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Sample records for pasteurella hyaluronan synthase

  1. Hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Panogeorgou, T; Tserbini, E; Filou, S; Vynios, D H; Naxakis, S S; Papadas, T A; Goumas, P D; Mastronikolis, N S

    2016-07-01

    Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign lesions of nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa affecting 1-4 % of all adults. Nasal polyposis affects the quality of patient's life as it causes nasal obstruction, postnasal drainage, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia or anosmia, chronic sinusitis, facial pain and snoring. Without treatment, the disease can alter the craniofacial skeleton in cases of extended growth of polyps. The development of NPs is caused by the hyperplasia of nasal or paranasal sinuses mucosa, and edema of extracellular matrix. This is usually the result of high concentration of high molecular mass hyaluronan (HA) which is either overproduced or accumulated from blood supply. The size of HA presents high diversity and, especially in pathologic conditions, chains of low molecular mass can be observed. In NPs, chains of about 200 kDa have been identified and considered to be responsible for the inflammation. The purpose of the present study was the investigation, in NPs and normal nasal mucosa (NM), of the expression of the wild-type and alternatively spliced forms of hyaluronidases, their immunolocalization, and the expression of HA synthases to examine the isoform(s) responsible for the increased amounts of HA in NPs. Hyaluronidases' presence was examined on mRNA (RT-PCR analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels. Hyaluronan synthases' presence was examined on mRNA levels. Hyaluronidases were localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as in the matrix. On mRNA level, it was found that hyal-1-wt was decreased in NPs compared to NM and hyal-1-v3, -v4 and -v5 were substantially increased. Moreover, HAS2 and HAS3 were the only hyaluronan synthases detected, the expression of which was almost similar in NPs and NM. Overall, the results of the present study support that hyaluronidases are the main enzymes responsible for the decreased size of hyaluronan observed in NPs; thus they behave as inflammatory agents. Therefore, they

  2. Antisense inhibition of hyaluronan synthase-2 in human osteosarcoma cells inhibits hyaluronan retention and tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ynishida@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Knudson, Warren; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor associated with childhood and adolescence. The results of numerous studies have suggested that hyaluronan plays an important role in regulating the aggressive behavior of various types of cancer cells. However, no studies have addressed hyaluronan with respect to osteosarcomas. In this investigation, the mRNA expression copy number of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases (HAS) was determined using competitive RT-PCR in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. MG-63 are highly malignant osteosarcoma cells with an abundant hyaluronan-rich matrix. The results demonstrated that HAS-2 is the predominant HAS in MG-63. Accumulation of intracellular hyaluronan increased in association with the proliferative phase of these cells. The selective inhibition of HAS-2 mRNA in MG-63 cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in reduced hyaluronan accumulation by these cells. As expected, the reduction in hyaluronan disrupted the assembly of cell-associated matrices. However, of most interest, coincident with the reduction in hyaluronan, there was a substantial decrease in cell proliferation, a decrease in cell motility and a decrease in cell invasiveness. These data suggest that hyaluronan synthesized by HAS-2 in MG-63 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, motility, and invasion.

  3. Hyaluronan Synthase 1: A Mysterious Enzyme with Unexpected Functions

    PubMed Central

    Siiskonen, Hanna; Oikari, Sanna; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Rilla, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) is one of three isoenzymes responsible for cellular hyaluronan synthesis. Interest in HAS1 has been limited because its role in hyaluronan production seems to be insignificant compared to the two other isoenzymes, HAS2 and HAS3, which have higher enzymatic activity. Furthermore, in most cell types studied so far, the expression of its gene is low and the enzyme requires high concentrations of sugar precursors for hyaluronan synthesis, even when overexpressed in cell cultures. Both expression and activity of HAS1 are induced by pro-inflammatory factors like interleukins and cytokines, suggesting its involvement in inflammatory conditions. Has1 is upregulated in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease. In addition, both full length and splice variants of HAS1 are expressed in malignancies like bladder and prostate cancers, multiple myeloma, and malignant mesothelioma. Interestingly, immunostainings of tissue sections have demonstrated the role of HAS1 as a poor predictor in breast cancer, and is correlated with high relapse rate and short overall survival. Utilization of fluorescently tagged proteins has revealed the intracellular distribution pattern of HAS1, distinct from other isoenzymes. In all cell types studied so far, a high proportion of HAS1 is accumulated intracellularly, with a faint signal detected on the plasma membrane and its protrusions. Furthermore, the pericellular hyaluronan coat produced by HAS1 is usually thin without induction by inflammatory agents or glycemic stress and depends on CD44–HA interactions. These specific interactions regulate the organization of hyaluronan into a leukocyte recruiting matrix during inflammatory responses. Despite the apparently minor enzymatic activity of HAS1 under normal conditions, it may be an important factor under conditions associated with glycemic stress like metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer. PMID

  4. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Seldin, M.F.

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  6. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  7. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  8. Molecular evolution of the hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in mammals: implications for adaptations to the subterranean niche and cancer resistance.

    PubMed

    Faulkes, Christopher G; Davies, Kalina T J; Rossiter, Stephen J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-05-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is a unique and fascinating mammal exhibiting many unusual adaptations to a subterranean lifestyle. The recent discovery of their resistance to cancer and exceptional longevity has opened up new and important avenues of research. Part of this resistance to cancer has been attributed to the fact that NMRs produce a modified form of hyaluronan--a key constituent of the extracellular matrix--that is thought to confer increased elasticity of the skin as an adaptation for living in narrow tunnels. This so-called high molecular mass hyaluronan (HMM-HA) stems from two apparently unique substitutions in the hyaluronan synthase 2 enzyme (HAS2). To test whether other subterranean mammals with similar selection pressures also show molecular adaptation in their HAS2 gene, we sequenced the HAS2 gene for 11 subterranean mammals and closely related species, and combined these with data from 57 other mammals. Comparative screening revealed that one of the two putatively important HAS2 substitutions in the NMR predicted to have a significant effect on hyaluronan synthase function was uniquely shared by all African mole-rats. Interestingly, we also identified multiple other amino acid substitutions in key domains of the HAS2 molecule, although the biological consequences of these for hyaluronan synthesis remain to be determined. Despite these results, we found evidence of strong purifying selection acting on the HAS2 gene across all mammals, and the NMR remains unique in its particular HAS2 sequence. Our results indicate that more work is needed to determine whether the apparent cancer resistance seen in NMR is shared by other members of the African mole-rat clade.

  9. Regulation of Hyaluronan (HA) Metabolism Mediated by HYBID (Hyaluronan-binding Protein Involved in HA Depolymerization, KIAA1199) and HA Synthases in Growth Factor-stimulated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Aya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Morikawa, Tomohiko; Kawabata, Keigo; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Shingo; Takahashi, Yoshito; Okada, Yasunori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2015-12-25

    Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-β1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-β1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-β1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-β1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-β1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients. PMID:26518873

  10. Molecular evolution of the hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in mammals: implications for adaptations to the subterranean niche and cancer resistance

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Christopher G.; Davies, Kalina T. J.; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is a unique and fascinating mammal exhibiting many unusual adaptations to a subterranean lifestyle. The recent discovery of their resistance to cancer and exceptional longevity has opened up new and important avenues of research. Part of this resistance to cancer has been attributed to the fact that NMRs produce a modified form of hyaluronan—a key constituent of the extracellular matrix—that is thought to confer increased elasticity of the skin as an adaptation for living in narrow tunnels. This so-called high molecular mass hyaluronan (HMM-HA) stems from two apparently unique substitutions in the hyaluronan synthase 2 enzyme (HAS2). To test whether other subterranean mammals with similar selection pressures also show molecular adaptation in their HAS2 gene, we sequenced the HAS2 gene for 11 subterranean mammals and closely related species, and combined these with data from 57 other mammals. Comparative screening revealed that one of the two putatively important HAS2 substitutions in the NMR predicted to have a significant effect on hyaluronan synthase function was uniquely shared by all African mole-rats. Interestingly, we also identified multiple other amino acid substitutions in key domains of the HAS2 molecule, although the biological consequences of these for hyaluronan synthesis remain to be determined. Despite these results, we found evidence of strong purifying selection acting on the HAS2 gene across all mammals, and the NMR remains unique in its particular HAS2 sequence. Our results indicate that more work is needed to determine whether the apparent cancer resistance seen in NMR is shared by other members of the African mole-rat clade. PMID:25948568

  11. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  12. Clustered Conserved Cysteines in Hyaluronan Synthase Mediate Cooperative Activation by Mg(2+) Ions and Severe Inhibitory Effects of Divalent Cations.

    PubMed

    Tlapak-Simmons, Valarie L; Medina, Andria P; Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Nguyen, Long; Baron, Christina A; Weigel, Paul H

    2011-11-15

    Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) uses UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to make hyaluronan (HA). Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS) contains four conserved cysteines clustered near the membrane, and requires phospholipids and Mg(2+) for activity. Activity of membrane-bound or purified enzyme displayed a sigmoidal saturation profile for Mg(2+) with a Hill coefficient of 2. To assess if Cys residues are important for cooperativity we examined the Mg(2+) dependence of mutants with various combinations of Cys-to-Ala mutations. All Cys-mutants lost the cooperative response to Mg(2+). In the presence of Mg(2+), other divalent cations inhibited SeHAS with different potencies (Cu(2+)~Zn(2+) >Co(2+) >Ni(2+) >Mn(2+) >Ba(2+) Sr(2+) Ca(2+)). Some divalent metal ions likely inhibit by displacement of Mg(2+)-UDP-Sugar complexes (e.g. Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) had apparent Ki values of 2-5 mM). In contrast, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) inhibited more potently (apparent Ki ≤ 0.2 mM). Inhibition of Cys-null SeHAS by Cu(2+), but not Zn(2+), was greatly attenuated compared to wildtype. Double and triple Cys-mutants showed differing sensitivities to Zn(2+) or Cu(2+). Wildtype SeHAS allowed to make HA prior to exposure to Zn(2+) or Cu(2+) was protected from inhibition, indicating that access of metal ions to sensitive functional groups was hindered in processively acting HA•HAS complexes. We conclude that clustered Cys residues mediate cooperative interactions with Mg(2+) and that transition metal ions inhibit SeHAS very potently by interacting with one or more of these -SH groups.

  13. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Proximity Ligation Assays Reveal Functionally Relevant Homo- and Heteromeric Complexes among Hyaluronan Synthases HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3*

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Geneviève; Vico, Nuria Ortega; Hassinen, Antti; Pujol, Francois M.; Deen, Ashik Jawahar; Ruusala, Aino; Tammi, Raija H.; Squire, Anthony; Heldin, Paraskevi; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Tammi, Markku I.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, hyaluronan is produced in the plasma membrane from cytosolic UDP-sugar substrates by hyaluronan synthase 1–3 (HAS1–3) isoenzymes that transfer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in alternative positions in the growing polysaccharide chain during its simultaneous extrusion into the extracellular space. It has been shown that HAS2 immunoprecipitates contain functional HAS2 homomers and also heteromers with HAS3 (Karousou, E., Kamiryo, M., Skandalis, S. S., Ruusala, A., Asteriou, T., Passi, A., Yamashita, H., Hellman, U., Heldin, C. H., and Heldin, P. (2010) The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 23647–23654). Here we have systematically screened in live cells, potential interactions among the HAS isoenzymes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and flow cytometric quantification. We show that all HAS isoenzymes form homomeric and also heteromeric complexes with each other. The same complexes were detected both in Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane by using FRET microscopy and the acceptor photobleaching method. Proximity ligation assays with HAS antibodies confirmed the presence of HAS1-HAS2, HAS2-HAS2, and HAS2-HAS3 complexes between endogenously expressed HASs. C-terminal deletions revealed that the enzymes interact mainly via uncharacterized N-terminal 86-amino acid domain(s), but additional binding site(s) probably exist in their C-terminal parts. Of all the homomeric complexes HAS1 had the lowest and HAS3 the highest synthetic activity. Interestingly, HAS1 transfection reduced the synthesis of hyaluronan obtained by HAS2 and HAS3, suggesting functional cooperation between the isoenzymes. These data indicate a general tendency of HAS isoenzymes to form both homomeric and heteromeric complexes with potentially important functional consequences on hyaluronan synthesis. PMID:25795779

  14. Hyaluronan Synthesis and Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Liam C.; Gorman, Chris; Kintakas, Christopher; McCulloch, Daniel R.; Mackie, Eleanor J.; White, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous hyaluronan is known to alter muscle precursor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, ultimately inhibiting myogenesis in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of endogenous hyaluronan synthesis during myogenesis. In quantitative PCR studies, the genes responsible for synthesizing hyaluronan were found to be differentially regulated during muscle growth, repair, and pathology. Although all Has genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3) were differentially regulated in these models, only Has2 gene expression consistently associated with myogenic differentiation. During myogenic differentiation in vitro, Has2 was the most highly expressed of the synthases and increased after induction of differentiation. To test whether this association between Has2 expression and myogenesis relates to a role for Has2 in myoblast differentiation and fusion, C2C12 myoblasts were depleted of Has2 by siRNA and induced to differentiate. Depletion of Has2 inhibited differentiation and caused a loss of cell-associated hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix. The inhibition of differentiation caused by loss of hyaluronan was confirmed with the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone. In hyaluronan synthesis-blocked cultures, restoration of the pericellular matrix could be achieved through the addition of exogenous hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican, but this was not sufficient to restore differentiation to control levels. These data indicate that intrinsic hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for myoblasts to differentiate and form syncytial muscle cells, but the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix is not sufficient to support differentiation alone; additional hyaluronan-dependent cell functions that are yet unknown may be required for myogenic differentiation. PMID:23493399

  15. miR-23a-3p causes cellular senescence by targeting hyaluronan synthase 2: possible implication for skin aging.

    PubMed

    Röck, Katharina; Tigges, Julia; Sass, Steffen; Schütze, Alexandra; Florea, Ana-Maria; Fender, Anke C; Theis, Florian J; Krutmann, Jean; Boege, Fritz; Fritsche, Ellen; Reifenberger, Guido; Fischer, Jens W

    2015-02-01

    Even though aging and cellular senescence appear to be linked, the biological mechanisms interconnecting these two processes remain to be unravelled. Therefore, microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles were analyzed ex vivo by means of gene array in fibroblasts isolated from young and old human donors. Expression of several miRNAs was positively correlated with donor age. Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HA is a polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix that critically regulates the phenotype of fibroblasts. Indeed, both aged and senescent fibroblasts showed increased miR-23a-3p expression and secreted significantly lower amounts of HA compared with young and non-senescent fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of miR-23a-3p in non-senescent fibroblasts led to decreased HAS2-mediated HA synthesis, upregulation of senescence-associated markers, and decreased proliferation. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of HAS2 and pharmacological inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone mimicked the effects of miR-23a-3p. In vivo, miR-23a-3p was upregulated and HAS2 was downregulated in the skin of old mice compared with young mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone in mice reduced dermal hydration and viscoelasticity, thereby mimicking an aged skin phenotype. Taken together, these findings appear to link miR-23a-3p and the HA microenvironment as effector mechanisms in both dermal aging and senescence.

  16. Cell protrusions induced by hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) resemble mesothelial microvilli and share cytoskeletal features of filopodia.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Ville; Kärnä, Riikka; Koistinen, Arto; Arjonen, Antti; Tammi, Markku; Rilla, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that overexpression of enzymatically active GFP-HAS induces the growth of long, slender protrusions that share many features of both filopodia and microvilli. These protrusions are dependent on continuing hyaluronan synthesis, and disrupt upon digestion of hyaluronan by hyaluronidase. However, complete understanding of their nature is still missing. This work shows that the protrusions on rat peritoneal surface are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those induced by GFP-HAS3 in MCF-7 cells. Analysis of the actin-associated proteins villin, ezrin, espin, fascin, and Myo10 indicated that the HAS3-induced protrusions share most cytoskeletal features with filopodia, but they do not require adherence to the substratum like traditional filopodia. GFP-HAS3 overexpression was found to markedly enhance filamentous actin in the protrusions and their cortical basis. Analysis of the protrusion dynamics after enzymatic digestion of hyaluronan revealed that while GFP-HAS3 escape from the protrusions and the protrusion collapse takes place immediately, the complete retraction of the protrusions occurs more slowly. This finding also suggests that hyaluronan chain maintains HAS3 in the plasma membrane. The results of this work suggest that protrusions similar to those of HAS3 overexpressing cells in vitro exist also in cells with active hyaluronan synthesis in vivo. These protrusions are similar to common filopodia but are independent of substratum attachment due to the extracellular scaffolding by the hyaluronan coat that accounts for the growth and maintenance of these structures, previously associated to invasion, adhesion and multidrug resistance. PMID:26162854

  17. Hyaluronan Synthase: The Mechanism of Initiation at the Reducing End and a Pendulum Model for Polysaccharide Translocation to the Cell Exterior.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis has been studied for over six decades, but our understanding of the biochemical details of how HA synthase (HAS) assembles HA is still incomplete. Class I family members include mammalian and streptococcal HASs, the focus of this review, which add new intracellular sugar-UDPs at the reducing end of growing hyaluronyl-UDP chains. HA-producing cells typically create extracellular HA coats (capsules) and also secrete HA into the surrounding space. Since HAS contains multiple transmembrane domains and is lipid-dependent, we proposed in 1999 that it creates an intraprotein HAS-lipid pore through which a growing HA-UDP chain is translocated continuously across the cell membrane to the exterior. We review here the evidence for a synthase pore-mediated polysaccharide translocation process and describe a possible mechanism (the Pendulum Model) and potential energy sources to drive this ATP-independent process. HA synthases also synthesize chitin oligosaccharides, which are created by cleavage of novel oligo-chitosyl-UDP products. The synthesis of chitin-UDP oligomers by HAS confirms the reducing end mechanism for sugar addition during HA assembly by streptococcal and mammalian Class I enzymes. These new findings indicate the possibility that HA biosynthesis is initiated by the ability of HAS to use chitin-UDP oligomers as self-primers.

  18. Hyaluronan Synthase: The Mechanism of Initiation at the Reducing End and a Pendulum Model for Polysaccharide Translocation to the Cell Exterior

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis has been studied for over six decades, but our understanding of the biochemical details of how HA synthase (HAS) assembles HA is still incomplete. Class I family members include mammalian and streptococcal HASs, the focus of this review, which add new intracellular sugar-UDPs at the reducing end of growing hyaluronyl-UDP chains. HA-producing cells typically create extracellular HA coats (capsules) and also secrete HA into the surrounding space. Since HAS contains multiple transmembrane domains and is lipid-dependent, we proposed in 1999 that it creates an intraprotein HAS-lipid pore through which a growing HA-UDP chain is translocated continuously across the cell membrane to the exterior. We review here the evidence for a synthase pore-mediated polysaccharide translocation process and describe a possible mechanism (the Pendulum Model) and potential energy sources to drive this ATP-independent process. HA synthases also synthesize chitin oligosaccharides, which are created by cleavage of novel oligo-chitosyl-UDP products. The synthesis of chitin-UDP oligomers by HAS confirms the reducing end mechanism for sugar addition during HA assembly by streptococcal and mammalian Class I enzymes. These new findings indicate the possibility that HA biosynthesis is initiated by the ability of HAS to use chitin-UDP oligomers as self-primers. PMID:26472958

  19. Analysis of the Polymerization Initiation and Activity of Pasteurella multocida Heparosan Synthase PmHS2, an Enzyme with Glycosyltransferase and UDP-sugar Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chavaroche, Anais A. E.; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Springer, Jan; Boeriu, Carmen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Heparosan synthase catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan (-4GlcUAβ1–4GlcNAcα1-)n by transferring alternatively the monosaccharide units from UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor molecule. Details on the heparosan chain initiation by Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 and its influence on the polymerization process have not been reported yet. By site-directed mutagenesis of PmHS2, the single action transferases PmHS2-GlcUA+ and PmHS2-GlcNAc+ were obtained. When incubated together in the standard polymerization conditions, the PmHS2-GlcUA+/PmHS2-GlcNAc+ showed comparable polymerization properties as determined for PmHS2. We investigated the first step occurring in heparosan chain initiation by the use of the single action transferases and by studying the PmHS2 polymerization process in the presence of heparosan templates and various UDP-sugar concentrations. We observed that PmHS2 favored the initiation of the heparosan chains when incubated in the presence of an excess of UDP-GlcNAc. It resulted in a higher number of heparosan chains with a lower average molecular weight or in the synthesis of two distinct groups of heparosan chain length, in the absence or in the presence of heparosan templates, respectively. These data suggest that PmHS2 transfers GlcUA from UDP-GlcUA moiety to a UDP-GlcNAc acceptor molecule to initiate the heparosan polymerization; as a consequence, not only the UDP-sugar concentration but also the amount of each UDP-sugar is influencing the PmHS2 polymerization process. In addition, it was shown that PmHS2 hydrolyzes the UDP-sugars, UDP-GlcUA being more degraded than UDP-GlcNAc. However, PmHS2 incubated in the presence of both UDP-sugars favors the synthesis of heparosan polymers over the hydrolysis of UDP-sugars. PMID:21084307

  20. The Human Hyaluronan Synthase 2 (HAS2) Gene and Its Natural Antisense RNA Exhibit Coordinated Expression in the Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell♦

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Daryn R.; Phillips, Aled O.; Krupa, Aleksandra; Martin, John; Redman, James E.; Altaher, Abdalsamed; Neville, Rachel D.; Webber, Jason; Kim, Min-young; Bowen, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the human hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) gene has been implicated in the pathology of malignancy, pulmonary arterial hypertension, osteoarthritis, asthma, thyroid dysfunction, and large organ fibrosis. Renal fibrosis is associated with increased cortical synthesis of hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, and we have shown that HA is a correlate of interstitial fibrosis in vivo. Our previous in vitro data have suggested that both HAS2 transcriptional induction and subsequent HAS2-driven HA synthesis may contribute to kidney fibrosis via phenotypic modulation of the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTC). Post-transcriptional regulation of HAS2 mRNA synthesis by the natural antisense RNA HAS2-AS1 has recently been described in osteosarcoma cells, but the antisense transcript was not detected in kidney. In this study, PTC stimulation with IL-1β or TGF-β1 induced coordinated temporal profiles of HAS2-AS1 and HAS2 transcription. Constitutive activity of the putative HAS2-AS1 promoter was demonstrated, and transcription factor-binding sequence motifs were identified. Knockdown of Sp1/Sp3 expression by siRNA blunted IL-1β induction of both HAS2-AS1 and HAS2, and Smad2/Smad3 knockdown similarly attenuated TGF-β1 stimulation. Inhibition of IL-1β-stimulated HAS2-AS1 RNA induction using HAS2-AS1-specific siRNAs also suppressed up-regulation of HAS2 mRNA transcription. The thermodynamic feasibility of HAS2-AS1/HAS2 heterodimer formation was demonstrated in silico, and locus-specific cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA was detected in vitro. In summary, our data show that transcriptional induction of HAS2-AS1 and HAS2 occurs simultaneously in PTCs and suggest that transcription of the antisense RNA stabilizes or augments HAS2 mRNA expression in these cells via RNA/mRNA heteroduplex formation. PMID:21357421

  1. Effects of leflunomide on hyaluronan synthases (HAS): NF-kappa B-independent suppression of IL-1-induced HAS1 transcription by leflunomide.

    PubMed

    Stuhlmeier, Karl M

    2005-06-01

    Despite evidence that points to unfettered hyaluronic acid (HA) production as a culprit in the progression of rheumatic disorders, little is known about differences in regulation and biological functions of the three hyaluronan synthase (HAS) genes. Testing the effects of drugs with proven anti-inflammatory effects could help to clarify biological functions of these genes. In this study, we demonstrate that leflunomide suppresses HA release in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that leflunomide suppresses HA synthase activity, as determined by (14)C-glucuronic acid incorporation assays. Additional experiments revealed that in FLS, leflunomide specifically blocked the induction of HAS1. HAS2 and HAS3, genes that are, in contrast to HAS1, constitutively expressed in FLS, are not significantly affected. Leflunomide can function as a NF-kappaB inhibitor. However, EMSA experiments demonstrate that at the concentrations used, leflunomide neither interferes with IL-1beta- nor with PMA-induced NF-kappaB translocation. Furthermore, reconstituting the pyrimidine synthase pathway did not lead to the restoration of IL-1beta-induced HAS1 activation. More importantly, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors mimicked the effect of leflunomide in that both blocked IL-1beta-induced HAS1 activation without affecting HAS2 or HAS3. These data point at HAS1 activation as the possible cause for unfettered HA production in rheumatoid arthritis and might explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of leflunomide treatment. These findings also support the concept that IL-1beta-induced HAS1 activation depends on the activation of tyrosine kinases, and indicate that leflunomide blocks HA release by suppressing tyrosine kinases rather than through inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation.

  2. Natural Antisense Transcript for Hyaluronan Synthase 2 (HAS2-AS1) Induces Transcription of HAS2 via Protein O-GlcNAcylation*

    PubMed Central

    Vigetti, Davide; Deleonibus, Sara; Moretto, Paola; Bowen, Timothy; Fischer, Jens W.; Grandoch, Maria; Oberhuber, Alexander; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Karousou, Eugenia; Viola, Manuela; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Hascall, Vincent C.; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the microenvironment organization within vascular walls are critical events in the pathogenesis of vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Hyaluronan (HA) accumulation into artery walls supports vessel thickening and is involved in many cardiocirculatory diseases. Excessive cytosolic glucose can enter the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, increase UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) availability, and lead to modification of cytosolic proteins via O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide β-N-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAcylation) from UDP-GlcNAc by the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase. As many cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins can be glycosylated by O-GlcNAc, we studied whether the expression of the HA synthases that synthesize HA could be controlled by O-GlcNAcylation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Among the three HAS isoenzymes, only HAS2 mRNA increased after O-GlcNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatments or by inhibiting O-GlcNAc transferase with PUGNAC (O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate). We found that the natural antisense transcript of HAS2 (HAS2-AS1) was absolutely necessary to induce the transcription of the HAS2 gene. Moreover, we found that O-GlcNAcylation modulated HAS2-AS1 promoter activation by recruiting the NF-κB subunit p65, but not the HAS2 promoter, whereas HAS2-AS1 natural antisense transcript, working in cis, regulated HAS2 transcription by altering the chromatin structure around the HAS2 proximal promoter via O-GlcNAcylation and acetylation. These results indicate that HAS2 transcription can be finely regulated not only by recruiting transcription factors to the promoter as previously described but also by modulating chromatin accessibility by epigenetic modifications. PMID:25183006

  3. Hyaluronidases and hyaluronan synthases expression is inversely correlated with malignancy in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, affecting prognosis

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, V.K.; Rocha, T.P.; Moreira, AL.; Soares, F.A.; Takagaki, T.; Carvalho, L.; Nicholson, A.G.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    We collected a series of 136 lung/bronchial and 56 matched lung parenchyma tissue samples from patients who underwent lung/bronchial biopsies and presented invasive carcinoma after lung surgery. The lung/bronchial samples included basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, moderate dysplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia, severe dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Matched lung parenchyma tissue samples included 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 31 adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze for the distribution of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1 and −3, and hyaluronan synthases (HAS)-1, −2, and −3. Hyal-1 showed significantly higher expression in basal cell hyperplasia than in moderate dysplasia (P=0.01), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.0001), or severe dysplasia (P=0.03). Lower expression of Hyal-3 was found in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia than in basal cell hyperplasia (P=0.01) or moderate dysplasia (P=0.02). HAS-2 was significantly higher in severe dysplasia (P=0.002) and in squamous metaplasia (P=0.04) compared with basal cell hyperplasia. HAS-3 was significantly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia compared with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.05) and severe dysplasia (P=0.02). Lower expression of HAS-3 was found in severe dysplasia compared with squamous metaplasia (P=0.01) and moderate dysplasia (P=0.01). Epithelial Hyal-1 and −3 and HAS-1, −2, and −3 expressions were significantly higher in pre-neoplastic lesions than in neoplastic lesions. Comparative Cox multivariate analysis controlled by N stage and histologic tumor type showed that patients with high HAS-3 expression in pre-neoplastic cells obtained by lung/bronchial biopsy presented a significantly higher risk of death (HR=1.19; P=0.04). We concluded that localization of Hyal and HAS in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions was inversely related to malignancy, which implied that visualizing these factors could be a useful diagnostic

  4. XHAPLN3 plays a key role in cardiogenesis by maintaining the hyaluronan matrix around heart anlage.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuzuru; Seno, Satsuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Fukui, Akimasa; Asashima, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Hyaluronan matrix plays an important role during vertebrate cardiogenesis. Transcripts for the hyaluronan synthase Has2 gene are expressed in heart anlage, and disruption of either Has2 or versican, a hyaluronan matrix component, abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which hyaluronan matrix contributes to early heart development are largely unknown. Here we show that Xenopus hyaluronan and proteoglycan-binding link protein 3 (XHAPLN3) helps to maintain hyaluronan matrix around the cardiac anlage, and thereby contribute to cardiogenesis. XHAPLN3 mRNA transcript localization overlapped with the mRNA expression of both Xhas2 and Xversican at the heart anlage of early tailbud (stage 23) embryos. Furthermore, knockdown of XHAPLN3 or Xhas2 with morpholino antisense oligos caused a heart deficiency in developing tadpoles. Our results show when and how components of the hyaluronan matrix function in cardiogenesis, improving our understanding of how extracellular matrix participates in embryogenesis.

