the gastrointestinal and nasal flora of healthy tortoises. It was hypothesized that respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises involves a commensal bacterium with the potential to be an opportunistic pathogen when the tortoise is stressed by a captive environment.

  16. Renal abscess caused by a Providencia stuartii isolate biochemically misidentified as Pasteurella.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Robin R; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Kennedy, Donald J

    2013-08-01

    Providencia stuartii is associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in catheterized patients. Here we report an abscess containing P. stuartii in a patient with a history of UTI, renal stones, and stent placement. This organism was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing following biochemical identification as Pasteurella.

  17. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS).

  18. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  19. A new selective enrichment procedure for isolating Pasteurella multocida from avian and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.K.; Cicnjak-Chubbs, L.; Gates, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A selective enrichment procedure, using two new selective media, was developed to isolate Pasteurella multocida from wild birds and environmental samples. These media were developed by testing 15 selective agents with six isolates of P. multocida from wild avian origin and seven other bacteria representing genera frequently found in environmental and avian samples. The resulting media—Pasteurella multocida selective enrichment broth and Pasteurella multocida selective agar—consisted of a blood agar medium at pH 10 containing gentamicin, potassium tellurite, and amphotericin B. Media were tested to determine: 1) selectivity when attempting isolation from pond water and avian carcasses, 2) sensitivity for detection of low numbers of P. multocida from pure and mixed cultures, 3) host range specificity of the media, and 4) performance compared with standard blood agar. With the new selective enrichment procedure, P. multocida was isolated from inoculated (60 organisms/ml) pond water 84% of the time, whereas when standard blood agar was used, the recovery rate was 0%.

  20. Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

    2013-11-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 μg (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature.

  1. Exposure of human lung fibroblasts to ozone: cell mortality and hyaluronan metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, D.; Branscheid, D. )

    1992-04-01

    Exposure of cultures of human lung fibroblasts to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h resulted in a significant increase in cellular mortality by 29%; after exposure to 2.5 ppm ozone for 4 h, the increase amounted to 74%. A marked difference in sensitivity to ozone was observed between fibroblast lines from different individuals. This variability in resistance to ozone was more evident after exposure to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h, when compared with 2.5 ppm ozone for 4 h. In one fibroblast line, synthesis of hyaluronan was enhanced by exposure to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h. The concentrations of hyaluronan in culture media increased in experiments using different fibroblast cell lines, a phenomenon that was obvious both if cell numbers and combined protein concentrations of cells and media are selected as references for hyaluronan concentrations.

  2. Dendritic cells enter lymph vessels by hyaluronan-mediated docking to the endothelial receptor LYVE-1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Louise A; Banerji, Suneale; Lawrance, William; Gileadi, Uzi; Prota, Gennaro; Holder, Kayla A; Roshorm, Yaowaluck M; Hanke, Tomáš; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Gale, Nicholas W; Jackson, David G

    2017-07-01

    Trafficking of tissue dendritic cells (DCs) via lymph is critical for the generation of cellular immune responses in draining lymph nodes (LNs). In the current study we found that DCs docked to the basolateral surface of lymphatic vessels and transited to the lumen through hyaluronan-mediated interactions with the lymph-specific endothelial receptor LYVE-1, in dynamic transmigratory-cup-like structures. Furthermore, we show that targeted deletion of the gene Lyve1, antibody blockade or depletion of the DC hyaluronan coat not only delayed lymphatic trafficking of dermal DCs but also blunted their capacity to prime CD8(+) T cell responses in skin-draining LNs. Our findings uncovered a previously unknown function for LYVE-1 and show that transit through the lymphatic network is initiated by the recognition of leukocyte-derived hyaluronan.

  3. Optimization of hyaluronan-based eye drop formulations.

    PubMed

    Salzillo, Rosanna; Schiraldi, Chiara; Corsuto, Luisana; D'Agostino, Antonella; Filosa, Rosanna; De Rosa, Mario; La Gatta, Annalisa

    2016-11-20

    Hyaluronan (HA) is frequently incorporated in eye drops to extend the pre-corneal residence time, due to its viscosifying and mucoadhesive properties. Hydrodynamic and rheological evaluations of commercial products are first accomplished revealing molecular weights varying from about 360 to about 1200kDa and viscosity values in the range 3.7-24.2mPa s. The latter suggest that most products could be optimized towards resistance to drainage from the ocular surface. Then, a study aiming to maximize the viscosity and mucoadhesiveness of HA-based preparations is performed. The effect of polymer chain length and concentration is investigated. For the whole range of molecular weights encountered in commercial products, the concentration maximizing performance is identified. Such concentration varies from 0.3 (wt%) for a 1100kDa HA up to 1.0 (wt%) for a 250kDa HA, which is 3-fold higher than the highest concentration on the market. The viscosity and mucoadhesion profiles of optimized formulations are superior than commercial products, especially under conditions simulating in vivo blinking. Thus longer retention on the corneal epithelium can be predicted. An enhanced capacity to protect corneal porcine epithelial cells from dehydration is also demonstrated in vitro. Overall, the results predict formulations with improved efficacy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Rise and Fall of Hyaluronan in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Mark E.; Dweik, Raed A.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Aronica, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In normal airways, hyaluronan (HA) matrices are primarily located within the airway submucosa, pulmonary vasculature walls, and, to a lesser extent, the alveoli. Following pulmonary injury, elevated levels of HA matrices accumulate in these regions, and in respiratory secretions, correlating with the extent of injury. Animal models have provided important insight into the role of HA in the onset of pulmonary injury and repair, generally indicating that the induction of HA synthesis is an early event typically preceding fibrosis. The HA that accumulates in inflamed airways is of a high molecular weight (>1600 kDa) but can be broken down into smaller fragments (<150 kDa) by inflammatory and disease-related mechanisms that have profound effects on HA pathobiology. During inflammation in the airways, HA is often covalently modified with heavy chains from inter-alpha-inhibitor via the enzyme tumor-necrosis-factor-stimulated-gene-6 (TSG-6) and this modification promotes the interaction of leukocytes with HA matrices at sites of inflammation. The clearance of HA and its return to normal levels is essential for the proper resolution of inflammation. These data portray HA matrices as an important component of normal airway physiology and illustrate its integral roles during tissue injury and repair among a variety of respiratory diseases. PMID:26448757

  5. Determination of Hyaluronan Molecular Mass Distribution in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; De La Motte, Carol A.; Cowman, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection, via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size-specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from twenty unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employingion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size, and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M ≤ 20 kDa, M ≈20-60 kDa, and M ≈ 60-110 kDa comprised an average of 1.5%, 1.4% and 2% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M≥110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from thirteen samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of ∼440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low M HA components. PMID:25579786

  6. IL-10 Induction from Implants Delivering Pancreatic Islets and Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Bollyky, Paul L.; Vernon, Robert B.; Falk, Ben A.; Preisinger, Anton; Gooden, Michel D.; Nepom, Gerald T.; Gebe, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Local induction of pro-tolerogenic cytokines, such as IL-10, is an appealing strategy to help facilitate transplantation of islets and other tissues. Here, we describe a pair of implantable devices that capitalize on our recent finding that hyaluronan (HA) promotes IL-10 production by activated T cells. The first device is an injectable hydrogel made of crosslinked HA and heparan sulfate loaded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and IL-2. T cells embedded within this hydrogel prior to polymerization go on to produce IL-10 in vivo. The second device is a bioengineered implant consisting of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge scaffold, supportive collagen hydrogel, and alginate spheres mediating sustained release of HA in fluid form. Pancreatic islets that expressed ovalbumin (OVA) antigen were implanted within this device for 14 days into immunodeficient mice that received OVA-specific DO.11.10 T cells and a subsequent immunization with OVA peptide. Splenocytes harvested from these mice produced IL-10 upon re-challenge with OVA or anti-CD3 antibodies. Both of these devices represent model systems that will be used, in future studies, to further evaluate IL-10 induction by HA, with the objective of improving the survival and function of transplanted islets in the setting of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes. PMID:23971054

  7. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis restores immune tolerance during autoimmune insulitis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nadine; Kaber, Gernot; Johnson, Pamela Y; Gebe, John A; Preisinger, Anton; Falk, Ben A; Sunkari, Vivekananda G; Gooden, Michel D; Vernon, Robert B; Bogdani, Marika; Kuipers, Hedwich F; Day, Anthony J; Campbell, Daniel J; Wight, Thomas N; Bollyky, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    We recently reported that abundant deposits of the extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) are characteristic of autoimmune insulitis in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the relevance of these deposits to disease was unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that HA is critical for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Using the DO11.10xRIPmOVA mouse model of T1D, we determined that HA deposits are temporally and anatomically associated with the development of insulitis. Moreover, treatment with an inhibitor of HA synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), halted progression to diabetes even after the onset of insulitis. Similar effects were seen in the NOD mouse model, and in these mice, 1 week of treatment was sufficient to prevent subsequent diabetes. 4-MU reduced HA accumulation, constrained effector T cells to nondestructive insulitis, and increased numbers of intraislet FOXP3+ Tregs. Consistent with the observed effects of 4-MU treatment, Treg differentiation was inhibited by HA and anti-CD44 antibodies and rescued by 4-MU in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. These data may explain how peripheral immune tolerance is impaired in tissues under autoimmune attack, including islets in T1D. We propose that 4-MU, already an approved drug used to treat biliary spasm, could be repurposed to prevent, and possibly treat, T1D in at-risk individuals.

  8. IL-10 induction from implants delivering pancreatic islets and hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Paul L; Vernon, Robert B; Falk, Ben A; Preisinger, Anton; Gooden, Michel D; Nepom, Gerald T; Gebe, John A

    2013-01-01

    Local induction of pro-tolerogenic cytokines, such as IL-10, is an appealing strategy to help facilitate transplantation of islets and other tissues. Here, we describe a pair of implantable devices that capitalize on our recent finding that hyaluronan (HA) promotes IL-10 production by activated T cells. The first device is an injectable hydrogel made of crosslinked HA and heparan sulfate loaded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and IL-2. T cells embedded within this hydrogel prior to polymerization go on to produce IL-10 in vivo. The second device is a bioengineered implant consisting of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge scaffold, supportive collagen hydrogel, and alginate spheres mediating sustained release of HA in fluid form. Pancreatic islets that expressed ovalbumin (OVA) antigen were implanted within this device for 14 days into immunodeficient mice that received OVA-specific DO.11.10 T cells and a subsequent immunization with OVA peptide. Splenocytes harvested from these mice produced IL-10 upon re-challenge with OVA or anti-CD3 antibodies. Both of these devices represent model systems that will be used, in future studies, to further evaluate IL-10 induction by HA, with the objective of improving the survival and function of transplanted islets in the setting of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes.

  9. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis restores immune tolerance during autoimmune insulitis

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Nadine; Kaber, Gernot; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Gebe, John A.; Preisinger, Anton; Falk, Ben A.; Sunkari, Vivekananda G.; Gooden, Michel D.; Vernon, Robert B.; Bogdani, Marika; Kuipers, Hedwich F.; Day, Anthony J.; Campbell, Daniel J.; Wight, Thomas N.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that abundant deposits of the extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) are characteristic of autoimmune insulitis in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the relevance of these deposits to disease was unclear. Here, we have demonstrated that HA is critical for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Using the DO11.10xRIPmOVA mouse model of T1D, we determined that HA deposits are temporally and anatomically associated with the development of insulitis. Moreover, treatment with an inhibitor of HA synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), halted progression to diabetes even after the onset of insulitis. Similar effects were seen in the NOD mouse model, and in these mice, 1 week of treatment was sufficient to prevent subsequent diabetes. 4-MU reduced HA accumulation, constrained effector T cells to nondestructive insulitis, and increased numbers of intraislet FOXP3+ Tregs. Consistent with the observed effects of 4-MU treatment, Treg differentiation was inhibited by HA and anti-CD44 antibodies and rescued by 4-MU in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. These data may explain how peripheral immune tolerance is impaired in tissues under autoimmune attack, including islets in T1D. We propose that 4-MU, already an approved drug used to treat biliary spasm, could be repurposed to prevent, and possibly treat, T1D in at-risk individuals. PMID:26368307

  10. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  11. In vitro hemocompatibility testing of UV-modified hyaluronan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, Leena Pravina; Srinivas, Arvind; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2006-03-01

    Hydrogels (hylans) based on cross-linked hyaluronan (HA) are potentially good biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications because they are highly non-antigenic and -immunogenic. To facilitate surface endothelialization, vital to vascular deployment, we irradiated the gel surface with low wavelength UV light. This process micro-textures the smooth gel surface to provide sites for cell anchorage and causes limited scission of native long-chain HA yielding smaller fragments that elicit an enhanced cell response. In the current in vitro study, we assessed the effects of UV irradiation on the short-term (<45 min) interaction between hylan gels and human blood cells (RBCs, platelets) and coagulation proteins at physiologic temperature. Although the lowered hydrophilicity of irradiated (UV) hylans elicited greater vascular cell response relative to unmodified (U) hylans, platelet deposition was unaffected and much lower compared to collagen-coated glass controls. The adhered platelets were rounded or mildly pseudopodic and did not express p-selectin, an activation marker. Both gel types induced identical, and minimal platelet release as measured using an platelet factor 4 ELISA, and identically deferred the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Both gel types induced elevated levels of contact activation of bound, but not plasma-phase factor XII relative to controls. Hemolysis rates were also identical and within accepted standards. We conclude that UV-treatment of hylans, useful to improve surface endothelialization, does not compromise their short-term hemocompatibility, vital to their use as vascular implant materials.

  12. Regulation of Hyaluronan Synthesis in Vascular Diseases and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Paola; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Caon, Ilaria; Passi, Alberto; Vigetti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Cell microenvironment has a critical role determining cell fate and modulating cell responses to injuries. Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that can be considered a signaling molecule. In fact, interacting with several cell surface receptors can deeply shape cell behavior. In vascular biology, HA triggers smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dedifferentiation which contributes to vessel wall thickening. Furthermore, HA is able to modulate inflammation by altering the adhesive properties of endothelial cells. In hyperglycemic conditions, HA accumulates in vessels and can contribute to the diabetic complications at micro- and macrovasculature. Due to the pivotal role in favoring atherogenesis and neointima formation after injuries, HA could be a new target for cardiovascular pathologies. This review will focus on the recent findings regarding the regulation of HA synthesis in human vascular SMCs. In particular, the effects of the intracellular HA substrates availability, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and protein O-GlcNAcylation on the main HA synthetic enzyme (i.e., HAS2) will be discussed. PMID:25834831

  13. Characterization of Hyaluronan-Protein Microstructures and Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, J. E.; McLane, L.; Bedoya, M.; Beatty, R.; Kramer, A.; Boehm, H.; Scrimgeour, J.

    2010-03-01

    Evidence is mounting that mechanical and topographical features of biomaterials can be as critical for cellular behavior as chemical properties. A case in point is hyaluronan (HA), a large polysaccharide with unique mechanical and hydrodynamic properties, found in many tissues and bodily fluids. Thanks to a large variety of accessible conformations and aggregation states, this remarkable polymer can impart on its biological environment a diverse range of structural and viscoelastic properties with far-reaching consequences for cell physiology (migration, inflammation, cancer). Supramolecular assembly of HA is typically mediated by HA-binding proteins. These specialized molecules are known to assist the formation of organized structures, such as cross-linked bundles, gels, or the all-important pericellular coat, a polymer network anchored to many cell surfaces. Precisely how the material properties of HA-rich matrices and aggregates are modified by the associated proteins, however, is largely a matter of speculation. We will present new insights concerning the cell coat and HA-protein solutions characterized using passive microrheology, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and optical force probe microscopy.

  14. Evaluation of bacterial cellulose/hyaluronan nanocomposite biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Qing, Shuang; Zhou, Jianhai; Yang, Guang

    2014-03-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is useful in the biomedical field because of its unique structure and properties. The high nano-porosity of BC allows other materials to be incorporated and form reinforced composites. Here we describe the preparation and characterization of novel BC/hyaluronan (HA) nanocomposites with a 3-D network structure. BC/HA was obtained using a solution impregnation method. Elemental and ATR-FTIR analyses showed that this method is highly effective to form composites with BC. Weight loss analysis showed that BC/HA have a lower water loss than BC at 37 °C. The total surface area and pore volume of BC/HA films gradually decreased with the HA content, as followed by FE-SEM analysis. The elongation at break of BC/HA films gradually increased as the HA content increased. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the weight loss for the BC/HA composites were lower than for pure BC between 250 and 350 °C. The results of weight loss, elongation at break and thermal stability suggested that these novel BC/HA films could be applied potentially as wound dressing materials.

  15. Carcinoma Cell Hyaluronan as a "Portable" Cancerized Prometastatic Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Turley, Eva A; Wood, David K; McCarthy, James B

    2016-05-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a structurally simple polysaccharide, but its ability to act as a template for organizing pericellular matrices and its regulated synthesis and degradation are key to initiating repair responses. Importantly, these HA functions are usurped by tumor cells to facilitate progression and metastasis. Recent advances have identified the functional complexities associated with the synthesis and degradation of HA-rich matrices. Three enzymes synthesize large HA polymers while multiple hyaluronidases or tissue free radicals degrade these into smaller bioactive fragments. A family of extracellular and cell-associated HA-binding proteins/receptors translates the bioinformation encrypted in this complex polymer mixture to activate signaling networks required for cell survival, proliferation, and migration in an actively remodeling microenvironment. Changes in HA metabolism within both the peritumor stroma and parenchyma are linked to tumor initiation, progression, and poor clinical outcome. We review evidence that metastatic tumor cells must acquire the capability to autonomously synthesize, assemble, and process their own "portable" HA-rich microenvironments to survive in the circulation, metastasize to ectopic sites, and escape therapeutic intervention. Strategies to disrupt the HA machinery of primary tumor and circulating tumor cells may enhance the effectiveness of current conventional and targeted therapies. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2507-12. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Oral administration of hyaluronan reduces bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jenny; Granton, Patrick V; Holdsworth, David W; Turley, Eva A

    2013-01-16

    The effect of oral hyaluronan (HA) on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) 3-month-old rats was measured using serum markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density. OVX rats were administered 1 mg/kg HA (OVX + HA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (OVX + PBS) by oral gavage (5 days/week for 54 days). Additional controls included sham ovariectomy with PBS gavage (Sham + PBS) and no treatment. Oral administration of HA resulted in approximately 50% (p < 0.05) increases in serum HA. Gel filtration analyses showed this was high molecular weight HA (300-500 kDa). Osteopenia was mild due to the young age of the animals. Thus, ovariectomy resulted in a 30% increase in serum collagen N-terminal telopeptides (p < 0.001), a 20% increase in serum nitrate/nitrite levels (p = 0.05), and a 5-6% decrease in femur bone mineral density/content (p < 0.05). HA gavage blunted the development of osteopenia in this model as determined by preventing the 30% increase in serum collagen N-terminal telopeptide levels (p < 0.001) and by reducing bone mineral content loss from 6 to 4%. These results show that oral supplements of HA (gavage solution, 0.12% solution) significantly reduce bone turnover associated with mild osteopenia in rats.

  17. CD147: regulator of hyaluronan signaling in invasiveness and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Grass, G Daniel; Dai, Lu; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Toole, Bryan P

    2014-01-01

    Major determinants that influence negative outcome in cancer patients are the abilities of cancer cells to resist current therapies and to invade surrounding host tissue, consequently leading to local and metastatic dissemination. Hyaluronan (HA), a prominent constituent of the tumor microenvironment, not only provides structural support but also interacts with cell surface receptors, especially CD44, that influence cooperative signaling pathways leading to chemoresistance and invasiveness. CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is a member of the Ig superfamily that has also been strongly implicated in chemoresistance and invasiveness. CD147 both regulates HA synthesis and interacts with the HA receptors, CD44, and LYVE-1. Increased CD147 expression induces formation of multiprotein complexes containing CD44 (or LYVE-1) as well as members of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, receptor tyrosine kinase, ABC drug transporter, or monocarboxylate transporter families, which become assembled in specialized lipid raft domains along with CD147 itself. In each case, multivalent HA-receptor interactions are essential for formation or stabilization of the lipid raft complexes and for downstream signaling pathways or transporter activities that are driven by these complexes. We conclude that cooperativity between HA, HA receptors, and CD147 may be a major driver of the interconnected pathways of invasiveness and chemoresistance widely critical to malignancy.