  5. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  6. Pasteurella gallinarum neonatal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K; Sein, P P; Shahnawaz, M; Hoosen, A A

    2002-01-01

    A 4-day-old baby weighing 1.7 kg was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Ga-Rankuwa Hospital, Pretoria, with a history of apneic attacks. On examination there was an umbilical sepsis and the neonate was septicemic. The baby had been delivered at home and the umbilical cord had been cut by the grandmother using unclean scissors and chimney soot applied to the umbilical stump. On admission, a septic screen was done and antibiotic treatment was started with penicillin and amikacin. The investigations showed that the baby was slightly anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 10.0 g/dL (14.9-23.7 g/dL), and a pure growth of a Gram-negative bacillus was obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid, blood culture and suprapubic aspirate urine specimens. The Gram-negative bacillus was catalase and oxidase positive and it was identified as Pasteurella gallinarum. Antimicrobial profiling showed the organism to be susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, gentamicin and amikacin. Despite having received antimicrobial agents to which the etiological agent was susceptible, the neonate died within 5 days of admission. The cause of death was postulated to be due to overwhelming sepsis which resulted in septic shock. PMID:11906503

  7. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  8. Septicaemia due to Pasteurella pneumotropica

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Bogumila T.; Anderson, J. C.; Palmer, Cynthia A.; Henderson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The literature concerning Pasteurella pneumotropica infection in animals and man is briefly reviewed and a case presented in which the organism was the cause of septicaemia in a patient receiving chemotherapy for myeloid leukaemia. Bacteriological findings are recorded and compared with those of other authors. PMID:4352465

  9. [Unusual pneumonia by Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Duhautois, J; Chabrol, J; Terce, G; Ampere, A; Bart, F; Wallaert, B

    2013-02-01

    Pasteurellosis is an infection caused by inoculation usually through bites or scratches. Pasteurella multocida is involved in 50 to 60% of cases. Cats are the main vectors of the pathogen. Immunodepression increases the risk of systemic disease. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in an 81-year-old patient who had no cutaneous portal of entry. The patient had a past medical history of rectal neoplasia and prostate neoplasia treated with brachytherapy and hormonal therapy respectively. He had an environmental risk factor (the presence of a cat at home). The diagnosis was confirmed by repeated blood cultures. Antimicrobial therapy resulted in clinical, biological and radiological improvement. This case report raises the question of a possible pathogenesis different from the commonly described "inoculation". PMID:23333046

  10. Hyaluronan content in experimental carcinoma is not correlated to interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Annica; Salnikov, Alexei; Lammerts, Ellen; Roswall, Pernilla; Sundberg, Christian; Heldin, Paraskevi; Rubin, Kristofer; Heldin, Nils-Erik

    2003-06-13

    Mechanism(s) for generation of the high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) that is characteristic of carcinoma is not known. We investigated the role of hyaluronan, the major water-binding polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix, for the generation of a high TIFP. A human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (KAT-4) xenografted to athymic mice and a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma (PROb) were used. Neither KAT-4 nor PROb cells produced hyaluronan (HA) in culture, however, both cell lines produced factors that stimulated HA-synthesis by cultured fibroblasts. Modulating hyaluronan levels by transfection of PROb carcinoma cells with hyaluronan synthase-2 revealed no correlation between hyaluronan content and TIFP. Furthermore, lowering of TIFP by treating KAT-4 tumors with a specific inhibitor of TGF-beta 1 and -beta 3 did not change the concentration of hyaluronan in the tumors. In summary, our results suggest that a modulation of hyaluronan content is not a major pathogenetic mechanism for the generation of the characteristically high TIFP in malignant carcinomas.

  11. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000–8000 kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200 kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  12. Hematogenous Pasteurella multocida brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Lipsky, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    A case of hematogenously acquired brain abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida is described. CT scans of the head revealed the lesions in a 67 year old man with mild alcoholic liver disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and chest and an echocardiogram failed to reveal a source for the abscess. On autopsy examination three encapsulated brain abscesses were found. 34 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  13. Anti-obesity potential of enzymatic fragments of hyaluronan on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Gon; Park, Yoon-Sun; Park, Joo Woong; Shin, Eunji; Shin, Woon-Seob

    2016-04-22

    Hyaluronan has diverse biological activities depending on its molecular size. The hyaluronan fragments (50 kDa) can decrease adipogenic differentiation in vitro. However, in vivo anti-obesitic effects of hyaluronan fragments have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the anti-obesity effects of hyaluronan fragments on high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of hyaluronan fragments (200 mg/kg for 8 weeks) decreased body weight, adipose tissues, serum lipid (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride), and leptin level. Hyaluronan fragments decreased the hypertrophy of adipose tissue and ameliorated liver steatosis. The mRNA expression of leptin was reduced in adipocyte by treatment with hyaluronan fragments. Additionally, hyaluronan fragments enhanced the mRNA expression of PPAR-α and its target genes UCP-2 and decreased mRNA expression of PPAR- γ and fatty acid synthase in liver. In conclusions, hyaluronan fragments had marked effects on inhibiting the development of obesity in obese mice fed the high-fat diet. It suggested that enhancing PPAR-α and suppressing PPAR-γ expression are two possible mechanisms for the anti-obesitic effect of hyaluronan fragments.

  14. Hyaluronan stimulates pancreatic cancer cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Kohi, Shiro; Koga, Atsuhiro; Hirata, Keiji; Sato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but functional significance of HA in the aggressive phenotype remains unknown. We used different models to investigate the effect of HA on PDAC cell motility by wound healing and transwell migration assay. Changes in cell motility were examined in 8 PDAC cell lines in response to inhibition of HA production by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) and to promotion by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or by co-culture with tumor-derived stromal fibroblasts. We also investigated changes in cell motility by adding exogenous HA. Additionally, mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases were examined using real time RT-PCR. Inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly decreased the migration, whereas promotion of HA by TPA or co-culture with tumor-derived fibroblasts significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. The changes in HA production by these treatments tended to be associated with changes in HAS3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, addition of exogenous HA, especially low-molecular-weight HA, significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. These findings suggest that HA stimulates PDAC cell migration and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target to prevent invasion and metastasis. PMID:26684359

  15. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  16. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  17. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  18. A simple, nondestructive assay for bound hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J B

    2000-01-01

    A simple, convenient, nondestructive method is described for the quantitative determination of bound hyaluronan. The method is based on the binding of the cationic dye Toluidine Blue O to the D-glucuronate component of the hyaluronan repeat disaccharide. Quantification is accomplished without interference by the dye's metachromatic properties. The method is easily adapted to hyaluronan coated medical devices and should be useful to developers and manufacturers of such devices and coatings.

  19. Regulated Hyaluronan Synthesis by Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Manuela; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto; Vigetti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in several pathologies including atherosclerosis. Hyaluronan (HA) content often reflects the progression of this disease in promoting vessel thickening and cell migration. HA synthesis is regulated by several factors, including the phosphorylation of HA synthase 2 (HAS2) and other covalent modifications including ubiquitination and O-GlcNAcylation. Substrate availability is important in HA synthesis control. Specific drugs reducing the UDP precursors are able to reduce HA synthesis whereas the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) increases the concentration of HA precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) leading to an increase of HA synthesis. The flux through the HBP in the regulation of HA biosynthesis in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was reported as a critical aspect. In fact, inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation reduced HA production whereas increased O-GlcNAcylation augmented HA secretion. Additionally, O-GlcNAcylation regulates HAS2 gene expression resulting in accumulation of its mRNA after induction of O-GlcNAcylation with glucosamine treatments. The oxidized LDLs, the most common molecules related to atherosclerosis outcome and progression, are also able to induce a strong HA synthesis when they are in contact with vascular cells. In this review, we present recent described mechanisms involved in HA synthesis regulation and their role in atherosclerosis outcome and development. PMID:26448750

  20. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    PubMed

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  1. Pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after Pasteur.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D; Adler, Ben

    2006-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. Since then, this Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. The mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. Key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. The capsule is clearly involved in bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis and resistance to complement, while complete lipopolysaccharide is critical for bacterial survival in the host. A number of other virulence factors have been identified by both directed and random mutagenesis, including Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), putative surface adhesins and iron acquisition proteins. However, it is likely that many key virulence factors are yet to be identified, including those required for initial attachment and invasion of host cells and for persistence in a relatively nutrient poor and hostile environment.

  2. Pasteurella multocida: from Zoonosis to Cellular Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mengfei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a world where most emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and our contacts with both domestic and wild animals abound, there is growing awareness of the potential for human acquisition of animal diseases. Like other Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella species are highly prevalent among animal populations, where they are often found as part of the normal microbiota of the oral, nasopharyngeal, and upper respiratory tracts. Many Pasteurella species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause endemic disease and are associated increasingly with epizootic outbreaks. Zoonotic transmission to humans usually occurs through animal bites or contact with nasal secretions, with P. multocida being the most prevalent isolate observed in human infections. Here we review recent comparative genomics and molecular pathogenesis studies that have advanced our understanding of the multiple virulence mechanisms employed by Pasteurella species to establish acute and chronic infections. We also summarize efforts being explored to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately identify and distinguish among clinical isolates and to control pasteurellosis by improved development of new vaccines and treatment regimens. PMID:23824375

  3. Preparation of hyaluronan-DNA matrices and films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliam

    2012-10-01

    Natural carbohydrate is a class of underexplored polymers for gene delivery. The noninflammatory and nonimmunogenic properties of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) are important in clinical situations. It has a role in wound repair and has great lubricating ability. Moreover, the presence of hyaluronidase in vivo enables any vehicle fabricated from HA to be degraded by enzyme-mediated erosion. When DNA is entrapped in a cross-linked HA vehicle, HA-DNA fragments are released on digestion by hyaluronidase. These fragments could serve both as microcarriers of DNA and its protective mechanism. This protocol describes preparation of water-insoluble HA-DNA matrices and films designed for clinical applications, and assays for verification of their bioactivities. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is coupled to the matrices that could be implanted into chronic wounds to accelerate their healing. pDNA encoding hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) is coupled to the film that could initially serve as a physical barrier and subsequently a pDNA reservoir for sustaining HAS2 transfection. This would lead to continual HA production for preventing postsurgical adhesion.

  4. Hyaluronan: from biomimetic to industrial business strategy.

    PubMed

    Murano, Erminio; Perin, Danilo; Khan, Riaz; Bergamin, Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide of a linear repeating disaccharide unit consisting of beta-(1-->4)-linked D-glucopyranuronic acid and beta-(1-->3)-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose, which is present in extracellular matrices, the synovial fluid of joints, and scaffolding that comprises cartilage. In its mechanism of synthesis, its size, and its physico-chemical properties, hyaluronan is unique amongst other glycosaminoglycans. The network-forming, viscoelastic and its charge characteristics are important to many biochemical properties of living tissues. It is an important pericellular and cell surface constituent; its interaction with other macromolecules such as proteins, participates in regulating cell behavior during numerous morphogenic, restorative, and pathological processes in the body. The knowledge of HA in diseases such as various forms of cancers, arthritis and osteoporosis has led to new impetus in research and development in the preparation of biomaterials for surgical implants and drug conjugates for targeted delivery. A concise and focused review on hyaluronan is timely. This review will cover the following important aspects of hyaluronan: (i) biological functions and synthesis in nature; (ii) current industrial production and potential biosynthetic processes of hyaluronan; (iii) chemical modifications of hyaluronan leading to products of commercial significance; and (iv) and the global market position and manufacturers of hyaluronan.

  5. Hyaluronan-coated extracellular vesicles--a novel link between hyaluronan and cancer.

    PubMed

    Rilla, Kirsi; Siiskonen, Hanna; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of hyaluronan (HA) on the plasma membrane is a unique and still partly mysterious way of macromolecular biosynthesis. HA forms pericellular coats around many cell types and accumulates in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of growing and renewing tissues. It is secreted to high concentrations in body fluids with antifriction properties like pleural, peritoneal, and synovial fluids, but is also detectable in plasma, saliva, and urine. In pathological states, like cancer and inflammation, the amount of HA is increased around cells, in the ECM, and in the body fluids. HA is an indicator of poor prognosis for cancer patients and creates a favorable environment for cellular growth and motility. The recent finding that HA-coated extracellular vesicles act both as a product of HA synthase activity and as special vehicles for HA, and perhaps carry signals important for malignant growth, provides a novel link between HA and cancer. HA could be carried on the surface of these vesicles in tissues and body fluids, creating beneficial environments by itself, or by associated molecules, for the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The HA-coated plasma membrane protrusions and vesicles shed from them are potential biomarkers in cancer and other HA-associated disease states. PMID:25081528

  6. Regulation of Synthesis and Roles of Hyaluronan in Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Timothy; Meran, Soma; Williams, Aled P.; Newbury, Lucy J.; Sauter, Matthias; Sitter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan composed of repeated disaccharide units of alternating D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine residues linked via alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. HA is synthesized in humans by HA synthase (HAS) enzymes 1, 2, and 3, which are encoded by the corresponding HAS genes. Previous in vitro studies have shown characteristic changes in HAS expression and increased HA synthesis in response to wounding and proinflammatory cytokines in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. In addition, in vivo models and human peritoneal biopsy samples have provided evidence of changes in HA metabolism in the fibrosis that at present accompanies peritoneal dialysis treatment. This review discusses these published observations and how they might contribute to improvement in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:26550568

  7. CD44S-hyaluronan interactions protect cells resulting from EMT against anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Cieply, Benjamin; Koontz, Colton; Frisch, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The detachment of normal epithelial cells from matrix triggers an apoptotic response known as anoikis, during homeostatic turnover. Metastatic tumor cells evade anoikis, by mechanisms that are only partly characterized. In particular, the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a subset of invasive tumor cells confers anoikis-resistance. In some cases, EMT up-regulates the cancer stem cell marker CD44S and the enzyme hyaluronic acid synthase-2 (HAS2). CD44S is the major receptor for hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix. Herein, we demonstrate that CD44S, unlike the CD44E isoform expressed in normal epithelial cells, contributes to the protection against anoikis. This protection requires the interaction of CD44S with hyaluronan (HA). CD44S–HA interaction is proposed to play an important role in tumor metastasis through enhanced cell survival under detached conditions. PMID:25937513

  8. Occupationally acquired Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in a healthy abattoir worker.

    PubMed

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Tun Min, Sandy; Lai, Katy

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy male abbatoir worker presented to his general practitioner with acute hypoxemia due to bronchopneumonia. His only occupational exposure was cleaning cow carcasses being prepared for consumption. Blood cultures were eventually positive for Pasteurella multocida. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in an abattoir worker, and illustrates the importance of considering this infection in patients with animal exposures. PMID:27536550

  9. Hyaluronan as an Immune Regulator in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    NOBLE, PAUL W.; LIANG, JIURONG; JIANG, DIANHUA

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation and turnover of extracellular matrix components are the hallmarks of tissue injury. Fragmented hyaluronan stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes by a variety of immune cells at the injury site. Hyaluronan binds to a number of cell surface proteins on a variety of cell types. Hyaluronan fragments signal through both Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2 as well as CD44 to stimulate inflammatory genes in inflammatory cells. Hyaluronan is also present on the cell surface of epithelial cells and provides protection against tissue damage by interacting with TLR2 and TLR4 on these parenchymal cells. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding proteins regulate inflammation, tissue injury and repair through regulating inflammatory cell recruitment, release of inflammatory cytokines, and stem cell migration. This review focuses on the role of hyaluronan as an immune regulator in human diseases. PMID:21248167

  10. Biology and biotechnology of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) polymer is a critical component of extracellular matrix with a remarkable structure: is a linear and unbranched polymer without sulphate or phosphate groups. It is ubiquitous in mammals showing several biological functions, ranging from cell proliferation and migration to angiogenesis and inflammation. For its critical biological functions the amount of HA in tissues is carefully controlled by different mechanisms including covalent modification of the synthetic enzymes and epigenetic control of their gene expression. The concentration of HA is also critical in several pathologies including cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Beside these biological roles, the structural properties of HA allow it to take advantage of its capacity to form gels even at concentration of 1 % producing scaffolds with very promising applications in regenerative medicine as biocompatible material for advanced therapeutic uses. In this review we highlight the biological aspects of HA addressing the mechanisms controlling the HA content in tissues as well as its role in important human pathologies. In the second part of the review we highlight the different use of HA polymers in the modern biotechnology.

  11. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  12. Characteristics and biotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from humans.

    PubMed

    Oberhofer, T R

    1981-03-01

    Fifty-two isolates of Pasteurella (48 strains of Pasteurella multocida and 4 strains of atypical Pasteurella) were identified by conventional and commercial test systems. All strains fermented glucose, sucrose, and fructose in purple broth base (Difco Laboratories) with bromocresol purple as indicator, although the atypical Pasteurella produced fermentation reactions that were barely perceptible. Eleven different biotypes were identified by fermentation reactions in maltose, mannitol, xylose, sorbitol, and trehalose media. There was a correlation of biotypes to cat bites, with 61% of cat bite isolates falling into biotype A and B. A correlation of biotype and dog bite isolates was not seen. The choice of medium used for fermentation tests was critical as evidenced by the inability of the organisms to grow in a second commercially purchased preparation of purple broth base. The reliability of commercial test systems in identifying Pasteurella was 81% for Oxi/Ferm (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, N.J.), 68% for API (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.), and 11% for Minitek (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD.).

  13. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, M; Sharma, B; Petras, S F; Reese, C P; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M

    1995-01-01

    Two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 that do not produce leukotoxin were isolated. Following mutagenesis, colonies were screened with antiserum by a filter assay for absence of the secreted leukotoxin. The two mutants both appeared to produce normal amounts of other antigens, as judged by reactivity with polyclonal serum from an animal with pasteurellosis, and were not altered in beta-hemolytic activity as seen on blood agar plates. There was no evidence of either cell-associated or secreted leukotoxin protein when Western blots (immunoblots) were carried out with the polyclonal serum or with a monoclonal antibody directed against the leukotoxin. Southern blots revealed that both mutants show the wild-type restriction pattern at the leukotoxin locus, although the strain with the lktA2 mutation showed differences in other regions of the chromosome on analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strain with the lktA2 mutation grew more slowly than did the wild-type strain, while the strain with the lktA1 mutation was indistinguishable from the wild-type strain in its growth properties. The strain with the lktA1 mutation should be valuable in determining the role of the leukotoxin in virulence as well as in identifying other virulence factors of P. haemolytica. PMID:7868223

  14. Hyaluronan Synthesis, Catabolism, and Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Larry S; Matsumoto, Steven; Su, Weiping; Srivastava, Taasin; Back, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been implicated in regulating neural differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration, and cell signaling in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). HA is found throughout the CNS as a constituent of proteoglycans, especially within perineuronal nets that have been implicated in regulating neuronal activity. HA is also found in the white matter where it is diffusely distributed around astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Insults to the CNS lead to long-term elevation of HA within damaged tissues, which is linked at least in part to increased transcription of HA synthases. HA accumulation is often accompanied by elevated expression of at least some transmembrane HA receptors including CD44. Hyaluronidases that digest high molecular weight HA into smaller fragments are also elevated following CNS insults and can generate HA digestion products that have unique biological activities. A number of studies, for example, suggest that both the removal of high molecular weight HA and the accumulation of hyaluronidase-generated HA digestion products can impact CNS injuries through mechanisms that include the regulation of progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation. These studies, reviewed here, suggest that targeting HA synthesis, catabolism, and signaling are all potential strategies to promote CNS repair.

  15. Formation and properties of hyaluronan/nano Ag and hyaluronan-lecithin/nano Ag films.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Gohar; Khachatryan, Karen; Grzyb, Jacek; Fiedorowicz, Maciej

    2016-10-20

    A facile and environmentally friendly method of the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in hyaluronan (Hyal/Ag) and hyaluronan-lecithin (Hyal-L/Ag) matrix was developed. Thin, elastic foils were prepared from gels by an in situ synthesis of Ag in an aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (Hyal), using aq. d-(+)-xylose solution as a reducing agent. The gels were applied to a clean, smooth, defatted Teflon surface and left for drying in the air. The dry foils were stored in a closed container. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed formation of about 10nm ball-shaped Ag nanoparticles situated within the polysaccharide template. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized involving differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, whereas molecular weights of polysaccharide chains of the matrix were estimated with the size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering and refractometric detectors (HPSEC-MALLS-RI). An increase in the molecular weight of the hyaluronate after generation of Ag nanoparticles was observed. The foils showed specific properties. The study confirmed that silver nanoparticles can be successfully prepared with environmentally friendly method, using hyaluronan as a stabilizing template. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan-lecithin matrices provide nanocrystals uniform in size and shape. The composites demonstrated a bacteriostatic activity. PMID:27474588

  16. [Study of Dermanyssus gallinae as a carrier of Pasteurella multocida].

    PubMed

    Petrov, D

    1975-01-01

    Microbiologic studies and biologic experiments revealed that Pasteurella multocida persists in the body of Dermanyssus gallinae mites after these engorge with blood from infected birds. Depending on the temperature of the environment the carrier status was shown to last from 42 to 64 days. It is reported that the red mite acts as a vector and does not transmit Pasteurellae directly. However, the parasite is potentially hazardous in maintaining and passing on the infection through other indirect routes. Carrier status has been established in naturally infected Dermanyssus gallinae mites.

  17. CD44 and hyaluronan expression in human cutaneous scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, D. V.; Bertolami, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    Fibrotic disorders of skin and other organs are typically associated with an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix. This study focuses on a matrix constituent, hyaluronan-which is known to be altered in fibrotic disorders of skin- and on CD44, a cell adhesion molecule and putative receptor for hyaluronan. Tissue samples were obtained from biopsies of human normal skin, normal cutaneous scar; and hypertrophic cutaneous scar. After culturing, cells were studied by single- and double-labeling immunohistochemistry using the two anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, BU-52 and J173, and a biotinylated hyaluronan binding complex probe, b-HABR. Certain cultures were pretreated with Streptomyces hyaluronidase to assess the dependency of CD44 expression on the presence of endogenous hyaluronan. CD44 expression, both in the presence and the absence of exogenous hyaluronan, was quantitated by radioimmunobinding assay. Overall glycosaminoglycan synthesis and identification of hyaluronan were accomplished by precursor incorporation assays and by quantitative cellulose acetate electrophoresis. CD44 was found to be a normal human adult fibroblastic antigen whose expression is markedly increased for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared with normal skin fibroblasts. Although hyaluronan was found to be the predominant glycosaminoglycan constituent of the pericellular matrix for these fibroblasts, CD44 attachment to the cell surface is neither mediated by hyaluronan nor is the presence of hyaluronan a prerequisite for CD44 expression. Exogenous hyaluronan induced a decline in measurable CD44 expression for normal skin fibroblasts but not for hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. These observations are compatible with current understanding of the way cells manage the hyaluronan economy of the extracellular matrix and emphasize phenotypic heterogeneities between fibroblasts derived from normal versus scar tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8475990

  18. Size Matters: Molecular Weight Specificity of Hyaluronan Effects in Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cyphert, Jaime M.; Trempus, Carol S.; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan signaling properties are unique among other biologically active molecules, that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the generation of hyaluronan fragments of different size and size-dependent differences in hyaluronan signaling as well as their downstream biological effects. PMID:26448754

  19. Identification of Pasteurella multocida CHAPS-soluble outer membrane proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowl cholera continues to be of concern to the poultry industry, especially for turkey growers. This disease costs the turkey industry millions of dollars annually. In order to gain a better understanding of Pasteurella multocida virulence factors involved in colonization and pathogenesis, the outer...

  20. Aortic Endograft Infection by Pasteurella multocida: A Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Thejus T; Keyashian, Brian; Amene, Juliet; Malinowski, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Infection of an aortic endograft is a rare complication following endovascular aneurysm repair. These patients have been treated with explantation of the graft to obtain source control followed by an extra-anatomic bypass to restore circulation. The present case study describes an interesting case of Pasteurella infection involving an aortic endograft managed nonoperatively by percutaneous drainage and graft preservation. PMID:27581225

  1. Pasteurella multocida corneal ulcer following a baseball injury.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J D; Kosoko, O; Mason, R P; Cowan, C L

    1989-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an ubiquitous organism that can be isolated from a variety of animals and birds. It is an infrequent ocular pathogen but can cause infection as a result of injury or animal exposure. This article reports a case of P multocida corneal ulcer following a baseball injury.

  2. Hamster bite peritonitis: Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Taylor, J H; Campbell, M

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient. This rare infection was the result of contamination of the dialysis tubing by a pet hamster. We stress the importance of household pets as a source of infection in the peritoneal dialysis population. PMID:11095007

  3. Pasteurella Multocida Peritonitis After Cat Scratch in a Patient with Cirrhotic Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Verma, Ajay; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, Sowden

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic agent transmitted by canines and felines, has been very rarely reported to cause bacterial peritonitis in humans. Pasteurella multocida peritonitis is associated with high mortality even with appropriate treatment, therefore its early recognition is essential. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida peritonitis following cat scratch in a patient with Child Pugh Class C alcoholic cirrhosis, culminating in multiple organ failure and death PMID:26294953

  4. Effect of hyaluronan to inhibit caspase activation in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Tunjung, Woro Anindito Sri; Yokoo, Masaki; Hoshino, Yumi; Miyake, Yuko; Kadowaki, Akane; Sato, Eimei

    2009-04-24

    We studied the ability of hyaluronan (HA) to inhibit apoptosis in porcine granulosa cells. The granulosa layer with cumulus-oocyte complex is cultured in media supplemented with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and 4-MU an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthases. The concentration of HA significantly increased after supplemented with FSH, but significantly decreased with 4-MU. CD44, receptor of HA, expressed after cultured with FSH, decreased in addition low concentration of 4-MU, whereas not detected in high concentration of 4-MU, indicating parallel relation between the amount of HA and CD44 expression. The 4-MU treatment also decreased the expression of procaspase-3, -8, -9 suggesting that inhibition of HA synthesis leads to activation of these caspases. Moreover, addition of anti-CD44 antibody decreased the expression of procaspases suggesting that perturbation of HA-CD44 binding leads activation of caspases. Hence, HA has ability to inhibit apoptosis and HA-CD44 binding is important on apoptosis inhibitory mechanism in porcine granulosa cells.

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Takahashi, Ryoki; Yanagisawa, Miho; Yoshida, Futaba; Takagaki, Keiichi

    2015-09-01

    Human urinary trypsin inhibitor is a proteoglycan that has a single low-sulfated chondroitin 4-sulfate chain at the seryl residue in position 10 of the core protein as a glycosaminoglycan moiety, and is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine based on the protease inhibitory activity of the core protein. However, the functions of the glycosaminoglycan moiety have not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, the glycosaminoglycan chains of a native urinary trypsin inhibitor were remodeled to hyaluronan chains, with no changes to the core protein, using transglycosylation as a reverse reaction of the hydrolysis of bovine testicular hyaluronidase, and the properties of the hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor were then analyzed. The trypsin inhibitory activitiy of the hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor was similar to that of the native type; however, its inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis of hyaluronidase were not as strong as that of the native type. This result demonstrated that the native urinary trypsin inhibitor possessed hyaluronidase inhibitory activity on its chondroitin sulfate chain. The hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors obtained affinity to a hyaluronan-binding protein not exhibited by the native type. The interactions between the hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors and phosphatidylcholine (abundant in the outer layer of plasma membrane) were stronger than that of the native type. Hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors may be useful for investigating the functions of the glycosaminoglycan chains of urinary trypsin inhibitors and hyaluronan, and our hybrid synthesizing method may be used widely in research for future medical applications.

  6. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  7. A cryopreservation method for Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Melody K.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A cryopreservation method and improved isolation techniques for detection of Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples were developed. Wetland water samples were collected in the field, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, final concentration 10%), and frozen at -180 C in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper. Frozen samples were transported to the laboratory where they were subsequently thawed and processed in Pasteurella multocida selective broth (PMSB) to isolate P. multocida. This method allowed for consistent isolation of 2 to 18 organisms/ml from water seeded with known concentrations of P. multocida. The method compared favorably with the standard mouse inoculation method and allowed for preservation of the samples until they could be processed in the laboratory.

  8. Hyaluronan and synovial joint: function, distribution and healing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a viscous solution found in the cavities of synovial joints. The principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The presence of high molar mass hyaluronan (HA) in this fluid gives it the required viscosity for its function as lubricant solution. Inflammation oxidation stress enhances normal degradation of hyaluronan causing several diseases related to joints. This review describes hyaluronan properties and distribution, applications and its function in synovial joints, with short review for using thiol compounds as antioxidants preventing HA degradations under inflammation conditions. PMID:24678248

  9. Mannose reduces hyaluronan and leukocytes in wound granulation tissue and inhibits migration and hyaluronan-dependent monocyte binding.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Tiina A; Kuokkanen, Jukka; Kärnä, Riikka; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Rilla, Kirsi; Kössi, Jyrki; Laato, Matti; Tammi, Raija H; Tammi, Markku I

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing is a highly regulated process starting from coagulation and ending in tissue remodeling. The end result varies from perfectly restored tissue, such as in early fetal skin, to scars in adults. The balanced repair process is frequently disturbed by local or systemic factors, like infections and diabetes. A rapid increase of hyaluronan is an inherent feature of wounds and is associated with tissue swelling, epithelial and mesenchymal cell migration and proliferation, and induction of cytokine signaling. Hyaluronan extending from cell surface into structures called cables can trap leukocytes and platelets and change their functions. All these features of hyaluronan modulate inflammation. The present data show that mannose, a recently described inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis, inhibits dermal fibroblast invasion and prevents the enhanced leukocyte binding to hyaluronan that takes place in cells treated with an inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β. Mannose also reduced hyaluronan in subcutaneous sponge granulation tissue, a model of skin wound, and suppressed its leukocyte recruitment and tissue growth. Mannose thus seems to suppress wounding-induced inflammation in skin by attenuating hyaluronan synthesis. PMID:23464634

  10. Attachment of hyaluronan to metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pitt, William G; Morris, Robert N; Mason, Mitchell L; Hall, Matthew W; Luo, Yi; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2004-01-01

    Metal implants are in general not compatible with the tissues of the human body, and in particular, blood exhibits a severe hemostatic response. Herein we present results of a technique to mask the surface of metals with a natural biopolymer, hyaluronan (HA). HA has minimal adverse interactions with blood and other tissues, but attachment of bioactive peptides can promote specific biological interactions. In this study, stainless steel was cleaned and then surface-modified by covalent attachment of an epoxy silane. The epoxy was subsequently converted to an aldehyde functional group and reacted with hyaluronan through an adipic dihydrazide linkage, thus covalently immobilizing the HA onto the steel surface. Fluorescent labeling of the HA showed that the surface had a fairly uniform covering of HA. When human platelet rich plasma was placed on the HA-coated surface, there was no observable adhesion of platelets. HA derivatized with a peptide containing the RGD peptide sequence was also bound to the stainless steel. The RGD-containing peptide was bioactive as exemplified by the attachment and spreading of platelets on this surface. Furthermore, when the RGD peptide was replaced with the nonsense RDG sequence, minimal adhesion of platelets was observed. This type of controlled biological activity on a metal surface has potential for modulating cell growth and cellular interactions with metallic implants, such as vascular stents, orthopedic implants, heart valve cages, and more. PMID:14661254

  11. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  12. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... units of virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain X-73, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification)...

  13. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 3 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain P-1059, Type 3 (Little and Lyons Classification) and observed...

  14. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... units of virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain X-73, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification)...

  15. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... units of virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain X-73, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification)...

  16. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 3 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain P-1059, Type 3 (Little and Lyons Classification) and observed...

  17. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 3 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain P-1059, Type 3 (Little and Lyons Classification) and observed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... units of virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain X-73, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification)...

  19. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 3 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated turkeys... virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain P-1059, Type 3 (Little and Lyons Classification) and observed...

  20. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... units of virulent Pasteurella multocida, Strain X-73, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification)...

  1. Pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    Hamma, Tomoko; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2006-11-01

    Pseudouridine synthases are the enzymes responsible for the most abundant posttranscriptional modification of cellular RNAs. These enzymes catalyze the site-specific isomerization of uridine residues that are already part of an RNA chain, and appear to employ both sequence and structural information to achieve site specificity. Crystallographic analyses have demonstrated that all pseudouridine synthases share a common core fold and active site structure and that this core is modified by peripheral domains, accessory proteins, and guide RNAs to give rise to remarkable substrate versatility.

  2. The where, when, how, and why of hyaluronan binding by immune cells.

    PubMed

    Lee-Sayer, Sally S M; Dong, Yifei; Arif, Arif A; Olsson, Mia; Brown, Kelly L; Johnson, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is made and extruded from cells to form a pericellular or extracellular matrix (ECM) and is present in virtually all tissues in the body. The size and form of hyaluronan present in tissues are indicative of a healthy or inflamed tissue, and the interactions of hyaluronan with immune cells can influence their response. Thus, in order to understand how inflammation is regulated, it is necessary to understand these interactions and their consequences. Although there is a large turnover of hyaluronan in our bodies, the large molecular mass form of hyaluronan predominates in healthy tissues. Upon tissue damage and/or infection, the ECM and hyaluronan are broken down and an inflammatory response ensues. As inflammation is resolved, the ECM is restored, and high molecular mass hyaluronan predominates again. Immune cells encounter hyaluronan in the tissues and lymphoid organs and respond differently to high and low molecular mass forms. Immune cells differ in their ability to bind hyaluronan and this can vary with the cell type and their activation state. For example, peritoneal macrophages do not bind soluble hyaluronan but can be induced to bind after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Likewise, naïve T cells, which typically express low levels of the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, do not bind hyaluronan until they undergo antigen-stimulated T cell proliferation and upregulate CD44. Despite substantial knowledge of where and when immune cells bind hyaluronan, why immune cells bind hyaluronan remains a major outstanding question. Here, we review what is currently known about the interactions of hyaluronan with immune cells in both healthy and inflamed tissues and discuss how hyaluronan binding by immune cells influences the inflammatory response. PMID:25926830

  3. Hydrogen peroxide as an effective disinfectant for Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Won-Yong; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2014-07-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infections vary widely, from local infections resulting from animal bites and scratches to general infections. As of yet, no vaccine against P. multocida has been developed, and the most effective way to prevent pathogenic transmission is to clean the host environment using disinfectants. In this study, we identified which disinfectants most effectively inhibited environmental isolates of P. multocida. Three readily available disinfectants were compared: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 70% isopropyl alcohol, and synthetic phenol. In suspension tests and zone inhibition tests, 3% HP was the most promising disinfectant against P. multocida.

  4. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Price, J.I.; Cooch, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese.

  5. Excessive Hyaluronan Production Promotes Acquisition of Cancer Stem Cell Signatures through the Coordinated Regulation of Twist and the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-Snail Signaling Axis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Mochizuki, Nobutoshi; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subpopulation of cancer cells possesses the ability to self-renew and give rise to malignant progeny that drive cancer progression. Recent reports have also proposed the existence of certain extra- or intracellular signals that allow cancer progenitors to dynamically revert to a stem cell state. However, the mechanisms underlying cancer cell plasticity and CSC expansion are not entirely clear. Our previous studies using a hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) transgenic mouse model demonstrated that hyaluronan overproduction caused rapid development of aggressive breast carcinoma at a high incidence. Thus, we hypothesize that hyaluronan overproduction may accelerate cancer progression by expanding CSC subpopulations during cancer development. Primary cancer cells were established from mammary tumors developed in the transgenic mice and subjected to the Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay to sort side population (SP) from non-side population (non-SP) cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the enrichment of CD44high/CD24low CSC-like cells in the SP fraction of hyaluronan-overproducing cancer cells. This subpopulation exhibited several characteristics that were similar to CSCs, including cancer-initiating and mammosphere-forming abilities. Excess hyaluronan production drove the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process defined as the loss of epithelial phenotypes, up-regulation of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related transcriptional factors Snail and Twist. Inhibition of TGF-β-Snail signaling or silencing of Twist expression abrogated the entrance into a stem cell state. Taken together, our findings suggest that hyaluronan overproduction allows plastic cancer cell populations to revert to stem cell states via Twist and the TGF-β-Snail signaling axis. PMID:25077968

  6. Hyaluronan cable formation by ocular trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying Ying; Keller, Kate E

    2015-10-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in the ocular trabecular meshwork (TM) is a critical modulator of aqueous humor outflow. Individual HA strands in the pericellular matrix can coalesce to form cable-like structures, which have different functional properties. Here, we investigated HA structural configuration by TM cells in response to various stimuli known to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In addition, the effects of HA cable induction on aqueous outflow resistance was determined. Primary TM cell cultures grown on tissue culture-treated plastic were treated for 12-48 h with TNFα, IL-1α, or TGFβ2. TM cells grown on silicone membranes were subject to mechanical stretch, which induces synthesis and activation of ECM proteolytic enzymes. HA structural configuration was investigated by HA binding protein (HAbp) staining and confocal microscopy. HAbp-labeled cables were induced by TNFα, TGFβ2 and mechanical stretch, but not by IL-1α. HA synthase (HAS) gene expression was quantitated by quantitative RT-PCR and HA concentration was measured by ELISA assay. By quantitative RT-PCR, HAS-1, -2, and -3 genes were differentially up-regulated and showed temporal differences in response to each treatment. HA concentration was increased in the media by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch decreased pericellular HA concentrations. Immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting were used to investigate the distribution and protein levels of the HA-binding proteins, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) and inter-α-inhibitor (IαI). Western immunoblotting showed that TSG-6 and IαI were increased by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch reduced their levels. The underlying substrate appears to affect the identity of IαI·TSG-6·HA complexes since different complexes were detected when TM cells were grown on a silicone substrate compared to a rigid plastic surface. Porcine anterior segments were perfused with 10 μg/ml polyinosinic

  7. Hyaluronan cable formation by ocular trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying Ying; Keller, Kate E

    2015-10-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in the ocular trabecular meshwork (TM) is a critical modulator of aqueous humor outflow. Individual HA strands in the pericellular matrix can coalesce to form cable-like structures, which have different functional properties. Here, we investigated HA structural configuration by TM cells in response to various stimuli known to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In addition, the effects of HA cable induction on aqueous outflow resistance was determined. Primary TM cell cultures grown on tissue culture-treated plastic were treated for 12-48 h with TNFα, IL-1α, or TGFβ2. TM cells grown on silicone membranes were subject to mechanical stretch, which induces synthesis and activation of ECM proteolytic enzymes. HA structural configuration was investigated by HA binding protein (HAbp) staining and confocal microscopy. HAbp-labeled cables were induced by TNFα, TGFβ2 and mechanical stretch, but not by IL-1α. HA synthase (HAS) gene expression was quantitated by quantitative RT-PCR and HA concentration was measured by ELISA assay. By quantitative RT-PCR, HAS-1, -2, and -3 genes were differentially up-regulated and showed temporal differences in response to each treatment. HA concentration was increased in the media by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch decreased pericellular HA concentrations. Immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting were used to investigate the distribution and protein levels of the HA-binding proteins, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) and inter-α-inhibitor (IαI). Western immunoblotting showed that TSG-6 and IαI were increased by TNFα, TGFβ2 and IL-1α, but mechanical stretch reduced their levels. The underlying substrate appears to affect the identity of IαI·TSG-6·HA complexes since different complexes were detected when TM cells were grown on a silicone substrate compared to a rigid plastic surface. Porcine anterior segments were perfused with 10 μg/ml polyinosinic

  8. Pulmonary surfactant adsorption is increased by hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Taeusch, H William; Dybbro, Eric; Lu, Karen W

    2008-04-01

    In acute lung injuries, inactivating agents may interfere with transfer (adsorption) of pulmonary surfactants to the interface between air and the aqueous layer that coats the interior of alveoli. Some ionic and nonionic polymers reduce surfactant inactivation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested directly whether an ionic polymer, hyaluronan, or a nonionic polymer, polyethylene glycol, enhanced adsorption of a surfactant used clinically. We used three different methods of measuring adsorption in vitro: a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer; a King/Clements device; and a spreading trough. In addition we measured the effects of both polymers on surfactant turbidity, using this assay as a nonspecific index of aggregation. We found that both hyaluronan and polyethylene glycol significantly increased the rate and degree of surfactant material adsorbed to the surface in all three assays. Hyaluronan was effective in lower concentrations (20-fold) than polyethylene glycol and, unlike polyethylene glycol, hyaluronan did not increase apparent aggregation of surfactant. Surfactant adsorption in the presence of serum was also enhanced by both polymers regardless of whether hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol was included with serum in the subphase or added to the surfactant applied to the surface. Therefore, endogenous polymers in the alveolar subphase, or exogenous polymers added to surfactant used as therapy, may both be important for reducing inactivation of surfactant that occurs with various lung injuries.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Tetracycline Resistance in Pasteurella aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kehrenberg, Corinna; Schwarz, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Tetracycline-resistant Pasteurella aerogenes isolates obtained from the intestinal tract of swine were investigated for their tet genes by PCR analysis and hybridization experiments. In contrast to Pasteurella isolates from the respiratory tract, tet(H) genes were detected in the chromosomal DNA of only 2 of the 24 isolates, one of which also carried two copies of a tet(B) gene. All other P. aerogenes isolates carried tet(B) genes, which are the predominant tet genes among Enterobacteriaceae. A single isolate harbored a tet(B) gene as part of a truncated Tn10 element on the 4.8-kb plasmid pPAT2. Comparative analysis of the pPAT2 sequence suggested that the Tn10 relic on plasmid pPAT2 is the result of several illegitimate recombination events. The remaining 21 P. aerogenes isolates carried one or two copies of the tet(B) gene in their chromosomal DNA. In the majority of the cases, these tet(B) genes were associated with copies of Tn10 as confirmed by their SfuI and BamHI hybridization patterns. No correlation between the number of tet gene copies and the MICs of tetracycline, doxycyline and minocycline was observed. PMID:11557485

  10. Hyaluronan Expressed by the Hematopoietic Microenvironment Is Required for Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova, Valentina; Serobyan, Naira; Iizuka, Shinji; Schraufstatter, Ingrid; de Ridder, Audrey; Povaliy, Tatiana; Wacker, Valentina; Itano, Naoki; Kimata, Koji; Orlovskaja, Irina A.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of hyaluronan (HA) to the regulatory network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3). The number of hematopoietic progenitors was decreased in bone marrow and increased in extramedullary sites of Prx1-Cre;Has2flox/flox;Has1−/−;Has3−/− triple knock-out (tKO) mice as compared with wild type (WT) and Has1−/−;Has3−/− double knock-out (dKO) mice. In line with this observation, decreased hematopoietic activity was observed in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) from tKO mice, whereas the formation of the adherent layer and generation of hematopoietic cells in WT and dKO cultures was not different. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to pharmacologically inhibit the production of HA in LTBMC. Treatment with 4MU inhibited HA synthesis, decreased expression of HAS2 and HAS3, and eliminated hematopoiesis in LTBMC, and this effect was alleviated by the addition of exogenous HA. Exogenous HA also augmented the cell motility in LTBMC, which correlated with the HA-stimulated production of chemokines and growth factors. Conditioned media from HA-induced LTBMC enhanced the chemotaxis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in response to SDF-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to 4MU decreased their ability to support HSPC rolling and adhesion. In addition, migration of transplanted HSPC into the marrow of 4MU-pretreated mice was lower than in untreated mice. Collectively, the results suggest that HA depletion reduces the ability of the microenvironment to support HSPC, and confirm a role for HA as a necessary regulatory element in the structure of the hematopoietic microenvironment. PMID:22654110

  11. The porcine sperm reservoir in relation to the function of hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    TIENTHAI, Paisan

    2015-01-01

    The oviduct plays a role in successful animal reproduction not only in spermatozoa and ova transport to the fertilization site but also by affording a microenvironment for fertilization and early embryonic development. The sperm reservoir (SR) is restricted in the uterotubal junction (UTJ) and caudal isthmus. Billions of porcine spermatozoa are distributed to the female reproductive tract during/after insemination, and small amounts of them are stored for about 36–40 hours in the SR, which maintains sperm viability in the pre-ovulation period through its surface epithelium and production of fluid. The SR regulates the release of spermatozoa so that only a small population moves towards the fertilization site (ampulla) to decrease polyspermy. This review attempts to provide information about the structure and function of the porcine SR, its intraluminal content (hyaluronan, HA), and the influences of HA on porcine spermatozoa in vivo. In pigs, the spermatozoa are stored in a mucous-like fluid within the UTJ and caudal isthmus in the pre-ovulation period. The oviduct fluid contains sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and non-sulfated GAGs, i.e., HA. It is interesting to note that HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS-3), and its receptor, CD44, is found in the epithelium of the porcine SR site. Additionally, sperm capacitation does not occur in vivo in the SR during the pre- and peri-ovulation periods, but spermatozoa in the SR will attempt to capacitate if exposed to bicarbonate. However, capacitation in the SR will rise in the post-ovulation period, indicating the role of HA in modulating sperm capacitation after ovulation. All data support the understanding that the porcine SR ensures the viability of fertile spermatozoa and maintains the non-capacitated status during the pre-ovulation period. This basic knowledge about the SR is believed to be useful to advance sperm preparation procedures for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and improve the preservation

  12. Reaction of peroxynitrite with hyaluronan and related saccharides.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Maria Michela; Pietraforte, Donatella; Di Lorenzo, Angela Serena; Minetti, Maurizio; Marino, Gennaro

    2004-04-01

    The effects of peroxynitrite on hyaluronan has been studied by using an integrated spectroscopical approach, namely electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). The reaction has been performed with the polymer, the tetrasaccharide oligomer as well as with the monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid. The outcome of the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide has been also evaluated. Although 1H-NMR and ESI-MS experiments did not revealed peroxynitrite-mediated modification of hyaluronan as well as of related saccharides, from spin-trapping EPR experiments it was concluded that peroxynitrite induce the formation of C-centered carbon radicals, most probably by the way of its hydroxyl radical-like reactivity. These EPR data support the oxidative pathway involved in the degradation of hyaluronan, a probable event in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Controlled Immobilization Strategies to Probe Short Hyaluronan-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Antoni, Christiane H.; Boehm, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Well-controlled grafting of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides (sHA) enables novel approaches to investigate biological processes such as angiogenesis, immune reactions and cancer metastasis. We develop two strategies for covalent attachment of sHA, a fast high-density adsorption and a two-layer system that allows tuning the density and mode of immobilization. We monitored the sHA adlayer formation and subsequent macromolecular interactions by label-free quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The modified surfaces are inert to unspecific protein adsorption, and yet retain the specific binding capacity of sHA. Thus they are an ideal tool to study the interactions of hyaluronan-binding proteins and short hyaluronan molecules as demonstrated by the specific recognition of LYVE-1 and aggrecan. Both hyaladherins recognize sHA and the binding is independent to the presence of the reducing end. PMID:26883791

  14. Controlled Immobilization Strategies to Probe Short Hyaluronan-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Antoni, Christiane H.; Boehm, Heike

    2016-02-01

    Well-controlled grafting of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides (sHA) enables novel approaches to investigate biological processes such as angiogenesis, immune reactions and cancer metastasis. We develop two strategies for covalent attachment of sHA, a fast high-density adsorption and a two-layer system that allows tuning the density and mode of immobilization. We monitored the sHA adlayer formation and subsequent macromolecular interactions by label-free quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The modified surfaces are inert to unspecific protein adsorption, and yet retain the specific binding capacity of sHA. Thus they are an ideal tool to study the interactions of hyaluronan-binding proteins and short hyaluronan molecules as demonstrated by the specific recognition of LYVE-1 and aggrecan. Both hyaladherins recognize sHA and the binding is independent to the presence of the reducing end.

  15. Hypotheses on the evolution of hyaluronan: A highly ironic acid

    PubMed Central

    Csoka, Antonei B; Stern, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a high-molecular-weight glycosaminoglycan (GAG) prominent in the extracellular matrix. Emerging relatively late in evolution, it may have evolved to evade immune recognition. Chondroitin is a more ancient GAG and a possible hyaluronan precursor. Epimerization of a 4-hydroxyl in N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin to N-acetylglucosamine of hyaluronan is the only structural difference other than chain length between these two polymers. The axial 4-hydroxyl group extends out perpendicular from the equatorial plane of N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin. We suspect that this hydroxyl is a prime target for immune recognition. Conversion of a thumbs-up hydroxyl group into a thumbs-down position in the plane of the sugar endows hyaluronan with the ability to avoid immune recognition. Chitin is another potential precursor to hyaluronan. But regardless whether of chondroitin or of chitin origin, an ancient chondroitinase enzyme sequence seems to have been commandeered to catalyze the cleavage of the new hyaluronan substrate. The evolution of six hyaluronidase-like sequences in the human genome from a single chondroitinase as found in Caenorhabditis elegans can now be traced. Confirming our previous predictions, two duplication events occurred, with three hyaluronidase-like sequences occurring in the genome of Ciona intestinalis (sea squirt), the earliest known chordate. This was probably followed by en masse duplication, with six such genes present in the genome of zebra fish onwards. These events occurred, however, much earlier than predicted. It is also apparent on an evolutionary time scale that in several species, this gene family is continuing to evolve. PMID:23315448

  16. Hyaluronan decreases surfactant inactivation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen W; Goerke, Jon; Clements, John A; Taeusch, H William

    2005-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an anionic polymer and a constituent of alveolar fluid that can bind proteins, phospholipids, and water. Previous studies have established that nonionic polymers improve the surface activity of pulmonary surfactants by decreasing inactivation of surfactant. In this work, we investigate whether HA can also have beneficial effects when added to surfactants. We used a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer to measure mixtures of several commercially available pulmonary surfactants or native calf surfactant with and without serum inactivation. Surface properties such as equilibrium surface tension, minimum and maximum surface tensions on compression and expansion of a surface film, and degree of surface area reduction required to reach a surface tension of 10 mN/m were measured. In the presence of serum, addition of HA dramatically improved the surface activities of all four surfactants and in some cases in the absence of serum as well. These results indicate that HA reduces inactivation of surfactants caused by serum and add evidence that endogenous HAs may interact with alveolar surfactant under normal and abnormal conditions.

  17. Interaction of Hyaluronan with Cationic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bano, Fouzia; Carril, Mónica; Di Gianvincenzo, Paolo; Richter, Ralf P

    2015-08-01

    The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is a main component of peri- and extracellular matrix, and an attractive molecule for materials design in tissue engineering and nanomedicine. Here, we study the morphology of complexes that form upon interaction of nanometer-sized amine-coated gold particles with this anionic, linear, and regular biopolymer in solution and grafted to a surface. We find that cationic nanoparticles (NPs) have profound effects on HA morphology on the molecular and supramolecular scale. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) shows that depending on their relative abundance, cationic NPs promote either strong compaction or swelling of films of surface-grafted HA polymers (HA brushes). Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy reveal that the NPs do also give rise to complexes of distinct morphologies-compact nanoscopic spheres and extended microscopic fibers-upon interaction with HA polymers in solution. In particular, stable and hydrated spherical complexes of single HA polymers with NPs can be prepared when balancing the ionizable groups on HA and NPs. The observed self-assembly phenomena could be useful for the design of drug delivery vehicles and a better understanding of the reorganization of HA-rich synthetic or biological matrices. PMID:26146006

  18. Interaction of Hyaluronan with Cationic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bano, Fouzia; Carril, Mónica; Di Gianvincenzo, Paolo; Richter, Ralf P

    2015-08-01

    The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is a main component of peri- and extracellular matrix, and an attractive molecule for materials design in tissue engineering and nanomedicine. Here, we study the morphology of complexes that form upon interaction of nanometer-sized amine-coated gold particles with this anionic, linear, and regular biopolymer in solution and grafted to a surface. We find that cationic nanoparticles (NPs) have profound effects on HA morphology on the molecular and supramolecular scale. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) shows that depending on their relative abundance, cationic NPs promote either strong compaction or swelling of films of surface-grafted HA polymers (HA brushes). Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy reveal that the NPs do also give rise to complexes of distinct morphologies-compact nanoscopic spheres and extended microscopic fibers-upon interaction with HA polymers in solution. In particular, stable and hydrated spherical complexes of single HA polymers with NPs can be prepared when balancing the ionizable groups on HA and NPs. The observed self-assembly phenomena could be useful for the design of drug delivery vehicles and a better understanding of the reorganization of HA-rich synthetic or biological matrices.

  19. Correlation of hyaluronan deposition with infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes in a cockroach-induced murine model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Georgiana; Swaidani, Shadi; Sharma, Manisha; Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Aronica, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that exhibits airway remodeling with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The role of the ECM in mediating these changes is poorly understood. Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the ECM, has been implicated in many biological processes in diseases. This study investigates the processes involved in HA synthesis, deposition and localization during the propagation of cockroach-induced asthma. Mice were sensitized and challenged with cockroach antigen, and sacrificed at various time points during an 8-week challenge protocol. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed an increase in total nucleated cells as early as 6 h, which peaked at 6 days. Histopathologic analysis of the lung tissue revealed an influx of inflammatory cells at the peribronchial and perivascular regions starting at 12 h, which peaked at 6 days and persisted to 8 weeks. Eosinophils predominated in the early time points while lymphocytes predominated during the late time points. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data showed that hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) mRNA peaked within 6 h and then declined. HAS2 mRNA also peaked within 6 h but remained elevated throughout the 8-week exposure course. HA levels in lung tissue and BAL increased at 12 h and peaked by 6 and 8 days, respectively. Inflammatory cells and new collagen formation localized in areas of HA deposition. Taken together, these data support a role for HA in the pathogenesis in asthma. PMID:22917573

  20. Pasteurella multocida infected total knee arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, KB; Bharadwaj, R; MacDonald, A; Syme, B

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. This infection generally follows significant animal contact, usually licks and scratches. We report a case of P multocida infection that was treated with linezolid with salvage of the implant. Linezolid is generally active against Gram-positive organisms only with the exception of Pasteurella, which is Gram-negative. We extensively review the previous reported cases of implant infection with P multocida. PMID:24780653

  1. Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis Caused by Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Vranis, Neil; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Christian, Matthew; Joshi, Manjari; Pensy, Raymond A

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a case of progressive septic arthritis and osteomyelitis caused by a rare pathogen, Pasteurella multocida, thought to be provoked by the use of systemic corticosteroids. Despite initial improvement after antibiotics and surgical procedure, the patient returned with new, associated symptoms 1 month later. This concurrent set of circumstances leading to a life-threatening condition has not been reported, to the best of our knowledge. Physicians aware of such a case will be better prepared to diagnose, treat, and educate their patients. Additionally, the diagnostic challenge presented by this case report emphasizes the need for vigilance and thoroughness in obtaining histories from patients presenting with seemingly benign complaints, especially in vulnerable populations, such as infants, pregnant women, and immunocompromised adults.

  2. Experimental infection of sheep with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Buddle, B M; Herceg, M; Davies, D H

    1984-10-01

    A group of Caesarian-derived, colostrum-deprived lambs was inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with a virulent Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae isolate selected from ovine mammary studies and propagated in an ovine mammary gland. Other groups of lambs were inoculated with M. ovipneumoniae in combination with Pasteurella haemolytica type Al or P. haemolytica alone. The M. ovipneumoniae isolate alone did not induce any specific pneumonic lesions in the lambs and when combined with P. haemolytica type Al did not increase the severity of the P. haemolytica-type lesions. Fifty percent of lambs inoculated with P. haemolytica developed a purulent and exudative bronchopneumonia with pleurisy and high titres of P. haemolytica were recovered from these lesions.

  3. Chemically modified N-acylated hyaluronan fragments modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by stimulated human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30-214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on (1)H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule.

  4. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  5. Modulation of vesicle adhesion and spreading kinetics by hyaluronan cushions.

    PubMed

    Limozin, Laurent; Sengupta, Kheya

    2007-11-01

    The adhesion of giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles to planar substrates coated with extracellular matrix mimetic cushions of hyaluronan is studied using quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy. The absolute height of the vesicle membrane at the vicinity of the substrate is measured by considering, for the first time, the refractive indices of the reflecting media. The thickness of the cushion is varied in the range of approximately 50-100 nm, by designing various coupling strategies. On bare protein-coated substrates, the vesicles spread fast (0.5 s) and form a uniform adhesion disk, with the average membrane height approximately 4 nm. On thick hyaluronan cushions (>80 nm), the membrane height is approximately the same as the thickness of the cushion, implying that the vesicle lies on top of the cushion. On a thin and inhomogeneous hyaluronan cushion, the adhesion is modified but not prevented. The spreading is slow ( approximately 20 s) compared to the no-cushion case. The average membrane height is approximately 10 nm and the adhesion disk is studded with blisterlike structures. Observations with fluorescent hyaluronan indicate that the polymer is compressed under, rather than expelled from, the adhesion disk. The adhesion energy density is approximately threefold higher in the no-cushion case (1.2 microJ/m(2)) as compared to the thin-cushion case (0.54 microJ/m(2)). In the thin-cushion case, the presence of short ( approximately 4 nm) glyco-polymers on the vesicles results in a hitherto unreported stable partial adhesion state--the membrane height ranges from zero to approximately 250 nm. The minimal model system presented here mimics in vitro the hyaluronan-modulated early stages of cell adhesion, and demonstrates that the presence of a polymer cushion influences both the final equilibrium adhesion-state and the spreading kinetics. PMID:17631530

  6. Biological effects of hyaluronan in connective tissues, eye, skin, venous wall. Role in aging.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Renard, G

    2010-06-01

    Hyaluronan, as most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, are produced by the differentiated mesenchymal cells. These cells produce also enzymes degrading hyaluronan. This results in the presence of several hyaluronan pools of different molecular weights, all capable of interacting with surrounding cells, mediated by hyaluronan binding proteins and receptors. These interactions modulate cell phenotype and produce a variety of effects conditioning the specific functions of tissues. We shall discuss here several examples studied in our laboratory, concerning skin, cornea and the venous wall. Some of these actions might even be harmful, and could play an important role in aging of connective tissues with loss of function. Some of these age-dependent modifications mediated by hyaluronan will be reviewed and commented, especially the upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We shall also mention some of our experiments for finding molecules capable of counteracting the harmful effects mediated by hyaluronan.

  7. The role of hyaluronan in the pathobiology and treatment of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Brezina, Martin; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Hyaluronan, a ubiquitous naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of the extracellular matrix, where it participates in biological processes that include water homeostasis, cell-matrix signaling, tissue healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and migration. There are emerging data that hyaluronan and its degradation products have an important role in the pathobiology of the respiratory tract. We review the role of hyaluronan in respiratory diseases and present evidence from published literature and from clinical practice supporting hyaluronan as a novel treatment for respiratory diseases. Preliminary data show that aerosolized exogenous hyaluronan has beneficial activity against airway inflammation, protects against bronchial hyperreactivity and remodeling, and disrupts the biofilm associated with chronic infection. This suggests a role in airway diseases with a predominant inflammatory component such as rhinosinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The potential for hyaluronan to complement conventional therapy will become clearer when data are available from controlled trials in larger patient populations.

  8. Biotinylated hyaluronan: a versatile and highly sensitive probe capable of detecting nanogram levels of hyaluronan binding proteins (hyaladherins) on electroblots by a novel affinity detection procedure.