  18. Chemico-physical properties of hyaluronan-based sponges.

    PubMed

    Milella, E; Brescia, E; Massaro, C; Ramires, P A

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the chemico-physical and surface properties of the hyaluronan total benzylic ester sponges to evaluate their stability, surface "cleanliness" and handling for the applications in the tissue engineering. The thermal analysis, the characterization of surface chemical composition and the swelling test were performed on these materials. Moreover, the morphological changes, the rheological behavior, and the molecular weight loss in function of the time were monitored when the sponges were incubated in cell culture medium. The results showed that the sponges were thermally stable up to 220 degrees C and the surface composition was different from that of the bulk for C-O contribution. No contaminants were detected. In culture medium, the samples swelled assuming the rheological properties of biopolymer gel. When the sponges were in contact with the culture medium, their molecular weight remained stable for the first day and a loss of 11% and 31% was recorded for samples removed from culture medium after 3 and 7 days, respectively. With the scanning electron microscopy analysis, the spongy structure appeared with open interconnecting pores. The micrographs related to the samples after incubation in culture medium showed that the degradation was evident on the surface after 1 day. The deterioration of the pore walls and the presence of craters increased with time and, after 3 days, the phenomena were present also in the section.

  19. Hyaluronan-related limited concentration by the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, E; Nyúl, Z

    2005-01-01

    The limited renal concentration performance by the immature kidney traditionally is thought to be attributed to blunted renal response to arginine vasopressin (AVP) and medullary hypotonicity. The diminished AVP-dependent osmotic water permeability of the collecting duct is the result of decreased AVP binding and adenylate cyclase activation, and low expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mRNA and low levels of AQP2 protein. Moreover, the immature kidney fails to establish deep cortico-papillary osmotic gradient because of structural immaturity, limited solute transport and increased medullary blood flow. Based on indirect clinical and experimental evidences this article puts forward a hypothesis that during perinatal period the abundant hyaluronan (HA) content in the renomedullary interstitium has a primary role in antagonizing water reabsorption and limiting concentration performance. Hydration-related alterations in renal HA appears to be mediated by antidiuretic hormone. The concept of HA-mediated renal water transport may imply that interfering selectively with renal HA metabolism may provide a new therapeutic approach to promote diuresis or antidiuresis, respectively, according to the elevation or reduction in renomedullary HA.

  20. Group B Streptococcus evades host immunity by degrading hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stacey L.; Kyme, Pierre; Tseng, Ching Wen; Soliman, Antoine; Kaplan, Amber; Liang, Jiurong; Nizet, Victor; Jiang, Dianhua; Murali, Ramachandran; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M.; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to tissue injury, hyaluronan (HA) polymers are cleaved by host hyaluronidases generating small fragments that ligate Toll-Like Receptors to elicit inflammatory responses. Pathogenic bacteria such as Group B Streptococci (GBS) express and secrete hyaluronidases as a mechanism for tissue invasion, but it is not known how this activity relates to immune detection of HA. We found that bacterial hyaluronidases secreted by GBS and other Gram-positive pathogens degrade pro-inflammatory HA fragments to their component disaccharides. Additionally, HA disaccharides block TLR2/4 signaling elicited by both host-derived HA fragments and other TLR2/4 ligands, including LPS. Application of GBS hyaluronidase or HA disaccharides reduced pulmonary pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in an acute lung injury model. We conclude that breakdown of host-generated pro-inflammatory HA fragments to disaccharides allows bacterial pathogens to evade immune detection and could be exploited as a strategy to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:26651945

  1. Group B Streptococcus Evades Host Immunity by Degrading Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Stacey L; Kyme, Pierre; Tseng, Ching Wen; Soliman, Antoine; Kaplan, Amber; Liang, Jiurong; Nizet, Victor; Jiang, Dianhua; Murali, Ramachandran; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Liu, George Y

    2015-12-09

    In response to tissue injury, hyaluronan (HA) polymers are cleaved by host hyaluronidases, generating small fragments that ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to elicit inflammatory responses. Pathogenic bacteria such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) express and secrete hyaluronidases as a mechanism for tissue invasion, but it is not known how this activity relates to immune detection of HA. We found that bacterial hyaluronidases secreted by GBS and other Gram-positive pathogens degrade pro-inflammatory HA fragments to their component disaccharides. In addition, HA disaccharides block TLR2/4 signaling elicited by both host-derived HA fragments and other TLR2/4 ligands, including lipopolysaccharide. Application of GBS hyaluronidase or HA disaccharides reduced pulmonary pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in an acute lung injury model. We conclude that breakdown of host-generated pro-inflammatory HA fragments to disaccharides allows bacterial pathogens to evade immune detection and could be exploited as a strategy to treat inflammatory diseases.

  2. Hyaluronan Protects Bovine Articular Chondrocytes against Cell Death Induced by Bupivacaine under Supraphysiologic Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Song; Hester, William; O’Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupivacaine and supraphysiologic temperature can independently reduce cell viability of articular chondrocytes. In combination these two deleterious factors could further impair cell viability. Hypothesis Hyaluronan may protect chondrocytes from death induced by bupivacaine at supraphysiologic temperatures. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Bovine articular chondrocytes were treated with hyaluronan at physiologic (37°C) and supraphysiologic temperatures (45°C and 50°C) for one hour, and then exposed to bupivacaine for one hour at room temperature. Cell viability was assessed at three time points: immediately after treatment, six hours later, and twenty-four hours later using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The effects of hyaluronan on the levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the chondrocytes were determined using Alcian blue staining. Results (1) Bupivacaine alone did not induce noticeable chondrocyte death at 37°C; (2) bupivacaine and temperature synergistically increased chondrocyte death, that is, when the chondrocytes were conditioned to 45°C and 50°C, 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine increased the cell death rate by 131% to 383% in comparison to the phosphate-buffered saline control group; and, (3) addition of hyaluronan reduced chondrocyte death rates to approximately 14% and 25% at 45°C and 50°C, respectively. Hyaluronan’s protective effects were still observed at six and twenty-four hours after bupivacaine treatment at 45°C. However, at 50°C, hyaluronan delayed but did not prevent the cell death caused by bupivacaine. One-hour treatment with hyaluronan significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan levels in the chondrocytes. Conclusions Bupivacaine and supraphysiologic temperature synergistically increase chondrocyte death and hyaluronan may protect articular chondrocytes from death caused by bupivacaine. Clinical Relevance This study provides a rationale to perform pre-clinical and clinical studies to

  3. Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella

    PubMed Central

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. PMID:25821780

  4. Phylogenomic and molecular demarcation of the core members of the polyphyletic pasteurellaceae genera actinobacillus, haemophilus, and pasteurella.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the "sensu stricto" members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the "sensu stricto" clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera.

  5. Link protein hyaluronan-binding motif abrogates CD44-hyaluronan-mediated leukemia-liver cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Na; Li, Gongchu

    2013-05-01

    The liver is a frequent site for the metastasis of cancer cells originating from other sites. Leukemic liver metastasis is associated with poor prognosis. The ligation of CD44 with hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to contribute to the drug resistance of leukemic cells. In this study, a link protein HA-binding motif was genetically fused with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) to generate an EGFP-L fusion protein. Furthermore, a coculture system was established to investigate the interaction of leukemic cells with liver cells. CD44-positive Kasumi-1, but not CD44-negative HL-60 cells, were observed to adhere to the liver cell line L02. This cell-cell adhesion was significantly blocked by HA, indicating that Kasumi-L02 cell adhesion was mediated by the CD44-HA interaction. Compared to EGFP, EGFP-L fusion protein bound to L02 and BEL7404 liver cells. EGFP-L partially abrogated the Kasumi-L02 adhesion, suggesting that the link protein-binding motif is able to inhibit CD44-HA-mediated leukemia-liver adhesion. These results may help provide insight into novel therapeutic methods for leukemic patients diagnosed with liver metastasis.

  6. Truncated variants of hyaluronan-binding protein 1 bind hyaluronan and induce identical morphological aberrations in COS-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Aniruddha; Tyagi, Rakesh K; Datta, Kasturi

    2004-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein 1 (HABP1) is multifunctional in nature and exists as a trimer through coiled-coil interaction between alpha-helices at its N- and C-termini. To investigate the importance of trimeric assemblage and HA-binding ability of HABP1, we generated and overexpressed variants of HABP1 by truncating the alpha-helices at its termini. Subsequently, these variants were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells to examine the influence of these structural variations on normal cell morphology, as compared with those imparted by HABP1. Substantiating the centrality of coiled-coil interaction for maintaining the trimeric assembly of HABP1, we demonstrate that disruption of trimerization does not alter the affinity of variants towards its ligand HA. Transient expression of HABP1 altered the morphology of COS-1 cells by generating numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles along with disruption of the f-actin network. Interestingly, the truncated variants also imparted identical morphological changes. Characterization of the cytoplasmic vacuoles revealed that most of these vacuoles were autophagic in nature, resembling those generated under stress conditions. The identical morphological changes manifested in COS-1 cells on transient expression of HABP1 or its variants is attributed to their comparable HA-binding ability, which in concert with endogenous HABP1, may deplete the cellular HA pool. Such quenching of HA below a threshold level in the cellular milieu could generate a stress condition, manifested through cytoplasmic vacuoles and a disassembly of the f-actin network. PMID:15005653

  7. Serum hyaluronan and laminin level in children with chronic hepatitis B during long-term lamivudine treatment.

    PubMed

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Skiba, Elzbieta; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of long-term lamivudine treatment on liver fibrosis by direct assessment of histological scores and by indirect assessment of serum biomarkers in children with chronic hepatitis B (chB). The observation was carried out on 31 children with biopsy proven chB who were nonresponders to previous IFNalpha therapy. The serum concentration of hyaluronan and laminin were measured before and up to 24 months of therapy. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (score > 2 according to Batts & Ludwig). Serum hyaluronan and laminin level were significantly higher in children with chB compared to controls. There was a significant correlation between serum hyaluronan level and the stage of liver fibrosis. The ability of serum hyaluronan to differentiate children with advanced fibrosis from those with mild fibrosis was significant (AUC = 0.7767). Laminin did not allow a useful prediction. Two-year lamivudine treatment did not improve histological fibrosis but it caused significant decrease of serum hyaluronan level. Hyaluronan is a better fibrosis marker than laminin to diagnose children with advanced liver fibrosis. The significant decrease of hyaluronan level during therapy suggests antifibrotic effect of lamivudine in children with chB.

  8. Hyaluronan Does Not Affect Bupivacaine's Inhibitory Action on Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Activities in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hester, William; Yang, Jinnan; Wang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Sen; O'Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this paper is to determine if hyaluronan affects bupivacaine's anesthetic function. Methods. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in 60 mm dishes. The chondrocytes were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (control group), 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan (Orthovisc), 0.25% bupivacaine, or a mixture of 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan and 0.25% bupivacaine. Outward currents were elicited by step depolarization from −90 mV to 150 mV with 5 mV increments and holding for 200 ms. Results. The amplitude of outward currents elicited at 150 mV was 607.1 ± 135.4 pA (mean ± standard error) in the chondrocytes treated with phosphate buffered saline, 550.0 ± 194.9 pA in the chondrocytes treated with hyaluronan, 18.4 ± 8.3 pA in the chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine, and 12.8 ± 2.6 pA in the chondrocytes treated with a mixture of hyaluronan and bupivacaine. Conclusion. Hyaluronan does not affect bupivacaine's inhibitory action on the potassium channel activities in bovine articular chondrocytes. This finding suggests that intra-articular injection of a mixture of hyaluronan and bupivacaine may not affect the anesthetic effects of bupivacaine. PMID:22577566

  9. Hyaluronan degrading silica nanoparticles for skin cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeller, P.; Catalano, P. N.; Salguero, N.; Duran, H.; Wolosiuk, A.; Soler-Illia, G. J. A. A.

    2013-09-01

    We report the first nanoformulation of Hyaluronidase (Hyal) and its enhanced adjuvant effect over the free enzyme. Hyaluronic acid (HA) degrading enzyme Hyal was immobilized on 250 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNP) maintaining specific activity of the enzyme via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. This process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and enzymatic activity measurements. The nanoparticles were tested in vivo as adjuvants of carboplatin (CP), peritumorally injected in A375 human melanoma bearing mice and compared with the non-immobilized enzyme, on the basis of equal enzymatic activity. Alcian Blue staining of A375 tumors indicated large overexpression of hyaluronan. At the end of the experiment, tumor volume reduction with SiNP-immobilized Hyal was significantly enhanced compared to non-immobilized Hyal. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra confirmed the presence of SiNP on the tumor. We mean a proof of concept: this extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzyme, immobilized on SiNP, is a more effective local adjuvant of cancer drugs than the non-immobilized enzyme. This could prove useful in future therapies using other or a combination of ECM degrading enzymes.We report the first nanoformulation of Hyaluronidase (Hyal) and its enhanced adjuvant effect over the free enzyme. Hyaluronic acid (HA) degrading enzyme Hyal was immobilized on 250 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNP) maintaining specific activity of the enzyme via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. This process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and enzymatic activity measurements. The nanoparticles were tested in vivo as adjuvants of carboplatin (CP), peritumorally injected in A375 human

  10. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  11. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  12. Hyaluronan: A Simple Polysaccharide with Diverse Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Kevin T.; Gurski, Lisa A.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Witt, Robert L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a linear polysaccharide with disaccharide repeats of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is evolutionary conserved and abundantly expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM), on the cell surface and even inside cells. Being a simple polysaccharide, HA exhibits an astonishing array of biological functions. HA interacts with various proteins or proteoglycans to organize the ECM and to maintain tissue homeostasis. The unique physical and mechanical properties of HA contribute to the maintenance of tissue hydration, the mediation of solute diffusion through the extracellular space and the lubrication of certain tissues. The diverse biological functions of HA are manifested through its complex interactions with matrix components and resident cells. Binding of HA with cell surface receptors activates various signaling pathways that regulate cell function, tissue development, inflammation, wound healing and tumor progression and metastasis. Taking advantage of the inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability of HA, as well as its susceptibility to chemical modification, researchers have developed various HA-based biomaterials and tissue constructs with promising and broad clinical potential. In this article, we illustrate the properties of HA from a matrix biology perspective by first introducing principles underlying the biosynthesis and biodegradation of HA, as well as the interactions of HA with various proteins and proteoglycans. We next highlight the roles of HA in physiological and pathological states, including morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the roles of HA in various physiological processes can provide new insights and tools for the engineering of complex tissues and tissue models. PMID:24361428

  13. Alginate-hyaluronan composite hydrogels accelerate wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; D'Esposito, V; Acierno, S; Ambrosio, M R; De Caro, C; Avagliano, C; Russo, P; Russo, R; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Calignano, A; Formisano, P; Quaglia, F

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we propose polysaccharide hydrogels combining alginate (ALG) and hyaluronan (HA) as biofunctional platform for dermal wound repair. Hydrogels produced by internal gelation were homogeneous and easy to handle. Rheological evaluation of gelation kinetics of ALG/HA mixtures at different ratios allowed understanding the HA effect on ALG cross-linking process. Disk-shaped hydrogels, at different ALG/HA ratio, were characterized for morphology, homogeneity and mechanical properties. Results suggest that, although the presence of HA does significantly slow down gelation kinetics, the concentration of cross-links reached at the end of gelation is scarcely affected. The in vitro activity of ALG/HA dressings was tested on adipose derived multipotent adult stem cells (Ad-MSC) and an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Hydrogels did not interfere with cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly promoted gap closure in a scratch assay at early (1 day) and late (5 days) stages as compared to hydrogels made of ALG alone (p<0.01 and 0.001 for Ad-MSC and HaCaT, respectively). In vivo wound healing studies, conducted on a rat model of excised wound indicated that after 5 days ALG/HA hydrogels significantly promoted wound closure as compared to ALG ones (p<0.001). Overall results demonstrate that the integration of HA in a physically cross-linked ALG hydrogel can be a versatile strategy to promote wound healing that can be easily translated in a clinical setting.

  14. Hyaluronan within fascia in the etiology of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Carla; Stern, R; Porzionato, A; Macchi, V; Masiero, S; Stecco, A; De Caro, R

    2011-12-01

    The layers of loose connective tissue within deep fasciae were studied with particular emphasis on the histochemical distribution of hyaluronan (HA). Samples of deep fascia together with the underlying muscles were taken from neck, abdomen and thigh from three fresh non-embalmed cadavers. Samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Azan-Mallory, Alcian blue and a biotinylated HA-binding protein specific for HA. An ultrasound study was also performed on 22 voluntary subjects to analyze the thickness of these deep fasciae and their sublayers. The deep fascia presented a layer of HA between fascia and the muscle and within the loose connective tissue that divided different fibrous sublayers of the deep fascia. A layer of fibroblast-like cells that stained prominently with Alcian blue stain was observed. It was postulated that these are cells specialized for the biosynthesis of the HA-rich matrix. These cells we have termed "fasciacytes", and may represent a new class of cells not previously recognized. The ultrasound study highlighted a mean thickness of 1.88 mm of the fascia lata, 1.68 mm of the rectus sheath, and 1.73 mm of the sternocleidomastoid fascia. The HA within the deep fascia facilitates the free sliding of two adjacent fibrous fascial layers, thus promoting the normal function associated with the deep fascia. If the HA assumes a more packed conformation, or more generally, if the loose connective tissue inside the fascia alters its density, the behavior of the entire deep fascia and the underlying muscle would be compromised. This, we predict, may be the basis of the common phenomenon known as "myofascial pain."

  15. Changes in epidermal hyaluronan metabolism following UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tobiishi, Megumi; Sayo, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kusaka, Ayumi; Kawabata, Keigo; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Osamu; Inoue, Shintaro

    2011-10-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) plays a role in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and have shown different biological activities depending on its molecular mass. While many studies have shown changes in the amount of HA after UVB irradiation, molecular mass change remains to be elucidated. To investigate the change in the molecular mass of HA after UVB irradiation in mouse epidermis. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of UVB (0.15J/cm(2)). The amount of HA was examined using HABP sandwich assay. The molecular mass distribution was estimated by Sephacryl S-1000 chromatography. Has and Hyal mRNA expressions were detected by real-time PCR. On day 2 after UVB irradiation, both the amount of HA and the up-regulation of Has3 mRNA expression reached their maximum. The average HA molecular mass was about 1000 kDa, a level similar to that of the non-irradiated epidermis. On day 3, the average HA molecular mass drastically decreased to 100 kDa, while Hyal1, Hyal2, and Hyal3 mRNA expressions slightly increased. The amount of HA, however, remained high. On days 4 and 5, the amount of HA gradually decreased, but the molecular mass of HA remained low. A drastic reduction of the HA molecular mass after UVB irradiation was confirmed. UVB irradiation elicits remarkable changes in the molecular mass of HA, as well as amount. These qualitative and quantitative changes of HA might play an important role in UVB-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. Further study will be required to resolve the mechanism of HA degradation in the epidermis. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Fetal Size on Fetal Placental Hyaluronan and Hyaluronoglucosaminidases Throughout Gestation in the Pig

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous results indicated that the trophoblast-endometrial epithelial cell bilayer of porcine placenta undergoes microscopic folding during gestation, and the folded bilayer is embedded in placental stroma. We hypothesized that hyaluronan was a component of placental stroma, and that hyaluronidases...

  17. Hyaluronan-modified magnetic nanoclusters for detection of CD44-overexpressing breast cancer by MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ouk; Jang, Eunji; Park, Joseph; Lee, Kwangyeol; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2011-11-01

    We fabricated hyaluronan-modified magnetic nanoclusters (HA-MNCs) for detection of CD44-overexpressing breast cancer using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CD44 is closely associated with cancer growth, including proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Hence, pyrenyl hyaluronan (Py-HA) conjugates were synthesized as CD44-targetable surfactants with hyaluronan (HA) and 1-pyrenylbutyric acid (Py) to modify hyaluronan on hydrophobic magnetic nanocrystals. Subsequently, HA-MNCs were fabricated using the nano-emulsion method; magnetic nanocrystals were simultaneously self-assembled with Py-HA conjugates, and their physical and magnetic properties depended on the degree of substitution (DS) of Py in Py-HA conjugates. HA-MNCs exhibited superior targeting efficiency with MR sensitivity as well as excellent biocompatibility through in vitro/in vivo studies. This suggests that HA-MNCs can be a potent cancer specific molecular imaging agent via targeted detection of CD44 with MR imaging. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The high and low molecular weight forms of hyaluronan have distinct effects on CD44 clustering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuixia; Cao, Manlin; Liu, Hua; He, Yiqing; Xu, Jing; Du, Yan; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Lian; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2012-12-14

    CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Native high molecular weight hyaluronan (nHA) and oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) provoke distinct biological effects upon binding to CD44. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, the feature of binding with CD44 at the cell surface and the molecular basis for functional distinction between different sizes of HA is still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan on CD44 clustering. For the first time, we provided direct evidence for a strong relationship between HA size and CD44 clustering in vivo. In CD44-transfected COS-7 cells, we showed that exogenous nHA stimulated CD44 clustering, which was disrupted by oHA. Moreover, naturally expressed CD44 was distributed into clusters due to abundantly expressed nHA in HK-2 cells (human renal proximal tubule cells) and BT549 cells (human breast cancer cell line) without exogenous stimulation. Our results suggest that native HA binding to CD44 selectively induces CD44 clustering, which could be inhibited by oHA. Finally, we demonstrated that HA regulates cell adhesion in a manner specifically dependent on its size. oHA promoted cell adhesion while nHA showed no effects. Our results might elucidate a molecular- and/or cellular-based mechanism for the diverse biological activities of nHA and oHA.

  19. Reduction of sensory responses to passive movements of inflamed knee joints by hylan, a hyaluronan derivative.

    PubMed

    Pozo, M A; Balazs, E A; Belmonte, C

    1997-08-01

    Hyaluronan (sodium hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan that is present in all joint tissues. Painful arthritic joints have been characterized by hyaluronan of reduced elastoviscosity. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hyaluronan has an influence on joint nociceptor sensitivity and whether restoration of elastoviscosity would decrease nerve responses from nociceptive afferent fibers in arthritic joints. Nerve impulse activity was recorded from nociceptive afferent fibers of the medial articular nerve in anesthetized cats. An acute experimental arthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of kaolin and carrageenan. This caused, within 3 h, the development of ongoing nerve activity and enhancement of nerve impulse responses to passive movements in the normal range of the joint. Intra-articular injection of an elastoviscous solution of hylan, a hyaluronan derivative, significantly reduced both the ongoing activity and the movement-evoked responses in 1-2 h. This effect was not obtained when a nonelastoviscous solution of hylan was injected into the inflamed joint. The results indicate that intra-articularly injected elastoviscous solutions of hylan reduced nociceptive activity in inflamed joints through an elastoviscous, rheological effect on nociceptive afferent fibers through the intercellular matrix in which these fibers are embedded.

  20. Development and characterization of chitosan/hyaluronan film for transdermal delivery of thiocolchicoside.

    PubMed

    Bigucci, Federica; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-10-05

    The objective of this study was the development of chitosan/hyaluronan transdermal films to improve bioavailability of thiocolchicoside. This approach offers the possibility to elude the first-pass metabolism and at the same time it is able to provide a predictable and extended duration of activity. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of chitosan and hyaluronan and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. In accordance with polymeric composition of films and, therefore, with the amount of the net charge after the complexation, films containing the same weight ratio of chitosan and hyaluronan showed lower water uptake ability with respect to films containing only one polymeric species or an excess of chitosan or hyaluronan. Moreover, the lower the hydration of the polymeric network, the lower is the drug diffusion through the films and its permeation through the skin. This study clearly confirmed that the selection of a suitable polymeric weight ratio and appropriate preparative conditions allows the modulation of film functional properties, suggesting that these formulations could be used as a novel technological platform for transdermal drug delivery.

  1. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline . E-mail: pauline@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-08-26

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding.

  2. Local application of hyaluronan gel in conjunction with periodontal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dahaba, Moushira A; Aboul-Ela, Shadw; Darhous, Mona S

    2012-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid application has been proven to be beneficial in a number of medical disciplines. The aim of the current study was to clinically evaluate the effect of local application of hyaluronan gel in conjunction with periodontal surgery. Fourteen patients with chronic periodontitis having four interproximal intrabony defects (≥3 mm) with probing depth values >5 mm were included in this split-mouth study. Following initial nonsurgical periodontal therapy and re-evaluation, defects were randomly assigned to be treated with modified Widman flap (MWF) surgery in conjunction with either 0.8% hyaluronan gel (test) or placebo gel (control) application. Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) values were taken at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Differences between test and control sites were evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank and a McNemar test. A Friedman and a Cochran test were used to test equal ranks over time. Statistically significant differences were noted for CAL and GR (P < 0.05) in favor of the test sites. No significant differences were found regarding PD, BOP, or PI values (P > 0.05). Hyaluronan gel application in conjunction with periodontal surgery appears to result in significant improvement of CAL and in a reduction in GR. Hyaluronan gel application appears to improve the clinical outcome of MWF surgery.

  3. A practical synthesis of capped 4-methylumbelliferyl hyaluronan disaccharides and tetrasaccharides as potential hyaluronidase substrates.

    PubMed

    Gold, Henrik; Munneke, Stefan; Dinkelaar, Jasper; Overkleeft, Herman S; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Codée, Jeroen D C; van der Marel, Gijs A

    2011-09-06

    The synthesis of hyaluronan dimers and tetramers equipped with a 4-methylumbelliferyl group at the reducing end to potentially allow monitoring of hyaluronidase activities is described. The 4-OH at the non-reducing glucuronate in the presented series is either removed or methylated to prohibit transglycosylase reactions, leading to a total of four probes.

  4. Pyrene-conjugated hyaluronan facilitated exfoliation and stabilisation of low dimensional nanomaterials in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chen, Xianjue; Boulos, Ramiz A; Yasin, Faizah Md; Lu, Haibo; Raston, Colin; Zhang, Hongbin

    2013-05-25

    Pyrene-conjugated hyaluronan (Py-HA) facilitates the exfoliation of low-dimensional nanomaterials including graphite, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nano-onions (CNOs) in water (and PBS solutions), with the assistance of sonication.

  5. Lubrication and wear properties of grafted polyelectrolytes, hyaluronan and hylan, measured in the surface forces apparatus.

    PubMed

    Benz, Marcel; Chen, Nianhuan; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2004-10-01

    Hyaluronan is believed to have an important function in the boundary biolubrication of articular cartilage. Using a Surface Forces Apparatus, we tested the tribological properties of surface bound, rather than "free" hyaluronan. The grafting process of the polyelectrolyte included either a biological route via an HA-binding protein or a chemical reaction to covalently bind the polymer to a lipid bilayer coated surface. In another reaction, we constructed a surface with covalently grafted hylan (crosslinked hyaluronan). We studied the normal and shear forces between these surfaces. None of the systems demonstrated comparable lubrication to that found between cartilage surfaces except at very low loads. Both grafted hyaluronan and hylan generated coefficients of friction between 0.15 and 0.3. Thus, the polysaccharide, which is a constituent of the lamina splendens (outermost cartilage layer), is not expected to be the responsible molecule for the great lubricity of cartilage; however, it may contribute to the load bearing and wear protection of these surfaces. This was concluded from the results with hylan, where a thin gel layer was sufficient to shield the underlying surfaces from damage even at applied pressures of over 200 atmospheres during shear. Our study shows that a low coefficient of friction is not a requirement for, or necessarily a measure of, wear protection.

  6. Influence of water content and drying on the physical structure of native hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Průšová, Alena; Vergeldt, Frank J; Kučerík, Jiří

    2013-06-05

    Hydration properties of semi-diluted hyaluronan were studied by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance. Based on the transverse proton relaxation times T2, the plasticization of hyaluronan which was precipitated by isopropylalcohol and dried in the oven have been determined at water content 0.4 g of water per g of hyaluronan. Above this water content, the relaxation times increased and levelled off around 0.8 g of water per g of hyaluronan which agrees well with values determined earlier by differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxometry. The freeze dried and oven dried samples showed differences in their physical structure such as glass transition, plasticization concentration and sample topography which influenced their kinetics and mechanisms of hydration. Results confirmed earlier hypothesis that some native biopolymer structures can be easily modified by manipulation of preparation conditions, e.g. drying, giving fractions with specific physicochemical properties without necessity of their chemical modification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The High and Low Molecular Weight Forms of Hyaluronan Have Distinct Effects on CD44 Clustering*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cuixia; Cao, Manlin; Liu, Hua; He, Yiqing; Xu, Jing; Du, Yan; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Lian; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2012-01-01

    CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Native high molecular weight hyaluronan (nHA) and oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) provoke distinct biological effects upon binding to CD44. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, the feature of binding with CD44 at the cell surface and the molecular basis for functional distinction between different sizes of HA is still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan on CD44 clustering. For the first time, we provided direct evidence for a strong relationship between HA size and CD44 clustering in vivo. In CD44-transfected COS-7 cells, we showed that exogenous nHA stimulated CD44 clustering, which was disrupted by oHA. Moreover, naturally expressed CD44 was distributed into clusters due to abundantly expressed nHA in HK-2 cells (human renal proximal tubule cells) and BT549 cells (human breast cancer cell line) without exogenous stimulation. Our results suggest that native HA binding to CD44 selectively induces CD44 clustering, which could be inhibited by oHA. Finally, we demonstrated that HA regulates cell adhesion in a manner specifically dependent on its size. oHA promoted cell adhesion while nHA showed no effects. Our results might elucidate a molecular- and/or cellular-based mechanism for the diverse biological activities of nHA and oHA. PMID:23118219

  8. Hyaluronan accumulation and arrested oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation in vanishing white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Bugiani, Marianna; Postma, Nienke; Polder, Emiel; Dieleman, Nikki; Scheffer, Peter G; Sim, Fraser J; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Boor, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    Vanishing white matter disease is a genetic leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. Patients experience a slowly progressive neurological deterioration with episodes of rapid clinical worsening triggered by stress. The disease may occur at any age and leads to early death. Characteristic neuropathological findings include cystic degeneration of the white matter with feeble, if any, reactive gliosis, dysmorphic astrocytes and paucity of myelin despite an increase in oligodendrocytic density. These features have been linked to a maturation defect of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. However, the nature of the link between glial immaturity and the observed neuropathological features is unclear. We hypothesized that the defects in maturation and function of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are related. Brain tissue of seven patients with genetically proven vanishing white matter disease was investigated using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and size exclusion chromatography. The results were compared with those obtained from normal brain tissue of age-matched controls, from chronic demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions and from other genetic and acquired white matter disorders. We found that the white matter of patients with vanishing white matter disease is enriched in CD44-expressing astrocyte precursor cells and accumulates the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix, and CD44 is a hyaluronan receptor. We found that a high molecular weight form of hyaluronan is overabundant, especially in the most severely affected areas. Comparison between the more severely affected frontal white matter and the relatively spared cerebellum confirms that high molecular weight hyaluronan accumulation is more pronounced in the frontal white matter than in the cerebellum. High molecular weight hyaluronan is known to inhibit astrocyte and

  9. Molecular mass dependence of hyaluronan detection by sandwich ELISA-like assay and membrane blotting using biotinylated hyaluronan binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; Alsofyani, Abeer; Shah, Naman; Talati, Nishant; LoBello, Jaclyn C; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Oonuki, Yoji; de la Motte, Carol A; Cowman, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is widely detected in biological samples and its concentration is most commonly determined by the use of a labeled specific HA binding protein (aggrecan G1-IGD-G2, HABP), employing membrane blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like methods. However, the detected signal intensity or the quantified value obtained by using these surface-based methods is related to the molecular mass (M) of HA, especially for HA in the low M range below ∼150 kDa. At the same mass or mass concentration, higher M HA gives a higher signal than lower M HA. We have experimentally determined the quantitative relationship between the M of HA (in the range 20–150 kDa) and the relative signal intensity in comparison with a standard HA, in a sandwich ELISA-like assay. An M-dependent signal correction factor (SCF) was calculated and used to correct the signal intensity, so that the corrected concentration value would more accurately reflect the true HA concentration in solution. The SCF for polydisperse low M HA was also calculated and compared with experimental results. When the molecular mass distribution of an HA sample is determined by a method such as gel electrophoresis, then its appropriately averaged SCF can be calculated and used to correct the signal in sandwich ELISA to obtain a more accurate concentration estimation. The correction method works for HA with M between ∼150 and 20 kDa, but lower M HA is too poorly detected for useful analysis. The physical basis of the M-dependent detection is proposed to be the increase in detector-accessible fraction of each surface-bound molecule as M increases. PMID:23964097

  10. Stabilin-1 and -2 constitute a novel family of fasciclin-like hyaluronan receptor homologues.

    PubMed Central

    Politz, Oliver; Gratchev, Alexei; McCourt, Peter A G; Schledzewski, Kai; Guillot, Pierre; Johansson, Sophie; Svineng, Gunbjorg; Franke, Peter; Kannicht, Christoph; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Longati, Paola; Velten, Florian W; Johansson, Staffan; Goerdt, Sergij

    2002-01-01

    MS-1, a high-molecular-mass protein expressed by non-continuous and angiogenic endothelial cells and by alternatively activated macrophages (Mphi2), and the hepatic sinusoidal endothelial hyaluronan clearance receptor are similar with respect to tissue distribution and biochemical characteristics. In the present study we purified these proteins by immuno- and hyaluronan-affinity chromatography respectively, sequenced tryptic peptides and generated full-length cDNA sequences in both mouse and human. The novel genes, i.e. stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, code for homologous transmembrane proteins featuring seven fasciclin-like adhesion domains, 18-20 epidermal-growth-factor domains, one X-link domain and three to six B-(X(7))-B hyaluronan-binding motifs. Northern-blotting experiments revealed the presence of both stabilins in organs with predominant endothelial sinuses such as liver, spleen and lymph node: stabilin-1 mRNA was also detected in organs with predominant Mphi2 cells, such as placenta, and in interleukin-4/glucocorticoid-stimulated Mphi2 cells in vitro. A polyclonal antibody made against human recombinant stabilin-1 confirmed the expression of stabilin-1 protein in splenic sinus endothelial cells in vivo and in Mphi2 in vitro. On the basis of high similarity at the protein level and the unique domain composition, which differs from that of all other known fasciclin-like proteins and hyaluronan receptors, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2 define a novel family of fasciclin-like hyaluronan receptor homologues that might play a role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in vascular function and inflammatory processes. PMID:11829752

  11. Heparin prevents intracellular hyaluronan synthesis and autophagy responses in hyperglycemic dividing mesangial cells and activates synthesis of an extensive extracellular monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix after completing cell division.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aimin; Ren, Juan; Wang, Christina P; Hascall, Vincent C

    2014-03-28

    Growth-arrested rat mesangial cells (RMCs) at a G0/G1 interphase stimulated to divide in hyperglycemic medium initiate intracellular hyaluronan synthesis that induces autophagy/cyclin D3-induced formation of a monocyte-adhesive extracellular hyaluronan matrix after completing cell division. This study shows that heparin inhibits the intracellular hyaluronan synthesis and autophagy responses, but at the end of cell division it induces synthesis of a much larger extracellular monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix. Heparin bound to RMC surfaces by 1 h, internalizes into the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum region by 2 h, and was nearly gone by 4 h. Treatment by heparin for only the first 4 h was sufficient for its function. Streptozotocin diabetic rats treated daily with heparin showed similar results. Glomeruli in sections of diabetic kidneys showed extensive accumulation of autophagic RMCs, increased hyaluronan matrix, and influx of macrophages over 6 weeks. Hyaluronan staining in the glomeruli of heparin-treated diabetic rats was very high at week 1 and decreased to near control level by 6 weeks without any RMC autophagy. However, the influx of macrophages by 6 weeks was as pronounced as in diabetic glomeruli. The results are as follows: 1) heparin blocks synthesis of hyaluronan in intracellular compartments, which prevents the autophagy and cyclin D3 responses thereby allowing RMCs to complete cell division and sustain function; 2) interaction of heparin with RMCs in early G1 phase is sufficient to induce signaling pathway(s) for its functions; and 3) influxed macrophages effectively remove the hyaluronan matrix without inducing pro-fibrotic responses that lead to nephropathy and proteinurea in diabetic kidneys.

  12. Pasteurella multocida occurs in a high frequency in the saliva of pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Rollof, J; Nordin-Fredriksson, G; Holst, E

    1989-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a frequent cause of infection after animal bites. In contrast to earlier reports, P. multocida appeared to be as common among dogs as among cats. We found 17 (81%) of 21 pet dogs to harbour P. multocida in their saliva. At normal contact, the risk of transmission from dogs to humans seems to be negligible. Only 1/27 dogs owners was found to harbour the organism. None of 13 cat owners or 23 persons without animal contacts harboured P. multocida.

  13. Pasteurella anatipestifer as a cause of mortality in captive wild waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Karstad, L; Lusis, P; Long, J R

    1970-10-01

    An outbreak of Pasteurella anatipestifer infection in young wild waterfowl at the Niska Waterfowl Research Center resulted in losses of approximately 100 Blue and Snow Geese, one White-fronted Goose, five Mandarin Ducks, one Black Duck and one Wood Duck. Clinical signs included diarrhea, paralysis and tremors. Gross lesions were fibrin deposits on serosal surfaces, hemorrhages on the epicardium, consolidation of the lungs, cloudy or flaky deposits on the air sacs, and dark, swollen spleens. Microscopic lesions included fibrinous meningitis, pneumonitis, air saculitis and serositis. Swollen leg and foot joints were seen in some cases. Chloramphenicol treatment seemed to be of benefit in controlling the outbreak.

  14. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose: evidence of a carrier state.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M D; Goldberg, D R; Shadduck, D J; Price, J I; Cooch, E G

    1997-04-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese.

  15. Polymicrobial tenosynovitis with Pasteurella multocida and other gram negative bacilli after a Siberian tiger bite.

    PubMed

    Isotalo, P A; Edgar, D; Toye, B

    2000-11-01

    Mammalian bites present a considerable clinical problem because they are often associated with bacterial infections. Pasteurella multocida is a microorganism that commonly infects both canine and small feline bites. Zoonotic infections developing after large feline bites have been recognised, although their reports are limited. We describe a 35 year old man who was bitten by a Siberian tiger and who developed infectious tenosynovitis secondary to P multocida, Bergeyella (Weeksella) zoohelcum, and Gram negative bacteria most like CDC group EF-4b and comamonas species. The latter three bacteria have not been isolated previously from large feline bite wounds.