    PubMed

    Melrose, J; Numata, Y; Ghosh, P

    1996-01-01

    Hyaluronan influences cellular proliferation and migration in developing, regenerating and remodelling tissues and in tissues undergoing malignant tumour-cell invasion. The widespread occurrence of hyaluronan-binding proteins indicates that the recognition of hyaluronan is important to tissue organisation and the control of cellular behaviour. A number of extracellular matrix and cellular proteins, which have been termed the hyaladherins, have specific affinities for hyaluronan. These include cartilage link-protein, hyaluronectin, neurocan, versican and aggrecan, which all bind to HA within the extracellular matrix. Cellular receptors for hyaluronan such as CD44 and RHAMM (receptor for hyaluronate-mediated motility) have also been identified. In the present study biotinylated hyaluronan (bHA) was prepared by reacting adipic dihydrazide with a 170 kDa hyaluronan sample using the bifunctional reagent 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide. The resultant free amine moeity of the hydrazido-hyaluronan was then reacted with biotin succinimidyl ester (sulfo-NHS-biotin) to prepare the bHA. After 4-20% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroblotting to nitrocellulose membranes, bHA and avidin alkaline phosphatase conjugate could be used in conjunction with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate substrates to specifically visualise with high sensitivity (> or = 2 ng), bovine nasal cartilage link-protein, aggrecan hyaluronan binding region, and human fibroblast hyaluronan receptors such as CD-44. Conventional Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibodies to these proteins was also used to confirm the identities of these proteins. PMID:8907541

  9. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Clayton W; Foster, Scott C; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J T; Sherman, Larry S

    2013-04-24

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular endothelial cells and delays the onset of EAE. These effects could be due to the elimination of hyaluronan or the generation of hyaluronan digestion products that influence lymphocytes or endothelial cells. Here, we found that hyaluronan dodecasaccharides impaired activated lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells when applied to lymphocytes but not to the endothelial cells. The effects of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides on lymphocyte rolling were independent of CD44 and a receptor for degraded hyaluronan, Toll-like receptor-4. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronan dodecasaccharides or tetrasaccharides delayed the onset of EAE in a manner similar to subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides can therefore act directly on lymphocytes to modulate the onset of inflammatory demyelinating disease.

  10. Adiponectin resides in mouse skin and upregulates hyaluronan synthesis in dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Yumiko; Sayo, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sato, Takashi; Akimoto, Noriko; Ito, Akira; Inoue, Shintaro

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a hormonally active tissue that produces adipokines that influence the activity of other tissues. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific adipokine involved in systemic metabolism. We detected the expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA in cultured dermal fibroblasts. The full-length adiponectin (fAd), but not the globular adiponectin (gAd), increased hyaluronan (HA) production and upregulated HA synthase (HAS) 2 mRNA expression. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs were also expressed in keratinocytes, though neither fAd nor gAd had any effect on HA synthesis. In mouse skin, we found that adiponectin was present and decreased markedly with aging. The age-dependent pattern of adiponectin decrease in skin, correlated well with that of HA in skin. Our experiments were also the first to identify adiponectin production in cultured mouse sebocytes, a finding that suggests that skin adiponectin may derive not only from plasma and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue, but also from the sebaceous gland. These results indicated that adiponectin plays an important role in the HA metabolism of skin. PMID:21117904

  11. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  12. Interaction of Pasteurella multocida with free-living amoebae.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Matthew J; Ruffolo, Carmel G

    2005-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a highly infectious, facultative intracellular bacterium which causes fowl cholera in birds. This study reports, for the first time, the observed interaction between P. multocida and free-living amoebae. Amoebal trophozoites were coinfected with fowl-cholera-causing P. multocida strain X-73 that expressed the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, GFP expressing X-73 was located within the trophozoite. Transmission electron microscopy of coinfection preparations revealed clusters of intact X-73 cells in membrane-bound vacuoles within the trophozoite cytoplasm. A coinfection assay employing gentamicin to kill extracellular bacteria was used to assess the survival and replication of P. multocida within amoebae. In the presence of amoebae, the number of recoverable intracellular X-73 cells increased over a 24-h period; in contrast, X-73 cultured alone in assay medium showed a consistent decline in growth. Cytotoxicity assays and microscopy showed that X-73 was able to lyse and exit the amoebal cells approximately 18 h after coinfection. The observed interaction between P. multocida and amoebae can be considered as an infective process as the bacterium was able to invade, survive, replicate, and lyse the amoebal host. This raises the possibility that similar interactions occur in vivo between P. multocida and host cells. Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous within water and soil environments, and P. multocida has been observed to survive within these same ecosystems. Thus, our findings suggest that the interaction between P. multocida and amoebae may occur within the natural environment.

  13. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in wetlands following avian cholera outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Lehr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, affects waterbirds across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Once an epizootic begins, contamination of the wetland environment likely facilitates the transmission of P. multocida to susceptible birds. To evaluate the ability of P. multocida serotype-1, the most common serotype associated with avian cholera in waterfowl in western and central North America, to persist in wetlands and to identify environmental factors associated with its persistence, we collected water and sediment samples from 23 wetlands during winters and springs of 1996a??99. These samples were collected during avian cholera outbreaks and for up to 13 wk following initial sampling. We recovered P. multocida from six wetlands that were sampled following the initial outbreaks, but no P. multocida was isolated later than 7 wk after the initial outbreak sampling. We found no significant relationship between the probability of recovery of P. multocida during resampling and the abundance of the bacterium recovered during initial sampling, the substrate from which isolates were collected, isolate virulence, or water quality conditions previously suggested to be related to the abundance or survival of P. multocida. Our results indicate that wetlands are unlikely to serve as a long-term reservoir for P. multocida because the bacterium does not persist in wetlands for long time periods following avian cholera outbreaks.

  14. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  15. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  16. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50–300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Ampr (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25065983

  17. Binding of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin to bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J F; Leite, F; Czuprynski, C J

    1997-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen in the bovine respiratory disease complex. This organism produces an exotoxin (referred to as leukotoxin) during logarithmic-phase growth that is a potent leukocyte-modulating agent. At low concentrations, it activates neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes to release inflammatory mediators, while at the same time making these cells destined to undergo apoptotic cell death. At higher concentrations, the toxin causes rapid swelling and loss of cell viability. In this study, we demonstrated that toxin binding can be directly evaluated by flow cytometry with biologically active biotinylated leukotoxin. Leukotoxin binding was blocked by the addition of a neutralizing anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody and was not detected when bovine leukocytes were incubated with culture filtrates from a mutant strain of P. haemolytica that does not produce biologically active leukotoxin. In addition, treatment of bovine leukocytes with protease K eliminated subsequent binding of leukotoxin, suggesting that there is a protein on the leukocyte surface that is either a leukotoxin binding site or is required for stabilization of leukotoxin binding. We did not detect binding of biotinylated leukotoxin to porcine or human leukocytes, which have been reported previously to be resistant to the lytic effects of the leukotoxin. These findings suggest that there may be a specific binding site for P. haemolytica leukotoxin on bovine but not on porcine or human leukocytes and that it might be involved in the activation and lytic activities of the leukotoxin. PMID:9284143

  18. Pasteurella haemolytica antigens associated with resistance to pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, D A; Simons, K R; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J; Clinkenbeard, K D

    1989-01-01

    Antigens associated with whole Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A serotype 1, a capsular carbohydrate-protein extract of the organism, and P. haemolytica leukotoxin were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antigens of the electrophoresed preparations were detected by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with sera from cattle which were either nonvaccinated or vaccinated with live or killed P. haemolytica vaccines and had variable degrees of resistance to experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis. Distinct, easily recognizable antigens of these preparations were identified, and the antibody responses to these antigens were quantified by densitometry. To determine their importance to disease resistance, we then compared antibody responses with experimental lesion scores. Antibody reactivity to surface antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and present in two or more of the preparations were detected at 86, 66, 51, 49, 34, 31, and 16 kilodaltons (kDa). Of these, antibody responses to antigens at 86, 49, and 31 kDa appeared most important based on their concentration and significance levels. Antibody reactivity to leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance and common with important surface antigens were detected at 86, 66, and 49 kDa. Antibody responses to unique leukotoxin antigens which were significantly correlated with resistance were present at 92 and 58 kDa. Images PMID:2917783

  19. Antigenic and virulence properties of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Petras, S F; Chidambaram, M; Illyes, E F; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M; Reese, C P

    1995-01-01

    Antigenic properties of two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica, strains 59B0071 and 59B0072, that do not produce detectable leukotoxin were investigated. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with a number of polyclonal sera from animals recovering from pasteurellosis revealed that both mutants secreted a variety of antigens that were also present in cultures of several wild-type strains. These antigens ranged from about 100 to 15 kDa. Mutant strain 59B0071 was found to be totally deficient in leukotoxin, as judged not only by Western blotting but also by cytotoxicity assays with bovine lymphoma (BL-3) cells or bovine polymorphonuclear cells as targets. The mutant strain 59B0071 had normal levels of a secreted sialylglycoprotease, however. When strains were tested for virulence in goat and cattle challenge experiments, a reduction in mortality and lung lesions was observed with the mutant 59B0071 in comparison with results obtained with wild-type strains. These results are consistent with an important role for leukotoxin in P. haemolytica virulence and suggest that leukotoxin-negative mutants may be useful tools in the investigation of other virulence properties involved in P. haemolytica infections. PMID:7868224

  20. Design and syntheses of hyaluronan oligosaccharide conjugates as inhibitors of CD44-Hyaluronan binding

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuefei

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an integral component of the extracellular matrix. Its interactions with a cell surface receptor CD44 has been shown to play important roles in a variety of biological events including cell proliferation and metastasis. As multivalent CD44-HA binding is critical for downstream signaling, compounds that can selectively disrupt the complex formation of HA polysaccharide with CD44 can serve as useful probes of CD44 mediated cellular events as well as potential leads for novel therapeutics. Herein, we report the synthesis of several series of HA conjugates to target the HA binding pocket of CD44. As a small library of HA disaccharide derivatives failed to exhibit any inhibitory activities, we focused on HA tetrasaccharide based analogs. Traditional synthetic strategies towards HA oligosaccharides involve the construction of backbone from the corresponding monosaccharide building blocks, which can be quite tedious. In order to expedite the synthesis, we designed a new synthetic route taking advantage of the ability of hyaluronidase to generate large quantities of HA tetrasaccharide through digestion of HA polysaccharides. The HA tetrasaccharide obtained was utilized to prepare multiple S-linked HA analogs bearing aromatic groups at the reducing end glycan. One such compound containing an m-benzyl phenyl moiety exhibited significant inhibition of CD44-HA binding. Our approach provides a new direction towards the design of HA based CD44 antagonists. PMID:25997408

  1. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, A.B.; Renshaw, H.W.; Sneed, L.W.

    1985-05-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates.

  2. Hyaluronan microspheres for sustained gene delivery and site-specific targeting.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yang H; Goetz, Douglas J; Yellen, Paige; Chen, Weiliam

    2004-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a naturally occurring polymer that has enjoyed wide successes in biomedical and cosmetic applications as coatings, matrices, and hydrogels. For controlled delivery applications, formulating native hyaluronan into microspheres could be advantageous but has been difficult to process unless organic solvents are used or hyaluronan has been modified by etherification. Therefore, we present a novel method of preparing hyaluronan microspheres using adipic dihydrazide mediated crosslinking chemistry. To evaluate their potential for medical applications, hyaluronan microspheres are incorporated with DNA for gene delivery or conjugated with an antigen for cell-specific targeting. The results show that our method, originally developed for preparing hyaluronan hydrogels, generates robust microspheres with a size distribution of 5-20mum. The release of the encapsulated plasmid DNA can be sustained for months and is capable of transfection in vitro and in vivo. Hyaluronan microspheres, conjugated with monoclonal antibodies to E- and P-selectin, demonstrate selective binding to cells expressing these receptors. In conclusion, we have developed a novel microsphere preparation using native hyaluronan that delivers DNA at a controlled rate and adaptable for site-specific targeting. PMID:14580918

  3. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Pasteurella multocida Infection

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Dincman, Toros; Clyburn, Benjamin E.; Steed, Lisa L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic infectious organism, has most often been described in patients after an animal bite. Here, we characterize the clinical features and outcomes of P multocida infection in a large cohort of patients according to the presence or absence of an animal bite. We retrospectively searched MUSC's laboratory information system for all patients with positive P multocida cultures from 2000 to 2014. Extensive data were abstracted, including clinical and outcome data. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was used to assess comorbidities among patients. We identified 44 patients with P multocida infections, including 25 with an animal bite. The average age was 64 years and the majority of patients were women (N = 30). There was no difference in age and sex distribution among those with and without a bite (P = 0.38 and 0.75, respectively). A CCI ≥1 was significantly associated with the absence of a bite (P = 0.006). Patients presenting without a bite were more frequently bacteremic (37% vs 4%, respectively, P = 0.001), and were hospitalized more often (84% vs 44%, respectively, P = 0.012). Of the 8 patients who required intensive care unit (ICU)-based care, 7 were non-bite-related. There were 4 deaths, all occurring in patients not bitten. P multocida infections not associated with an animal bite were often associated with bacteremia, severe comorbidity(ies), immune-incompetent states, the need for ICU management, and were associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26356688

  4. Regulation of expression of the Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, C A; Lo, R Y

    1989-01-01

    The Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin determinant is composed of four contiguous genes encoded on the same DNA strand and denoted lktCABD, in the order of their genetic organization. To gain a better understanding of the expression and regulation of the leukotoxin, the transcripts and promoters of the lkt determinant were mapped. Northern (RNA) blot analysis revealed two sets of transcripts. One set was 3.7 and 3.4 kilobases long, encoded lktCA, and comprised approximately 90% of the transcripts, whereas the other set was 7.4 and 7.1 kilobases long and encoded lktCABD. Two promoters were present, and each had features similar to the Escherichia coli consensus promoter sequences. Both promoters were located upstream from lktC; they were separated by 258 base pairs, as mapped by primer extension analysis. These results suggest a mechanism of expression similar to that of the related E. coli hemolysin. Transcription initiated upstream from lktC at either promoter and continued through lktC and lktA to a rho-independent transcriptional termination signal in the lktA-lktB intercistronic region. This signal attenuated expression by terminating 90% of transcription to generate the 3.7- and 3.4-kilobase lktCA transcripts. The remaining readthrough transcription generated full-length 7.4- and 7.1-kilobase lktCABD transcripts. Expression of the leukotoxin was greatly reduced by growth at 30 degrees C, pH 6.5, and Fe2+ limitation. These conditions also modulated the expression of a number of other secreted proteins, which suggests that all of these secreted proteins are controlled by the same regulatory mechanism. Images PMID:2478522

  5. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  6. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 4 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... (Little and Lyons classification) and observed daily for a 14-day postchallenge period. Only dead...

  7. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 4 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... (Little and Lyons classification) and observed daily for a 14-day postchallenge period. Only dead...

  8. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 4 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... (Little and Lyons classification) and observed daily for a 14-day postchallenge period. Only dead...

  9. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test. Observation of the vaccinated... Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 4 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated... (Little and Lyons classification) and observed daily for a 14-day postchallenge period. Only dead...

  10. Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Household pets as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, Philippe Guillaume; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Verrelli, Mauro; Allen, David W; Embil, John M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that are a part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of numerous domestic animals. They have been recognized as a rare but significant cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). A consensus about management strategies for PD-associated peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species currently does not exist. METHODS: The microbiological database serving the Manitoba Renal Program was searched from 1997 to 2013 for cases of Pasteurella species PD-associated peritonitis, and charts were reviewed. PubMed was searched for case reports and data were abstracted. RESULTS: Seven new local cases and 30 previously reported cases were analyzed. This infection is clinically similar to other forms of PD peritonitis, with household pet exposure appearing to be the strongest risk factor. Cats are the most commonly implicated pet. Direct contact between the pet and the equipment was commonly reported (25 of 37 patients) but was not necessary for infection to develop. The mean duration of treatment was 15 days. Complication rates were low, with only 11% of patients requiring PD catheter removal. There was no mortality reported. CONCLUSION: Pasteurella species are a rare cause of PD-associated peritonitis that can be successfully treated with a two-week course of intraperitoneal antibiotics with a high likelihood of catheter salvage. PMID:25798157

  11. Proximity-dependent inhibition of growth of mannheimia haemolytica by pasteurella multocida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia trehalosi have been identified in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis). Of these pathogens, M. haemolytica has been shown to consistently cause fatal pneumonia in BHS under experimental conditions. However, M. hae...

  12. Stilbene Synthase and Chalcone Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Rolfs, Claus-Henning; Kindl, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Cultured cells of Picea excelsa capable of forming stilbenes and flavanoids have been established. Unlike needles of intact plants containing piceatannol (3,3′,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) and stilbene glycosides the cultured cells converted phenylalanine and p-coumaric acid primarily into resveratrol monomethyl ether (3,4′-dihydroxy-5-methoxystilbene) and naringenin. Partially purified enzyme preparations were assayed for chalcone synthase as well as for stilbene synthase activity converting malonyl-CoA plus p-coumaroyl-CoA into 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol). Although stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase use the same substrates and exhibit similar molecular properties, i.e. molecular weight and subunit molecular weight, they are two different proteins. This difference was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and by means of monospecific antibodies. PMID:16663649

  13. Hyaluronan production in human rheumatoid fibroblastic synovial lining cells is increased by interleukin 1β but inhibited by transforming growth factor β1

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, M.; Suzuki, K.; Matsuki, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Hidaka, T.; Konishi, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Kataharada, K.; Nakamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the regulatory roles of interleukin 1β (IL1β), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ) or transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) on hyaluronan (HA) synthesis by human fibroblastic synovial lining cells.
METHODS—Concentrations of HA in culture supernatants of fibroblastic synovial lining cell line (RAMAK-1 cell line) with or without stimulation by IL1β, TNFα, IFNγ or TGFβ1 were measured by sandwich binding protein assay. Levels of HA synthase mRNA of the cells with or without stimulation were detected by reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Molecular weights of HA in the culture supernatants of the cells with or without stimulation were measured using high performance gel permeation liquid chromatography.
RESULTS—HA synthesis by the cells was not significantly augmented by TNFα or by IFNγ. It was significantly stimulated by IL1β but inhibited by TGFβ1. Molecular weights of HA in the culture supernatants of the cells were unchanged by stimulation with TNFα. They were remarkably increased by stimulation with IL1β and IFNγ, but reduced with TGFβ1.
CONCLUSION—IL1β is an up regulator of HA synthesis, while TGFβ1 is a down regulator. HA production in the synovial lining cells of inflamed joints (for example, rheumatoid arthritis) might be regulated by the balance of these cytokines.

 Keywords: synovial lining cells; hyaluronan, interleukin 1β; transforming growth factor β1 PMID:9893571

  14. Activation of the FGFR-STAT3 pathway in breast cancer cells induces a hyaluronan-rich microenvironment that licenses tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Laura R.; Chuntova, Pavlina; Bade, Lindsey K.; Beadnell, Thomas C.; Leon, Ronald P.; Brady, Nicholas J.; Ryu, Yungil; Goldberg, Jodi E.; Schmechel, Stephen C.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; McCarthy, James B.; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) contributes to breast cancer growth, progression and therapeutic resistance. Due to the complex nature of the FGF/FGFR axis, and the numerous effects of FGFR activation on tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment, the specific mechanisms through which aberrant FGFR activity contributes to breast cancer are not completely understood. We show here that FGFR activation induces accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) and that blocking HA synthesis decreases proliferation, migration and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, FGFR-mediated HA accumulation requires activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, which regulates expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and subsequent HA synthesis. Using a novel in vivo model of FGFR-dependent tumor growth, we demonstrate that STAT3 inhibition decreases both FGFR-driven tumor growth and HA levels within the tumor. Finally, our results suggest that combinatorial therapies inhibiting both FGFR activity and HA synthesis is more effective than targeting either pathway alone and may be a relevant therapeutic approach for breast cancers associated with high levels of FGFR activity. In conclusion, these studies indicate a novel targetable mechanism through which FGFR activation in breast cancer cells induces a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:24197137

  15. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  16. Relaxin Regulates Hyaluronan Synthesis and Aquaporins in the Cervix of Late Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Yu May; Tiwari, Anjana; Mahendroo, Mala; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical ripening is associated with loss of structural integrity and tensile strength, thus enabling the cervix to dilate at term. It is characterized by changes in glycosaminoglycan composition, increased water content, and a progressive reorganization of the collagen network. The peptide hormone relaxin via interaction with its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), promotes tissue hydration and increases cervical hyaluronan (HA) concentrations, but the mechanisms that regulate these effects are not known. This study in relaxin mutant (Rln−/−) mice tested the hypothesis that relaxin regulates HA synthase and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the cervix. We also assessed expression of the RXFP1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Pregnant Rln−/− mice had lower Has2 and Aqp3 expression on d 18.5 of pregnancy and decreased cervical HA compared with wild-type Rln+/+ mice. Chronic infusion of relaxin for 4 or 6 d in pregnant Rln−/− mice reversed these phenotypes and increased Has2 and Aqp3 compared with placebo controls. Relaxin-treated mice also had lower Has1 and Aqp5. Changes in gene expression were paralleled by increases in cervical HA and variations in AQP3 and AQP5 protein localization in epithelial cells of Rln−/− cervices. Our findings demonstrate that relaxin alters AQP expression in the cervix and initiates changes in glycosaminoglycan composition through increased HA synthesis. These effects are likely mediated through RXFP1 localized to subepithelial stromal cells and epithelial cells. We suggest these actions of relaxin collectively promote water recruitment into the extracellular matrix to loosen the dense collagen fiber network. PMID:23087172

  17. Hyaluronan Is Crucial for Stem Cell Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Russell M.L.; Hong, Xuechong; Wong, Mei Mei; Karamariti, Eirini; Bhaloo, Shirin Issa; Warren, Derek; Kong, Wei; Hu, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deciphering the extracellular signals that regulate SMC differentiation from stem cells is vital to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and for development of cell‐based therapies and tissue engineering. Hyaluronan (HA) has emerged as an important component of the stem cell niche, however its role during stem cell differentiation is a complicated and inadequately defined process. This study aimed to investigate the role of HA in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation toward a SMC lineage. ESCs were seeded on collagen‐IV in differentiation medium to generate ESC‐derived SMCs (esSMCs). Differentiation coincided with increased HA synthase (HAS) 2 expression, accumulation of extracellular HA and its assembly into pericellular matrices. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4‐methylumbelliferone (4MU), removal of the HA coat by hyaluronidase (HYAL) or HAS2 knockdown led to abrogation of SMC gene expression. HA activates ERK1/2 and suppresses EGFR signaling pathways via its principle receptor, CD44. EGFR inactivation coincided with increased binding to CD44, which was further augmented by addition of high molecular weight (HMW)‐HA either exogenously or via HAS2 overexpression through adenoviral gene transfer. HMW‐HA‐stimulated esSMCs displayed a functional role in vascular tissue engineering ex vivo, vasculogenesis in a matrigel plug model and SMC accumulation in neointimal lesions of vein grafts in mice. These findings demonstrate that HAS2‐induced HA synthesis and organization drives ESC‐SMC differentiation. Thus, remodeling of the HA microenvironment is a critical step in directing stem cell differentiation toward a vascular lineage, highlighting HA as a potential target for treatment of vascular diseases. Stem Cells 2016;34:1225–1238 PMID:26867148

  18. Hyaluronan Is Crucial for Stem Cell Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Lineage.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Russell M L; Hong, Xuechong; Wong, Mei Mei; Karamariti, Eirini; Bhaloo, Shirin Issa; Warren, Derek; Kong, Wei; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2016-05-01

    Deciphering the extracellular signals that regulate SMC differentiation from stem cells is vital to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and for development of cell-based therapies and tissue engineering. Hyaluronan (HA) has emerged as an important component of the stem cell niche, however its role during stem cell differentiation is a complicated and inadequately defined process. This study aimed to investigate the role of HA in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation toward a SMC lineage. ESCs were seeded on collagen-IV in differentiation medium to generate ESC-derived SMCs (esSMCs). Differentiation coincided with increased HA synthase (HAS) 2 expression, accumulation of extracellular HA and its assembly into pericellular matrices. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), removal of the HA coat by hyaluronidase (HYAL) or HAS2 knockdown led to abrogation of SMC gene expression. HA activates ERK1/2 and suppresses EGFR signaling pathways via its principle receptor, CD44. EGFR inactivation coincided with increased binding to CD44, which was further augmented by addition of high molecular weight (HMW)-HA either exogenously or via HAS2 overexpression through adenoviral gene transfer. HMW-HA-stimulated esSMCs displayed a functional role in vascular tissue engineering ex vivo, vasculogenesis in a matrigel plug model and SMC accumulation in neointimal lesions of vein grafts in mice. These findings demonstrate that HAS2-induced HA synthesis and organization drives ESC-SMC differentiation. Thus, remodeling of the HA microenvironment is a critical step in directing stem cell differentiation toward a vascular lineage, highlighting HA as a potential target for treatment of vascular diseases. Stem Cells 2016;34:1225-1238. PMID:26867148

  19. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Affects Hyaluronan Synthesis in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N.; Hascall, Vincent C.; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20–50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL. PMID:23979132

  20. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis alters sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation in ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yutaka; Kozawa, Eiji; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Eisuke; Futamura, Naohisa; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In chondrogenic differentiation, expression and collaboration of specific molecules, such as aggrecan and type II collagen, in extracellular matrix (ECM) are crucial. However, few studies have clarified the roles of hyaluronan (HA) in proteoglycan aggregation during chondrogenic differentiation. We assessed the roles of HA in sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation by means of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an HA synthase inhibitor, using ATDC5 cells. ATDC5 cells were treated with 0.5 mM 4-MU for 7 or 21 days after induction of chondrogenic differentiation with insulin. Depositions of sulfated glycosaminoglycans were evaluated with Alcian blue staining. mRNA expression of ECM molecules was determined using real-time RT-PCR. The deposition of aggrecan and versican was investigated with immunohistochemical staining using specific antibodies. Effects of 4-MU on HA concentrations were analyzed by HA binding assay. 4-MU suppressed the positivity of Alcian blue staining, although this delay was reversible. Interestingly, stronger positivity of Alcian blue staining was observed at day 21 in cultures with 4-MU discontinuation than in the control. 4-MU significantly increased the mRNA expression of aggrecan, versican, and type II collagen, which was consistent with increased deposition of aggrecan and versican. The HA concentration in ECM and cell-associated region was significantly suppressed with 4-MU treatment. We conclude that the inhibition of HA synthesis slows sulfated glycosaminoglycans deposition during chondrogenic differentiation despite the increased deposition of other ECM molecules. Transient starvation of HA with 4-MU accelerates chondrogenic ECM formation, suggesting its potential to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation with adequate use.

  1. Airway smooth muscle cells synthesize hyaluronan cable structures independent of inter-alpha-inhibitor heavy chain attachment.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark E; Fulop, Csaba; Mukhopadhyay, Durba; Comhair, Suzy; Erzurum, Serpil C; Hascall, Vincent C

    2009-02-20

    The covalent association of inter-alpha-inhibitor-derived heavy chains (HCs) with hyaluronan was first described in synovial fluid from arthritic patients and later described as a structural and functional component of hyaluronan "cable" structures produced by many different cells and stimuli. HC transfer has been shown to be mediated by the protein product of TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6). Considering the accumulation of hyaluronan in airways following asthmatic attacks and the subsequent infiltration of leukocytes, we sought to characterize HC substitution of hyaluronan "cables" in primary mouse airway smooth muscle cells (MASM) and primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM). We found that cells derived from mice lacking TSG-6 had no defect in hyaluronan production or hyaluronan-mediated leukocyte adhesion when treated with the viral mimic poly(I,C). Functional hyaluronan cables were induced by cycloheximide in the confirmed absence of protein synthesis, with or without simultaneous treatment with poly(I,C). We characterized the species specificity of the antibody other investigators used to describe the HC-hyaluronan complex of hyaluronan cables and found minimal affinity to bovine-derived HCs in contrast to HCs from mouse and human sera. Thus, we cultured MASM and HASM cells in serum from these three sources and analyzed hyaluronan extracts for HCs and other hyaluronan-binding proteins, using parallel cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) extracts as positive controls. We conclude that, if hyaluronan cables derived from MASM and HASM cells are substituted with HCs, the amount of substitution is significantly below the limit of detection when compared with COC extracts of similar hyaluronan mass.