  16. Characterization of Pasteurella species isolated from lungs of calves with pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, E B; Bisgaard, M; Mutters, R; Pedersen, K B

    1985-01-01

    During routine bacteriological examination of pneumonic calf lungs it was experienced that many Pasteurella multocida-like isolates had a fermentation pattern different from what is generally accepted for P. multocida sensu stricto. Forty-one out of 50 strains selected for further investigation were phenotypically related and formed a group of indole-, mannitol-and sorbitol-negative P. multocida-like strains, which was tentatively designated taxon 13. Deoxyribonucleic acid/deoxyribonucleic acid hybridizations including both ornithine positive and ornithine negative strains of taxon 13 allowed the classification of the former as P. multocida biovar 6 and the latter as V factor independent strains of Haemophilus avium. PMID:3986681

  17. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  18. Hyaluronidase and Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery after Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Dohare, Preeti; Arshad, Arslan; Zia, Muhammad T.; Panda, Sanjeet; Korumilli, Ritesh; Kayton, Robert; Hascall, Vincent C.; Lauer, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in premature infants results in inflammation, arrested oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, and reduced myelination of the white matter. Hyaluronan (HA) inhibits OPC maturation and complexes with the heavy chain (HC) of glycoprotein inter-α-inhibitor to form pathological HA (HC–HA complex), which exacerbates inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IVH would result in accumulation of HA, and that either degradation of HA by hyaluronidase treatment or elimination of HCs from pathological HA by HA oligosaccharide administration would restore OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological function in survivors with IVH. To test these hypotheses, we used the preterm rabbit model of glycerol-induced IVH and analyzed autopsy samples from premature infants. We found that total HA levels were comparable in both preterm rabbit pups and human infants with and without IVH, but HA receptors—CD44, TLR2, TLR4—were elevated in the forebrain of both humans and rabbits with IVH. Hyaluronidase treatment of rabbits with IVH reduced CD44 and TLR4 expression, proinflammatory cytokine levels, and microglia infiltration. It also promoted OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological recovery. HC–HA and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 were elevated in newborns with IVH; and depletion of HC–HA levels by HA oligosaccharide treatment reduced inflammation and enhanced myelination and neurological recovery in rabbits with IVH. Hence, hyaluronidase or HA oligosaccharide treatment represses inflammation, promotes OPC maturation, and restores myelination and neurological function in rabbits with IVH. These therapeutic strategies might improve the neurological outcome of premature infants with IVH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Approximately 12,000 premature infants develop IVH every year in the United States, and a large number of survivors with IVH develop cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. The onset of IVH induces inflammation

  19. Improving hydrophilicity of silicone elastomer by IPN formation with hyaluronan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Richard L.

    Soft contact lenses have been available to consumers for the past several decades. By far, the most popular form on the market today is the silicone hydrogel, with nearly 70% of the market share. However, many contact lens wearers still have issues which cause them to discontinue lens use. It is estimated that between 25-35% of people discontinue use permanently. This can be traced back to two main issues with modern hydrogel lenses: a lack of adequate oxygen permeability across the lens; and lens-induced dehydration of the cornea. The corneal epithelium lining the lens of the eye is an avascular environment. As such, the cells must get their oxygen by diffusion through the tear film, or any material covering the lens. The silicone hydrogel SCLs have reduced oxygen gas permeability compared to traditional silicone elastomers. Additionally, when the hydrogel lenses lose water to evaporation, they pull water from the wearer's eye, contributing to dryness. Beyond simple discomfort, these issues can lead to pathologies such as hyperemia and even corneal cell death in severe cases. It was determined that a solution to these issues would be a new ocular lens material which had superior oxygen gas permeability and was hydrophilic without containing water in its bulk. The aim of this research was to create an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) materials of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and hyaluronan (HA) with such properties. The results in this work indicate the successful synthesis of these HA-PDMS IPN materials. These elastomeric materials had improved hydrophilicity compared to untreated PDMS. Additionally, new chemical species (ATR/FTIR and XPS spectroscopy) and surface morphologies (SEM imaging) indicated the introduction of HA into the PDMS. Furthermore, analysis of the oxygen gas permeability showed no significant change for the treated samples as compared to the PDMS base material. As silicone materials have use in many biomedical fields, the material was

  20. Putative chitin synthases from Branchiostoma floridae show extracellular matrix-related domains and mosaic structures.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea

    2012-08-01

    The transition from unicellular to multicellular life forms requires the development of a specialized structural component, the extracellular matrix (ECM). In Metazoans, there are two main supportive systems, which are based on chitin and collagen/hyaluronan, respectively. Chitin is the major constituent of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeleton. However, presence of chitin/chitooligosaccharides has been reported in lower chordates and during specific stages of vertebrate development. In this study, the occurrence of chitin synthases (CHSs) was investigated with a bioinformatics approach in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, in which the presence of chitin was initially reported in the skeletal rods of the pharyngeal gill basket. Twelve genes coding for proteins containing conserved amino acid residues of processive glycosyltransferases from GT2 family were found and 10 of them display mosaic structures with novel domains never reported previously in a chitin synthase. In particular, the presence of a discoidin (DS) and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain was found in nine identified proteins. Sequence analyses and homology modelling suggest that these domains might interact with the extracellular matrix and mediate protein-protein interaction. The multi-domain putative chitin synthases from B. floridae constitute an emblematic example of the explosion of domain innovation and shuffling which predate Metazoans.

  1. Effects of intratumoral administration of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate to five dogs with soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Venable, Rachel O.; Worley, Deanna R.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Cai, Shuang; Cohen, Mark S.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of intratumoral injection of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate on local and systemic platinum concentrations and systemic toxicosis. Animals 5 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Procedures For each dog, approximately 1.5 mL of hyaluronan nanocarrier conjugated with 20 mg of cisplatin was injected into an external STS. Blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hours) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for pharmacokinetic analyses. Urine samples were obtained at 0 and at 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for urinalysis. Each treated STS and its sentinel lymph nodes were surgically removed 96 hours after the hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum concentrations in blood samples, tumors, and lymph nodes. Results No tissue reactions were detected 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Mean ± SD area under the curve, peak concentration, and terminal half-life for unbound (plasma) and total (serum) platinum were 774.6 ± 221.1 ng·h/mL and 3,562.1 ± 2,031.1 ng·h/mL, 56.5 ± 20.9 ng/mL and 81.6 ± 40.4 ng/mL, and 33.6 ± 16.1 hours and 51.2 ± 29.1 hours, respectively. Platinum concentrations ranged from 3,325 to 8,229 ng/g in STSs and 130 to 6,066 ng/g in STS-associated lymph nodes. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Intratumoral injection of the hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate was well tolerated in treated dogs. Following intratumoral hyaluronan-cisplatin injection, platinum concentration was 1,000-fold and 100-fold greater within treated tumors and tumor-draining lymphatics, respectively, compared with that in plasma. PMID:23176425

  2. Pasteurella multocida septic shock after a cat scratch in an elderly otherwise healthy woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro A; García, Sebastian; Prat, Salvio

    2008-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a commensal in the nasopharynx of many animals. P. multocida infections most commonly involve the skin, soft tissues, and respiratory tract, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. The present case illustrates a severe articular infection caused by this bacterium, leading to septic shock, in an elderly, otherwise healthy woman, after a simple scratch of a cat.

  3. Identification of a common hyaluronan binding motif in the hyaluronan binding proteins RHAMM, CD44 and link protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B; Yang, B L; Savani, R C; Turley, E A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two hyaluronan (HA) binding domains in the HA receptor, RHAMM, that occur near the carboxyl-terminus of this protein. We show here that these two HA binding domains are the only HA binding regions in RHAMM, and that they contribute approximately equally to the HA binding ability of this receptor. Mutation of domain II using recombinant polypeptides of RHAMM demonstrates that K423 and R431, spaced seven amino acids apart, are critical for HA binding activity. Domain I contains two sets of two basic amino acids, each spaced seven residues apart, and mutation of these basic amino acids reduced their binding to HA--Sepharose. These results predict that two basic amino acids flanking a seven amino acid stretch [hereafter called B(X7)B] are minimally required for HA binding activity. To assess whether this motif predicts HA binding in the intact RHAMM protein, we mutated all basic amino acids in domains I and II that form part of these motifs using site-directed mutagenesis and prepared fusion protein from the mutated cDNA. The altered RHAMM protein did not bind HA, confirming that the basic amino acids and their spacing are critical for binding. A specific requirement for arginine or lysine residues was identified since mutation of K430, R431 and K432 to histidine residues abolished binding. Clustering of basic amino acids either within or at either end of the motif enhanced HA binding activity while the occurrence of acidic residues between the basic amino acids reduced binding. The B(X7)B motif, in which B is either R or K and X7 contains no acidic residues and at least one basic amino acid, was found in all HA binding proteins molecularly characterized to date. Recombinant techniques were used to generate chimeric proteins containing either the B(X7)B motifs present in CD44 or link protein, with the amino-terminus of RHAMM (amino acids 1-238) that does not bind HA. All chimeric proteins containing the motif bound HA in transblot analyses

  4. NLRP3/Cryopyrin Is Necessary for Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Release in Response to Hyaluronan, an Endogenous Trigger of Inflammation in Response to Injury*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Kenshi; Muto, Jun; Taylor, Kristen R.; Cogen, Anna L.; Audish, David; Bertin, John; Grant, Ethan P.; Coyle, Anthony J.; Misaghi, Amirhossein; Hoffman, Hal M.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation under sterile conditions is a key event in autoimmunity and following trauma. Hyaluronan, a glycosaminoglycan released from the extracellular matrix after injury, acts as an endogenous signal of trauma and can trigger chemokine release in injured tissue. Here, we investigated whether NLRP3/cryopyrin, a component of the inflammasome, participates in the inflammatory response to injury or the cytokine response to hyaluronan. Mice with a targeted deletion in cryopyrin showed a normal increase in Cxcl2 in response to sterile injuries but had decreased inflammation and release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Similarly, the addition of hyaluronan to macrophages derived from cryopyrin-deficient mice increased release of Cxcl2 but did not increase IL-1β release. To define the mechanism of hyaluronan-mediated activation of cryopyrin, elements of the hyaluronan recognition process were studied in detail. IL-1β release was inhibited in peritoneal macrophages derived from CD44-deficient mice, in an MH-S macrophage cell line treated with antibodies to CD44, or by inhibitors of lysosome function. The requirement for CD44 binding and hyaluronan internalization could be bypassed by intracellular administration of hyaluronan oligosaccharides (10–18-mer) in lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages. Therefore, the action of CD44 and subsequent hyaluronan catabolism trigger the intracellular cryopyrin → IL-1β pathway. These findings support the hypothesis that hyaluronan works through IL-1β and the cryopyrin system to signal sterile inflammation. PMID:19258328

  5. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to differentiate isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Jefferson, K.L.; Heisey, D.M.; Samuel, M.D.; Berlowski, B.M.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Avian cholera, an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, kills thousands of North American wild waterfowl annually. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolates cultured during a laboratory challenge study of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and collected from wild birds and environmental samples during avian cholera outbreaks were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a whole-genome DNA fingerprinting technique. Comparison of the AFLP profiles of 53 isolates from the laboratory challenge demonstrated that P. multocida underwent genetic changes during a 3-mo period. Analysis of 120 P. multocida serotype 1 isolates collected from wild birds and environmental samples revealed that isolates were distinguishable from one another based on regional and temporal genetic characteristics. Thus, AFLP analysis had the ability to distinguish P. multocida isolates of the same serotype by detecting spatiotemporal genetic changes and provides a tool to advance the study of avian cholera epidemiology. Further application of AFLP technology to the examination of wild bird avian cholera outbreaks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations between virulence and P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird species and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  6. SELECTIVE INHIBITION BY TRYPTOPHAN ANALOGUES OF MURINE TOXIN SYNTHESIS IN PASTEURELLA PESTIS

    PubMed Central

    Montie, Thomas C.; Ajl, Samuel J.

    1964-01-01

    Montie, Thomas C. (Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pa.), and Samuel J. Ajl. Selective inhibition by tryptophan analogues of murine toxin synthesis in Pasteurella pestis. J. Bacteriol. 88:1467–1475. 1964.—Washed-cell suspensions of Pasteurella pestis, avirulent strain “Tjiwidej,” exhibited a preferential inhibition of toxin synthesis relative to total protein formation, when grown in the presence of various tryptophan analogues. Growth was partially inhibited in the presence of methyl analogues. High concentrations of 5-fluorotryptophan induced slight growth-inhibitory effects. However, toxin production was more sensitive to these levels of the analogue. Growth inhibition appeared not to relate to toxin inhibition. Inhibition of toxin synthesis by analogues was reversed by l-tryptophan and indole. Shikimic acid but not anthranilic acid antagonized the action of 4-methyltryptophan on selective toxin synthesis. The formation of tryptophanless protein accounted for continued protein synthesis in tryptophan-depleted cells. Protein resolved by acrylamide gel electrophoresis from crude cell extracts exhibited two toxic protein bands. The synthesis of one toxin-protein band, the less-mobile of the two, appeared to be associated with the membrane fraction of the cell, and was selectively blocked in cells grown in the presence of tryptophan analogues. Cellular tryptophan levels may determine the quantity and quality of proteins made. Images PMID:14234807

  7. Pasteurella multocida-associated sinusitis in khaki Campbell ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Viriyarampa, A Srisamai; Sae-Heng, Namdee; Chamsingh, Wilairat; Bootdee, Orawan; Pathanasophon, Pornpen

    2003-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida group B, serotype 3, was isolated from sinusitis-affected khaki Campbell ducks. To study the role of P. multocida in sinusitis, commercial khaki Campbell ducks were experimentally infected with P. multocida alone or combined with Escherichia coli. In Expt. 1, experimental ducks were infected with P. multocida intranasally or ocularly. A comparison was done by intranasal inoculation with pooled nasal discharge from the affected ducks or phosphate-buffered saline. The ducks intranasally inoculated with the nasal discharge or P. multocida showed sinusitis. In Expt. 2, E. coli alone or a combination of P. multocida and E. coli was intranasally inoculated into experimental ducks. The ducks intranasally inoculated with the combination of P. multocida and E. coli had sinusitis, the same as found in the field but less severe than that of the field cases. Pasteurella multocida was already present in litter/floor of duck farms. We concluded that P. multocida played a role in induction of sinusitis. However, the sinusitis in ducks may be initiated by poor management, especially in the brooding period of ducks.

  8. Host response in rabbits to infection with Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains originating from fowl cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jaglic, Zoran; Jeklova, Edita; Christensen, Henrik; Leva, Lenka; Register, Karen; Kummer, Vladimir; Kucerova, Zdenka; Faldyna, Martin; Maskova, Jarmila; Nedbalcova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Although Pasteurella multocida serogroup F has been described as an avian-adapted serogroup, it was recently found in rabbit nests in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the ability of 2 avian P. multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chickens and turkeys. Half of the animals in each challenge group were immunosuppressed using dexamethasone. All of the challenged rabbits exhibited clinical signs of peracute septicemic disease, ending with shock, and died or were euthanized in the terminal stages of the disease 1 to 2 d post-infection. Gross pathological changes included systemic vascular collapse and vascular leak syndrome. Hyperemia, hemorrhage, edema, inflammatory cell infiltrates, focal necrosis, and degenerative changes were observed histologically in parenchymatous organs. This is the first study directly demonstrating that avian P. multocida serogroup F strains are highly virulent in rabbits and that avian hosts cannot be excluded as a possible source of rabbit infection with serogroup F. PMID:22210996

  9. Experimental study of pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serogroup F in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jaglic, Zoran; Jeklova, Edita; Leva, Lenka; Kummer, Vladimir; Kucerova, Zdenka; Faldyna, Martin; Maskova, Jarmila; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Alexa, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The role of Pasteurella multocida serogroup F in inducing disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Three groups of 12 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally (i.n.), subcutaneously (s.c.), and perorally (p.o.) challenged, respectively. Six rabbits of each group were immunosuppressed using dexamethasone. Eight rabbits (four of them immunosuppressed) inoculated i.n. showed symptoms of respiratory distress resulting in respiratory failure and died or were euthanized in the terminal stage of the disease 3-6 days post-infection (p.i.). The main pathological findings were fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia (immunocompetent rabbits) or diffuse haemorrhagic pneumonia (immunosuppressed rabbits). Septicemic syndrome ending with shock occurred in 11 rabbits (6 of them immunosuppressed) inoculated s.c., which died or were euthanized in the terminal stage of the disease 2-3 days p.i. The most significant pathological findings were extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. All of the p.o. inoculated rabbits survived the challenge showing no clinical signs of the disease and no macroscopic lesions. The observations in this study indicate that in addition to serogroups A and D of P. multocida, serogroup F also can be highly pathogenic for rabbits and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic loss in commercial rabbit production.

  10. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  11. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  12. Pathogenicity and drug susceptibility of the Pasteurella anatis isolated in chickens in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, M Y; Lin, K J; Lan, Y C; Liaw, M F; Tung, M C

    2001-01-01

    A strain of Pasteurella anatis (PA) was isolated from the sinus of an adult leghorn laying chicken with sinusitis, nasal discharge, drop in egg production, and low mortality, symptoms initially thought to indicate infectious coryza. The tiny, smooth, whitish colonies were identified as PA. To compare its pathogenicity with that of commercial broilers, nine groups, 10 birds per group, of 10-day-old broilers were individually inoculated with the strain of PA, Pasteurella multocida (PM), or Escherichia coli (EC) by intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, or subcutaneous inoculation. The PA was determined to cause the signs, lesions, and septicemic death, which are similar to the symptoms of PM or EC infection. At 1 wk postinfection (PI), the mortality rate was between that of PM and EC infection at 1 wk PI. Twenty antimicrobial-containing discs were evaluated, and the isolate was highly sensitive to cetiofer, amoxicillin, lincopectin, and furazolidone. Furthermore, it was moderately sensitive to tetracycline and enrofloxacin and only slightly sensitive to cephalothin, chloramphenicol, flumequine, nalidixic acid, neomycin, oxolinic acid, streptomycin, and trimethoprim. The PA infection was treated successfully with amoxicillin.

  13. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazu; Li, Yingcui; Jakuba, Caroline; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sayo, Tetsuya; Okuno, Misako; Dealy, Caroline N; Toole, Bryan P; Takeda, Junji; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kosher, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb.

  14. High numbers of macrophages, especially M2-like (CD163-positive), correlate with hyaluronan accumulation and poor outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Satu; Tumelius, Ritva; Rilla, Kirsi; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Oikari, Sanna; Auvinen, Päivi

    2015-05-01

    High amounts of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and hyaluronan (HA) correlate with tumour aggressiveness in breast cancer, but the relationship between these parameters is unclear. The aim of this study was to assay the numbers of TAMs in 278 human breast cancer cases, and their correlations with HA-related factors, clinical variables, and outcome. The immunoreactivities for CD163 and CD68 were considered as indicators for M2-like and all TAMs, respectively. The numbers of TAMs were counted in at least four hot spots, and averaged to represent the numbers of TAMs in each section. In the statistical analyses, the numbers were graded as either low or high according to the median. High numbers of TAMs correlated with a high tumour HA content, HA synthases, CD44 positivity, and poor outcome. The number of CD163-positive cells represented a strong independent prognostic factor. There was also a significant correlation between obesity and a high number of CD163-positive cells. Concurrent increases in TAMs and HA in breast cancer indicate that the accumulation of HA facilitates macrophage infiltration and inflammatory responses during human breast cancer progression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  16. Mammalian Ceramide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their stucture and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20222015

  17. Mammalian ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-05-01

    In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their structure and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  19. Characterization of polyelectrolyte behavior of the polysaccharides chitosan, heparin, and hyaluronan, by light scattering and viscometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Yonemura, Susan; Kipper, Matt

    2008-03-01

    This study on the polyelectrolyte behavior of polysaccharides in solution is motivated by our recent work in development of nanostructured polysaccharide-based surface coatings. Chitosan behaves as a weak polycation, and hyaluronan behaves as a weak polyanion, while heparin behaves as a strong polyanion. The ability to control the conformation of these polysaccharides in solution, by changing the solution ionic strength and pH may offer the opportunity to further tune the nanoscale features of polysaccharide-based surface coatings assembled from solution. In the work reported here, the solution conformation of these polymers is determined from gel permeation chromatography coupled to differential refractive index, light scattering, and viscometry detection. These results are related to the nanostructure of chitosan-heparin and chitosan-hyaluronan surface coatings based on polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  20. Freeze-dried eudragit-hyaluronan multicompartment liposomes to improve the intestinal bioavailability of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Catalan-Latorre, Ana; Ravaghi, Maryam; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Marongiu, Francesca; Ennas, Guido; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira; Peris, José Esteban; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed at finding an innovative vesicle-type formulation able to improve the bioavailability of curcumin upon oral administration. To this purpose, phospholipid, Eudragit® S100 and hyaluronan sodium salt were combined to obtain eudragit-hyaluronan immobilized vesicles using an easy and environmentally-friendly method. For the first time, the two polymers were combined in a system intended for oral delivery, to enhance curcumin stability when facing the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Four different formulations were prepared, keeping constant the amount of the phospholipid and varying the eudragit-hyaluronan ratio. The freeze-drying of the samples, performed to increase their stability, led to a reduction of vesicle size and a good homogeneity of the systems, after simple rehydration with water. X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that after the freeze-drying process, curcumin remained successfully incorporated within the vesicles. All the vesicles displayed similar features: size ranging from 220 to 287nm, spherical or oval shape, multilamellar or large unilamellar morphology with a peculiar multicompartment organization involving 1-4 smaller vesicles inside. In vitro studies demonstrated the ability of the combined polymers to protect the vesicles from the harsh conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract (i.e., ionic strength and pH variation), which was confirmed in vivo by the greater deposition of curcumin in the intestinal region, as compared to the free drug in dispersion. This enhanced accumulation of curcumin provided by the eudragit-hyaluronan immobilized vesicles, together with an increase in Caco-2 cell viability exposed to hydrogen peroxide, indicated that vesicles can ensure a local protection against oxidative stress and an increase in its intestinal absorption.

  1. Gold-Nanoclustered Hyaluronan Nano-Assemblies for Photothermally Maneuvered Photodynamic Tumor Ablation.

    PubMed

    Han, Hwa Seung; Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Hansang; Lee, Minchang; An, Jae Yoon; Shin, Sol; Kwon, Seunglee; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-12-27

    Optically active nanomaterials have shown great promise as a nanomedicine platform for photothermal or photodynamic cancer therapies. Herein, we report a gold-nanoclustered hyaluronan nanoassembly (GNc-HyNA) for photothermally boosted photodynamic tumor ablation. Unlike other supramolecular gold constructs based on gold nanoparticle building blocks, this system utilizes the nanoassembly of amphiphilic hyaluronan conjugates as a drug carrier for a hydrophobic photodynamic therapy agent verteporfin, a polymeric reducing agent, and an organic nanoscaffold upon which gold can grow. Gold nanoclusters were selectively installed on the outer shell of the hyaluronan nanoassembly, forming a gold shell. Given the dual protection effect by the hyaluronan self-assembly as well as by the inorganic gold shell, verteporfin-encapsulated GNc-HyNA (Vp-GNc-HyNA) exhibited outstanding stability in the bloodstream. Interestingly, the fluorescence and photodynamic properties of Vp-GNc-HyNA were considerably quenched due to the gold nanoclusters covering the surface of the nanoassemblies; however, photothermal activation by 808 nm laser irradiation induced a significant increase in temperature, which empowered the PDT effect of Vp-GNc-HyNA. Furthermore, fluorescence and photodynamic effects were recovered far more rapidly in cancer cells due to certain intracellular enzymes, particularly hyaluronidases and glutathione. Vp-GNc-HyNA exerted a great potential to treat tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Tumors were completely ablated with a 100% survival rate and complete skin regeneration over the 50 days following Vp-GNc-HyNA treatment in an orthotopic breast tumor model. Our results suggest that photothermally boosted photodynamic therapy using Vp-GNc-HyNA can offer a potent therapeutic means to eradicate tumors.

  2. X-ray ablation of hyaluronan hydrogels: Fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel networks

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Chang, S.; Je, J. H.; Yeom, J.; Hahn, S. K.; Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    We present a simple and highly versatile protocol for polymer ablation: hard x-ray irradiation makes it possible to rapidly depolymerize hyaluronan hydrogels and fabricate three-dimensional network of microchannels. Photodynamic and photochemical analyses show that x-ray irradiation directly cleaves the polymer backbone and the total dose controls the degradation kinetics. This nonthermal ablation protocol may offer opportunities for processing organic polymers and biological materials.

  3. X-ray ablation of hyaluronan hydrogels: Fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, B. M.; Chang, S.; Yeom, J.; Hahn, S. K.; Je, J. H.; Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    We present a simple and highly versatile protocol for polymer ablation: hard x-ray irradiation makes it possible to rapidly depolymerize hyaluronan hydrogels and fabricate three-dimensional network of microchannels. Photodynamic and photochemical analyses show that x-ray irradiation directly cleaves the polymer backbone and the total dose controls the degradation kinetics. This nonthermal ablation protocol may offer opportunities for processing organic polymers and biological materials.

  4. A Case of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection with Canine-associated Pasteurella canis in a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Preetam R.; Biranthabail, Dhanashree; Rangnekar, Aseem; Shiragavi, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    This is the report of lower respiratory tract infection with Pasteurella canis in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient with history of casual exposure to cats. Pasteurella species are part of the oral and gastrointestinal flora in the canine animals. These organisms are usually implicated in wound infection following animal bites, but can also be associated with a variety of infections including respiratory tract infections. PMID:26435948

  5. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  6. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide in the cerebrospinal fluid is associated with self-repair of rats after chronic spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Rong, W; Hu, X; Liu, X; Jiang, L; Ma, Y; Dang, G; Liu, Z; Wei, F

    2012-05-17

    The objective of this study was to explore changes in hyaluronan levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a spinal cord compression model, to investigate whether hyaluronan tetrasaccharide was involved in this process, and to test the effects of hyaluronan tetrasaccharide on neuron and oligodendrocyte repair. We developed a chronic spinal cord compression model with various sizes of polymer sheets (1.5×0.7×0.3 mm(3); 5×1.5×0.7 mm(3)) that were implanted microsurgically underneath the C(5-6) laminae. The rats were divided into three groups: a sham group, a mildly compressed (MC) group, and a widely compressed (WC) group. Locomotor functional evaluations revealed that the behavioral function of the MC and WC groups dropped to their lowest level from the fourth to fifth week and gradually recovered thereafter. The hyaluronan levels in the CSF gradually increased after spinal cord compression. Furthermore, hyaluronan tetrasaccharide was involved in the hyaluronan change. In addition, we found that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP(2)) were co-expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and caspase-3 expression gradually decreased in the compression model. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was upregulated in astrocytes at the fourth week post-compression. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide (HA(4)) induced NF-κB and c-IAP(2) to suppress the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in primary neuronal cultures and increased BDNF and VEGF expression in astrocytic cultures in vitro. These findings suggest that HA(4) in the CSF may associate with behavioral recovery by increasing the levels of NF-κB, c-IAP(2), and neurotrophic factors after chronic spinal cord compression.

  7. Free radical depolymerization of hyaluronan by Maillard reaction products: role in liquefaction of aging vitreous.

    PubMed

    Deguine, V; Menasche, M; Ferrari, P; Fraisse, L; Pouliquen, Y; Robert, L

    1998-02-01

    The degradation of hyaluronan was followed by viscosimetry and by HPLC in order to study the possible role of Maillard products (lysine-glucose) on the alteration of the vitreous gel in aging and diabetes. Lysine-glucose generated Maillard products produced a decrease of viscosity and of the number average molecular weight (Mn) of hyaluronan during a 1 h incubation at 37 degrees C. This effect was comparable to that produced by 1 U/ml of testicular hyaluronidase but was weaker than the effect of a Fenton-type reagent (Udenfriend's reagent). The polydispersity of hyaluronan incubated with Maillard products appeared higher than with hyaluronidase suggesting a more random reaction. Antioxydant enzymes (SOD, catalase), the iron chelators (desferrioxamine, transferrin) and the free radical scavengers (uric acid, carnosine) inhibited the degradation by Maillard products confirming its free radical nature and the intervention of trace metals. Maillard products have been detected in diabetic vitreous and may play a role in its accelerated modifications (liquefaction) in diabetes as compared to normal aging.

  8. Basic FGF and PDGF-BB synergistically stimulate hyaluronan and IL-6 production by orbital fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Virakul, Sita; Heutz, Judith W; Dalm, Virgil A S H; Peeters, Robin P; Paridaens, Dion; van den Bosch, Willem A; Hirankarn, Nattiya; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A

    2016-09-15

    Orbital fibroblast activation is a central pathologic feature of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been proposed to contribute to GO, but their effects on orbital fibroblasts are largely unknown. We found that bFGF stimulated proliferation and hyaluronan production, but not IL-6 production by orbital fibroblasts, while VEGF hardly affected orbital fibroblast activity. Remarkably, co-stimulation of orbital fibroblasts with bFGF and PDGF-BB synergistically enhanced IL-6 and hyaluronan production and displayed an additive effect on proliferation compared to either bFGF or PDGF-BB stimulation. Nintedanib, a FGF- and PDGF-receptor targeting drug, more efficiently blocked bFGF + PDGF-BB-induced IL-6 and hyaluronan production than dasatinib that only targets PDGF-receptor. In conclusion, bFGF may contribute to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling in GO, especially through synergistic interaction with PDGF-BB. Multi-target therapy directed at the bFGF and PDGF pathways may potentially be of interest for the treatment of GO.

  9. Influence of synthetic polyelectrolytes on the growth and properties of hyaluronan-chitosan multilayers.

    PubMed

    Salomäki, Mikko; Kankare, Jouko

    2009-02-09

    Both hyaluronan (HA) and chitosan (CHI) are biocompatible polysaccharide electrolytes. The multilayers formed by these polyelectrolytes alone are known to be rather soft and strongly viscoelastic. In this work we study multilayers formed by incorporating synthetic nonsaccharide polyelectrolytes such as polyallylamine (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in various proportions into the HA/CHI layers. The buildup was followed on a quartz crystal resonator. Surface acoustic impedance recorded in these measurements, in suitable conditions, gives a spiral when plotted in the complex plane. The shape of this spiral depends on the viscoelasticity of the layer material and regularity of the growth process. We found that poly(acrylic acid) destroys the soft diffuse matrix formed by hyaluronan. It forms diffusion barriers when deposited sparsely between the layers. If its proportion is higher, the film growth adopts a linear buildup in the layer-by-layer process. The linear buildup of CHI/PAA reveals that the buildup regime of a multilayer film does not determine the viscoelastic properties of the film. Linearly and exponentially growing films may have very similar mechanical properties. Polyacrylic acid forms a kind of scaffold inside the film giving the natively soft hyaluronan/chitosan film more mechanical strength. The optimal combination gave more than 100-fold increase in the shear modulus.

  10. Metastatin: a hyaluronan-binding complex from cartilage that inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Lapcevich, R K; Underhill, C B; Han, Z; Gao, F; Swartz, G; Plum, S M; Zhang, L; Green, S J

    2001-02-01

    In this study, a hyaluronan-binding complex, which we termed Metastatin, was isolated from bovine cartilage by affinity chromatography and found to have both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic properties. Metastatin was able to block the formation of tumor nodules in the lungs of mice inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Single i.v. administration of Metastatin into chicken embryos inhibited the growth of both B16BL6 mouse melanoma and TSU human prostate cancer cells growing on the chorioallantoic membrane. The in vivo biological effect may be attributed to the antiangiogenic activity because Metastatin is able to inhibit the migration and proliferation of cultured endothelial cells as well as vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis on the chorioallantoic membrane. In each case, the effect could be blocked by either heat denaturing the Metastatin or premixing it with hyaluronan, suggesting that its activity critically depends on its ability to bind hyaluronan on the target cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Metastatin is an effective antitumor agent that exhibits antiangiogenic activity.

  11. In Planta Recapitulation of Isoprene Synthases Evolution from Ocimene Synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingai; Xu, Jia; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Carlin, Silvia; Barbaro, Enrico; Cappellin, Luca; Velikova, Violeta; Vrhovsek, Urska; Loreto, Francesco; Varotto, Claudio

    2017-06-16

    Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated in vivo the functional and evolutionary relevance of the residues considered diagnostic for IspS function. One of these positions was identified by saturating mutagenesis as a major determinant of substrate specificity in AdoIspS able to cause in vivo a dramatic change in total volatile emission from hemi- to monoterpenes and supporting evolution of isoprene synthases from ocimene synthases. The mechanism responsible for IspS neofunctionalization by active site size modulation by a single amino acid mutation demonstrated in this study might be general, as the very same amino acidic position is implicated in the parallel evolution of different short-chain terpene synthases from both angiosperms and gymnosperms.Based on these results, we present a model reconciling in a unified conceptual framework the apparently contrasting patterns previously observed for isoprene synthase evolution in plants. These results indicate that parallel evolution may be driven by relatively simple biophysical constraints, and illustrate the intimate molecular evolutionary links between the structural and functional bases of traits with global relevance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. High Sensitivity Method to Estimate Distribution of Hyaluronan Molecular Sizes in Small Biological Samples Using Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Lan; Dahl, Christen P.; Kerje, Susanne; Hansell, Peter; Mörner, Stellan; Lindqvist, Ulla; Engström-Laurent, Anna; Larsson, Göran; Hellman, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan. In this paper, we demonstrate that gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analyzer (GEMMA) can be used to estimate the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes in biological samples with a limited amount of hyaluronan. The low detection level of the GEMMA method allows for estimation of hyaluronan molecular sizes from different parts of small organs. Hence, the GEMMA method opens opportunity to attain a profile over the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes and estimate changes caused by disease or experimental conditions that has not been possible to obtain before. PMID:26448761

  13. Mechanisms of acetohydroxyacid synthases.

    PubMed

    Chipman, David M; Duggleby, Ronald G; Tittmann, Kai

    2005-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthases are thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent biosynthetic enzymes found in all autotrophic organisms. Over the past 4-5 years, their mechanisms have been clarified and illuminated by protein crystallography, engineered mutagenesis and detailed single-step kinetic analysis. Pairs of catalytic subunits form an intimate dimer containing two active sites, each of which lies across a dimer interface and involves both monomers. The ThDP adducts of pyruvate, acetaldehyde and the product acetohydroxyacids can be detected quantitatively after rapid quenching. Determination of the distribution of intermediates by NMR then makes it possible to calculate individual forward unimolecular rate constants. The enzyme is the target of several herbicides and structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes explain the herbicide-enzyme interaction.

  14. Deadly case of Pasteurella multocida aortitis and mycotic aneurysm following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David

    2016-01-01

    Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a leaking mycotic abdominal aneurysm that was surgically repaired. Blood cultures and aortic wall tissue cultures grew P. multocida. Given how common animal bite presentations are in the ED, this case highlights the need to consider aortitis and mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm in an unwell patient with an animal bite. PMID:27326399

  15. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in Nebraska (USA) wetlands under epizootic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Brand, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Gleason Basin, a marsh located in the western part of the Rainwater Basin in Nebraska, was selected during the 1980 spring waterfowl migration as a study site to determine the presence and persistence of virulent Pasteurella multocida. Avian cholera mortality in migratory waterfowl using the Basin increased during a 2-wk period of a die-off beginning the first week of March when 2,409 carcasses were collected from the marsh. Study sites within the marsh were established for sampling water associated with and not associated with intact and scavenged carcasses. Isolations of virulent P. multocida were made from five of six study sites associated with either intact or scavenged carcasses for 3 days and from three of five non-carcass-associated study sites for 2 days. Recovery of these bacteria from this environment suggested a possible source of infection for susceptible waterfowl using the contaminated site.

  16. The pulmonary clearance of Pasteurella haemolytica in calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea or Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, A; Maxie, M G; Savan, M; Ruhnke, H L; Thomson, R G; Barnum, D A; Geissinger, H D

    1982-01-01

    Based on current literature which commonly associates bovine virus diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis with "pneumonic pasteurellosis," an investigation was conducted into the effect of these two pathogens on the capacity of bovine lung to clear inhaled Pasteurella haemolytica. There was no significant effect (p less than 0.05) of either bovine virus diarrhea virus or M. bovis on the mean clearance rate of P. haemolytica, nor did the time interval of three, five or seven days between the first inoculation and exposure to P. haemolytica and adversely affect the lung clearance rates. However, it was found that the left lungs and a higher bacterial retention (p less than 0.05) than the right lungs. PMID:7127194

  17. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127

  18. Efficacy of recombinant leukotoxin in protection against pneumonic challenge with live Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, J A; Shewen, P E; Lo, R Y

    1991-01-01

    The recombinant leukotoxin (rLKT) of the bacterium Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was examined for its ability to protect cattle from experimental challenge with logarithmic-phase P. haemolytica. Six different vaccines were utilized in the experiment: P. haemolytica culture supernatant, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with rLKT, rLKT alone, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with Escherichia coli supernatant not containing LKT, E. coli supernatant alone, and phosphate-buffered saline. rLKT alone showed no protective capacity against development of clinical signs of respiratory disease or against development of postmortem lung lesions after experimental challenge. It was, however, shown to enhance the efficacy of the culture supernatant vaccine and decrease clinical signs and pneumonic lesions. The complexity of protective immunity in this disease is emphasized in this study, and, although LKT is an important virulence factor of the organism, an immune response to LKT alone does not protect animals against disease. PMID:1987075

  19. Udder orf infection and its role in ovine clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R

    1997-04-01

    During an experimental study of ovine subclinical mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, an outbreak of contagious ecthyma occurred among ewes unvaccinated against parapox virus. The same group of ewes developed a high rate (43.7%) of clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica. The rate of clinical mastitis among ewes vaccinated against parapox virus was very low (3.7%) suggesting that the presence of orf in the unvaccinated ewes was contributing to the high rate of clinical mastitis. An examination of the iron, sodium, potassium and albumin concentration of milk collected from 16 unvaccinated and nine randomly selected vaccinated ewes before experimental infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci or their uninfected control mammary glands indicated significant differences in the iron (p < 0.0001) and sodium (p = 0.01) concentration. Increased iron concentration in the milk may have assisted in the development of udder infection caused by P. haemolytica as iron is easily utilised by this bacterium.

  20. Immunological roles of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) using a PMT mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Jung; Toan, Nguyen Tat; Jang, Eun Jin; Jung, Bock Gie; Lee, Jae Il; Lee, Bong Joo

    2007-08-01

    The immunological role of the Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) in mice was examined using a PMT mutant strain. After a nasal inoculation, the mutant strain failed to induce interstitial pneumonia. Moreover, PMT had no significant effect on the populations of CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, and CD19+ immunocytes in blood or on the populations of CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes (P<0.01). However, there was a significant increase in the total number of cells in the BAL samples obtained from the wild-type P. multocida-inoculated mice. On the other hand, the level of IL-1 expression decreased when the macrophages from the bronchio-alveolar lavage were stimulated with PMT. Overall, PMT appears to play some role (stimulating and/or inhibiting) in the immunological responses but further studies will be required to confirm this.

  1. Iron acquisition in Pasteurella haemolytica: expression and identification of a bovine-specific transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnariwo, J A; Schryvers, A B

    1990-01-01

    Seven type 1 field isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica were screened for their ability to use different transferrins as a source of iron for growth. All seven strains were capable of using bovine but not human, porcine, avian, or equine transferrin. A screening assay failed to detect siderophore production in any of the strains tested. Iron-deficient cells from these strains expressed a binding activity, specific for bovine transferrin, that was regulated by the level of iron in the medium. Inhibition of expression by translation and transcription inhibitors suggested that iron regulation was occurring at the gene level. Affinity isolation of receptor proteins from all seven strains with biotinylated bovine transferrin identified a 100-kilodalton iron-regulated outer membrane protein as the bovine transferrin receptor. Iron-regulated outer membrane proteins of 71 and 77 kilodaltons were isolated along with the 100-kilodalton protein when less stringent washing procedures were employed in the affinity isolation procedure. Images PMID:2365453

  2. Clonal outbreaks of [ Pasteurella] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in two mouse colonies.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Sadhana; Bisgaard, Magne; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Christensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the pathogenic role of biovar Heyl of [ Pasteurella] pneumotropica in mouse colonies. Fifty-three isolates associated with mastitis and orbital, cutaneous and vaginal abscesses as well as isolates from the nose and vagina of healthy mice were investigated. According to phenotypic characteristics and rpoB sequencing, the isolates were identified as [ P.] pneumotropica biovar Heyl. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed five closely related profiles separated by only one to four fragments. The outbreak strains diverged from epidemiologically unrelated strains with the same rpoB sequence type, as shown by the PFGE profiles. The investigation documented that members of biovar Heyl of [ P.] pneumotropica caused disease outbreaks in mouse colonies since the clonality indicated a primary role of [ P.] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in the infections observed.