  2. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Rian J.; Christensen, Amanda M.; Quast, Arthur D.; Atzet, Sarah K.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA) with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30–40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45–50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions. PMID:27611817

  3. Drug conjugation to hyaluronan widens therapeutic indications for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, Isabella Monia; Merlo, Anna; Carpanese, Debora; Zuccolotto, Gaia; Renier, Davide; Campisi, Monica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Zanovello, Paola; Rosato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Management of ovarian cancer still requires improvements in therapeutic options. A drug delivery strategy was tested that allows specific targeting of tumor cells in combination with a controlled release of a cytotoxic molecule. To this aim, the efficacy of a loco-regional intraperitoneal treatment with a bioconjugate (ONCOFID-S) derived by chemical linking of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), to hyaluronan was assessed in a mouse model of ovarian carcinomatosis. In vitro, the bioconjugate selectively interacted with ovarian cancer cells through the CD44 receptor, disclosed a dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition efficacy comparable to that of free SN-38 drug, and inhibited Topoisomerase I function leading to apoptosis by a mechanism involving caspase-3 and -7 activation and PARP cleavage. In vivo, the intraperitoneal administration of ONCOFID-S in tumor-bearing mice did not induce inflammation, and evidenced an improved therapeutic efficacy compared with CPT-11. In conclusion, SN-38 conjugation to hyaluronan significantly improved the profile of in vivo tolerability and widened the field of application of irinotecan. Therefore, this approach can be envisaged as a promising therapeutic strategy for loco-regional treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26097871

  4. Hyaluronan mediates airway hyperresponsiveness in oxidative lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lazrak, Ahmed; Creighton, Judy; Yu, Zhihong; Komarova, Svetlana; Doran, Stephen F.; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Emala, Charles W.; Stober, Vandy P.; Trempus, Carol S.; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) inhalation induces severe oxidative lung injury and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) that lead to asthmalike symptoms. When inhaled, Cl2 reacts with epithelial lining fluid, forming by-products that damage hyaluronan, a constituent of the extracellular matrix, causing the release of low-molecular-weight fragments (L-HA, <300 kDa), which initiate a series of proinflammatory events. Cl2 (400 ppm, 30 min) exposure to mice caused an increase of L-HA and its binding partner, inter-α-trypsin-inhibitor (IαI), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Airway resistance following methacholine challenge was increased 24 h post-Cl2 exposure. Intratracheal administration of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (H-HA) or an antibody against IαI post-Cl2 exposure decreased AHR. Exposure of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells to Cl2 (100 ppm, 10 min) or incubation with Cl2-exposed H-HA (which fragments it to L-HA) increased membrane potential depolarization, intracellular Ca2+, and RhoA activation. Inhibition of RhoA, chelation of intracellular Ca2+, blockade of cation channels, as well as postexposure addition of H-HA, reversed membrane depolarization in HASM cells. We propose a paradigm in which oxidative lung injury generates reactive species and L-HA that activates RhoA and Ca2+ channels of airway smooth muscle cells, increasing their contractility and thus causing AHR. PMID:25747964

  5. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Rian J; Christensen, Amanda M; Quast, Arthur D; Atzet, Sarah K; Mann, Brenda K

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA) with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30-40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45-50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions. PMID:27611817

  6. Evaluation of emulsion electrospun polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor nanofibrous scaffolds for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenbei; Qian, Yuna; Li, Linhao; Pan, Lianhong; Njunge, Lucy W; Dong, Lili; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing scaffolds provide cells with structural integrity and can also deliver biological agents to establish a skin tissue-specific microenvironment to regulate cell functions and to accelerate the healing process. In this study, we fabricated biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds with an emulsion electrospinning technique. The scaffolds were composed of polycaprolactone, hyaluronan and encapsulating epidermal growth factor. The morphology and core-sheath structure of the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scaffolds were also characterized for chemical composition and hydrophilicity with a Fourier-transform infrared analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the water contact angle. An in vitro model protein bovine serum albumin and epidermal growth factor release study was conducted to evaluate the sustained release potential of the core-sheath structured nanofibers with and without the hyaluronan component. Additionally, an in vitro cultivation of human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts on polycaprolactone/hyaluronan and polycaprolactone/hyaluronan-epidermal growth factor scaffolds showed a significant synergistic effect of hyaluronan and epidermal growth factor on cell proliferation and infiltration. Furthermore, there was an up-regulation of the wound-healing-related genes collagen I, collagen III and TGF-β in polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor scaffolds compared with control groups. In the full-thickness wound model, the enhanced regeneration of fully functional skin was facilitated by epidermal regeneration in the polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor treatment group. Our findings suggest that bioactivity and hemostasis of the hyaluronan-based nanofibrous scaffolds have the capability to encapsulate and control the release of growth factors that can serve as skin tissue engineering scaffolds for wound healing.

  7. Hyaluronan is organized into fiber-like structures along migratory pathways in the developing mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Baier, Claudia; Baader, Stephan L; Jankowski, Jakob; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Schilling, Karl; Rauch, Uwe; Kappler, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Hyaluronan is a free glycosaminoglycan which is abundant in the extracellular matrix of the developing brain. Although not covalently linked to any protein it can act as a backbone molecule forming aggregates with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the lectican family and link proteins. Using neurocan-GFP as a direct histochemical probe we analyzed the distribution and organization of hyaluronan in the developing mouse cerebellum, and related its fine structure to cell types of specified developmental stages. We observed a high affinity of this probe to fiber-like structures in the prospective white matter which are preferentially oriented parallel to the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development suggesting a specially organized form of hyaluronan. In other layers of the cerebellar cortex, the hyaluronan organization seemed to be more diffuse. During the second postnatal week, the overall staining intensity of hyaluronan in the white matter declined but fiber-like structures were still present at the adult stage. This type of hyaluronan organization is different from perineuronal nets e.g. found in deep cerebellar nuclei. Double staining experiments with cell type specific markers indicated that these fiber-like structures are predominantly situated in regions where motile cells such as Pax2-positive inhibitory interneuron precursors and MBP-positive oligodendroglial cells are located. In contrast, more stationary cells such as mature granule cells and Purkinje cells are associated with lower levels of hyaluronan in their environment. Thus, hyaluronan-rich fibers are concentrated at sites where specific neural precursor cell types migrate, and the anisotropic orientation of these fibers suggests that they may support guided neural migration during brain development.

  8. The Role of Hyaluronan in Innate Defense Responses of the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    de la Motte, Carol A.; Kessler, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is an abundant extracellular matrix component prevalent in the vertebrate intestinal tract. Here we discuss what is known about hyaluronan distribution during homeostasis and inflammatory diseases of the gut and discuss ways in which this glycosaminoglycan can participate in regulating innate host defense mechanisms. These natural responses include mechanisms promoting rapid leukocyte recruitment after bacterial challenge/colon tissue damage as well as promoting epithelial defense mechanisms in the intestine. PMID:25922605

  9. Pasteurella multocida: a nightmare for a replaced joint and the challenge to save it.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Felipe A; Laboy Ortíz, Iván Enrique; López, Reynaldo; Sánchez, Alfredo; Colón, Miguel; Hernán Martínez, José

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida a small gram-negative coccobacilli is primarily found as normal flora of cats and dogs. These organisms can cause a variety of infections in humans, usually the result of scratches, bites and licks by percutaneous inoculation of the organism. Most cases of septic arthritis involve a cat or dog bite distal to the involved joint without direct penetrating injury to the joint. On scenarios were Pasteurella infection is suspected within a prosthetic joint, aggressive surgical debridement and/or removal of the prosthesis with intravenous antibiotics is recommended. Prosthetic joint infections secondary to animal bites are an extremely rare complication and few cases have been reported in the literature. This is a case report of a patient that suffered a cat's bite of his right prosthetic knee and against all odd was able to save it without surgical intervention.

  10. Effect of Aerosol Age on the Infectivity of Airborne Pasteurella tularensis for Macaca mulatta and Man

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, William D.; Jemski, Joseph V.; Hogge, Arthur L.; Eigelsbach, Henry T.; Wolfe, Elwood K.; Dangerfield, Harry G.; Gochenour, William S.; Crozier, Dan

    1966-01-01

    Sawyer, William D. (U.S. Army Medical Unit, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Joseph V. Jemski, Arthur L. Hogge, Jr., Henry T. Eigelsbach, Elwood K. Wolfe, Harry G. Dangerfield, William S. Gochenour, Jr., and Dan Crozier. Effect of aerosol age on the infectivity of airborne Pasteurella tularensis for Macaca mulatta and man. J. Bacteriol. 91:2180–2184. 1966.—In aging aerosols of Pasteurella tularensis SCHU-S4, the respiratory infectivity for man and Macaca mulatta decreased more rapidly than the viability of the organisms. Infectivity was diminished after 120 min, and was reduced 10-fold after 180 min. These findings confirmed previous observations made in mice and guinea pigs, and also revealed that smaller losses of infectivity were detectable in the primate hosts. PMID:4957611

  11. In Vitro Activities of Garenoxacin (BMS-284756) against 170 Clinical Isolates of Nine Pasteurella Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 170 clinical isolates plus 12 American Type Culture Collection strains of Pasteurella species comprising nine species and three Pasteurella multocida subspecies were studied by an agar dilution method. Garenoxacin (BMS-284756), a new des-fluoro(6) quinolone, was active at ≤0.06 μg/ml against all isolates, including four β-lactamase-producing strains, with >90% of the strains susceptible to ≤0.008 μg/ml. Garenoxacin was generally 1 to 2 dilutions more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin and was the most active agent tested. Cefoxitin required 1 μg/ml for inhibition of 51 of 182 (29%) of strains, and 3 strains (also β-lactamase producers) were resistant to doxycycline. PMID:12183274

  12. Oral administration of hyaluronan prevents skin dryness and epidermal thickening in ultraviolet irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Chinatsu; Kimura, Mamoru; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronan is a component of the extracellular matrix that plays a role in water retention in tissues. In this study, we orally administered hyaluronans of varying molecular weights (300k and less than 10k) repeatedly to hairless mice exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and examined their effects on the skin of these mice. UV irradiation induces a marked increase in the epidermal thickness of the dorsal skin and a marked decrease in the skin moisture content; however, orally administered hyaluronan, particularly that with a molecular weight of less than 10k, markedly reversed the increase and decrease in the epidermal thickness and skin moisture content, respectively. Furthermore, on analyzing the mice skin, orally administered hyaluronan with a molecular weight of less than 10k increased the levels of the HAS2 gene expression in the skin. Based on these findings, it is assumed that orally administered hyaluronans, with molecular weight of 300k and less than 10k, reversed UV irradiation-induced skin disturbance. In particular, it was considered that the increase in the skin moisture content by orally administered hyaluronan, with a molecular weight of less than 10k, was related to the effect on skin cells.

  13. A hyaluronan-based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. PMID:25739081

  14. Cellular Uptake and Internalization of Hyaluronan-based Doxorubicin and Cisplatin Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuang; Alhowyan, Adel Ali B; Yang, Qiuhong; Forrest, W.C. Melanie; Shnayder, Yelizaveta; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyaluronan (HA) is a ligand for the CD44 receptor which is crucial to cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. High levels of CD44 expression in many cancers have encouraged the development of HA-based carriers for anti-cancer therapeutics. Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether HA conjugation of anticancer drugs impacts CD44-specific HA-drug uptake and disposition by human head and neck cancer cells. Methods The internalization and cellular disposition of hyaluronan-doxorubicin (HA-DOX), hyaluronan-cisplatin (HA-Pt), and hyaluronan-cyanine7 (HA-Cy7) conjugates were investigated by inhibiting endocytosis pathways, and by inhibiting the CD44–mediated internalization pathways that are known to mediate hyaluronan uptake in vitro. Results Cellular internalization of HA was regulated by CD44 receptors. In mouse xenografts, HA conjugation significantly enhanced tumor cell uptake compared to unconjugated drug. Discussion The results suggested that the main mechanism of HA-based conjugate uptake may be active transport via CD44 in conjunction with a clathrin–dependent endocytic pathway. Other HA receptors, hyaluronan–mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), did not play a significant role in conjugate uptake. Conclusions HA conjugation significantly increased CD44 mediated drug uptake and extended the residence time of drugs in tumor cells. PMID:24892741

  15. The effects of hyaluronan and its fragments on lipid models exposed to UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Trommer, Hagen; Wartewig, Siegfried; Böttcher, Rolf; Pöppl, Andreas; Hoentsch, Joachim; Ozegowski, Jörg H; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2003-03-26

    The effects of hyaluronan and its degradation products on irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation were investigated. Liposomal skin lipid models with increasing complexity were used. Hyaluronan and its fragments were able to reduce the amount of lipid peroxidation secondary products quantified by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The qualitative changes were studied by mass spectrometry. To elucidate the nature of free radical involvement electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were carried out. The influence of hyaluronan and its fragments on the concentration of hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton system was examined using the spin trapping technique. Moreover, the mucopolysaccharide's ability to react with stable radicals was checked. The quantification assay of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) showed no concentration changes of the stable radical caused by hyaluronan. Hyaluronan was found to exhibit prooxidative effects in the Fenton assay in a concentration dependent manner. A transition metal chelation was proposed as a mechanism of this behavior. Considering human skin and its constant exposure to UV light and oxygen and an increased pool of iron in irradiated skin the administration of hyaluronan or its fragments in cosmetic formulations or sunscreens could be helpful for the protection of the human skin. PMID:12623198

  16. Recovery of Pasteurella hemolytica from aerosols at differing temperature and humidity.

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K W; Langford, E V; Pantekoek, J

    1977-01-01

    A Pasteurella hemolytica suspension with fetal calf serum was aerosolized in a standard system with ambient temperature of 30 or 2 degrees C and relative humidity conditions of 90 or 60%. The number of organisms sprayed in five minutes and the number recovered from one third of the aerosol during these five minutes was determined. Recoveries were influenced by temperature difference between aerosol and collecting fluid. Recoveries ranged between 0.059--0.94%. Images Fig. 1. PMID:861840

  17. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Succar, Peter; Medynskyj, Michael; Breen, Edmond J.; Batterham, Tony; Molloy, Mark P.; Herbert, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL). At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA. PMID:26981136

  18. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Succar, Peter; Medynskyj, Michael; Breen, Edmond J; Batterham, Tony; Molloy, Mark P; Herbert, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL). At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA. PMID:26981136

  19. A new selective enrichment procedure for isolating Pasteurella multocida from avian and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.K.; Cicnjak-Chubbs, L.; Gates, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A selective enrichment procedure, using two new selective media, was developed to isolate Pasteurella multocida from wild birds and environmental samples. These media were developed by testing 15 selective agents with six isolates of P. multocida from wild avian origin and seven other bacteria representing genera frequently found in environmental and avian samples. The resulting media—Pasteurella multocida selective enrichment broth and Pasteurella multocida selective agar—consisted of a blood agar medium at pH 10 containing gentamicin, potassium tellurite, and amphotericin B. Media were tested to determine: 1) selectivity when attempting isolation from pond water and avian carcasses, 2) sensitivity for detection of low numbers of P. multocida from pure and mixed cultures, 3) host range specificity of the media, and 4) performance compared with standard blood agar. With the new selective enrichment procedure, P. multocida was isolated from inoculated (60 organisms/ml) pond water 84% of the time, whereas when standard blood agar was used, the recovery rate was 0%.

  20. Rheological properties of aqueous solutions of biopolymeric hyaluronan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczak, Elzbieta

    2004-09-01

    Aqueous solutions of hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA) were studied. The HA compound is a natural polysaccharide, bipolymer. It plays an important role in numerous biological processes as a component of the extracellular matrix, connective tissues and, especially, human and animal synovial joints. Natural and artificial solutions of the HA have demonstrated the viscoelastic nature. These properties are shown to be related to the microstructure parameters (bulk concentration, molecular weight) and external parameters (temperature, stress, shear rate). We emphasize the role of the flow properties of polymeric systems. It is found a liquid crystalline "order" can be "induced" during the material flow. The dynamic properties, such as the elastic shear modulus and viscous shear modulus, are given. These results are discussed in relation to the postulated function of hyaluronic acid in synovial joint and with respect to possibilities o their application in medicine and pharmacology.

  1. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  2. Hyaluronan secretion into the synovial cavity of rabbit knees and comparison with albumin turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, P J; Scott, D; Ray, J; Mason, R M; Levick, J R

    1997-01-01

    1. Hyaluronan is not only a lubricant but also enhances the synovial lining's resistance to fluid outflow. This finding led to the proposal that hyaluronan (> 2 x 10(6) Da, approximately 210 nm radius) may escape across the synovial lining less freely than smaller solutes (e.g. albumin, 6.7 x 10(4) Da, 3.6 nm radius) or water. Here multiple washouts were used to measure intraarticular hyaluronan mass and secretion rate in rabbit knees, leading to an estimate of hyaluronan turnover time. Plasma albumin permeation into the joint cavity was also measured to enable comparison of turnover times between molecules of very disparate size. 2. Endogenous hyaluronan mass in the joint cavity, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography of joint washes, was 182 +/- 9.9 micrograms (mean +/- S.E.M; n = 21). Since hyaluronan concentration in synovial fluid averages 3.62 +/- 0.19 micrograms microliters-1, the endogenous synovial fluid volume was calculated to be 50 microliters (mass/concentration), about double the aspiratable volume. 3. The hyaluronan secretion rate over 4 h was 4.80 +/- 0.77 micrograms h-1 (n = 5). The rate was significantly higher in contralateral joints expanded by 2 ml Ringer solution (5.80 +/- 0.84 micrograms h-1, n = 5, P = 0.01, Student's paired t test), indicating a stretch/hydration sensitive secretory mechanism. The newly secreted chains ((2.05-2.48) x 10(6) Da) were not significantly different in length from the endogenous chains (2.95 x 10(6) Da). 4. Hyaluronan turnover time, calculated as mass/secretion rate, was 31.4-37.9 h. This is more than an order of magnitude longer than turnover time for intra-articular albumin. The latter, determined from the intra-articular albumin mass and plasma-to-cavity permeation rate was 1.8 h (95% confidence intervals 1.2-3.5 h, n = 9). The big difference in turnover times support the view that, relative to albumin and water, hyaluronan is partially sieved out and retained in the joint cavity by the synovial

  3. Interaction of Hyaluronan Binding Peptides with Glycosaminoglycans in Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the incorporation of hyaluronan (HA) binding peptides into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a mechanism to bind and retain hyaluronan for applications in tissue engineering. The specificity of the peptide sequence (native RYPISRPRKRC vs non-native RPSRPRIRYKC), the role of basic amino acids, and specificity to hyaluronan over other GAGs in contributing to the peptide–hyaluronan interaction were probed through experiments and simulations. Hydrogels containing the native or non-native peptide retained hyaluronan in a dose-dependent manner. Ionic interactions were the dominating mechanism. In diH2O the peptides interacted strongly with HA and chondroitin sulfate, but in phosphate buffered saline the peptides interacted more strongly with HA. For cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocyte-laden PEG hydrogels containing increasing amounts of HA binding peptide and exogenous HA had increased retention and decreased loss of cell-secreted proteoglycans in and from the hydrogel at 28 days. This new matrix-interactive hydrogel platform holds promise for tissue regeneration. PMID:24597474

  4. Interaction of hyaluronan binding peptides with glycosaminoglycans in poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Justine J; Elder, Robert M; Neumann, Alexander J; Jayaraman, Arthi; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2014-04-14

    This study investigates the incorporation of hyaluronan (HA) binding peptides into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a mechanism to bind and retain hyaluronan for applications in tissue engineering. The specificity of the peptide sequence (native RYPISRPRKRC vs non-native RPSRPRIRYKC), the role of basic amino acids, and specificity to hyaluronan over other GAGs in contributing to the peptide-hyaluronan interaction were probed through experiments and simulations. Hydrogels containing the native or non-native peptide retained hyaluronan in a dose-dependent manner. Ionic interactions were the dominating mechanism. In diH2O the peptides interacted strongly with HA and chondroitin sulfate, but in phosphate buffered saline the peptides interacted more strongly with HA. For cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocyte-laden PEG hydrogels containing increasing amounts of HA binding peptide and exogenous HA had increased retention and decreased loss of cell-secreted proteoglycans in and from the hydrogel at 28 days. This new matrix-interactive hydrogel platform holds promise for tissue regeneration. PMID:24597474

  5. Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

    2013-11-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 μg (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature.

  6. Hyaluronan deficiency due to Has3 knock-out causes altered neuronal activity and seizures via reduction in brain extracellular space.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Amaia M; Perkins, Katherine L; Irie, Fumitoshi; Lewis, David P; Hrabe, Jan; Xiao, Fanrong; Itano, Naoki; Kimata, Koji; Hrabetova, Sabina; Yamaguchi, Yu

    2014-04-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), a large anionic polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan), is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the adult brain. To address its function, we examined the neurophysiology of knock-out mice deficient in hyaluronan synthase (Has) genes. Here we report that these Has mutant mice are prone to epileptic seizures, and that in Has3(-/-) mice, this phenotype is likely derived from a reduction in the size of the brain extracellular space (ECS). Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3(-/-), Has1(-/-), and Has2(CKO), the seizures were most prevalent in Has3(-/-) mice, which also showed the greatest HA reduction in the hippocampus. Electrophysiology in Has3(-/-) brain slices demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons, while histological analysis revealed an increase in cell packing in the CA1 stratum pyramidale. Imaging of the diffusion of a fluorescent marker revealed that the transit of molecules through the ECS of this layer was reduced. Quantitative analysis of ECS by the real-time iontophoretic method demonstrated that ECS volume was selectively reduced in the stratum pyramidale by ∼ 40% in Has3(-/-) mice. Finally, osmotic manipulation experiments in brain slices from Has3(-/-) and wild-type mice provided evidence for a causal link between ECS volume and epileptiform activity. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the physiological role of HA in the regulation of ECS volume, and suggest that HA-based preservation of ECS volume may offer a novel avenue for development of antiepileptogenic treatments.

  7. Experimental model of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis using crude Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin and Pasteurella multocida given endobronchially.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W B; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and characterize a swine pneumonic pasteurellosis model by concurrent introduction of Pasteurella multocida type A and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin. After a series of preliminary experiments, a combination of 4 x 10(9) P. multocida and 4,000 toxic units of A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin was determined to produce optimal results. A total of 48 pigs were divided into four groups of 12 pigs each. The control group received buffered saline only. Four pigs from each group were randomly selected for necropsy 3, 7 and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Inoculation of pigs with P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin (group 1) resulted in moderate to severe pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from pneumonic lesions, grossly normal lung, and bronchial lymph nodes of all group 1 pigs throughout the 14 day experimental period. Pathological changes typical of field cases of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis were produced. Pigs inoculated with P. multocida alone (group 2) had pneumonic lesions and P. multocida was reisolated from lungs at three days PI. Pasteurella multocida was not isolated from these pigs at 7 and 14 days PI, except for one pig in which an abscess developed in the thorax. Pulmonary lesions induced by A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin alone (group 3) were transient and resolved by seven days PI. Group 1 pigs had significantly greater lung lesion volumes than group 2 and 3 pigs at 3, 7 and 14 days PI. Statistical analysis indicated a significant interactive effect of P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin on the development of lung lesion volumes at 7 and 14 days PI (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:8143249

  8. Characterization of an outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida belonging to the OmpA family.

    PubMed

    Marandi, M; Mittal, K R

    1996-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicle and N-lauroylsarcosine-insoluble protein preparations of Pasteurella multocida 656 were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A major outer membrane protein (OMP) was found to be heat-modifiable, having a molecular mass of 28 kDa when the OMP preparation was solubilized at 60 degrees C and a molecular mass of 37 kDa when it was solubilized at 100 degrees C. A monoclonal antibody, designated mAb MT4.1, was generated against heat-modifiable OMP of P. multocida. This mAb reacted with the heat-modifiable OMP irrespective of the temperature at which it was solubilized, as demonstrated by immunoblot results. The heat-modifiable OMP of P. multocida showed a significant N-terminal amino acid sequence homology with OmpA family. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed that the mAb Mt4.1 epitope was not surface exposed on the intact bacterium. The mAb MT4.1 reacted with all the reference strains of 5 capsular and 16 somatic serotypes, as well as with 75 field strains of P. multocida in immunoblot assay. This mAb MT4.1 also reacted with strains of various other Pasteurella species such as P. stomatis, P. aerogenes P. gallinarum, P. betti, P. sp, B, P. SP-g and P. canis, but not with strains of 12 other Gram-negative bacteria. These results indicated that this protein carried a genus-specific epitope and mAb MT4.1 may be useful for identification of Pasteurella species. This is the first report in which a major heat-modifiable OMP has been identified and characterized using a mAb, and has been shown belonging to the OmpA family. PMID:9008341

  9. Detection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica antigens by an immunoperoxidase technique in pneumonic ovine lungs.

    PubMed

    Haziroglu, R; Diker, K S; Turkarslan, J; Gulbahar, M Y

    1996-01-01

    Four hundred twenty pneumonic lungs from lambs were examined for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica by an immunoperoxidase technique using an extravidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Histologic examination of tissue sections revealed strong positive reactions in 60.9% and 68.3% of the lungs against M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica, respectively. M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica antigens were observed at the surface and/or within the epithelial cells, macrophages, leucocytes, and bronchiolar exudate. The location of M. ovipneumoniae in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and P. haemolytica in the neutrophils was detected immunohistochemically.

  10. Backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of the membrane localization domain from Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael C; Geissler, Brett; Hisao, Grant S; Satchell, Karla J F; Wilson, Brenda A; Rienstra, Chad M

    2014-04-01

    (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments are presented for the isolated four-helical bundle membrane localization domain (MLD) from Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) in its solution state. We have assigned 99% of all backbone and side-chain carbon atoms, including 99% of all backbone residues excluding proline amide nitrogens. Secondary chemical shift analysis using TALOS+ demonstrates four helices, which align with those observed within the MLD in the crystal structure of the C-terminus of PMT (PDB 2EBF) and confirm the use of the available crystal structures as templates for the isolated MLDs.

  11. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose: evidence of a carrier state.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M D; Goldberg, D R; Shadduck, D J; Price, J I; Cooch, E G

    1997-04-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese. PMID:9131570

  12. Pasteurella anatipestifer as a cause of mortality in captive wild waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Karstad, L; Lusis, P; Long, J R

    1970-10-01

    An outbreak of Pasteurella anatipestifer infection in young wild waterfowl at the Niska Waterfowl Research Center resulted in losses of approximately 100 Blue and Snow Geese, one White-fronted Goose, five Mandarin Ducks, one Black Duck and one Wood Duck. Clinical signs included diarrhea, paralysis and tremors. Gross lesions were fibrin deposits on serosal surfaces, hemorrhages on the epicardium, consolidation of the lungs, cloudy or flaky deposits on the air sacs, and dark, swollen spleens. Microscopic lesions included fibrinous meningitis, pneumonitis, air saculitis and serositis. Swollen leg and foot joints were seen in some cases. Chloramphenicol treatment seemed to be of benefit in controlling the outbreak. PMID:16512147

  13. Production and characterization of streptomycin dependent mutants of Pasteurella multocida from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, M C; Carter, G R; Chengappa, M M

    1980-01-01

    A large number of streptomycin dependent mutants were produced from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia strains of Pasteurella multocida. The mutants required a minimum concentration of 25-50 microgram/mL streptomycin for growth and tolerated a concentration of 200 mg/mL. These mutants were avirulent to mice, when inoculated alone, but some mutants killed mice when inoculated with streptomycin. Biochemically all mutants were uniform and similar to the wild type. Most mutants were stable, but a few produced streptomycin independent revertants. The rate of reversion varied with each mutant. Most revertants were highly virulent for mice, some totally avirulant and a few relatively avirulent. PMID:6778598

  14. Evaluation of three oil-adjuvant vaccines against Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Muneer, R; Akhtar, S; Afzal, M

    1994-09-01

    Three oil-adjuvant vaccines of Pasteurella multocida 6:B were evaluated with respect to the level and duration of the humoral immune response produced in buffalo calves. Preparation 1 was a water-in-oil emulsion containing Marcol 52, Montanide 888 and antigen at a ratio of 6:1:3. Preparation 2 was a double emulsion containing Marcol 52, Arlacel A and Tween 80 in addition to antigen. Preparation 3 contained alpha-d-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E), Montanide 888 and antigen. All three preparations induced a similar sustained immune response in buffalo calves beyond 270 days post-vaccination.

  15. Wear effects on microscopic morphology and hyaluronan uptake in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Silvia; Tonveronachi, Martina; Fagnola, Matteo; Cozza, Federica; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Borghesi, Alessandro; Ascagni, Miriam; Farris, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was a comparison between new and worn siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses in terms of microscopic structure, surface morphology, and loading of hyaluronan. The analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy, with the support of the freeze-drying technique, and by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Along the depth profile of new lenses, a thin porous top layer was observed, which corresponds to the region of hyaluronan penetration inside well-defined channels. The time evolution was followed from one day to two weeks of daily wear, when a completely different scenario was found. Clear experimental evidence of a buggy surface was observed with several crests and regions of swelling, which could be filled by the hyaluronan solution. The modifications are attributed to the progressive relaxation of the structure of the polymeric network.

  16. Wear effects on microscopic morphology and hyaluronan uptake in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Silvia; Tonveronachi, Martina; Fagnola, Matteo; Cozza, Federica; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Borghesi, Alessandro; Ascagni, Miriam; Farris, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was a comparison between new and worn siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses in terms of microscopic structure, surface morphology, and loading of hyaluronan. The analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy, with the support of the freeze-drying technique, and by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Along the depth profile of new lenses, a thin porous top layer was observed, which corresponds to the region of hyaluronan penetration inside well-defined channels. The time evolution was followed from one day to two weeks of daily wear, when a completely different scenario was found. Clear experimental evidence of a buggy surface was observed with several crests and regions of swelling, which could be filled by the hyaluronan solution. The modifications are attributed to the progressive relaxation of the structure of the polymeric network. PMID:25251841

  17. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  18. Hyaluronan fragments as mediators of inflammation in allergic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Hoselton, Scott A.; Dorsam, Glenn P.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen, leading to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to allergens may experience a greater degree of tissue injury followed by airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. In addition, turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a hallmark of tissue injury and repair. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a component of the ECM, in pulmonary injury and repair with an emphasis on allergic asthma. Both the synthesis and degradation of the ECM are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented HA accumulates during tissue injury and functions in ways distinct from the larger native polymer. There is gathering evidence that HA degradation products are active participants in stimulating the expression of inflammatory genes in a variety of immune cells at the injury site. In this review, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that are associated with HA accumulation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the asthmatic lung. PMID:25582403

  19. Optimization of hyaluronan-based eye drop formulations.

    PubMed

    Salzillo, Rosanna; Schiraldi, Chiara; Corsuto, Luisana; D'Agostino, Antonella; Filosa, Rosanna; De Rosa, Mario; La Gatta, Annalisa

    2016-11-20

    Hyaluronan (HA) is frequently incorporated in eye drops to extend the pre-corneal residence time, due to its viscosifying and mucoadhesive properties. Hydrodynamic and rheological evaluations of commercial products are first accomplished revealing molecular weights varying from about 360 to about 1200kDa and viscosity values in the range 3.7-24.2mPa s. The latter suggest that most products could be optimized towards resistance to drainage from the ocular surface. Then, a study aiming to maximize the viscosity and mucoadhesiveness of HA-based preparations is performed. The effect of polymer chain length and concentration is investigated. For the whole range of molecular weights encountered in commercial products, the concentration maximizing performance is identified. Such concentration varies from 0.3 (wt%) for a 1100kDa HA up to 1.0 (wt%) for a 250kDa HA, which is 3-fold higher than the highest concentration on the market. The viscosity and mucoadhesion profiles of optimized formulations are superior than commercial products, especially under conditions simulating in vivo blinking. Thus longer retention on the corneal epithelium can be predicted. An enhanced capacity to protect corneal porcine epithelial cells from dehydration is also demonstrated in vitro. Overall, the results predict formulations with improved efficacy.