  3. Tracheal versus pulmonary deposition and clearance of inhaled Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, L M; López, A; Merino-Moncada, M; Martínez-Burnes, J; Mondragón, I

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to do a comparative study on the deposition and clearance of inhaled bacteria between the lungs and tracheae of mice exposed to aerosols of bacteria. Two hundred and eighty-eight mice were divided into four groups (n = 72) and exposed to aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus in four replicates. The numbers of bacteria were determined in the trachea and lungs of mice sacrificed 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours postexposure. Results indicated that bacterial deposition was greater in lungs than in tracheae. No significant (p greater than 0.05) difference was observed between P. haemolytica and S. aureus clearance rates. Although bacteria were rapidly eliminated from the whole respiratory tract, bacterial clearance was significantly (p less than 0.002) faster in tracheae than lungs. A significant (p less than 0.05) replicate effect was also observed. PMID:4041977

  4. Use of ELISA to detect toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis in swine.

    PubMed

    Bowersock, T L; Hooper, T; Pottenger, R

    1992-10-01

    The use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a means of detecting dermonecrotoxin-producing strains of Pasteurella multocida was investigated. The assay was evaluated as a means to identify toxigenic P. multocida isolates recovered from nasal secretions of swine with atrophic rhinitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detecting dermonecrotoxin-producing P. multocida strains were compared to those of mouse-inoculation and cytotoxicity assays. The ELISA was highly sensitive and more specific than animal inoculation or tissue culture assay and is thus a more effective method for screening swine herds for the presence of toxigenic strains of P. multocida. The ELISA is a rapid, effective, economical way to identify toxigenic P. multocida isolates.

  5. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica from grass, drinking water, and straw bedding used by sheep.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R

    1997-11-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from three of 18 grass samples and four of 18 water samples collected from two grazing fields occupied by sheep. This microorganism was also isolated from three of nine straw bedding samples collected from a pen housing ewes affected by mastitis caused by P. haemolytica. The same ewes developed scabbed papilloma-like lesions on the teat and udder skin. These lesions were colonized by P. haemolytica of various serotypes. Colder, wetter weather seems to prolong the survival of P. haemolytica in the environment of sheep. Survival of virulent strains of P. haemolytica in the environment could accumulatively increase the bacterial count, contributing to their transmission from animal to animal. The preference of P. haemolytica for colder, wetter conditions was confirmed in the laboratory where this microorganism survived longer in distilled water, phosphate-buffered saline, Todd-Hewitt broth, and ewe's milk kept at 4 degrees C.

  6. Development of PCR Assays for Species- and Type-Specific Identification of Pasteurella multocida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kirsty M.; Frost, Alan J.; Lee, Chiang W.; Papadimitriou, John M.; Dawkins, Hugh J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Genomic subtractive hybridization of closely related Pasteurella multocida isolates has generated clones useful in distinguishing hemorrhagic septicemia-causing type B strains from other P. multocida serotypes. Oligonucleotide primers designed during the sequencing of these clones have proved valuable in the development of PCR assays for rapid species- and type-specific detection of P. multocida and of type B:2 in particular. This study demonstrated that the primer pair designed from the sequence of the clone 6b (KTT72 and KTSP61) specifically amplified a DNA fragment from types B:2, B:5, and B:2,5 P. multocida and that the primers KMT1T7 and KMT1SP6 produced an amplification product unique to all P. multocida isolates analyzed. It was also shown that PCR amplification performed directly on bacterial colonies or cultures represents an extremely rapid, sensitive method of P. multocida identification. PMID:9542944

  7. Characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolated from waterfowl and associated avian species in California.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, D C; Jessup, D A; Snipes, K P; Carpenter, T E; Hird, D W; McCapes, R H

    1990-04-01

    Characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolated from tissues of dead waterfowl and associated avian species found at 23 sites located in northern and central California, from January 1986 through January 1988 are reported. Two hundred ninety five isolates of P. multocida were obtained from 23 avian species. Most of the isolates belonged to the subspecies P. multocida multocida (63%), followed by P. multocida gallicida (37%), and by P. multocida septica (less than 1%). There appeared to be a higher prevalence of P. multocida multocida in Ross' geese (Chen rossi) and Snow geese (Chen coeruleus). All of the isolates belonged to somatic serotype 1, possessed the A capsule type and were susceptible to the 8 antimicrobial agents tested. None contained plasmid DNA.

  8. Simple visual assay for determination of Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin neutralizing antibody titers in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, M J; Confer, A W; Kreps, J A

    1985-01-01

    A simple visual assay is described for determining the capacity of bovine serum to neutralize the cytotoxin produced by Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. The test was reproducible from day to day with different target cell populations and cytotoxin preparations. Cytotoxin neutralization titers obtained by the visual assay were comparable to those determined by the trypan blue exclusion and 51Cr-release methods. The visual assay was used to measure neutralization titers of bovine sera obtained from vaccination experiments and fractions of purified serum obtained by gel filtration. The major advantages of the visual assay over other assays are that it is rapid, inexpensive, and does not use radioisotopes. It also does not require specialized equipment, making it adaptable to most laboratories. Images PMID:3905853

  9. Pasteurella multocida septicemia caused by close contact with a domestic cat: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Toyo; Shimizu, Manabu; Iwata, Masaru; Tanahashi, Junji; Ito, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    We report here a case of Pasteurella multocida infection caused by cat exposure presenting with septic shock, sinusitis, and pneumonia. The patient was a febrile 20-year-old woman who had been experiencing disturbed consciousness progressively. She had close contact with a domestic cat and had received some scratches on both arms. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head showed a high intensity in the paranasal cavity, and a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest showed bilateral lung consolidations. The pathogen was identified as P. multocida by the cultures from blood and nasal discharge. She was given intensive antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone and piperacillin, continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) therapy, and anticoagulation therapy. Owing to these therapeutic regimens, the septic shock was successfully treated without complications. We also review the literature on P. multocida septicemia.

  10. Deadly case of Pasteurella multocida aortitis and mycotic aneurysm following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David

    2016-06-16

    Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a leaking mycotic abdominal aneurysm that was surgically repaired. Blood cultures and aortic wall tissue cultures grew P. multocida. Given how common animal bite presentations are in the ED, this case highlights the need to consider aortitis and mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm in an unwell patient with an animal bite.

  11. Evaluation of different API systems for identification of porcine Pasteurella multocida isolates.

    PubMed

    Vera Lizarazo, Y A; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Gutiérrez Martín, C B

    2008-12-01

    An exhaustive biochemical characterisation of 60 porcine Pasteurella multocida clinical isolates recovered from lesions indicative of pneumonia, previously confirmed by PCR and all belonging to the capsular serogroup A, was performed by means of four commercial systems. The API 20NE correctly identified almost all isolates (95%), but only 60% could be ascribed to this species by the API 20E method. The high diversity exhibited by the API 50CHB/E system, with six different patterns, does not advise its use as additional system for a definitive identification at the species level, but this method could be a potential tool for characterising P. multocida isolates below this level. The more uniform reactions yielded by the API ZYM test make this system helpful in the confirmatory identification of this organism. The high variability (20 profiles) obtained when the four systems are taken together also suggests their usefulness for epidemiological purposes in order to sub-type P. multocida isolates.

  12. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice.

    PubMed

    Tjørnehøj, K; Eriksen, L; Aalbaek, B; Nansen, P

    1992-01-01

    In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs developed more severe pneumonia and septicaemia than did parasite-free mice. The parasite-induced effect on bacterial pathogenicity was more marked for a non-toxin-producing P. multocida as compared with a toxin-producing strain of P. multocida, possibly due to the higher spontaneous pathogenicity of the non-toxigenic strain of P. multocida. The present results should encourage controlled experiments on possible interactions between A. suum and various airborne microbial infections in pigs.

  13. Recent insights into Pasteurella multocida toxin and other G-protein-modulating bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brenda A; Ho, Mengfei

    2010-08-01

    Over the past few decades, our understanding of the bacterial protein toxins that modulate G proteins has advanced tremendously through extensive biochemical and structural analyses. This article provides an updated survey of the various toxins that target G proteins, ending with a focus on recent mechanistic insights in our understanding of the deamidating toxin family. The dermonecrotic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) was recently added to the list of toxins that disrupt G-protein signal transduction through selective deamidation of their targets. The C3 deamidase domain of PMT has no sequence similarity to the deamidase domains of the dermonecrotic toxins from Escherichia coli (cytotoxic necrotizing factor [CNF]1-3), Yersinia (CNFY) and Bordetella (dermonecrotic toxin). The structure of PMT-C3 belongs to a family of transglutaminase-like proteins, with active site Cys-His-Asp catalytic triads distinct from E. coli CNF1.

  14. Self-reinforcement and protein sustained delivery of hyaluronan hydrogel by tailoring a dually cross-linked network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunhong; Xu, Guoguang; Wang, Xinghui; Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua; Zhao, Jianhao

    2015-01-01

    A series of self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels were developed to improve mechanical properties and protein sustained delivery thanks to a dually cross-linked network. Hyaluronan gel particles (HGPs, 1-5 μm in diameter) with different cross-linking densities, i.e. HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3 and HGPs-15, were prepared in an inverse emulsion system and used as the reinforcing phase after glycidyl methacrylation, while glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronan with a substitution degree of 45.2% was synthesized as the matrix phase. These two phases were cross-linked under ultraviolet irradiation to form self-reinforcing hyaluronan hydrogels (srHAs) that showed typical cross-linked structure of HGPs connecting the matrix phase by cross-section observation. In comparison to hyaluronan bulk gels and their blends with HGPs, srHAs distinctly enhanced the mechanical properties and BSA long-term sustained delivery, especially srHA-1.5 showed the highest compressive modulus of 220±15 kPa and the slowest BSA delivery (67% release at 14 d). The 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that all the srHAs had no cytotoxicity.

  15. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  16. Cloning of a serotype-specific antigen from Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rayos, C; Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Beveridge, T J

    1986-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids coding for a soluble (or surface) antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 were identified. Two plasmids, both containing the same 5.4 kilobase pairs of insert DNA, were recovered independently by screening a clone band of P. haemolytica A1 genomic DNA in Escherichia coli for the expression of P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens (R. Y. C. Lo and L.A. Cameron, Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64:73-76, 1986). E. coli cells carrying the plasmids were found to be agglutinated by an antiserum raised against the P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens. Analysis of the E. coli clones by electron microscopy revealed patches of amorphous material on the surface of the cells which were not present on the controls. Further characterization with protein A-colloidal gold labeled both these patches and the outer membranes of these cloned cells pretreated with the specific antiserum. These results indicated that the cloned antigen was expressed on the surface of the E. coli cells. The cloned antigen was found to be specific for serotype 1 when tested by slide agglutination against a collection of P. haemolytica typing antisera. Southern blot hybridization, using the cloned DNA as a probe, labeled the genomic DNA from P. haemolytica serotype 1 as well as the cross-agglutinating serotypes 2 and 7, but not DNA from the non-cross-agglutinating serotypes 3 and 4 and Pasteurella multocida. These results demonstrated that serotype specificity could be attributed to the particular antigenic determinants in the genome of the organism. Images PMID:3527985

  17. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  18. Alternative treatment of serious and mild Pasteurella multocida infection in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Palócz, Orsolya; Gál, János; Clayton, Paul; Dinya, Zoltán; Somogyi, Zoltán; Juhász, Csaba; Csikó, György

    2014-11-25

    Pasteurella multocida causes numerous economically relevant diseases in livestock including rabbits. Immunisation is only variably effective. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in some species but are contra-indicated in rabbits, due to their adverse effects on the rabbit microbiota. There is therefore a substantial need for alternative forms of infection control in rabbits; we investigated the effect of oral β-glucan on P. multocida infection in this species. Thirthy-five New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of seven animals. Three groups were inoculated with Pasteurella multocida intranasally (in.), a physiologically appropriate challenge which reproduces naturally acquired infection, and received either (1-3), (1-6) β-glucans or placebo. Four other groups were inoculated both in. and intramuscularly (im.), representing a supra-physiological challenge, and received either (1-3), (1-6) β-glucans, antibiotic or placebo. β-glucans given prophylactically were highly effective in protecting against physiological (in.) bacterial challenge. They were less effective in protecting against supra-physiological bacterial challenge (in. and im.), although they extended survival times. This latter finding has practical relevance to breeders as it extends the window in which heavily infected and symptomatic animals can be salvaged with antibiotics. In our study, (1-3), (1-6) β-glucans were highly effective in protecting against a model of naturally acquired P. multocida infection and extended survival times in the supra-physiological model. Enrofloxacin was effective in protecting against supra-physiological infection. We are currently reviewing the use of combined prophylaxis.

  19. Extracellular neuraminidase production by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain associated with bovine pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    White, D J; Jolley, W L; Purdy, C W; Straus, D C

    1995-01-01

    The properties of an extracellular neuraminidase produced by a Pasteurella multocida A:3 strain that was isolated in a case of bovine pneumonia were examined during growth in a defined medium. This enzyme (isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. multocida A:3) was active against N-acetylneuramin lactose, human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, colominic acid, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Enzyme elaboration was correlated with the growth of the organism in a defined medium, with maximum quantities produced in the stationary phase. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified neuraminidase possessed a specific activity of 9.36 mumol of sialic acid released per min per mg of protein against fetuin. The enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 6.0 and a Km of 0.03 mg/ml. The P. multocida A:3 neuraminidase had a molecular weight of approximately 500,000 as estimated by gel filtration. The enzyme was stable at 4 and 37 degrees C for 3 h. Approximately 75% of the neuraminidase activity was lost within 30 min at 50 degrees C. Greater than 90% of the enzyme activity was destroyed within 10 min at temperatures of > or = 65 degrees C. The P. multocida neuraminidase does not appear to be serologically related to the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 neuraminidase since antiserum prepared against the purified P. haemolytica enzyme did not neutralize the P. multocida enzyme. PMID:7729875

  20. Ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, K A

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. This study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. To demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees C and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees C. P. haemolytica type A1 strains 82-25 and L101, a P. haemolytica type 2 strain, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible and Pasteurella multocida, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not susceptible to killing by ovine pulmonary surfactant and normal serum. No bacteria incubated with bovine pulmonary surfactant were killed by normal serum. Although the species origin of pulmonary surfactant was selective, the species origin of serum was not. P. haemolytica incubated with ovine pulmonary surfactant was killed by fetal calf serum, gnotobiotic calf serum, pooled normal sheep serum, pooled normal rabbit serum, and pooled guinea pig serum. Ultrastructurally, killed P. haemolytica suspensions contained dead cells and cells distorted with vacuoles between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cytoplasm. The mechanism of killing did not correlate with concentrations of complement or lysozyme or titers of residual antibody in either the pulmonary surfactant or the serum, and killing was reduced by preincubation of surfactant with P. haemolytica lipopolysaccharide. Preliminary characterization of both surfactant and serum implicate a low-molecular-weight proteinaceous component in the surfactant and serum albumin in the serum. This mechanism may help clear certain gram-negative bacteria from the lungs of sheep as a part of the pulmonary innate defense system. Images PMID:1452351

  1. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Barrier Facility by Using a Modified Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1WjlTg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages. PMID:25255075

  2. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a mouse barrier facility by using a modified enrofloxacin treatment regimen.

    PubMed

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-09-01

    Multiple NOD. Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)Tg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages.

  3. Overexpression of Hyaluronan-binding Protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR) in HepG2 Cells Leads to Increased Hyaluronan Synthesis and Cell Proliferation by Up-regulation of Cyclin D1 in AKT-dependent Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Rachna; Saha, Paramita; Saradhi, Mallampati; Prasad, Ramachandra L. A.; Chatterjee, Soumya; Ghosh, Ilora; Tyagi, Rakesh K.; Datta, Kasturi

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the mature form of hyaluronan-binding protein 1 (HABP1/gC1qR/p32), a ubiquitous multifunctional protein involved in cellular signaling, in normal murine fibroblast cells leads to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately apoptosis with the release of cytochrome c. In the present study, human liver cancer cell line HepG2, having high intracellular antioxidant levels was chosen for stable overexpression of HABP1. The stable transformant of HepG2, overexpressing HABP1 does not lead to ROS generation, cellular stress, and apoptosis, rather it induced enhanced cell growth and proliferation over longer periods. Phenotypic changes in the stable transformant were associated with the increased “HA pool,” formation of the “HA cable” structure, up-regulation of HA synthase-2, and CD44, a receptor for HA. Enhanced cell survival was further supported by activation of MAP kinase and AKT-mediated cell survival pathways, which leads to an increase in CYCLIN D1 promoter activity. Compared with its parent counterpart HepG2, the stable transformant showed enhanced tumorigenicity as evident by its sustained growth in low serum conditions, formation of the HA cable structure, increased anchorage-independent growth, and cell-cell adhesion. This study suggests that overexpression of HABP1 in HepG2 cells leads to enhanced cell survival and tumorigenicity by activating HA-mediated cell survival pathways. PMID:22451658

  4. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase.

    PubMed

    Prehm, P; Mausolf, A

    1986-05-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was isolated from protoblast membranes of streptococci by Triton X-114 extraction and cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. It was identified as a 52,000-Mr protein, which bound to nascent hyaluronate and was affinity-labelled by periodate-oxidized UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Antibodies directed against the 52,000-Mr protein inhibited hyaluronate synthesis. Mutants defective in hyaluronate synthase activity lacked the 52,000-Mr protein in membrane extracts. Synthase activity was solubilized from membranes by cholate in active form and purified by ion-exchange chromatography.

  5. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Prehm, P; Mausolf, A

    1986-01-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was isolated from protoblast membranes of streptococci by Triton X-114 extraction and cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. It was identified as a 52,000-Mr protein, which bound to nascent hyaluronate and was affinity-labelled by periodate-oxidized UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Antibodies directed against the 52,000-Mr protein inhibited hyaluronate synthesis. Mutants defective in hyaluronate synthase activity lacked the 52,000-Mr protein in membrane extracts. Synthase activity was solubilized from membranes by cholate in active form and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3092808

  6. Genital form of pasteurellosis in breeding turkeys infected during artificial insemination and isolation of an unusual strain of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Nadine; Christensen, Henrik; Salandre, Olivier; Albaric, Olivier; Bisgaard, Magne; Malher, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    A genital and potentially fatal form of Pasteurella multocida infection was reported on two turkey-breeding farms on which birds were vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida. Both outbreaks were linked to the use of semen from young vaccinated toms with a history of respiratory pasteurellosis followed by treatment during rearing. Typing by agar gel immunodiffusion and rapid slide agglutination of P. multocida isolated from cloacal swabs was completed by multilocus sequence typing. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that that the isolates were clonal. They belonged to sequence type (ST) 30, described in chickens, cats, and ducks. This strain differed in sequence type from the ones used in the vaccine (ST8, ST60, ST53, and ST235), which might have limited its effectiveness. No contamination of the semen (n = 30) was found, suggesting fecal contamination during semen collection.

  7. Combining colloidal probe atomic force and reflection interference contrast microscopy to study the compressive mechanics of hyaluronan brushes.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-02-14

    We describe a method that combines colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to characterize the mechanical properties of thin and solvated polymer films. When analyzing polymer films, a fundamental problem in colloidal probe AFM experiments is to determine the distance at closest approach between the probe and the substrate on which the film is deposited. By combining AFM and RICM in situ, forces and absolute distances can be measured simultaneously. Using the combined setup, we quantify the compressive mechanics of films of the polysaccharide hyaluronan that is end-grafted to a supported lipid bilayer. The experimental data, and comparison with polymer theory, show that hyaluronan films are well-described as elastic, very soft and highly solvated polymer brushes. The data on these well-defined films should be a useful reference for the investigation of the more complex hyaluronan-rich coats that surround many living cells.

  8. Identification of a chondroitin synthase from an unexpected source, the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeobacteroides.

    PubMed

    Green, Dixy E; DeAngelis, Paul L

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to be present in all animals as well as some pathogenic microbes. Chondroitin sulfate is the most abundant GAG in mammals where it has various structural and adhesion roles. The Gram-negative bacteria Pasteurella multocida Type F and Escherichia coli K4 produce extracellular capsules composed of unsulfated chondroitin or a fructosylated chondroitin, respectively. Such polysaccharides that are structurally related to host molecules do not generally provoke a strong antibody response thus are thought to be employed as molecular camouflage during infection. We observed a sequence from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria, Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 266, which was very similar (~62% identical) to the open reading frames of the known bifunctional chondroitin synthases (PmCS and KfoC); some segments are strikingly conserved amongst the three proteins. Recombinant E. coli-derived Chlorobium enzyme preparations were found to possess bona fide chondroitin synthase activity in vitro. This new catalyst, CpCS, however, has a more promiscuous acceptor usage than the prototypical PmCS, which may be of utility in novel chimeric GAG syntheses. The finding of such a similar chondroitin synthase enzyme in C. phaeobacteroides is unexpected for several reasons including (a) a free-living nonpathogenic organism should not "need" an animal self molecule for protection, (b) the Proteobacteria and the green sulfur bacterial lineages diverged ~2.5-3 billion years ago and (c) the ecological niches of these bacteria are not thought to overlap substantially to facilitate horizontal gene transfer. CpCS provides insight into the structure/function relationship of this class of enzymes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Chorioamniontis in preterm delivery is associated with degradation of decorin and biglycan and depletion of hyaluronan in fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Meinert, M; Malmström, A; Petersen, A C; Eriksen, G V; Uldbjerg, N

    2014-08-01

    The proteoglycan decorin stabilizes collagen whereas biglycan and hyaluronan disrupt well-organized collagen. The aim was to determine the concentrations of these constituents in fetal membranes in relation to gestational age, preterm labour, PPROM and chorioamnionitis. Preterm fetal membranes (24-34 weeks gestation) were obtained from elective caesarean deliveries (N = 4), from PPROM (N = 14), and from preterm labour (N = 14). Term fetal membranes from elective caesarean deliveries (N = 9) and spontaneous vaginal deliveries (N = 11) were used for comparison. Chorioamnionitis was assessed histologically. The proteoglycans were analysed using alcian blue precipitation, SDS-PAGE and immunostaining. Hyaluronan was estimated by a radioimmunoassay. Preterm amniotic membranes with chorioamnionitis displayed a 8-fold decrease in hyaluronan concentration as well as a pronounced (88%) degradation of decorin and biglycan (p < 0.05). The amnion from preterm elective caesarean sections had higher decorin (3.2 vs. 1.7 μg/mg, p < 0.05) and lower biglycan (0.4 vs. 1.0 μg/mg, p < 0.05) concentrations as compared to similar term amnion (p < 0.05), whereas the hyaluronan concentrations were not associated with gestational age. Also the chorio-decidua from preterm caesarean sections had higher decorin concentrations (1.8 vs. 1.0 μg/mg, p < 0.05) whereas the biglycan concentration was unchanged. Labour (term as well as preterm) was characterized by increased hyaluronan and biglycan concentrations in the amnion (not statistically significant). The biglycan/decorin balance increases during third trimester of pregnancy and during active labour. This relation might contribute to mechanical weakening of the membranes. Chorioamnionitis induces dramatic degradation of both proteoglycans and hyaluronan, which can explain the decreased biomechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Superovulation of beef cattle with a split-single intramuscular administration of Folltropin-V in two concentrations of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Tríbulo, Andrés; Rogan, Dragan; Tríbulo, Humberto; Tríbulo, Ricardo; Mapletoft, Reuben J; Bó, Gabriel A

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were designed to evaluate the superovulatory response of beef cows following two intramuscular (IM) administrations 48 h apart of Folltropin-V diluted in reduced concentrations of hyaluronan (Split-single IM administrations; Experiment 1-300 mg Folltropin-V on the first day and 100 mg 48 h later; Experiment 2-200 mg Folltropin-V on the first day and 100 mg 48 h later). In Experiments 1 and 2, superovulatory response and ova embryo/embryo production did not differ between donors receiving twice daily IM of Folltropin-V over 4 days and those given a Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in 10 mg/mL hyaluronan solution. Experiment 3 compared Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in two hyaluronan concentrations (5 or 10 mg/mL) with Folltropin-V diluted in saline and administered twice-daily over 4 days. Beef cows (17 Angus and 12 Simmental) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups to be superstimulated three times in a cross-over design, so that all cows received all treatments. A total dose of 300 mg Folltropin-V was divided into twice-daily IM over 4 days, or in two IM treatment 48 h apart (200 mg on first day and 100 mg 48 h later) in the hyaluronan groups. Mean (± SEM) numbers of transferable embryos did not differ among treatment groups (Control: 4.0 ± 0.8; 10 mg/mL hylauronan: 5.0 ± 0.9; 5 mg/mL hyaluronan: 6.1 ± 1.3). We concluded that the Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in either concentration of hyaluronan resulted in a comparable superovulatory response to the traditional twice-daily protocol.

  11. Rapidly evolving conjunctivitis due to Pasteurella multocida, occurring after direct inoculation with animal droplets in an immuno-compromised host.

    PubMed

    Corchia, Anthony; Limelette, Anne; Hubault, Béatrice; Robbins, Ailsa; Quinquenel, Anne; Bani-Sadr, Firouze; N'Guyen, Yohan

    2015-03-08

    The rare descriptions, in the literature, of ocular infections due to Pasteurella multocida include: endophtalmitis, keratitis and corneal ulcers, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, and conjunctivitis. Here, we report a rare case of rapidly evolving conjunctivitis due to Pasteurella multocida, occurring after direct inoculation with animal droplets in an immuno-compromised host. A 69-year-old, Caucasian male was referred to our department with purulent conjunctivitis, occurring five days after chemotherapy for an angioimmunoblastic-T-cell-lymphoma, and thirty-three hours after being struck in his right eye by his sneezing Dachshund dog. Physical examination revealed purulent conjunctivitis of the right eye associated with inflammatory edema of both lids. Direct bacteriological examination of conjunctival secretions showed gram-negative bacilli and regular, grey non-hemolytic colonies appearing the next day on blood agar. The oxidase test was positive for these colonies. An antibiotherapy associating intravenous amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate was administered. The outcome was favorable in the next three days allowing discharge of the patient with amoxicillin (2 g tid per os). This case report may be of interest for infectious diseases, ophthalmology or oncology specialists, especially nowadays with chemotherapy being administered in day care centres, where unusual home pathogens can be encountered in health related infections. In this case, previous animal contact and conjunctival samples showing Enterobacteriaceae like colonies with positive oxidase test were two important clues which could help clinicians to make the diagnosis of Pasteurella conjunctivitis in every day practice.

  12. Phosphanilic Acid Inhibits Dihydropteroate Synthase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    dihydropteroate synthases of P. aeruginosa and E . coli were about equally susceptible to inhibition by PA. These results suggest that cells of P. aeruginosa...are more permeable to PA than cells of E . coli . Although a weak inhibitor, PA acted on dihydropteroate synthase in the same manner as the sulfonamides...with which PA is structurally related. Inhibition of E . coli by PA in a basal salts-glucose medium was prevented by p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). However

  13. Characterization of the effect of high molecular weight hyaluronan on trans-synovial flow in rabbit knees.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1999-01-01

    1. The effect of a rooster comb hyaluronan (3.6-4.0 g l-1) of similar chain length to rabbit synovial fluid hyaluronan, on the trans-synovial escape of fluid from the joint cavity in the steady state ( 8d s) was studied in 29 rabbit knees at controlled intra-articular pressures (Pj). 2. Rooster hyaluronan caused the pressure-flow relation to flatten out as pressure was raised. At 10-20 cmH2O the slope of the quasi-plateau, 0.05 +/- 0.01 microliter min-1 cmH2O-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.), was 1/39th that for Ringer solution (1.94 +/- 0.01 microliter 2O-1 ). 3. Bovine synovial fluid had a similar effect to hyaluronan in Ringer solution. 4. The quasi-plateau was caused by increasing opposition to outflow; the pressure required to drive unit outflow increased 4.4-fold between 5 and 20 cmH2O. The increased opposition to outflow at 20 cmH2O was equivalent to an effective osmotic pressure of 13-17 cmH2O at the interface. Since the infusate's osmotic pressure was only 0.9 cmH2O, this implied concentration polarization to 15-18 g l-1 hyaluronan at the interface. 5. Mechanical perforation of the lining, or enzymatic degradation of the interstitial matrix by chymopapain, abolished the quasi-plateau. Hydrational expansion of the matrix by approximately 2-fold did not. The increased opposition to outflow was reversible by washing out the hyaluronan, or by reducing Pj. It was unaffected by interruption of tissue blood flow or synoviocyte oxidative metabolism. These properties are compatible with a concentration polarization mechanism, i.e. flow-induced concentration of hyaluronan at the synovial interface due to molecular reflection. 6. A concentration polarization theory was developed for a partially reflected solute. Numerical solutions supported the feasibility of this osmotic explanation of the quasi-plateau. Additional mechanisms may also be involved. 7. It is concluded that native-size hyaluronan helps to retain synovial fluid in the joint cavity when pressure is raised and acts

  14. Characterization of the effect of high molecular weight hyaluronan on trans-synovial flow in rabbit knees

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a rooster comb hyaluronan (3.6–4.0 g l−1) of similar chain length to rabbit synovial fluid hyaluronan, on the trans-synovial escape of fluid from the joint cavity in the steady state (Q̇s) was studied in 29 rabbit knees at controlled intra-articular pressures (Pj).Rooster hyaluronan caused the pressure-flow relation to flatten out as pressure was raised. At 10–20 cmH2O the slope of the quasi-plateau, 0.05 ± 0.01 μl min−1 cmH2O−1 (mean ±s.e.m.), was 1/39th that for Ringer solution (1.94 ± 0.01 μl min−1 cmH2O−1).Bovine synovial fluid had a similar effect to hyaluronan in Ringer solution.The quasi-plateau was caused by increasing opposition to outflow; the pressure required to drive unit outflow increased 4.4-fold between 5 and 20 cmH2O. The increased opposition to outflow at 20 cmH2O was equivalent to an effective osmotic pressure of 13–17 cmH2O at the interface. Since the infusate's osmotic pressure was only 0.9 cmH2O, this implied concentration polarization to 15–18 g l−1 hyaluronan at the interface.Mechanical perforation of the lining, or enzymatic degradation of the interstitial matrix by chymopapain, abolished the quasi-plateau. Hydrational expansion of the matrix by /2-fold did not. The increased opposition to outflow was reversible by washing out the hyaluronan, or by reducing Pj. It was unaffected by interruption of tissue blood flow or synoviocyte oxidative metabolism. These properties are compatible with a concentration polarization mechanism, i.e. flow-induced concentration of hyaluronan at the synovial interface due to molecular reflection.A concentration polarization theory was developed for a partially reflected solute. Numerical solutions supported the feasibility of this osmotic explanation of the quasi-plateau. Additional mechanisms may also be involved.It is concluded that native-size hyaluronan helps to retain synovial fluid in the joint cavity when pressure is raised and acts, at least in part, by exerting

  15. Bacterial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Crane, Brian R; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Patel, Bhumit A

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are multidomain metalloproteins first identified in mammals as being responsible for the synthesis of the wide-spread signaling and protective agent nitric oxide (NO). Over the past 10 years, prokaryotic proteins that are homologous to animal NOSs have been identified and characterized, both in terms of enzymology and biological function. Despite some interesting differences in cofactor utilization and redox partners, the bacterial enzymes are in many ways similar to their mammalian NOS (mNOS) counterparts and, as such, have provided insight into the structural and catalytic properties of the NOS family. In particular, spectroscopic studies of thermostable bacterial NOSs have revealed key oxyheme intermediates involved in the oxidation of substrate L-arginine (Arg) to product NO. The biological functions of some bacterial NOSs have only more recently come to light. These studies disclose new roles for NO in biology, such as taking part in toxin biosynthesis, protection against oxidative stress, and regulation of recovery from radiation damage.

  16. Identification, Design and Synthesis of Tubulin-Derived Peptides as Novel Hyaluronan Mimetic Ligands for the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM/HMMR)

    PubMed Central

    Esguerra, Kenneth V. N.; Tolg, Cornelia; Akentieva, Natalia; Price, Matthew; Cho, Choi-Fong; Lewis, John D.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.; Luyt, Leonard G.

    2016-01-01

    Fragments of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) promote tissue inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. HA fragments act through HA receptors including CD44, LYVE1, TLR2,4 and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR). RHAMM is a multifunctional protein with both intracellular and extracellular roles in cell motility and proliferation. Extracellular RHAMM binds directly to HA fragments while intracellular RHAMM binds directly to ERK1 and tubulin. Both HA and regions of tubulin (s-tubulin) are anionic and bind to basic amino acid-rich regions in partner proteins, such as in HA and tubulin binding regions of RHAMM. We used this as a rationale for developing bioinformatics and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) based screening to identify high affinity anionic RHAMM peptide ligands. A library of 12-mer peptides was prepared based on the carboxyl terminal tail sequence of s-tubulin isoforms and assayed for their ability to bind to the HA/tubulin binding region of recombinant RHAMM using SPR. This approach resulted in the isolation of three 12-mer peptides with nanomolar affinity for RHAMM. These peptides bound selectively to RHAMM but not to CD44 or TLR2,4 and blocked RHAMM:HA interactions. Furthermore, fluorescein-peptide uptake by PC3MLN4 prostate cancer cells was blocked by RHAMM mAb but not by CD44 mAb. These peptides also reduced the ability of prostate cancer cells to degrade collagen type I. The selectivity of these novel HA peptide mimics for RHAMM suggest their potential for development as HA mimetic imaging and therapeutic agents for HA-promoted disease. PMID:26456171

  17. Analysis of CD44-hyaluronan interactions in an artificial membrane system: insights into the distinct binding properties of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Wolny, Patricia M; Banerji, Suneale; Gounou, Céline; Brisson, Alain R; Day, Anthony J; Jackson, David G; Richter, Ralf P

    2010-09-24

    CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the large polydisperse glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Binding of the long and flexible HA chains is thought to be stabilized by the multivalent nature of the sugar molecule. In addition, high and low molecular weight forms of HA provoke distinct proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects upon binding to CD44 and can deliver either proliferative or antiproliferative signals in appropriate cell types. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, neither the stoichiometry of multivalent HA binding at the cell surface nor the molecular basis for functional distinction between different HA size categories is understood. Here we report on the design of a supported lipid bilayer system that permits quantitative analysis of multivalent binding through presentation of CD44 in a stable, natively oriented manner and at controlled density. Using this system in combination with biophysical techniques, we show that the amount of HA binding to bilayers that are densely coated with CD44 increases as a function of HA size, with half-maximal saturation at ∼30 kDa. Moreover, reversible binding was confined to the smaller HA species (molecular weight of ≤10 kDa), whereas the interaction was essentially irreversible with larger polymers. The amount of bound HA decreased with decreasing receptor surface density, but the stability of binding was not affected. From a physico-chemical perspective, the binding properties of HA share many similarities with the typical behavior of a flexible polymer as it adsorbs onto a homogeneously attractive surface. These findings provide new insight into the multivalent nature of CD44-HA interactions and suggest a molecular basis for the distinct biological properties of different size fractions of hyaluronan.

  18. Extracellular matrix hyaluronan signals via its CD44 receptor in the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, L F; Araldi, D; Bogen, O; Levine, J D

    2016-06-02

    We propose that the extracellular matrix (ECM) signals CD44, a hyaluronan receptor, to increase the responsiveness to mechanical stimulation in the rat hind paw. We report that intradermal injection of hyaluronidase induces mechanical hyperalgesia, that is inhibited by co-administration of a CD44 receptor antagonist, A5G27. The intradermal injection of low (LMWH) but not high (HMWH) molecular weight hyaluronan also induces mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect that was attenuated by pretreatment with HMWH or A5G27. Pretreatment with HMWH also attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by hyaluronidase. Similarly, intradermal injection of A6, a CD44 receptor agonist, produced hyperalgesia that was inhibited by HMWH and A5G27. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and Src, but not protein kinase C (PKC), significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by both A6 and LMWH. Finally, to determine if CD44 receptor signaling is involved in a preclinical model of inflammatory pain, we evaluated the effect of A5G27 and HMWH on the mechanical hyperalgesia associated with the inflammation induced by carrageenan. Both A5G27 and HMWH attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, while LMWH acts at its cognate receptor, CD44, to induce mechanical hyperalgesia, HMWH acts at the same receptor as an antagonist. That the local administration of HMWH or A5G27 inhibits carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia supports the suggestion that carrageenan produces changes in the ECM that contributes to inflammatory pain. These studies define a clinically relevant role for signaling by the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, in increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation.

  19. Proinflammatory stimuli regulate endothelial hyaluronan expression and CD44/HA-dependent primary adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadzadeh, M; DeGrendele, H; Arizpe, H; Estess, P; Siegelman, M

    1998-01-01

    The localization of circulating leukocytes within inflamed tissues occurs as the result of interactions with and migration across vascular endothelium, and is governed, in part, by the expression of adhesion molecules on both cell types. Recently, we have described a novel primary adhesion interaction between the structurally activated form of the adhesion molecule CD44 on lymphocytes and its major ligand hyaluronan on endothelial cells under physiologic laminar flow conditions, and have proposed that this interaction functions in an extravasation pathway for lymphocytes in vascular beds at sites of inflammation. While the regulation of activated CD44 on leukocytes has been characterized in depth, regulation of hyaluronate (HA) on endothelial cells has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the expression of HA on cultured endothelial cell lines and primary endothelial cultures is inducible by the proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1beta, as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharide. In addition, this inducibility appears strikingly restricted to endothelial cells derived from microvascular, but not large vessel, sources. The elevated HA levels thus induced result in increased CD44-dependent adhesive interactions in both nonstatic shear and laminar flow adhesion assays. Changes in mRNA levels for the described HA synthetic and degradative enzymes were not found, suggesting other more complex mechanisms of regulation. Together, these data add to the selectin and immunoglobulin gene families a new inducible endothelial adhesive molecule, hyaluronan, and help to further our understanding of the potential physiologic roles of the CD44/HA interaction; i.e., local cytokine production within inflamed vascular beds may enhance surface hyaluronan expression on endothelial cells, thereby creating local sites receptive to the CD44/HA interaction and thus extravasation of inflammatory cells. PMID:9421471

  20. A role for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan in kidney dysfunction during ACE-inhibitor fetopathy.

    PubMed

    Hansell, P; Palm, F

    2015-04-01

    Despite data showing that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system increase the risks of fetal morbidity and dysfunctionality later in life, their use during pregnancy has increased. The fetopathy induced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is characterized by anuria, hypotension and growth restriction, but can also be associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. In the kidney, this fetopathy includes atrophy of the medulla, reduced number of glomeruli, developmental lesions of tubules and vessels, tubulointerstitial inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibition during nephrogenesis interferes with normal growth and development, this review will focus on effects of the heavily accumulated matrix component hyaluronan (HA). An important mechanism of HA accumulation during nephrogenesis is disruption of its normal reduction as a consequence of lack of Ang II activation of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan has very large water-attracting properties and is pro-inflammatory when fragmented. The ensuing inflammation and interstitial oedema affect kidney function. Hyaluronan is colocalized with CD44 overexpression and infiltrating immune cells. These properties make HA a plausible contributor to the observed structural and functional kidney defects associated with the fetopathy. Available data support an involvement of HA in kidney dysfunction of the foetus and during adulthood due to the physico-chemical characteristics of HA. No clinical treatment for HA accumulation exists. Treatment with the HA-degrading enzyme hyaluronidase and an HA synthesis inhibitor has been tested successfully in experimental models in the kidney, heart and pancreas. Reduced HA accumulation to reduce interstitial oedema and inflammation may improve organ function, but this concept needs to be tested in a controlled study before causal relationships can be established.