  20. The Rise and Fall of Hyaluronan in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Mark E.; Dweik, Raed A.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Aronica, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In normal airways, hyaluronan (HA) matrices are primarily located within the airway submucosa, pulmonary vasculature walls, and, to a lesser extent, the alveoli. Following pulmonary injury, elevated levels of HA matrices accumulate in these regions, and in respiratory secretions, correlating with the extent of injury. Animal models have provided important insight into the role of HA in the onset of pulmonary injury and repair, generally indicating that the induction of HA synthesis is an early event typically preceding fibrosis. The HA that accumulates in inflamed airways is of a high molecular weight (>1600 kDa) but can be broken down into smaller fragments (<150 kDa) by inflammatory and disease-related mechanisms that have profound effects on HA pathobiology. During inflammation in the airways, HA is often covalently modified with heavy chains from inter-alpha-inhibitor via the enzyme tumor-necrosis-factor-stimulated-gene-6 (TSG-6) and this modification promotes the interaction of leukocytes with HA matrices at sites of inflammation. The clearance of HA and its return to normal levels is essential for the proper resolution of inflammation. These data portray HA matrices as an important component of normal airway physiology and illustrate its integral roles during tissue injury and repair among a variety of respiratory diseases. PMID:26448757

  1. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins. PMID:27358127

  2. Investigating triazine-based modification of hyaluronan using statistical designs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jue; Cheng, Lulu; Struckhoff, Jessica J; Ravi, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and its derivatives have been extensively researched for many biomedical applications. To precisely tailor the property of HA by derivatizing it to a pre-determined extent is challenging, yet critical. In this paper, we used 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT) and N-methylmorpholine (NMM) to derivatize HA via a triazine-based coupling reaction. Using a fractional factorial (FF) design, we observed that water content in the solvent, and molar ratios of CDMT and NaHCO3 to the carboxylate were the significant factors controlling the derivatization. We investigated how the effect of each factor changes as reaction conditions change. Moreover, by altering the amount of CDMT and NaHCO3, we developed a cubic regression model for precise control of the extent of derivatization using a response surface methodology (RSM) with a D-optimal design. No spurious peaks were detected by (1)H NMR spectrum and only 10% decrease of molecular weight of the derivatized HA was determined by GPC. The HA with 6% modification was relatively biocompatible up to 15 mg/mL. PMID:26256372

  3. Determination of Hyaluronan Molecular Mass Distribution in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; De La Motte, Carol A.; Cowman, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection, via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size-specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from twenty unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employingion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size, and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M ≤ 20 kDa, M ≈20-60 kDa, and M ≈ 60-110 kDa comprised an average of 1.5%, 1.4% and 2% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M≥110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from thirteen samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of ∼440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low M HA components. PMID:25579786

  4. Optimization of hyaluronan-based eye drop formulations.

    PubMed

    Salzillo, Rosanna; Schiraldi, Chiara; Corsuto, Luisana; D'Agostino, Antonella; Filosa, Rosanna; De Rosa, Mario; La Gatta, Annalisa

    2016-11-20

    Hyaluronan (HA) is frequently incorporated in eye drops to extend the pre-corneal residence time, due to its viscosifying and mucoadhesive properties. Hydrodynamic and rheological evaluations of commercial products are first accomplished revealing molecular weights varying from about 360 to about 1200kDa and viscosity values in the range 3.7-24.2mPa s. The latter suggest that most products could be optimized towards resistance to drainage from the ocular surface. Then, a study aiming to maximize the viscosity and mucoadhesiveness of HA-based preparations is performed. The effect of polymer chain length and concentration is investigated. For the whole range of molecular weights encountered in commercial products, the concentration maximizing performance is identified. Such concentration varies from 0.3 (wt%) for a 1100kDa HA up to 1.0 (wt%) for a 250kDa HA, which is 3-fold higher than the highest concentration on the market. The viscosity and mucoadhesion profiles of optimized formulations are superior than commercial products, especially under conditions simulating in vivo blinking. Thus longer retention on the corneal epithelium can be predicted. An enhanced capacity to protect corneal porcine epithelial cells from dehydration is also demonstrated in vitro. Overall, the results predict formulations with improved efficacy. PMID:27561497

  5. Evaluation of bacterial cellulose/hyaluronan nanocomposite biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Qing, Shuang; Zhou, Jianhai; Yang, Guang

    2014-03-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is useful in the biomedical field because of its unique structure and properties. The high nano-porosity of BC allows other materials to be incorporated and form reinforced composites. Here we describe the preparation and characterization of novel BC/hyaluronan (HA) nanocomposites with a 3-D network structure. BC/HA was obtained using a solution impregnation method. Elemental and ATR-FTIR analyses showed that this method is highly effective to form composites with BC. Weight loss analysis showed that BC/HA have a lower water loss than BC at 37 °C. The total surface area and pore volume of BC/HA films gradually decreased with the HA content, as followed by FE-SEM analysis. The elongation at break of BC/HA films gradually increased as the HA content increased. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the weight loss for the BC/HA composites were lower than for pure BC between 250 and 350 °C. The results of weight loss, elongation at break and thermal stability suggested that these novel BC/HA films could be applied potentially as wound dressing materials.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  7. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  8. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to differentiate isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Jefferson, K.L.; Heisey, D.M.; Samuel, M.D.; Berlowski, B.M.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Avian cholera, an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, kills thousands of North American wild waterfowl annually. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolates cultured during a laboratory challenge study of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and collected from wild birds and environmental samples during avian cholera outbreaks were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a whole-genome DNA fingerprinting technique. Comparison of the AFLP profiles of 53 isolates from the laboratory challenge demonstrated that P. multocida underwent genetic changes during a 3-mo period. Analysis of 120 P. multocida serotype 1 isolates collected from wild birds and environmental samples revealed that isolates were distinguishable from one another based on regional and temporal genetic characteristics. Thus, AFLP analysis had the ability to distinguish P. multocida isolates of the same serotype by detecting spatiotemporal genetic changes and provides a tool to advance the study of avian cholera epidemiology. Further application of AFLP technology to the examination of wild bird avian cholera outbreaks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations between virulence and P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird species and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  9. The effects of Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide on bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the potential role of Pasteurella haemolytica Al lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelia cells (BPAEC) were the test model. The direct toxic potential of P. Haemolytica LPS on BPAEC was examined by cell detachment assays, morphologic alterations, and membrane damage as reflected in the leakage of large internal molecules such as LDH and {sup 51}Cr-labeled molecules. LPS-induced effects having potential for causing indirect vascular damage were studied and included neutrophil-adherence to and arachidonic acid-release from BPAEC. Several substances were examined for their ability to inhibit the LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Pasteurella haemolytica LPS caused direct toxic effects in BPAEC. Cell-detachment, LDH-leakage, {sup 51}Cr-leakage, and {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid-release proceeded with similar time- and dose-dependency after exposure of BPAEC to LPS. Morphologic alterations were observed as early as one-half hour after LPS-exposure and became collectively more severe with time. Neutrophil adherence to BPAEC was increased by LPS through independent effects on both cells types. The adherence required protein synthesis in both cell types.

  10. The Roles of Hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 and Their Respective Interactions along the Insidious Pathways of Fibrosarcoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, Dragana; Kouvidi, Katerina; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors originating from fibroblasts. Importantly, fibrosarcoma cells were shown to have a high content and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including hyaluronan (HA), proteoglycans, collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. ECMs are complicated structures that surround and support cells within tissues. During cancer progression, significant changes can be observed in the structural and mechanical properties of the ECM components. Importantly, hyaluronan deposition is usually higher in malignant tumors as compared to benign tissues, predicting tumor progression in some tumor types. Furthermore, activated stromal cells are able to produce tissue structure rich in hyaluronan in order to promote tumor growth. Key biological roles of HA result from its interactions with its specific CD44 and RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) cell-surface receptors. HA-receptor downstream signaling pathways regulate in turn cellular processes implicated in tumorigenesis. Growth factors, including PDGF-BB, TGFβ2, and FGF-2, enhanced hyaluronan deposition to ECM and modulated HA-receptor expression in fibrosarcoma cells. Indeed, FGF-2 through upregulation of specific HAS isoforms and hyaluronan synthesis regulated secretion and net hyaluronan deposition to the fibrosarcoma pericellular matrix modulating these cells' migration capability. In this paper we discuss the involvement of hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 mediated signaling in the insidious pathways of fibrosarcoma progression. PMID:24083250

  11. Beta-arrestin 1 is involved in the catabolic response stimulated by hyaluronan degradation in mouse chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Calatroni, Alberto; Campo, Salvatore

    2015-08-01

    Beta-arrestin-1 (β-arrestin-1) is an adaptor protein that functions in the termination of G-protein activation and seems to be involved in the mediation of the inflammatory response. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) elicits the expression of inflammatory mediators through a mechanism involving hyaluronan (HA) degradation, thereby contributing to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and CD44 activation. Stimulation of both receptors induces nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation that, through transforming-growth-factor-activated-kinase-1 (TAK-1), in turn stimulates the inflammatory mediators of transcription. As β-arrestin-1 seems to play an inflammatory role in arthritis, we have investigated the involvement of β-arrestin-1 in a model of IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in mouse chondrocytes. IL-1β treatment significantly increases chondrocytes TLR-4, CD44, β-arrestin-1, TAK-1, and serine/threonine kinase (AKT) mRNA expression and related protein levels. NF-kB is also markedly activated with consequent tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase up-regulation. Treatment of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes with β-arrestin-1 and/or AKT and/or TAK-1-specific inhibitors significantly reduces all parameters, although the inhibitory effect exerted by TAK-1-mediated pathways is more effective than that of β-arrestin-1. β-Arrestin-1-induced NF-kB activation is mediated by the AKT pathway as shown by IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes treated with AKT inhibitor. Finally, a specific HA-blocking peptide (Pep-1) has confirmed the inflammatory role of degraded HA as a mediator of the IL-1β-induced activation of β-arrestin-1. PMID:25673209

  12. Beta-arrestin 1 is involved in the catabolic response stimulated by hyaluronan degradation in mouse chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Calatroni, Alberto; Campo, Salvatore

    2015-08-01

    Beta-arrestin-1 (β-arrestin-1) is an adaptor protein that functions in the termination of G-protein activation and seems to be involved in the mediation of the inflammatory response. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) elicits the expression of inflammatory mediators through a mechanism involving hyaluronan (HA) degradation, thereby contributing to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and CD44 activation. Stimulation of both receptors induces nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) activation that, through transforming-growth-factor-activated-kinase-1 (TAK-1), in turn stimulates the inflammatory mediators of transcription. As β-arrestin-1 seems to play an inflammatory role in arthritis, we have investigated the involvement of β-arrestin-1 in a model of IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in mouse chondrocytes. IL-1β treatment significantly increases chondrocytes TLR-4, CD44, β-arrestin-1, TAK-1, and serine/threonine kinase (AKT) mRNA expression and related protein levels. NF-kB is also markedly activated with consequent tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase up-regulation. Treatment of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes with β-arrestin-1 and/or AKT and/or TAK-1-specific inhibitors significantly reduces all parameters, although the inhibitory effect exerted by TAK-1-mediated pathways is more effective than that of β-arrestin-1. β-Arrestin-1-induced NF-kB activation is mediated by the AKT pathway as shown by IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes treated with AKT inhibitor. Finally, a specific HA-blocking peptide (Pep-1) has confirmed the inflammatory role of degraded HA as a mediator of the IL-1β-induced activation of β-arrestin-1.

  13. Hyaluronan degrading silica nanoparticles for skin cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeller, P.; Catalano, P. N.; Salguero, N.; Duran, H.; Wolosiuk, A.; Soler-Illia, G. J. A. A.

    2013-09-01

    We report the first nanoformulation of Hyaluronidase (Hyal) and its enhanced adjuvant effect over the free enzyme. Hyaluronic acid (HA) degrading enzyme Hyal was immobilized on 250 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNP) maintaining specific activity of the enzyme via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. This process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and enzymatic activity measurements. The nanoparticles were tested in vivo as adjuvants of carboplatin (CP), peritumorally injected in A375 human melanoma bearing mice and compared with the non-immobilized enzyme, on the basis of equal enzymatic activity. Alcian Blue staining of A375 tumors indicated large overexpression of hyaluronan. At the end of the experiment, tumor volume reduction with SiNP-immobilized Hyal was significantly enhanced compared to non-immobilized Hyal. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra confirmed the presence of SiNP on the tumor. We mean a proof of concept: this extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzyme, immobilized on SiNP, is a more effective local adjuvant of cancer drugs than the non-immobilized enzyme. This could prove useful in future therapies using other or a combination of ECM degrading enzymes.We report the first nanoformulation of Hyaluronidase (Hyal) and its enhanced adjuvant effect over the free enzyme. Hyaluronic acid (HA) degrading enzyme Hyal was immobilized on 250 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNP) maintaining specific activity of the enzyme via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. This process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and enzymatic activity measurements. The nanoparticles were tested in vivo as adjuvants of carboplatin (CP), peritumorally injected in A375 human

  14. Carboxymethyl Hyaluronan-Stabilized Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jessica L.; Suh, Min Sung; Zhang, Jianxing; Kondaveeti, Yuvabharath; Burgess, Diane J.; White, Bruce A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kuhn, Liisa T.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl hyaluronic acid (CMHA) is a semisynthetic derivative of HA that is recognized by HA binding proteins but contains an additional carboxylic acid on some of the 6-hydroxyl groups of the N-acetyl glucosamine sugar units. These studies tested the ability of CMHA to stabilize the formation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and evaluated their potential to target therapy resistant, CD44+/CD24−/low human breast cancer cells (BT-474EMT). CMHA stabilized particles (nCaPCMHA) were loaded with the chemotherapy drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) to form nCaPCMHACDDP. nCaPCMHACDDP was determined to be poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite, 200 nm in diameter with a −43 mV zeta potential. nCaPCMHACDDP exhibited a two-day burst release of CDDP that tapered resulting in 86% release by 7 days. Surface plasmon resonance showed that nCaPCMHACDDP binds to CD44, but less effectively than CMHA or hyaluronan. nCaPCMHA-AF488 was taken up by CD44+/CD24− BT-474EMT breast cancer cells within 18 hours. nCaPCMHACDDP was as cytotoxic as free CDDP against the BT-474EMT cells. Subcutaneous BT-474EMT tumors were more reproducibly inhibited by a near tumor dose of 2.8 mg/kg CDDP than a 7 mg/kg dose nCaPCMHACDDP. This was likely due to a lack of distribution of nCaPCMHACDDP throughout the dense tumor tissue that limited drug diffusion. PMID:26448751

  15. Alginate-hyaluronan composite hydrogels accelerate wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; D'Esposito, V; Acierno, S; Ambrosio, M R; De Caro, C; Avagliano, C; Russo, P; Russo, R; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Calignano, A; Formisano, P; Quaglia, F

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we propose polysaccharide hydrogels combining alginate (ALG) and hyaluronan (HA) as biofunctional platform for dermal wound repair. Hydrogels produced by internal gelation were homogeneous and easy to handle. Rheological evaluation of gelation kinetics of ALG/HA mixtures at different ratios allowed understanding the HA effect on ALG cross-linking process. Disk-shaped hydrogels, at different ALG/HA ratio, were characterized for morphology, homogeneity and mechanical properties. Results suggest that, although the presence of HA does significantly slow down gelation kinetics, the concentration of cross-links reached at the end of gelation is scarcely affected. The in vitro activity of ALG/HA dressings was tested on adipose derived multipotent adult stem cells (Ad-MSC) and an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Hydrogels did not interfere with cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly promoted gap closure in a scratch assay at early (1 day) and late (5 days) stages as compared to hydrogels made of ALG alone (p<0.01 and 0.001 for Ad-MSC and HaCaT, respectively). In vivo wound healing studies, conducted on a rat model of excised wound indicated that after 5 days ALG/HA hydrogels significantly promoted wound closure as compared to ALG ones (p<0.001). Overall results demonstrate that the integration of HA in a physically cross-linked ALG hydrogel can be a versatile strategy to promote wound healing that can be easily translated in a clinical setting.

  16. Hyaluronan: A Simple Polysaccharide with Diverse Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Kevin T.; Gurski, Lisa A.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Witt, Robert L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a linear polysaccharide with disaccharide repeats of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is evolutionary conserved and abundantly expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM), on the cell surface and even inside cells. Being a simple polysaccharide, HA exhibits an astonishing array of biological functions. HA interacts with various proteins or proteoglycans to organize the ECM and to maintain tissue homeostasis. The unique physical and mechanical properties of HA contribute to the maintenance of tissue hydration, the mediation of solute diffusion through the extracellular space and the lubrication of certain tissues. The diverse biological functions of HA are manifested through its complex interactions with matrix components and resident cells. Binding of HA with cell surface receptors activates various signaling pathways that regulate cell function, tissue development, inflammation, wound healing and tumor progression and metastasis. Taking advantage of the inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability of HA, as well as its susceptibility to chemical modification, researchers have developed various HA-based biomaterials and tissue constructs with promising and broad clinical potential. In this article, we illustrate the properties of HA from a matrix biology perspective by first introducing principles underlying the biosynthesis and biodegradation of HA, as well as the interactions of HA with various proteins and proteoglycans. We next highlight the roles of HA in physiological and pathological states, including morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the roles of HA in various physiological processes can provide new insights and tools for the engineering of complex tissues and tissue models. PMID:24361428

  17. Glycosylation of CD44 negatively regulates its recognition of hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Although CD44 is expressed on a wide variety of cell types, few of them use it to recognize the ligand hyaluronan (HA). A glycosylation- defective clone of Chinese hamster ovary cells (Lec 8) bound HA, demonstrating that complete processing of glycoproteins with addition of a full complement of sialic acid is not required. On the contrary, subsequent findings revealed that complex sugars on CD44 can actually inhibit ligand recognition. Two subclones of wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells with similar amounts of surface CD44 were isolated on the basis of HA binding and found to differ with respect to CD44 size as well as staining with fluorescent lectins. Treatment of the nonbinding clone with tunicamycin reduced the size of the protein and allowed the cells to recognize HA via CD44. This function was also induced by treatment with deglycosylating enzymes (either a mixture of endoglycosidase F and N-glycosidase F or neuraminidase alone). A possible role for glycosylation in regulation of adhesion was then sought with a series of normal and transformed murine cells. Disruption of glycosylation or treatment with deglycosylating enzymes did not induce ligand binding in an interleukin 7-dependent pre-B cell line, and splenic B cells also appeared to be in an inactive state. Some normal B cells acquired the ability to recognize HA after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or interleukin 5 and had distinctive surface characteristics (loss of immunoglobulin D and acquisition of CD43). An additional subset of activated cells might have been in a transitional state, because the cells bound ligand after neuraminidase treatment. The ligand-binding ability of a purified CD44-immunoglobulin fusion protein dramatically increased after neuraminidase treatment. Thus, differential glycosylation of this molecule is sufficient to influence its recognition function. Cell adhesion involving HA can be regulated by multiple mechanisms, one of which involves variable glycosylation of CD

  18. Stimulation of small proteoglycan synthesis by the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Masaru; Nakamura, Toshiya; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Mizunuma, Hideki; Endo, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Human skin fibroblasts cultured with 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), a hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor, produce a hyaluronan-deficient extracellular matrix (See [9]). Our present study investigated the effects of MU on proteoglycan, which is the other main component of the extracellular matrix, and interacts with hyaluronan. Proteoglycans isolated from culture medium in the presence or absence of MU were characterized by gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange HPLC, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. We found that MU had only a negligible effect on the synthesis of large proteoglycan but increased the production of small proteoglycan in comparison with cultures lacking MU. This small proteoglycan was identified by immunoblotting as decorin. The structures of decorin synthesized in the presence and absence of MU were compared by gel-filtration chromatography, and the data indicated that cells incubated with MU produced a larger decorin molecule than cells incubated without MU. Furthermore, the two decorins had galactosaminoglycan chains of different sizes. These results suggest that MU inhibits the synthesis of hyaluronan and accelerates production of the larger decorin in the extracellular matrix.

  19. Multivalent dendrimers presenting spatially controlled clusters of binding epitopes in thermoresponsive hyaluronan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Seelbach, Ryan J; Fransen, Peter; Peroglio, Marianna; Pulido, Daniel; Lopez-Chicon, Patricia; Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Sauerbier, Sebastian; Freiman, Thomas; Niemeyer, Philipp; Semino, Carlos; Albericio, Fernando; Alini, Mauro; Royo, Miriam; Mata, Alvaro; Eglin, David

    2014-10-01

    The controlled presentation of biofunctionality is of key importance for hydrogel applications in cell-based regenerative medicine. Here, a versatile approach was demonstrated to present clustered binding epitopes in an injectable, thermoresponsive hydrogel. Well-defined multivalent dendrimers bearing four integrin binding sequences and an azido moiety were covalently grafted to propargylamine-derived hyaluronic acid (Hyal-pa) using copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC), and then combined with pN-modified hyaluronan (Hyal-pN). The dendrimers were prepared by synthesizing a bifunctional diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid core with azido and NHBoc oligo(ethylene glycol) aminoethyl branches, then further conjugated with solid-phase synthesized RGDS and DGRS peptides. Azido terminated pN was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and reacted to Hyal-pa via CuAAC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and mass spectroscopy proved that the dendrimers had well-defined size and were disubstituted. NMR and atomic absorption analysis confirmed the hyaluronan was affixed with dendrimers or pN. Rheological measurements demonstrated that dendrimers do not influence the elastic or viscous moduli of thermoresponsive hyaluronan compositions at a relevant biological concentration. Finally, human mesenchymal stromal cells were encapsulated in the biomaterial and cultured for 21days, demonstrating the faculty of this dendrimer-modified hydrogel as a molecular toolbox for tailoring the biofunctionality of thermoresponsive hyaluronan carriers for biomedical applications.

  20. Lubrication and wear properties of grafted polyelectrolytes, hyaluronan and hylan, measured in the surface forces apparatus.

    PubMed

    Benz, Marcel; Chen, Nianhuan; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2004-10-01

    Hyaluronan is believed to have an important function in the boundary biolubrication of articular cartilage. Using a Surface Forces Apparatus, we tested the tribological properties of surface bound, rather than "free" hyaluronan. The grafting process of the polyelectrolyte included either a biological route via an HA-binding protein or a chemical reaction to covalently bind the polymer to a lipid bilayer coated surface. In another reaction, we constructed a surface with covalently grafted hylan (crosslinked hyaluronan). We studied the normal and shear forces between these surfaces. None of the systems demonstrated comparable lubrication to that found between cartilage surfaces except at very low loads. Both grafted hyaluronan and hylan generated coefficients of friction between 0.15 and 0.3. Thus, the polysaccharide, which is a constituent of the lamina splendens (outermost cartilage layer), is not expected to be the responsible molecule for the great lubricity of cartilage; however, it may contribute to the load bearing and wear protection of these surfaces. This was concluded from the results with hylan, where a thin gel layer was sufficient to shield the underlying surfaces from damage even at applied pressures of over 200 atmospheres during shear. Our study shows that a low coefficient of friction is not a requirement for, or necessarily a measure of, wear protection. PMID:15368250

  1. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline . E-mail: pauline@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-08-26

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding.

  2. The high and low molecular weight forms of hyaluronan have distinct effects on CD44 clustering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuixia; Cao, Manlin; Liu, Hua; He, Yiqing; Xu, Jing; Du, Yan; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Lian; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2012-12-14

    CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Native high molecular weight hyaluronan (nHA) and oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) provoke distinct biological effects upon binding to CD44. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, the feature of binding with CD44 at the cell surface and the molecular basis for functional distinction between different sizes of HA is still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan on CD44 clustering. For the first time, we provided direct evidence for a strong relationship between HA size and CD44 clustering in vivo. In CD44-transfected COS-7 cells, we showed that exogenous nHA stimulated CD44 clustering, which was disrupted by oHA. Moreover, naturally expressed CD44 was distributed into clusters due to abundantly expressed nHA in HK-2 cells (human renal proximal tubule cells) and BT549 cells (human breast cancer cell line) without exogenous stimulation. Our results suggest that native HA binding to CD44 selectively induces CD44 clustering, which could be inhibited by oHA. Finally, we demonstrated that HA regulates cell adhesion in a manner specifically dependent on its size. oHA promoted cell adhesion while nHA showed no effects. Our results might elucidate a molecular- and/or cellular-based mechanism for the diverse biological activities of nHA and oHA.

  3. Development and characterization of chitosan/hyaluronan film for transdermal delivery of thiocolchicoside.

    PubMed

    Bigucci, Federica; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was the development of chitosan/hyaluronan transdermal films to improve bioavailability of thiocolchicoside. This approach offers the possibility to elude the first-pass metabolism and at the same time it is able to provide a predictable and extended duration of activity. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of chitosan and hyaluronan and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. In accordance with polymeric composition of films and, therefore, with the amount of the net charge after the complexation, films containing the same weight ratio of chitosan and hyaluronan showed lower water uptake ability with respect to films containing only one polymeric species or an excess of chitosan or hyaluronan. Moreover, the lower the hydration of the polymeric network, the lower is the drug diffusion through the films and its permeation through the skin. This study clearly confirmed that the selection of a suitable polymeric weight ratio and appropriate preparative conditions allows the modulation of film functional properties, suggesting that these formulations could be used as a novel technological platform for transdermal drug delivery.

  4. Effect of Fetal Size on Fetal Placental Hyaluronan and Hyaluronoglucosaminidases Throughout Gestation in the Pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results indicated that the trophoblast-endometrial epithelial cell bilayer of porcine placenta undergoes microscopic folding during gestation, and the folded bilayer is embedded in placental stroma. We hypothesized that hyaluronan was a component of placental stroma, and that hyaluronidases...

  5. Reduction of sensory responses to passive movements of inflamed knee joints by hylan, a hyaluronan derivative.

    PubMed

    Pozo, M A; Balazs, E A; Belmonte, C

    1997-08-01

    Hyaluronan (sodium hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan that is present in all joint tissues. Painful arthritic joints have been characterized by hyaluronan of reduced elastoviscosity. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hyaluronan has an influence on joint nociceptor sensitivity and whether restoration of elastoviscosity would decrease nerve responses from nociceptive afferent fibers in arthritic joints. Nerve impulse activity was recorded from nociceptive afferent fibers of the medial articular nerve in anesthetized cats. An acute experimental arthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of kaolin and carrageenan. This caused, within 3 h, the development of ongoing nerve activity and enhancement of nerve impulse responses to passive movements in the normal range of the joint. Intra-articular injection of an elastoviscous solution of hylan, a hyaluronan derivative, significantly reduced both the ongoing activity and the movement-evoked responses in 1-2 h. This effect was not obtained when a nonelastoviscous solution of hylan was injected into the inflamed joint. The results indicate that intra-articularly injected elastoviscous solutions of hylan reduced nociceptive activity in inflamed joints through an elastoviscous, rheological effect on nociceptive afferent fibers through the intercellular matrix in which these fibers are embedded.

  6. Biomimetic hemocompatible coatings through immobilization of hyaluronan derivatives on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Benjamin; Winnik, Françoise M; Merhi, Yahye; Griesser, Hans J; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2008-10-21

    Biomimetic coatings offer exciting options to modulate the biocompatibility of biomaterials. The challenge is to create surfaces that undergo specific interactions with cells without promoting nonspecific fouling. This work reports an innovative approach toward biomimetic surfaces based on the covalent immobilization of a carboxylate terminated PEGylated hyaluronan (HA-PEG) onto plasma functionalized NiTi alloy surfaces. The metal substrates were aminated via two different plasma functionalization processes. Hyaluronan, a natural glycosaminoglycan and the major constituent of the extracellular matrix, was grafted to the substrates by reaction of the surface amines with the carboxylic acid terminated PEG spacer using carbodiimide chemistry. The surface modification was monitored at each step by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HA-immobilized surfaces displayed increased hydrophilicity and reduced fouling, compared to bare surfaces, when exposed to human platelets (PLT) in an in vitro assay with radiolabeled platelets (204.1 +/- 123.8 x 10 (3) PLT/cm (2) vs 538.5 +/- 100.5 x 10 (3) PLT/cm (2) for bare metal, p < 0.05). Using a robust plasma patterning technique, microstructured hyaluronan surfaces were successfully created as demonstrated by XPS chemical imaging. The bioactive surfaces described present unique features, which result from the synergy between the intrinsic biological properties of hyaluronan and the chemical composition and morphology of the polymer layer immobilized on a metal surface.

  7. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of a hyaluronan binding protein, hyaluronectin, from human placenta and its colocalisation with hyaluronan.