  1. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Anna; Zeug, Andre; Skupien, Anna; Kaza, Beata; Mueller, Franziska; Chwedorowicz, Agnieszka; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis), we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a “stellate”-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological changes of

  2. Receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR) is a novel target for promoting subcutaneous adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, S B; Tolg, C; Peart, T; Symonette, C; Veiseh, M; Umoh, J U; Holdsworth, D W; McCarthy, J B; Luyt, L G; Bissell, M J; Yazdani, A; Turley, E A

    2017-03-01

    Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes. Oil red O uptake into fat droplets and adiponectin production were used as biomarkers of adipogenesis. Positive peptides were formulated in either collagen I or hyaluronan (Orthovisc) gels then assessed for their adipogenic potential in vivo following injection into dorsal rat skin and mammary fat pads. Fat content was quantified and characterized using micro CT imaging, morphometry, histology, RT-PCR and ELISA analyses of adipogenic gene expression. Injection of screened peptides increased dorsal back subcutaneous fat pad area (208.3 ± 10.4 mm(2)versus control 84.11 ± 4.2 mm(2); p < 0.05) and mammary fat pad size (45 ± 11 mg above control background, p = 0.002) in female rats. This effect lasted >5 weeks as detected by micro CT imaging and perilipin 1 mRNA expression. RHAMM expression suppresses while blocking peptides promote expression of PPARγ, C/EBP and their target genes. Blocking RHAMM function by peptide injection or topical application is a novel and minimally invasive method for potentially promoting subcutaneous adipogenesis in lipodystrophic diseases and a complementary tool to subcutaneous fat augmentation techniques.

  3. A fingerprinting method for chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lauder, R M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    2000-04-01

    A previously published method for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides by high pH anion exchange chromatography (Midura,R.J., Salustri,A., Calabro,A., Yanagishita,M. and Hascall,V.C. (1994), Glycobiology,4, 333-342) has been modified and calibrated for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides up to hexasaccharide in size and hyaluronan oligosaccharides up to hexadecasaccharide. For hyaluronan oligosaccharides chain length controls elution position; however, for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides elution times primarily depend upon the level of sulfation, although chain length and hence charge density plays a role. The sulfation position of GalNAc residues within an oligosaccharide is also important in determining its elution position. Compared to 4-sulfation a reducing terminal 6-sulfate retards elution; however, when present on an internal GalNAc residue it is the 4-sulfate containing oligosaccharide which elutes later. These effects allow discrimination between oligosaccharides differing only in the position of GalNAc sulfation. Using this simple methodology, a Dionex CarboPac PA-1 column with NaOH/NaCl eluents and detection by absorbance at 232 nm, a quantitative analytical fingerprint of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain may be obtained, allowing a determination of the abundance of chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan along with an analysis of structural features with a linear response to approximately 0.1 nmol. The method may readily be calibrated using either commercial disaccharides or the di- and tetrasaccharide products of a limit digest of commercial chondroitin sulfate by chondroitin ABC endolyase. Commercially available and freshly prepared shark, whale, bovine, and human cartilage chondroitin sulfates have been examined by this methodology and we have confirmed that freshly isolated shark cartilage CS contains significant amounts of the biologically important GlcA2Sbeta(1-3)GalNAc6S structure.

  4. More than just a filler - the role of hyaluronan for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Ulf; Simon, Jan C; Averbeck, Marco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, hyaluronan (HA) has become an increasingly attractive substance as a non-immunogenic filler and scaffolding material in cosmetic dermatology. Despite its wide use for skin augmentation and rejuvenation, relatively little is known about the molecular structures and interacting proteins of HA in normal and diseased skin. However, a comprehensive understanding of cutaneous HA homeostasis is required for future the development of HA-based applications for skin regeneration. This review provides an update on HA-based structures, expression, metabolism and its regulation, function and pharmacological targeting of HA in skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)

    PubMed Central

    Padmalayam, Indira; Hasham, Sumera; Saxena, Uday; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Lipoic acid synthase (LASY) is the enzyme that is involved in the endogenous synthesis of lipoic acid, a potent mitochondrial antioxidant. The aim of this study was to study the role of LASY in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied expression of LASY in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We also looked at regulation of LASY in vitro under conditions that exist in diabetes. Additionally, we looked at effects of LASY knockdown on cellular antioxidant status, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS—LASY expression is significantly reduced in tissues from animal models of diabetes and obesity compared with age- and sex-matched controls. In vitro, LASY mRNA levels were decreased by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high glucose. Downregulation of the LASY gene by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced endogenous levels of lipoic acid, and the activities of critical components of the antioxidant defense network, increasing oxidative stress. Treatment with exogenous lipoic acid compensated for some of these defects. RNAi-mediated downregulation of LASY induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In endothelial cells, downregulation of LASY aggravated the inflammatory response that manifested as an increase in both basal and TNF-α–induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Overexpression of the LASY gene ameliorated the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS—Deficiency of LASY results in an overall disturbance in the antioxidant defense network, leading to increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:19074983

  6. The role of interleukin-10 and hyaluronan in murine fetal fibroblast function in vitro: implications for recapitulating fetal regenerative wound healing.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Swathi; King, Alice; Marsh, Emily; LeSaint, Maria; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Han, Nathaniel; Dhamija, Yashu; Ranjan, Rajeev; Le, Louis D; Bollyky, Paul L; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Keswani, Sundeep G

    2015-01-01

    Mid-gestation fetal cutaneous wounds heal scarlessly and this has been attributed in part to abundant hyaluronan (HA) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and a unique fibroblast phenotype. We recently reported a novel role for interleukin 10 (IL-10) as a regulator of HA synthesis in the fetal ECM, as well as the ability of the fetal fibroblast to produce an HA-rich pericellular matrix (PCM). We hypothesized that IL-10-mediated HA synthesis was essential to the fetal fibroblast functional phenotype and, moreover, that this phenotype could be recapitulated in adult fibroblasts via supplementation with IL-10 via an HA dependent process. To evaluate the differences in functional profile, we compared metabolism (MTS assay), apoptosis (caspase-3 staining), migration (scratch wound assay) and invasion (transwell assay) between C57Bl/6J murine fetal (E14.5) and adult (8 weeks) fibroblasts. We found that fetal fibroblasts have lower rates of metabolism and apoptosis, and an increased ability to migrate and invade compared to adult fibroblasts, and that these effects were dependent on IL-10 and HA synthase activity. Further, addition of IL-10 to adult fibroblasts resulted in increased fibroblast migration and invasion and recapitulated the fetal phenotype in an HA-dependent manner. Our data demonstrates the functional differences between fetal and adult fibroblasts, and that IL-10 mediated HA synthesis is essential for the fetal fibroblasts' enhanced invasion and migration properties. Moreover, IL-10 via an HA-dependent mechanism can recapitulate this aspect of the fetal phenotype in adult fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism of IL-10 in regenerative wound healing.

  7. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazu; Li, Yingcui; Jakuba, Caroline; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sayo, Tetsuya; Okuno, Misako; Dealy, Caroline N.; Toole, Bryan P.; Takeda, Junji; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kosher, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb. PMID:19633173

  8. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharides stimulate ceramide production through upregulated mRNA expression of ceramide synthesis-associated enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kage, Madoka; Tokudome, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    It has been reported that hyaluronan has different physiological functions as suggested by variation in molecular weight. In addition, it has also been reported that CD44, the major hyaluronan receptor, was demonstrated to induce keratinocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis of cholesterol. We focus attention on the hyaluronan tetrasaccharides (HA4) which is the smallest unit of hyaluronan. We previously reported that HA4 induced keratinocyte differentiation and that CD44 may be involved. For the purpose of clarifying the influence of HA4 on ceramide synthesis, we evaluated both of these factors in keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA expression of ceramide synthesis-associated enzymes and intracellular ceramide content were evaluated after HA4 treatment in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the ceramide increasing effect of HA4 on skin in UVA-irradiated hairless mice was assessed by water content of stratum corneum (SC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) methods. The mRNA expression of ceramide synthesis-associated enzymes and intracellular ceramide content after HA4 treatment were increased compared with the control. Furthermore, HA4 treatment increased water content of SC and decreased TEWL. These findings suggest that HA4 affected ceramide synthesis and is involved in the improvement of UV-induced skin damage.

  9. Wound dressing based on chitosan/hyaluronan/nonwoven fabrics: Preparation, characterization and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Hrdina, R; Burgert, L; Fohlerova, Z; Pavliňák, D; Sayed, O N; Jancar, J

    2016-08-01

    Thin layers of chitosan (positively charged)/sodium hyaluronate (negatively charged)/nonwoven fabrics were constructed by polyelectrolyte multilayer pad-dry-cure technique. Pure chitosan (CS) was isolated from shrimp shell and immobilized onto nonwoven fabrics (NWFs) using citric acid (CTA) as cross linker and solvent agents through a pad-dry-cure method. The prepared thin layer of chitosan citrate/nonwoven fabrics (CSCTA/NWFs) were consequently impregnated with hyaluronan (CSCTA/HA/NWFs) in the second path through a pad-dry-cure method. Chitosan/hyaluronan/nonwoven fabrics wound dressing was characterized by different techniques such as FTIR-ATR, TGA and SEM. The antibacterial activity and the cytotoxicity of the dressing sheets were evaluated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Streptococcus aureus (S. aureus), mouse fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines, respectively. The cell-fabrics interaction was also investigated using fluorescence microscope, based on live/dead staining assay of 3T3 cells. The healing properties of the new wound dressing were evaluated and compared with the control sample.

  10. Survival of cord blood haematopoietic stem cells in a hyaluronan hydrogel for ex vivo biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Demange, Elise; Kassim, Yusra; Petit, Cyrille; Buquet, Catherine; Dulong, Virginie; Cerf, Didier Le; Buchonnet, Gérard; Vannier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) grow in a specified niche in close association with the microenvironment, the so-called 'haematopoietic niche'. Scaffolds have been introduced to overcome the liquid culture limitations, mimicking the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study the hyaluronic acid scaffold, already developed in the laboratory, has been used for the first time to maintain long-term cultures of CD34⁺ haematopoietic cells obtained from human cord blood. One parameter investigated was the impact on ex vivo survival of CD34⁺ cord blood cells (CBCs) on the hyaluronic acid surface, immobilized with peptides containing the RGD motif. This peptide was conjugated by coating the hyaluronan hydrogel and cultured in serum-free liquid phase complemented with stem cell factor (SCF), a commonly indispensable cytokine for haematopoiesis. Our work demonstrated that these hyaluronan hydrogels were superior to traditional liquid cultures by maintaining and expanding the HPCs without the need for additional cytokines, and a colonization of 280-fold increment in the hydrogel compared with liquid culture after 28 days of ex vivo expansion.

  11. Hyaluronan, neural stem cells and tissue reconstruction after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Moshayedi, Pouria; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Focal stroke is a disabling disease with lifelong sensory, motor and cognitive impairments. Given the paucity of effective clinical treatments, basic scientists are developing novel options for protection of the affected brain and regeneration of lost tissue. Tissue bioengineering and stem/progenitor cell treatments have both been individually pursued for stroke neural repair therapies, with some benefit in tissue recovery. Emerging directions in stroke neural repair approaches combine these two therapies to use biopolymers with stem/progenitor transplants to promote greater cell survival in the transplant and directed delivery of bioactive molecules to the transplanted cells and the adjacent injured tissue. In this review the background literature on a combined use of neural stem/progenitor cells encapsulated in hyaluronan gels is discussed and the way this therapeutic approach can affect the important processes involved in brain tissue reconstruction, such as angiogenesis, axon regeneration, neural differentiation and inflammation is clarified. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan can optimize those processes and be employed in a successful neural tissue engineering approach.

  12. Structural, mechanical and osmotic properties of injectable hyaluronan-based composite hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Horkay, Ferenc; Magda, Jules; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Atzet, Sarah; Zarembinski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The osmotic and scattering properties of hyaluronan-based composite hydrogels composed of stiff biopolymer chains (carboxymethylated thiolated hyaluronan (CMHA-S)) crosslinked by a flexible polymer (polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)) are investigated and analyzed in terms of the scaling theory. The total pre-gel polymer weight concentration is varied between 0.5 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, while the mole ratio between the reactive PEG chain ends and the thiolated HA moieties is changed between 0.15 and 1.0. The shear modulus G of the fully swollen gels exhibits a stronger dependence on pre-gel concentration than on the crosslink density. Osmotic deswelling measurements reveal that the osmotic mixing pressure depends on the weight ratio CMHA-S/PEGDA, and is practically unaffected by the pre-gel concentration. Small-angle neutron scattering observations indicate that the thermodynamic properties of these composite gels are governed by total polymer concentration, i.e., specific interactions between the two polymeric components do not play a significant role. PMID:20824199

  13. New E-beam-initiated hyaluronan acrylate cryogels support growth and matrix deposition by dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thönes, S; Kutz, L M; Oehmichen, S; Becher, J; Heymann, K; Saalbach, A; Knolle, W; Schnabelrauch, M; Reichelt, S; Anderegg, U

    2017-01-01

    Cryogels made of components of natural extracellular matrix components are potent biomaterials for bioengineering and regenerative medicine. Human dermal fibroblasts are key cells for tissue replacement during wound healing. Thus, any biomaterial for wound healing applications should enable growth, differentiation and matrix synthesis by these cells. Cryogels are highly porous scaffolds consisting of a network of interconnected pores. Here, we used a novel group of cryogels generated from acrylated hyaluronan where the polymerization was initiated by accelerated electrons (E-beam). This novel procedure omits any toxic polymerization initiators and results in sterile, highly elastic scaffolds with adjustable pore size, excellent swelling and low flow resistance properties. We show that these cryogels are effective 3D-substrates for long-term cultures of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. The cells proliferate for at least 28days throughout the cryogels and deposit their own matrix in the pores. Moreover, key modulators of dermal fibroblasts during wound healing like TGFβ and PDGF efficiently stimulated the expression of wound healing-relevant genes. In conclusion, electron beam initiated cryogels of acrylated hyaluronan represent a functional and cell compatible biomaterial that could be adapted for special wound healing applications by further functionalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified High-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronan Promotes Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Yadava, Koshika; Ruppert, Shannon M; Marshall, Payton; Hill, Paul; Falk, Ben A; Sweere, Johanna M; Han, Hongwei; Kaber, Gernot; Medina, Carlos; Mikecz, Katalin; Ziegler, Steven F; Balaji, Swathi; Keswani, Sundeep G; Perez, Vinicio A de Jesus; Butte, Manish J; Nadeau, Kari; Altemeier, William A; Fanger, Neil; Bollyky, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix in asthmatic lungs contains abundant low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, and this is known to promote antigen presentation and allergic responses. Conversely, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), typical of uninflamed tissues, is known to suppress inflammation. We investigated whether HMW-HA can be adapted to promote tolerance to airway allergens. HMW-HA was thiolated to prevent its catabolism and was tethered to allergens via thiol linkages. This platform, which we call "XHA," delivers antigenic payloads in the context of antiinflammatory costimulation. Allergen/XHA was administered intranasally to mice that had been sensitized previously to these allergens. XHA prevents allergic airway inflammation in mice sensitized previously to either ovalbumin or cockroach proteins. Allergen/XHA treatment reduced inflammatory cell counts, airway hyperresponsiveness, allergen-specific IgE, and T helper type 2 cell cytokine production in comparison with allergen alone. These effects were allergen specific and IL-10 dependent. They were durable for weeks after the last challenge, providing a substantial advantage over the current desensitization protocols. Mechanistically, XHA promoted CD44-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling, diminished dendritic cell maturation, and reduced the induction of allergen-specific CD4 T-helper responses. XHA and other potential strategies that target CD44 are promising alternatives for the treatment of asthma and allergic sinusitis.

  15. Hyaluronan hydration generates three-dimensional meso-scale structure in engineered collagen tissues.

    PubMed

    Anandagoda, Nelomi; Ezra, Daniel G; Cheema, Umber; Bailly, Maryse; Brown, Robert A

    2012-10-07

    Here, we show that the local incorporation of osmotically active hyaluronan into previously compressed collagen constructs results in further rapid dehydration/compression of collagen layers, channel formation and generation of new interfaces; these novel structures, at the nano-micro (i.e. meso-scale) were formed within native collagen gels, in a highly predictable spatial manner and offer important new methods of fabricating scaffolds (e.g. tubes and open-spirals) with potential for use in tissue regeneration such as in peripheral nerves and small vessels. This paper tests the possibility that the local fluid content of a dense collagen network can be controlled by incorporation of an osmotically active (native) macromolecule--hyluronan. This is an exemplar physiological, osmotic swelling agent. Hyaluronan is commonly secreted by cells deep in connective tissues, so is a good candidate for this role in a cell-driven system balancing mechanical compaction of bulk tissue collagen. These constructs may have potential as functional in vitro models representing developmental and pathological processes.

  16. Improving the distribution of Doxil® in the tumor matrix by depletion of tumor hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Aditya G.; Kivimäe, Saul; Tiffany, Matthew R.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes improve the pharmacokinetics and safety of rapidly cleared drugs, but have not yet improved the clinical efficacy compared to the non-encapsulated drug. This inability to improve efficacy may be partially due to the non-uniform distribution of liposomes in solid tumors. The tumor extra-cellular matrix is a barrier to distribution and includes the high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan (HA). Strategies to remove HA or block its synthesis may improve drug delivery into solid tumors. Orally administered methylumbelliferone (MU) is an inhibitor of HA synthesis, but it is limited by low potency and limited solubility. In this study, we encapsulate a water-soluble phosphorylated prodrug of MU (MU-P) in a liposome (L-MU-P). We demonstrate that L-MU-P is a more potent inhibitor of HA synthesis than oral MU in the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model using both a quantitative ELISA and histochemistry. We show that HA depletion improves the tumor distribution of liposomes computed using Mander’s colocalization analysis of liposomes with the tumor vasculature. Hyaluronan depletion also increases the fraction of the tumor area positive for liposomes. This improved distribution extends the overall survival of mice treated with Doxil®. PMID:24852095

  17. Improving the distribution of Doxil® in the tumor matrix by depletion of tumor hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Aditya G; Kivimäe, Saul; Tiffany, Matthew R; Szoka, Francis C

    2014-10-10

    Liposomes improve the pharmacokinetics and safety of rapidly cleared drugs, but have not yet improved the clinical efficacy compared to the non-encapsulated drug. This inability to improve efficacy may be partially due to the non-uniform distribution of liposomes in solid tumors. The tumor extra-cellular matrix is a barrier to distribution and includes the high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan (HA). Strategies to remove HA or block its synthesis may improve drug delivery into solid tumors. Orally administered methylumbelliferone (MU) is an inhibitor of HA synthesis, but it is limited by low potency and limited solubility. In this study, we encapsulate a water-soluble phosphorylated prodrug of MU (MU-P) in a liposome (L-MU-P). We demonstrate that L-MU-P is a more potent inhibitor of HA synthesis than oral MU in the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model using both a quantitative ELISA and histochemistry. We show that HA depletion improves the tumor distribution of liposomes computed using Mander's colocalization analysis of liposomes with the tumor vasculature. Hyaluronan depletion also increases the fraction of the tumor area positive for liposomes. This improved distribution extends the overall survival of mice treated with Doxil®.

  18. Migration of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells after wounding injury. The role of hyaluronan and RHAMM.

    PubMed Central

    Savani, R C; Wang, C; Yang, B; Zhang, S; Kinsella, M G; Wight, T N; Stern, R; Nance, D M; Turley, E A

    1995-01-01

    The migration of smooth muscle cells is a critical event in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. We have investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA) and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM in the migration of adult bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMC). Cultured BASMC migrated from the leading edge of a single scratch wound with increased velocity between 1 and 24 h. Polyclonal anti-RHAMM antisera that block HA binding with this receptor abolished smooth muscle cell migration following injury. HA stimulated the random locomotion of BASMC and its association with the cell monolayer increased following wounding injury. Immunoblot analysis of wounded monolayers demonstrated a novel RHAMM protein isoform that appeared within one hour after injury. At the time of increased cell motility after wounding, FACS analysis demonstrated an increase in the membrane localization in approximately 25% of the cell population. Confocal microscopy of injured monolayers confirmed that membrane expression of this receptor was limited to cells at the wound edge. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RHAMM is necessary for the migration of smooth muscle cells and that expression and distribution of this receptor is tightly regulated following wounding of BASMC monola