    PubMed Central

    Ponting, J M; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and is known to influence cell behaviour and to play a role in angiogenesis, morphogenesis and tissue remodelling, although little is known concerning the regulation of these effects. Until now its detection in the placenta has been by indirect methods, which has led to conflicting conclusions as to its distribution and hence its role. Hyaluronectin (HN) is one of a group of proteins with HA binding ability which may regulate the effects of HA. Although nervous tissue HN has been partly characterised with regard to its distribution, structure and biochemistry, little is known about the mesenchymal isoform and its distribution in placenta has not previously been reported. Using specific probes we have characterised the distribution of HA and HN in human placental tissue. At all stages of development studied (8, 10, 12, 30 and 38 wk gestation) HA and HN were unequivocally colocalised, being distributed in the extracellular matrix of stromal tissue of placental villi, chorioallantoic membranes and umbilical cord. Particularly strong immunoreactivity was observed in the villous stroma immediately adjacent to fibrinoid depositions at sites of denudation of the trophoblast layer. Extraction and characterisation of the HN from placental villi have revealed 4 major glycoproteins of 47, 52, 57 and 67 kDa, this being a different pattern and smaller molecular range than observed for the nervous tissue form. This is the first direct demonstration of the presence of HA and HN in the placenta and identifies an abundant new source of mesenchymal HN. The functions of mesenchymal HN are unknown but may include ion exchange, immunosuppression and regulation of the effects of HA in such roles as maintenance of tissue architecture, cell migration and angiogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7544332

  9. Stabilin-1 and -2 constitute a novel family of fasciclin-like hyaluronan receptor homologues.

    PubMed Central

    Politz, Oliver; Gratchev, Alexei; McCourt, Peter A G; Schledzewski, Kai; Guillot, Pierre; Johansson, Sophie; Svineng, Gunbjorg; Franke, Peter; Kannicht, Christoph; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Longati, Paola; Velten, Florian W; Johansson, Staffan; Goerdt, Sergij

    2002-01-01

    MS-1, a high-molecular-mass protein expressed by non-continuous and angiogenic endothelial cells and by alternatively activated macrophages (Mphi2), and the hepatic sinusoidal endothelial hyaluronan clearance receptor are similar with respect to tissue distribution and biochemical characteristics. In the present study we purified these proteins by immuno- and hyaluronan-affinity chromatography respectively, sequenced tryptic peptides and generated full-length cDNA sequences in both mouse and human. The novel genes, i.e. stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, code for homologous transmembrane proteins featuring seven fasciclin-like adhesion domains, 18-20 epidermal-growth-factor domains, one X-link domain and three to six B-(X(7))-B hyaluronan-binding motifs. Northern-blotting experiments revealed the presence of both stabilins in organs with predominant endothelial sinuses such as liver, spleen and lymph node: stabilin-1 mRNA was also detected in organs with predominant Mphi2 cells, such as placenta, and in interleukin-4/glucocorticoid-stimulated Mphi2 cells in vitro. A polyclonal antibody made against human recombinant stabilin-1 confirmed the expression of stabilin-1 protein in splenic sinus endothelial cells in vivo and in Mphi2 in vitro. On the basis of high similarity at the protein level and the unique domain composition, which differs from that of all other known fasciclin-like proteins and hyaluronan receptors, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2 define a novel family of fasciclin-like hyaluronan receptor homologues that might play a role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in vascular function and inflammatory processes. PMID:11829752

  10. Identification, purification, and characterization of the type 4 fimbriae of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, C G; Tennent, J M; Michalski, W P; Adler, B

    1997-01-01

    The presence of fimbriae on Pasteurella multocida has been reported, but there have been no prior studies aimed at conclusively characterizing these structures. We now report on the identification and characterization of type 4 fimbriae on serogroup A, B, and D strains of P. multocida. Under microaerophilic conditions P. multocida showed an increased expression of the fimbriae, which were observed to form bundles. Fimbriae purified by high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography constituted a single 18-kDa subunit, the first 21 amino acids of which shared very high similarity with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of other type 4 fimbrial subunits. Antiserum against the P. multocida 18-kDa protein immunostained the type 4 fimbrial subunit of Moraxella bovis and Dichelobacter nodosus. Based on these observations we conclude that P. multocida possesses type 4 fimbriae and have designated the P. multocida fimbrial subunit PtfA. PMID:8975936

  11. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in Nebraska (USA) wetlands under epizootic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Brand, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Gleason Basin, a marsh located in the western part of the Rainwater Basin in Nebraska, was selected during the 1980 spring waterfowl migration as a study site to determine the presence and persistence of virulent Pasteurella multocida. Avian cholera mortality in migratory waterfowl using the Basin increased during a 2-wk period of a die-off beginning the first week of March when 2,409 carcasses were collected from the marsh. Study sites within the marsh were established for sampling water associated with and not associated with intact and scavenged carcasses. Isolations of virulent P. multocida were made from five of six study sites associated with either intact or scavenged carcasses for 3 days and from three of five non-carcass-associated study sites for 2 days. Recovery of these bacteria from this environment suggested a possible source of infection for susceptible waterfowl using the contaminated site.

  12. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pors, Susanne E; Chadfield, Mark S; Sørensen, Dorte B; Offenberg, Hanne; Bisgaard, Magne; Jensen, Henrik E

    2016-04-01

    Host-pathogen interactions of Pasteurella multocida isolates of different origin were studied in a mouse model, focusing on pathology, bacterial load and expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9 and its inhibitor TIMP1. Intranasal inoculation with one of three doses (10(6), 10(4), 10(2)CFU) of an isolate from porcine pneumonia or fowl cholera showed marked differences between the two isolates. The avian isolate was highly pathogenic with severe signs of necrotizing pneumonia, liver necrosis and high bacterial load in lung and liver. Clinical signs and pathology related to the porcine isolate were dose dependent and consisted of exudative bronchopneumonia, abscess formation in liver and a lower bacterial load in lung and liver. Both isolates caused increased expression of MMP9 and TIMP1. In conclusion, evaluation and comparison of pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction of P. multocida isolates from different hosts is possible in the intranasal murine model. PMID:27033923

  13. Deadly case of Pasteurella multocida aortitis and mycotic aneurysm following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David

    2016-01-01

    Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported previous antibiotic treatment of a cellulitis secondary to a cat bite injury to his right thumb four weeks prior. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scan revealed a leaking mycotic abdominal aneurysm that was surgically repaired. Blood cultures and aortic wall tissue cultures grew P. multocida. Given how common animal bite presentations are in the ED, this case highlights the need to consider aortitis and mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm in an unwell patient with an animal bite. PMID:27326399

  14. Characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolated from waterfowl and associated avian species in California.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, D C; Jessup, D A; Snipes, K P; Carpenter, T E; Hird, D W; McCapes, R H

    1990-04-01

    Characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolated from tissues of dead waterfowl and associated avian species found at 23 sites located in northern and central California, from January 1986 through January 1988 are reported. Two hundred ninety five isolates of P. multocida were obtained from 23 avian species. Most of the isolates belonged to the subspecies P. multocida multocida (63%), followed by P. multocida gallicida (37%), and by P. multocida septica (less than 1%). There appeared to be a higher prevalence of P. multocida multocida in Ross' geese (Chen rossi) and Snow geese (Chen coeruleus). All of the isolates belonged to somatic serotype 1, possessed the A capsule type and were susceptible to the 8 antimicrobial agents tested. None contained plasmid DNA. PMID:2338724

  15. Pasteurella multocida Infective Endocarditis: A Possible Link with Primary Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Branch, Joel; Kakutani, Takuya; Kuroda, Shun; Shiba, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese man presented with fever and upper respiratory tract symptoms that required urgent inpatient admission. A physical examination revealed conjunctival hemorrhages and peripheral embolic phenomena. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, and an echocardiography revealed a mitral valve vegetation suggestive of infective endocarditis (IE), which was confirmed using the Modified Duke Criteria. After several antibiotic regimens proved ineffective, valve replacement was performed, with a good eventual outcome. P. multocida IE is rare and may sometimes have no preceding risk factors. P. multocida infections of the upper respiratory tract are unusual but may be an inciting event for IE. It is essential to check blood cultures and to repeat the performance of physical examinations to appreciate the developing features of IE.

  16. Efficacy of recombinant leukotoxin in protection against pneumonic challenge with live Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, J A; Shewen, P E; Lo, R Y

    1991-01-01

    The recombinant leukotoxin (rLKT) of the bacterium Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was examined for its ability to protect cattle from experimental challenge with logarithmic-phase P. haemolytica. Six different vaccines were utilized in the experiment: P. haemolytica culture supernatant, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with rLKT, rLKT alone, P. haemolytica culture supernatant enriched with Escherichia coli supernatant not containing LKT, E. coli supernatant alone, and phosphate-buffered saline. rLKT alone showed no protective capacity against development of clinical signs of respiratory disease or against development of postmortem lung lesions after experimental challenge. It was, however, shown to enhance the efficacy of the culture supernatant vaccine and decrease clinical signs and pneumonic lesions. The complexity of protective immunity in this disease is emphasized in this study, and, although LKT is an important virulence factor of the organism, an immune response to LKT alone does not protect animals against disease. PMID:1987075

  17. Biodegradation of dimethyl terephthalate by Pasteurella multocida Sa follows an alternative biochemical pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaxi; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2006-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida Sa, a bacterial strain isolated from mangrove sediment by enrichment technique, was capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Biodegradation of DMT was shown to take place as a series of sequential steps involving the hydrolysis of two ester linkages between the carboxyl groups of the terephthalate and the methyl side-chain initially to produce mono-methyl terephthalate (MMT) and then terephthalic acid (TA), respectively. However, with ethanol as the carrying solvent, there was a formation of one metabolite previously not observed. The two metabolites were characterized by high performance-liquid chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry as MMT and mono-ethyl terephthalate (MET), suggesting the existence of an alternative biochemical pathway in the degradation of DMT by P. multocida Sa. Since the presence of MMT and ethanol in culture inoculated with P. multocida Sa was prerequisites for the formation of MET, biologically mediated trans-esterification was proposed as a mechanism for the novel biochemical process observed.

  18. Hyaluronidase and Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery after Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Dohare, Preeti; Arshad, Arslan; Zia, Muhammad T.; Panda, Sanjeet; Korumilli, Ritesh; Kayton, Robert; Hascall, Vincent C.; Lauer, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in premature infants results in inflammation, arrested oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, and reduced myelination of the white matter. Hyaluronan (HA) inhibits OPC maturation and complexes with the heavy chain (HC) of glycoprotein inter-α-inhibitor to form pathological HA (HC–HA complex), which exacerbates inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IVH would result in accumulation of HA, and that either degradation of HA by hyaluronidase treatment or elimination of HCs from pathological HA by HA oligosaccharide administration would restore OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological function in survivors with IVH. To test these hypotheses, we used the preterm rabbit model of glycerol-induced IVH and analyzed autopsy samples from premature infants. We found that total HA levels were comparable in both preterm rabbit pups and human infants with and without IVH, but HA receptors—CD44, TLR2, TLR4—were elevated in the forebrain of both humans and rabbits with IVH. Hyaluronidase treatment of rabbits with IVH reduced CD44 and TLR4 expression, proinflammatory cytokine levels, and microglia infiltration. It also promoted OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological recovery. HC–HA and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 were elevated in newborns with IVH; and depletion of HC–HA levels by HA oligosaccharide treatment reduced inflammation and enhanced myelination and neurological recovery in rabbits with IVH. Hence, hyaluronidase or HA oligosaccharide treatment represses inflammation, promotes OPC maturation, and restores myelination and neurological function in rabbits with IVH. These therapeutic strategies might improve the neurological outcome of premature infants with IVH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Approximately 12,000 premature infants develop IVH every year in the United States, and a large number of survivors with IVH develop cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. The onset of IVH induces inflammation

  19. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  20. Expression of a truncated Pasteurella multocida toxin antigen in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Sreekumari; Nair, Rajeev V; Kania, Stephen A; Bemis, David A

    2003-07-30

    Mild or subclinical respiratory infections caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica are widespread in pigs despite multiple control efforts. Infection with virulent B. bronchiseptica strains is a common risk factor in the establishment of toxin-producing strains of Pasteurella multocida in the nasal cavity of pigs leading to the disease, atrophic rhinitis (AR). This study was designed to explore the possibility of expressing a protective epitope of P. multocida toxin (PMT) in B. bronchiseptica to create single-component mucosal vaccine to control atrophic rhinitis in pigs. To achieve this, a P. multocida toxin fragment (PMTCE), that was non-toxic and protective against lethal challenge in mice, was cloned into a broad-host-range plasmid, PBBR1MCS2, and introduced into B. bronchiseptica by electroporation. The Pasteurella gene construct was placed under the regulatory control of a promoter region that was separately isolated from B. bronchiseptica and appears to be part of the heat shock protein gene family. B. bronchiseptica harboring the plasmid under antibiotic selection expressed the 80kDa PMTCE as determined by PAGE and Western blot with a PMT-specific monoclonal antibody. When introduced into the respiratory tracts of mice, B. bronchiseptica harboring the plasmid construct was reisolated in declining numbers for 72h post-inoculation. Antibody responses (IgM, IgA and IgG) to B. bronchiseptica were detected in serum and respiratory lavage, but PMTCE-specific antibodies were not detected. While further refinements of PMT expression in B. bronchiseptica are necessary, this study provides a basis for the development of a single-component, live-attenuated vaccine against atrophic rhinitis.

  1. Cloning of a serotype-specific antigen from Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rayos, C; Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Beveridge, T J

    1986-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids coding for a soluble (or surface) antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 were identified. Two plasmids, both containing the same 5.4 kilobase pairs of insert DNA, were recovered independently by screening a clone band of P. haemolytica A1 genomic DNA in Escherichia coli for the expression of P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens (R. Y. C. Lo and L.A. Cameron, Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64:73-76, 1986). E. coli cells carrying the plasmids were found to be agglutinated by an antiserum raised against the P. haemolytica A1 soluble antigens. Analysis of the E. coli clones by electron microscopy revealed patches of amorphous material on the surface of the cells which were not present on the controls. Further characterization with protein A-colloidal gold labeled both these patches and the outer membranes of these cloned cells pretreated with the specific antiserum. These results indicated that the cloned antigen was expressed on the surface of the E. coli cells. The cloned antigen was found to be specific for serotype 1 when tested by slide agglutination against a collection of P. haemolytica typing antisera. Southern blot hybridization, using the cloned DNA as a probe, labeled the genomic DNA from P. haemolytica serotype 1 as well as the cross-agglutinating serotypes 2 and 7, but not DNA from the non-cross-agglutinating serotypes 3 and 4 and Pasteurella multocida. These results demonstrated that serotype specificity could be attributed to the particular antigenic determinants in the genome of the organism. Images PMID:3527985

  2. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  3. Advances and advantages of nanomedicine in the pharmacological targeting of hyaluronan-CD44 interactions and signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrisostomi; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental evidence in cell and animal tumor models show that hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are crucial in both malignancy and resistance to cancer therapy. Because of the intimate relationship between the hyaluronan-CD44 system and tumor cell survival and growth, it is an increasingly investigated area for applications to anticancer chemotherapeutics. Interference with the hyaluronan-CD44 interaction by targeting drugs to CD44, targeting drugs to the hyaluronan matrix, or interfering with hyaluronan matrix/tumor cell-associated CD44 interactions is a viable strategy for cancer treatment. Many of these methods can decrease tumor burden in animal models but have yet to show significant clinical utility. Recent advances in nanomedicine have offered new valuable tools for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. The enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors. However, the targeted and uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities requires optimization. An ideal nanocarrier should be equipped with selective ligands that are highly or exclusively expressed on target cells and thus endow the carriers with specific targeting capabilities. In this review, we describe how the hyaluronan-CD44 system may provide such an alternative in tumors expressing specific CD44 variants.

  4. [Problems in the use of radioactively marked bacteria in animal experiments. 1. Labeling of Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica and Salmonella dublin with eH, 14C, 32P, 59Fe, 99mTc, 125J1].

    PubMed

    Flossmann, K D; Rohrmann, B; Hubald, J; Finsterbusch, L

    1977-01-01

    Several methods are suggested by which to use the radionuclides 3H, 14C, 32P, 59Fe, 99mTc, and 125J for labelling or doublelabelling of Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Salmonella dublin, with particular reference being made to labelling ofr animal experiments. Suitable radioactive substrates for internal labelling in chemically defined or partially defined nutritive media include 3H-thymin, 3H-thymidine, 14C-glucose, 14C-mannose, 14C-aspartic acid, as well as 3H-uracil, 3H-uridine, 3H-orotic acid, 14C-orotic acid, 59Fe-III-citrate or chloride, and Na2H32PO4. The choise of the nuclide and substrate should by governed by the problem at hand. PMID:849104

  5. A hexadecylamide derivative of hyaluronan (HYMOVIS®) has superior beneficial effects on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and synoviocytes than unmodified hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) injection provides symptomatic benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Previously we found superior beneficial effects in a large animal OA model of a hexadecylamide derivative compared with unmodified HA of the same initial molecular weight. The current study sought to define possible molecular mechanisms whereby this enhanced relief of symptoms was occurring. Methods Chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts were isolated from tissues of patients undergoing arthroplasty for knee OA. Monolayer cultures of cells were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/mL of unmodified HA (500–730 kDa) or a hexadecylamide derivative of HA of the same initial molecular weight (HYADD4®-G; HYMOVIS®) simultaneously or 1 hour before incubation with interleukin (IL)-1beta (2 ng/mL). Cultures were terminated 15 or 30 minutes later (chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts, respectively) for quantitation of phosphorylated-(p)-JNK, p-NFkappaB, p-p38, or at 24 hours for quantitation of gene expression (MMP1 &13, ADAMTS4 &5, TIMP1 &3, CD44, COL1A1 &2A1, ACAN, PTGS2, IL6, TNF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 activity. Results The hexadecylamide derivative of HA had significantly better amelioration of IL-1beta-induced gene expression of key matrix degrading enzymes (MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS5), and inflammatory mediators (IL6, PTGS2) by human OA chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Pre-incubation of cells with the derivatized HA for 1 hour prior to IL-1beta exposure significantly augmented the inhibition of MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS4 and IL6 expression by chondrocytes. The reduction in MMP13 mRNA by the amide derivative of HA was mirrored in reduced MMP-13 protein and enzyme activity in IL-1beta-stimulated chondrocytes. This was associated in part with a greater inhibition of phosphorylation of the cell signalling molecules JNK, p38 and NF-kappaB. Conclusions The present studies have demonstrated several potential key mechanisms whereby the

  6. Characterization of polyelectrolyte behavior of the polysaccharides chitosan, heparin, and hyaluronan, by light scattering and viscometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddohi, Soheil; Yonemura, Susan; Kipper, Matt

    2008-03-01

    This study on the polyelectrolyte behavior of polysaccharides in solution is motivated by our recent work in development of nanostructured polysaccharide-based surface coatings. Chitosan behaves as a weak polycation, and hyaluronan behaves as a weak polyanion, while heparin behaves as a strong polyanion. The ability to control the conformation of these polysaccharides in solution, by changing the solution ionic strength and pH may offer the opportunity to further tune the nanoscale features of polysaccharide-based surface coatings assembled from solution. In the work reported here, the solution conformation of these polymers is determined from gel permeation chromatography coupled to differential refractive index, light scattering, and viscometry detection. These results are related to the nanostructure of chitosan-heparin and chitosan-hyaluronan surface coatings based on polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  7. X-ray ablation of hyaluronan hydrogels: Fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel networks

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Chang, S.; Je, J. H.; Yeom, J.; Hahn, S. K.; Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    We present a simple and highly versatile protocol for polymer ablation: hard x-ray irradiation makes it possible to rapidly depolymerize hyaluronan hydrogels and fabricate three-dimensional network of microchannels. Photodynamic and photochemical analyses show that x-ray irradiation directly cleaves the polymer backbone and the total dose controls the degradation kinetics. This nonthermal ablation protocol may offer opportunities for processing organic polymers and biological materials.

  8. Freeze-dried eudragit-hyaluronan multicompartment liposomes to improve the intestinal bioavailability of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Catalan-Latorre, Ana; Ravaghi, Maryam; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Marongiu, Francesca; Ennas, Guido; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira; Peris, José Esteban; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed at finding an innovative vesicle-type formulation able to improve the bioavailability of curcumin upon oral administration. To this purpose, phospholipid, Eudragit® S100 and hyaluronan sodium salt were combined to obtain eudragit-hyaluronan immobilized vesicles using an easy and environmentally-friendly method. For the first time, the two polymers were combined in a system intended for oral delivery, to enhance curcumin stability when facing the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Four different formulations were prepared, keeping constant the amount of the phospholipid and varying the eudragit-hyaluronan ratio. The freeze-drying of the samples, performed to increase their stability, led to a reduction of vesicle size and a good homogeneity of the systems, after simple rehydration with water. X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that after the freeze-drying process, curcumin remained successfully incorporated within the vesicles. All the vesicles displayed similar features: size ranging from 220 to 287nm, spherical or oval shape, multilamellar or large unilamellar morphology with a peculiar multicompartment organization involving 1-4 smaller vesicles inside. In vitro studies demonstrated the ability of the combined polymers to protect the vesicles from the harsh conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract (i.e., ionic strength and pH variation), which was confirmed in vivo by the greater deposition of curcumin in the intestinal region, as compared to the free drug in dispersion. This enhanced accumulation of curcumin provided by the eudragit-hyaluronan immobilized vesicles, together with an increase in Caco-2 cell viability exposed to hydrogen peroxide, indicated that vesicles can ensure a local protection against oxidative stress and an increase in its intestinal absorption. PMID:27349806

  9. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  10. Bimodal Tumor-Targeting from Microenvironment Responsive Hyaluronan Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoscale drug carriers can improve tumor-specific delivery; however, cellular heterogeneity both within and among tumor sites is a fundamental barrier to their success. Here, we describe a tumor microenvironment-responsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer drug carrier that actively targets tumors based on two independent mechanisms: pH-dependent cellular uptake at hypoxic tumor pH and hyaluronan-directed targeting of cell-surface CD44 receptor, a well-characterized biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer stem cells. Hypoxic pH-induced structural reorganization of hyaluronan-LbL nanoparticles was a direct result of the nature of the LbL electrostatic complex, and led to targeted cellular delivery in vitro and in vivo, with effective tumor penetration and uptake. The nanoscale drug carriers selectively bound CD44 and diminished cancer cell migration in vitro, while co-localizing with the CD44 receptor in vivo. Multimodal targeting of LbL nanoparticles is a powerful strategy for tumor-specific cancer diagnostics and therapy that can be accomplished using a single bilayer of polyamine and hyaluronan that, when assembled, produce a dynamic and responsive cell–particle interface. PMID:25100313

  11. Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the supramolecular organization of the mammalian vitreous body.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Dimitrios A; Skandalis, Spyros S; Noulas, Argiris V; Papageorgakopoulou, Nickoletta; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian vitreous gel is a specialized type of highly hydrated extracellular matrix, which is composed of interwoven networks of uronic acid-containing polyanionic macromolecules, (i.e., hyaluronan, versican, and IX collagen) and collagen fibrils. Hyaluronan comprises the vast majority of the uronic acid-containing molecules, which contributes to structure and function of vitreous in at least two ways: its unique biophysical and hydrodynamic properties influence the vitreous homeostasis and biomechanics; it is also a template for assembly of other extracellular macromolecules, for example, versican. The other uronic acid-containing molecules namely versican and IX collagen--two chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans--occur in the vitreous without significant quantitative variations among different mammalians but with some marked variations on the molecular size and sulfation pattern of their chondroitin sulfate side chains. The contribution of versican and IX collagen (through their protein and their CS side chains) to the supramolecular organization of the vitreous gel is poorly understood. However, versican having the ability to bind hyaluronan via its N-terminal and other binding partners via its C-terminal region can play a crucial role on the structural stability and functionality of the vitreous.

  12. Structure of DPPC-hyaluronan interfacial layers - effects of molecular weight and ion composition.

    PubMed

    Wieland, D C Florian; Degen, Patrick; Zander, Thomas; Gayer, Sören; Raj, Akanksha; An, Junxue; Dėdinaitė, Andra; Claesson, Per; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-21

    Hyaluronan and phospholipids play an important role in lubrication in articular joints and provide in combination with glycoproteins exceptionally low friction coefficients. We have investigated the structural organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) Langmuir layers at the solution-air interface at different length scales with respect to the adsorption of hyaluronan (HA). This allows us to assemble a comprehensive picture of the adsorption and the resulting structures, and how they are affected by the molecular weight of HA and the presence of calcium ions. Brewster angle microscopy and grazing incident diffraction were used to determine the lateral structure at the micro- and macro scale. The data reveals an influence of HA on both the macro and micro structure of the DPPC Langmuir layer, and that the strength of this effect increases with decreasing molecular weight of HA and in presence of calcium ions. Furthermore, from X-ray reflectivity measurements we conclude that HA adsorbs to the hydrophilic part of DPPC, but data also suggest that two types of interfacial structures are formed at the interface. We argue that hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions play important rules for the association between DPPC and HA. Surface pressure area isotherms were used to determine the influence of HA on the phase behavior of DPPC while electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to gain insight into the binding of calcium ions to DPPC vesicles and hyaluronan.

  13. Evolutionary genetics of Pasteurella haemolytica isolates recovered from cattle and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R L; Arkinsaw, S; Selander, R K

    1997-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships among 194 Pasteurella haemolytica isolates, which were recovered predominantly from cattle (39%) and sheep (58%) suffering from pneumonic pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States, were estimated by examination of allelic variation at 18 enzyme-encoding loci detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The isolates formed two major divisions. One included 178 Pasteurella haemolytica sensu stricto strains representing serotypes A1, A2, A5 to A9, A12 to A14, and A16; the other was composed of 16 isolates belonging to the A11 taxon. P. haemolytica isolates were classified into 22 electrophoretic types (ETs) that formed three primary phylogenetic lineages. One lineage was represented by ovine serotype A2 isolates, a second lineage consisted of bovine serotype A2, together with serotype A7 and A13 isolates, and the third lineage included isolates representing all of the other serotypes, as well as a second group of serotype A7 strains. Electrophoretic types were nonrandomly associated with specific capsular serotypes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) types, outer membrane protein (OMP) types, and host species. Bovine isolates were represented by only three serotypes (A1, A2, and A6) in 5 ETs, whereas ovine isolates were represented by all of the serotypes in 19 ETs. The majority (76%) of bovine isolates were of serotypes A1 or A6 and belonged to a single ET that marked a virulent, cattle-specific clonal group. Among the ovine isolates, 40% were of serotype A2 and belonged to two ETs that represented two virulent, sheep-specific clonal groups. Bovine A1 and A6 isolates and bovine A2 isolates were phylogenetically distinct from ovine isolates of the same serotypes, indicating that different subpopulations of these serotypes are associated with disease in cattle and sheep. Consistent differences in the OMP profiles of strains of the bovine and ovine lineages of these three serotypes suggest that certain OMPs are

  14. High Sensitivity Method to Estimate Distribution of Hyaluronan Molecular Sizes in Small Biological Samples Using Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Lan; Dahl, Christen P.; Kerje, Susanne; Hansell, Peter; Mörner, Stellan; Lindqvist, Ulla; Engström-Laurent, Anna; Larsson, Göran; Hellman, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan. In this paper, we demonstrate that gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analyzer (GEMMA) can be used to estimate the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes in biological samples with a limited amount of hyaluronan. The low detection level of the GEMMA method allows for estimation of hyaluronan molecular sizes from different parts of small organs. Hence, the GEMMA method opens opportunity to attain a profile over the distribution of hyaluronan molecular sizes and estimate changes caused by disease or experimental conditions that has not been possible to obtain before. PMID:26448761

  15. Single-Step Grafting of Aminooxy-Peptides to Hyaluronan: A Simple Approach to Multifunctional Therapeutics for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Joshua.; Mullins, Meagan; Northrup, Laura; Thati, Shara; Siahaan, Teruna; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to antigens is directed in part by the presence or absence of costimulatory signals. The ability to coincidently present both antigen and, for example, a peptide that inhibits or activates the costimulatory pathway, would be a valuable tool for tolerization or immunization, respectively. A simple reaction scheme utilizing oxime chemistry was identified as a means to efficiently conjugate different peptide species to hyaluronan. Peptides synthesized with an aminooxy N-terminus reacted directly to hyaluronan under slightly acidic aqueous conditions without the need for a catalyst. The resulting oxime bond was found to rapidly hydrolyze at pH 2 releasing peptide, but was stable at higher pH values (5.5 and 7). Two different peptide species, a multiple sclerosis antigen (PLP) and an ICAM-1 ligand (LABL) known to block immune cell stimulation, were functionalized with the aminooxy end group. These peptides showed similar reactivity to hyaluronan and were conjugated in an equimolar ratio. The resulting hyaluronan with grafted PLP and LABL significantly inhibited disease in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Aminooxy-peptides facilitate simple synthesis of multifunctional hyaluronan graft polymers, thus enabling novel approaches to antigen-specific immune modulation. PMID:23541930

  16. Field study of pneumonia in vaccinated cattle associated with incorrect vaccination and Pasteurella multocida infection.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, W M; Caldow, G L

    2015-04-25

    This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed.

  17. Associations between water quality, Pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.

  18. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Baranyuk, V.; Sileo, L.; Price, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%).

  19. Cloning and expression of the Pasteurella multocida toxin gene, toxA, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, S K; Foged, N T

    1989-01-01

    A chromosomal DNA library of a toxigenic type D strain of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida was established in Escherichia coli. From this library two clones, SPE308 and SPE312, were identified by using a monoclonal antibody against the osteoclast-stimulating P. multocida toxin (PMT). Extracts of these clones showed cytopathic activity identical to that of extracts of toxigenic P. multocida. The recombinant plasmids, pSPE308 and pSPE312, directed the synthesis of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 143,000 which could be specifically detected by anti-PMT antibody. The recombinant toxin, which was located in the cytoplasm of E. coli, was purified by affinity chromatography with immobilized monoclonal antibody and was shown to react in a manner identical to that of PMT in a quantitative structural test using a series of monoclonal antibodies as well as in all quantitative functional tests used, i.e., tests for dermonecrotic activity and mouse lethality and the embryonic bovine lung cell test for cytopathic activity. The gene encoding this toxic activity was named toxA and was found to be present in the chromosome of toxigenic strains only of P. multocida. A probe spanning the toxA gene therefore has potential in the diagnosis and surveillance of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs. Images PMID:2680987

  20. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine.

    PubMed

    Furian, Thales Quedi; Borges, Karen Apellanis; Laviniki, Vanessa; Rocha, Silvio Luis da Silveira; de Almeida, Camila Neves; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida. PMID:26887247

  1. Selective Membrane Redistribution and Depletion of Gαq-Protein by Pasteurella multocida Toxin.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Nathan C; Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A

    2016-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), the major virulence factor responsible for zoonotic atrophic rhinitis, is a protein deamidase that activates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Initial activation of G alpha-q-coupled phospholipase C-beta-1 signaling by PMT is followed by uncoupling of G alpha-q-dependent signaling, causing downregulation of downstream calcium and mitogenic signaling pathways. Here, we show that PMT decreases endogenous and exogenously expressed G alpha-q protein content in host cell plasma membranes and in detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fractions. This membrane depletion of G alpha-q protein was dependent upon the catalytic activity of PMT. Results indicate that PMT-modified G alpha-q redistributes within the host cell membrane from the DRM fraction into the soluble membrane and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, PMT had no affect on G alpha-s or G beta protein levels, which are not substrate targets of PMT. PMT also had no affect on G alpha-11 levels, even though G alpha-11 can serve as a substrate for deamidation by PMT, suggesting that membrane depletion of PMT-modified G-alpha-q has specificity.

  2. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    PubMed Central

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Lucía; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  3. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates from wetland ecosystems during 1996 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Wilson, M.A.; Joly, D.O.; Lehr, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We cultured 126 Pasteurella multocida isolates, 92 from water and 34 from sediment samples collected from wetlands in the Pacific and Central flyways of the United States between 1996 and 1999. Most (121) of the isolates were P. multocida serotype 1, but serotypes 3, 3/4, 10, and 11 were also found. Many (82) of the isolates were further characterized by DNA fingerprinting procedures and tested in Pekin ducks for virulence. Almost all the serotype 1 isolates we tested caused mortality in Pekin ducks. Serotype 1 isolates varied in virulence, but the most consistent pattern was higher mortality in male ducks than in females. We found no evidence that isolates found in sediment vs. water, between Pacific and Central flyways, or during El Nino years had consistently different virulence. We also found a number of non-serotype 1 isolates that were avirulent in Pekin ducks. Isolates had DNA fingerprint profiles similar to those found in birds that died during avian cholera outbreaks.

  4. Plasmid and restriction endonuclease patterns in Pasteurella multocida isolated from a swine pyramid.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, Xavier; Casal, Jordi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and plasmid profile were used to study the epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in a swine pyramid structure. The studied pyramid was comprised of a group of 12 swine farrow-to-finish farms related by unidirectional animal movement. P. multocida isolates were obtained from the lungs of 275 slaughtered pigs. Serotyping was performed by hyaluronidase sensitivity test and toxicity was investigated by the ELISA test. HpaII was used to cleave the P. multocida extracted DNA. REA patterns relationships were studied using the Sokal-Michener coefficients, and the dendrogram was built using the UPGMA system. The 218 P. multocida isolates obtained were distributed in 17 REA patterns. In 9 of the 12 farms studied only 2-3 REA patterns were detected, with one clearly predominant pattern. The 81 strains with plasmids were assigned to six plasmid profiles. REA and plasmid profiles proved to be good epidemiological tools for identifying different strains of P. multocida with the same phenotype.

  5. Selective Membrane Redistribution and Depletion of Gαq-Protein by Pasteurella multocida Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, Nathan C.; Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), the major virulence factor responsible for zoonotic atrophic rhinitis, is a protein deamidase that activates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Initial activation of G alpha-q-coupled phospholipase C-beta-1 signaling by PMT is followed by uncoupling of G alpha-q-dependent signaling, causing downregulation of downstream calcium and mitogenic signaling pathways. Here, we show that PMT decreases endogenous and exogenously expressed G alpha-q protein content in host cell plasma membranes and in detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fractions. This membrane depletion of G alpha-q protein was dependent upon the catalytic activity of PMT. Results indicate that PMT-modified G alpha-q redistributes within the host cell membrane from the DRM fraction into the soluble membrane and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, PMT had no affect on G alpha-s or G beta protein levels, which are not substrate targets of PMT. PMT also had no affect on G alpha-11 levels, even though G alpha-11 can serve as a substrate for deamidation by PMT, suggesting that membrane depletion of PMT-modified G-alpha-q has specificity. PMID:27490568

  6. Selective Membrane Redistribution and Depletion of Gαq-Protein by Pasteurella multocida Toxin.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Nathan C; Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), the major virulence factor responsible for zoonotic atrophic rhinitis, is a protein deamidase that activates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Initial activation of G alpha-q-coupled phospholipase C-beta-1 signaling by PMT is followed by uncoupling of G alpha-q-dependent signaling, causing downregulation of downstream calcium and mitogenic signaling pathways. Here, we show that PMT decreases endogenous and exogenously expressed G alpha-q protein content in host cell plasma membranes and in detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fractions. This membrane depletion of G alpha-q protein was dependent upon the catalytic activity of PMT. Results indicate that PMT-modified G alpha-q redistributes within the host cell membrane from the DRM fraction into the soluble membrane and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, PMT had no affect on G alpha-s or G beta protein levels, which are not substrate targets of PMT. PMT also had no affect on G alpha-11 levels, even though G alpha-11 can serve as a substrate for deamidation by PMT, suggesting that membrane depletion of PMT-modified G-alpha-q has specificity. PMID:27490568

  7. Regeneration of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida induced severe turbinate atrophy in pigs detected by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of swine caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida. The course of the disease is considered to be different depending on the principal aetiological agents distinguishing B. bronchiseptica induced non-progressive and toxigenic P. multocida produced progressive forms. In order to compare the pathological events of the two forms of the disease, the development of nasal lesions has longitudinally been studied in pigs infected by either B. bronchiseptica alone or B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida together using computed tomography to visualise the nasal structures. Results B. bronchiseptica infection alone caused moderately severe nasal turbinate atrophy and these lesions completely regenerated by the time of slaughter. Unexpectedly, complete regeneration of the bony structures of the nasal cavity was also observed in pigs infected by B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida together in spite of seeing severe turbinate atrophy in most of the infected animals around the age of six weeks. Conclusions B. bronchiseptica mono-infection has been confirmed to cause only mild to moderate and transient lesions, at least in high health status pigs. Even severe turbinate atrophy induced by B. bronchiseptica and toxigenic P. multocida combined infection is able to be reorganised to their normal anatomical structure. Computed tomography has further been verified to be a useful tool to examine the pathological events of atrophic rhinitis in a longitudinal manner. PMID:24171824

  8. Experimental Study of the Pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida Capsular Type B in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Katoch, S; Verma, L; Sharma, M; Asrani, R K; Kumar, S; Chahota, R; Verma, S

    2015-01-01

    The increased frequency of isolation of Pasteurella multocida capsular type B from rabbitries in north-western India prompted this investigation into the role of this organism in inducing disease in rabbits. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups of five animals. Group I rabbits were infected intranasally (IN) with 1 ml of inoculum containing 2 × 10(5) colony forming units/ml, while rabbits in group II were given 1 ml phosphate buffered saline IN. The rabbits in group I developed respiratory distress, increased rectal temperature and severe dyspnoea, with death occurring 24-48 h post infection. The main pathological findings were severe congestion and haemorrhage in the trachea, fibrinopurulent pneumonia, bacteraemia and septicaemia. The nasal secretions of all group I animals contained P. multocida. These observations indicate that in addition to P. multocida capsular types A and D, P. multocida capsular type B can also be highly pathogenic for rabbits.

  9. Serotypes and DNA fingerprint profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolated from raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida isolates from 21 raptors were examined by DNA fingerprint profile and serotyping methods. Isolates were obtained from noncaptive birds of prey found in 11 states from November 28, 1979, through February 10, 1993. Nine isolates were from bald eagles, and the remaining isolates were from hawks, falcons, and owls. Seven isolates were members of capsule group A, and 14 were nonencapsulated. One isolate was identified as somatic type 3, and another was type 3,4,7; both had unique HhaI DNA fingerprint profiles. Nineteen isolates expressed somatic type 1 antigen; HhaI profiles of all type 1 isolates were identical to each other and to the HhaI profile of the reference somatic type 1, strain X-73. The 19 type 1 isolates were differentiated by sequential digestion of DNA with HpaII; four HpaII fingerprint profiles were obtained. The HpaII profile of one isolate was identical to the HpaII profile of strain X-73. Incidence of P. multocida somatic type 1 in raptors suggests that this type may be prevalent in other wildlife or wildlife environments.

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of class C acid phosphatases from Francisella tularensis and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkewal; Felts, Richard L.; Ma, Li; Malinski, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Class C nonspecific acid phosphatases are bacterial enzymes that are secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane and hydrolyze a variety of phosphomono­esters at acidic pH. These enzymes are of interest for the development of improved vaccines and clinical diagnostic methods. In one case, the category A pathogen Francisella tularensis, the class C phosphatase plays a role in bacterial fitness. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization methods for the class C acid phosphatases from F. tularensis and Pasteurella multocida are reported. Crystals of the F. tularensis enzyme diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221, with one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of the P. multocida enzyme diffracted to 1.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with three molecules in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction patterns from crystals of the P. multocida enzyme exhibited multiple interpenetrating reciprocal-space lattices, indicating epitaxial twinning. Despite this aberrance, autoindexing was robust and the data could be satisfactorily processed to 1.85 Å resolution using MOSFLM and SCALA. PMID:19255471

  11. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens and japanese quails in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Blackall, Patrick Joseph; Maluta, Renato Pariz; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed to verify the presence of Pasteurella multocida in eight different poultry groups of 90 birds each. Groups I to IV were chickens (I being > 6 weeks of age with a history of respiratory illness, II > 6 weeks of age and free of respiratory illness, III < 6 weeks of age with respiratory illness and IV being < 6 weeks of age and with no respiratory illness. Groups V to VIII had the matching characteristics of Groups I to V but consisted of Japanese Quails. The P. multocida isolation rate from the groups was as follows; Group I 56/90 (62.3%) Group II 18/90 (20.0%), Group III 12/90 (13.3%), Group IV 3/90 (3.33%), Group V 8/90 (8.88%), Group VI 2/90 (2.22%) Group VII 2/90 (2.22%) and Group VIII 1/90 (1.11%). These isolation rates were not significantly different within the groups of a bird type but the overall chicken isolation rate was significantly higher than the quail isolation rate (p < 0.01). All isolates were examined for their sensitivity to four antimicrobial agents. The results showed only low levels of resistance to the agents tested. The highest level of resistance detected was to cephalothin (5.1% of isolates) followed by amikacin (3.4%). PMID:24159299

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis employing avian antisera for the detection and quantitation of Pasteurella multocida antigens.

    PubMed

    McKinney, K L; Rimler, R B

    1981-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis with various buffer systems at high and low pH was examined for suitability to detect and quantitate Pasteurella multocida antigens with turkey or chicken anti-P. multocida sera. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis was used to develop a buffer system for one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The effects of pH, buffer, and molarity on resolution of immunoprecipitates were determined; 0.05 M sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer at pH 5.6 was the most suitable buffer. This buffer could be used in counterimmunoelectrophoresis with turkey or chicken sera to detect minute amounts of P. multocida protein antigens (4.3 ng/test) or lipopolysaccharide (3.12 micrograms/test). One-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis with the acetate buffer system required treatment of the gels with a 17% NaCl solution to induce immunoprecipitation of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide. Other techniques using the acetate buffer system did not require the high salt treatment. In two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, antisera migrated in the second dimension at pH 8.6, but did not migrate at pH 5.6. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis with the acetate buffer system was effective for quantitating P. multocida antigens.

  13. Plasmid and restriction endonuclease patterns in Pasteurella multocida isolated from a swine pyramid.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, Xavier; Casal, Jordi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and plasmid profile were used to study the epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in a swine pyramid structure. The studied pyramid was comprised of a group of 12 swine farrow-to-finish farms related by unidirectional animal movement. P. multocida isolates were obtained from the lungs of 275 slaughtered pigs. Serotyping was performed by hyaluronidase sensitivity test and toxicity was investigated by the ELISA test. HpaII was used to cleave the P. multocida extracted DNA. REA patterns relationships were studied using the Sokal-Michener coefficients, and the dendrogram was built using the UPGMA system. The 218 P. multocida isolates obtained were distributed in 17 REA patterns. In 9 of the 12 farms studied only 2-3 REA patterns were detected, with one clearly predominant pattern. The 81 strains with plasmids were assigned to six plasmid profiles. REA and plasmid profiles proved to be good epidemiological tools for identifying different strains of P. multocida with the same phenotype. PMID:11731160

  14. Blood bactericidal assay (Pasteurella haemolytica) comparison of morbidity in marketed feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Richards, A B; Foster, G S

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro bactericidal assay that used bovine heparinized blood was investigated for its usefulness in detecting differences in the bactericidal immunity of calves against Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 (Ph1). Greater than 90% of killing occurred within 30 minutes. The substitution of fetal calf serum for autologous calf plasma caused loss of bactericidal activity of the blood. Decomplemented calf serum also was low in bactericidal activity. The blood bactericidal assay appears to be opsonin antibody-dependent and complement-dependent. The coefficient of variation (CV) that can be expected with this assay was established by use of a group of 8 calves; within-day CV maximum was 0.9, and between-day CV maximum was 2.1. The blood bactericidal assay was used to evaluate 30 calves under typical market stress from 4 farms in eastern Tennessee. All calves had decreased bactericidal activity, as they moved into a feedyard in Texas. The bactericidal activity was reduced among sick calves, based on the severity of clinical signs. Morbidity was highest during the first 14 days in the feedlot. During this period, healthy calves had a decreased bactericidal index (BI) of 4 points, and calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 3 days had a decreased BI of 8 points. The average reduction in the BI of calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 6 or more days was 14 points. PMID:2719384

  15. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  16. Exposure of calves to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, P D; Maxie, M G; Wilkie, B N; Savan, M; Valli, V E; Johnson, J A

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether sequential exposure to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus followed by Pasteurella haemolytica, or P. haemolytica followed by parainfluenza-3 virus, could lead to the production of pulmonary lesions in conventionally-raised calves. Twenty male calves with low serum antibody titres to both organisms were placed in five equal groups. Synergism of parainfluenza-3 virus and P. haemolytica was not demonstrated in any of the sequentially infected groups and pulmonary lesions were mild in all challenged calves. Clinical signs of disease were not present after exposure to parainfluenza-3 virus although the virus was repeatedly isolated from nasal secretions of all inoculated calves. Exposure to P. haemolytica produced a transient response which consisted of increased rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, with a mild neutrophilic leukocytosis and a mild left shift present six hours postinoculation and returning to normal within 24 hours. Results from this study suggest, although do not confirm, that reduced pulmonary clearance of inhaled P. haemolytica in parainfluenza-3 virus infected calves does not necessarily lead to production of severe pulmonary lesions and that previous exposure to aerosols of P. haemolytica may not enhance secondary parainfluenza-3 virus infection. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6320999

  17. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R2 = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest. PMID:26257726

  18. Genomic characterization of Pasteurella multocida HB01, a serotype A bovine isolate from China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Bin; Tang, Biao; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-04-25

    Pasteurella multocida infects various domestic and feral animals, generally causing clinical disease. To investigate P. multocida disease in cattle, we sequenced the complete genome of P. multocida HB01 (GenBank accession CP006976), a serotype A organism isolated from a cow in China. The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of 2,416,068 base pairs containing 2212 protein-coding sequences, 6 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 56 tRNA genes. The present study confirms that P. multocida HB01 possesses a more complete metabolic pathway with an intact trichloroacetic acid cycle for anabolism compared with A. pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. This is the first time that this metabolic mechanism of P. multocida has been described. We also identified a full spectrum of genes related to known virulence factors of P. multocida. The differences in virulence factors between strains of different serotypes and origins were also compared. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the metabolic pathways, genetic basis of serotype, and virulence of P. multocida. PMID:26827796

  19. Development of OMP based indirect ELISA to gauge the antibody titers in bovines against Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, V; Verma, S; Singh, G; Wani, A. H; Chahota, R; Dhar, P; Verma, L; Sharma, M

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important pathogen of various domestic animals. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a major role in pathogenesis and immunogenicity of P. multocida. The aim of the study was to develop indirect enzyme linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) based on OMPs to ascertain the antibody titers in animals post-infection or to gauge the potency of vaccine. The OMPs were extracted and purified from P. multocida P:52 (vaccine strain) and P. multocida B:2 isolated from natural outbreak of Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and analyzed on SDS PAGE and through western blot. The OMPs profile of the vaccine strain and the isolate from the natural outbreak of HS were found to be similar. Optimization of various components viz. coating antigens, anti-species conjugate, etc. were carried out against both anti-P. multocida hyper immune and pre immune serum. Validation of OMP based indirect ELISA assay to measure immune response against P. multocida in bovine revealed 91% diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and about 100% diagnostic specificity (DSP) at 25% cut off. OMP based indirect ELISA was found to be more specific, but less sensitive as compared to WCL based assay. PMID:27175202

  20. Antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in snow geese in the western Arctic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M D; Shadduck, D J; Goldberg, D R; Baranyuk, V; Sileo, L; Price, J I

    1999-07-01

    To determine if lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) are a potential reservoir for the Pasteurella multocida bacterium that causes avian cholera, serum samples and/or pharyngeal swabs were collected from > 3,400 adult geese breeding on Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) during 1993-1996. Pharyngeal swab sampling rarely (> 0.1%) detected birds that were exposed to P. multocida in these populations. Geese with serum antibody levels indicating recent infection with P. multocida were found at both breeding colonies. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 3.5% at Wrangel Island, an area that has no recorded history of avian cholera epizootics. Prevalence of seropositive birds was 2.8% at Banks Island in 1994, but increased to 8.2% during 1995 and 1996 when an estimated 40,000-60,000 snow geese were infected. Approximately 50% of the infected birds died during the epizootic and a portion of the surviving birds may have become carriers of the disease. This pattern of prevalence indicated that enzootic levels of infection with P. multocida occurred at both breeding colonies. When no avian cholera epizootics occurred (Wrangel Island, Banks Island in 1994), female snow geese (4.7%) had higher antibody prevalence than males (2.0%). PMID:10479077

  1. Partial Characterization of R-Plasmids from Pasteurella multocida Isolated from Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Stephen M.; Hirsh, Dwight C.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, isolated from turkeys during an outbreak of septicemic disease (“fowl cholera”), was found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. Agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of DNA from these isolates indicated the presence of extrachromosomal elements. Plasmid DNA was isolated by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide density centrifugation. Escherichia coli was transformed to antimicrobic resistance with this DNA. Two plasmids were isolated. One of these plasmids had a buoyant density of 1.7158 g/cm3 (56.9 mol% guanine plus cytosine) and a molecular weight of 4.4 × 106 and conferred resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. The other, having a buoyant density of 1.7198 g/cm3 (61 mol% guanine plus cytosine) and a molecular weight of 3.44 × 106, conferred resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamides. Streptomycin resistance was mediated by streptomycin phosphotransferase. Compatibility group testing indicated that neither plasmid belonged to any of 13 compatibility groups (of conjugal plasmids). Both plasmids were also found to be compatible with three small, nonconjugative resistance plasmids. Images PMID:708012

  2. Linalool attenuates lung inflammation induced by Pasteurella multocida via activating Nrf-2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qianchao; Yu, Lijun; Qiu, Jiaming; Shen, Bingyu; Wang, Di; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Feng, Haihua

    2014-08-01

    Pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida manifest often as respiratory infection in farmed small ruminants. Although the incidence of pasteurellosis due to P. multocida mainly takes the form of pneumonia, there is limited information on host factors that play a role in disease pathogenesis in the milieu of host-pathogen interactions. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), a critical regulator for various inflammatory and immune responses by controlling oxidative stress, may play an important role in the processes of inflammation induced by P. multocida. In this study, linalool, a natural compound of the essential oils in several aromatic plant species, elevated nuclear Nrf-2 protein translocation in the A549 lung cell line and in vivo. The P. multocida-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression was abrogated by Nrf-2 siRNA. Postponed treatment with linalool decreased lung neutrophil accumulation and enhanced clearance of P. multocida. Furthermore, linalool significantly increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes regulated by Nrf-2 and diminished lung tissue levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, animals treated with linalool had a marked improvement in survival. These findings have uncovered that linalool acts as a novel Nrf-2 activator for a novel therapeutic strategy in pathogen-mediated lung inflammation.

  3. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R (2) = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition.

  5. Pasteurella multocida Toxin as a Transporter of Non-Cell-Permeating Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Stefan; Jehle, Doris; Schwan, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The protein toxin Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is the causative agent of atrophic rhinitis in pigs, leading to atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones by affecting osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The mechanism of PMT-induced intoxication is a deamidation of α-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gαq, Gα13, and Gαi, thereby causing persistent activation of the G proteins. Here we utilized PMT as a transporter of the non-cell-permeating A domain of diphtheria toxin (DTa). Fusion proteins of PMT and DTa ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2, the natural target of diphtheria toxin, leading to cell toxicity. PMT-DTa effects were competed by PMT, indicating binding to the same cell surface receptor. Fluorescently labeled PMT-DTa and PMT colocalized with specific markers of early and late endosomes. Bafilomycin A, which inhibits vacuolar H+-ATPase, blocked PMT-DTa-induced intoxication of HEK-293 cells. By constructing various PMT-DTa chimeras, we identified a minimal region of PMT necessary for uptake of DTa. The data suggest that PMT is able to transport cargo proteins into eukaryotic cells by utilizing the PMT-specific uptake route. PMID:23630953

  6. Identification procedure for Pasteurella pneumotropica in microbiologic monitoring of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Aiba, Takeshi; Itoh, Kikuji; Kato, Megumi; Kawamoto, Eiichi; Kiyokawa, Sumito; Morichika, Yoko; Muraguchi, Takehiko; Narita, Teruo; Okajima, Yasuo; Takakura, Akira; Itoh, Toshio

    2005-04-01

    Discrepancies have been recognized in the identification of Pasteurella pneumotropica between testing laboratories. To determine the causes of the differences and to propose a reliable identification procedure for P. pneumotropica, a working group was organized and 69 isolates identified or suspected as P. pneumotropica were collected from 8 laboratories in Japan. These isolates were examined by colony morphology, Gram-staining, the slide agglutination test using two antisera (ATCC35149 and MaR), two commercially available biochemical test kits (ID test, API20NE) and two primer sets of PCR tests (Wang PCR, CIEA PCR). The 69 isolates and two reference strains were divided into 10 groups by test results. No single procedure for P. pneumotropica identification was found. Among tested isolates, large differences were not observed by colony morphology and Gram-straining except for colony colors that depended on their biotypes. Sixty-eight out of 69 isolates were positive by the slide agglutination test using two antisera except for one isolate that tested with one antiserum. The ID test identified 61 out of 69 isolates as P. pneumotropica and there was no large difference from the results of CIEA PCR. From these results, we recommend the combination of colony observation, Gram-straining, the slide agglutination tests with two antisera and biochemical test using the ID test for practical and reliable identification of this organism.

  7. Molecular studies of Ssa1, a serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, R Y; Strathdee, C A; Shewen, P E; Cooney, B J

    1991-01-01

    A serotype-specific antigen of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 encoded on the recombinant plasmid pSSA1 is characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the insert DNA in pSSA1 identified the gene ssaI, which codes for a protein of approximately 100 kDa. In vivo labeling of pSSA1-encoded protein in Escherichia coli maxicells showed the expression of a 100-kDa protein from the insert DNA on the recombinant plasmid. Northern blot and primer extension analyses were used to identify the mRNA transcript in P. haemolytica A1 and the putative promoter of ssaI. The antigen (designated Ssa1) could be localized to the outer membrane of P. haemolytica A1 and E. coli clones carrying pSSA1. A rabbit serum against Ssa1 was produced by using whole cells of E. coli expressing Ssa1 on the surface as the immunogen, demonstrating that Ssa1 is immunogenic in rabbits. The results from colony immunoblot analysis with calf serum from animals that were resistant to P. haemolytica A1-induced pneumonia suggest indirectly that Ssa1 is also immunogenic in the animals. Images PMID:1840576

  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 glycoprotease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, K M; Lo, R Y; Mellors, A

    1991-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 secretes a glycoprotease which is specific for O-sialoglycoproteins such as glycophorin A. The gene encoding the glycoprotease enzyme has been cloned in the recombinant plasmid pH1, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The gene (designated gcp) codes for a protein of 35.2 kDa, and an active enzyme protein of this molecular mass can be observed in Escherichia coli clones carrying pPH1. In vivo labeling of plasmid-encoded proteins in E. coli maxicells demonstrated the expression of a 35-kDa protein from pPH1. The amino-terminal sequence of the heterologously expressed protein corresponds to that predicted from the nucleotide sequence. The glycoprotease is a neutral metalloprotease, and the predicted amino acid sequence of the glycoprotease contains a putative zinc-binding site. The gene shows no significant homology with the genes for other proteases of procaryotic or eucaryotic origin. However, there is substantial homology between gcp and an E. coli gene, orfX, whose product is believed to function in the regulation of macromolecule biosynthesis. Images PMID:1885539

  9. Sialoglycoprotease of Pasteurella haemolytica A1: detection of antisialoglycoprotease antibodies in sera of calves.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E; Cladman, W M; Conlon, J A; Mellors, A; Lo, R Y

    1994-01-01

    Log phase culture supernate from Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 1 contains a proteolytic enzyme specific for O-sialoglycoproteins. Using two methods, Western immunoblotting and enzyme neutralization assay, it was demonstrated that certain bovine sera from two previous P. haemolytica A1 vaccination and challenge trials contained antibodies (Ab) (isotypes IgG1 and IgG2 on Western immunoblot) to the sialoglycoprotease (Gcp). In these trials, selected calves were vaccinated twice with either the commercial culture supernate vaccine Presponse or given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). One trial was conducted during spring, P. haem XIX, and the other during the winter, P. haem XXI. Although there was no clear evidence for induction of anti-Gcp in response to vaccination, several calves seroconverted following intrapulmonary challenge with live P. haemolytica A1. This is the first report of anti-Gcp Ab in bovine sera. The results indicated that the Gcp is immunogenic and that the bacterium produces the enzyme in vivo. Further, animals with an anti-Gcp response had less pneumonia at necropsy, suggesting the Gcp may induce protective immunity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:8004547

  10. Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 contains the gene for a noncapsular serotype 1-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, C T; Maheswaran, S K; Murtaugh, M P

    1995-01-01

    An ssa1-homologous genomic fragment cloned from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 (ST2) enabled transformation of Escherichia coli DH5 alpha to a serotype 1 (ST1) phenotype through expression of the ST1-specific antigen (Ssa1). The Ssa1 protein expressed by ssa1-transformed E. coli was susceptible to heat and protease treatment and was distinct from P. haemolytica ST1-specific capsular polysaccharide. Electrophoretic analysis of in vitro-translated proteins, as well as the predicted amino acid sequence, demonstrated that Ssa1 proteins encoded from either ST1- or ST2-derived ssa1 genes were essentially identical. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of ssa1 genes derived from P. haemolytica ST1 and ST2 revealed greater than 99% homology. Amino acid sequence homology of the predicted products of ST1- and ST2-derived ssa1 genes was greater than 98%. Northern (RNA) blot studies revealed that the presence of an increased level of ssa1 transcript in P. haemolytica ST1 grown as surface-adherent cultures on solid medium was correlated with a serologically detectable Ssa1 protein. Expression of the ssa1 transcript in ST1 was similarly upregulated by a high iron concentration in the growth medium. PMID:7890392

  11. In vitro and in vivo pathogenicity studies of Pasteurella multocida strains harbouring different ompA.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Shailja; Sharma, Mandeep; Patil, R D; Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Subhash

    2014-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found as normal flora in nasopharynx of variety of wild and domestic animals. Numerous virulence factors have been described for P. multocida isolates which include adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsule and a variety of outer membrane proteins (Omp). OmpA has a significant role in stabilizing the cell envelope structure by providing physical linkage between the outer membrane & peptidoglycan. It has been shown to mediate P. multocida -host cells interaction via heparin and/or fibronectin binding and therefore act as an important invasive molecule which could determine the final outcome of initial infection. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of ompA gene of P. multocida has revealed that despite extensive genetic diversity in ompA of P. multocida, most sequences could be classified into two major allele classes namely ompA allele (I) and allele (II). The P. multocida recovered from nasal cavity of bovine and belonging to two ompA classes were tested for their differential virulence. In vitro pathogenicity studies on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line employing adhesion and invasion assays indicated that P. multocida strain with ompA (I) is more invasive than P. multocida strain with ompA (II). In vivo studies in mice further reiterated that the isolates harbouring ompA(I) were comparatively more virulent to isolates harbouring ompA (II).

  12. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump; and mph(E), which encodes a macrolide-inactivating phosphotransferase. Here, we describe a multiplex PCR assay that detects the presence of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) and differentiates between these genes. In addition, the assay distinguishes P. multocida from M. haemolytica by amplifying distinctive fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica and correlated with MICs for the veterinary macrolides tulathromycin and tilmicosin, and the newer compounds gamithromycin and tildipirosin. The multiplex PCR system gives a rapid and robustly accurate determination of macrolide resistance genotypes and bacterial genus, matching results from microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:22564832

  13. Combining colloidal probe atomic force and reflection interference contrast microscopy to study the compressive mechanics of hyaluronan brushes.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-02-14

    We describe a method that combines colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to characterize the mechanical properties of thin and solvated polymer films. When analyzing polymer films, a fundamental problem in colloidal probe AFM experiments is to determine the distance at closest approach between the probe and the substrate on which the film is deposited. By combining AFM and RICM in situ, forces and absolute distances can be measured simultaneously. Using the combined setup, we quantify the compressive mechanics of films of the polysaccharide hyaluronan that is end-grafted to a supported lipid bilayer. The experimental data, and comparison with polymer theory, show that hyaluronan films are well-described as elastic, very soft and highly solvated polymer brushes. The data on these well-defined films should be a useful reference for the investigation of the more complex hyaluronan-rich coats that surround many living cells.

  14. An occurrence of equine transport pneumonia caused by mixed infection with Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Komae, H; Ide, H; Nakagawa, H; Yoshida, Y; Kamada, M; Kataoka, Y; Nakazawa, M

    1993-06-01

    An acute death occurred in a racehorse with pneumonia after long-distance transportation in December, 1990. Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus were isolated from the lung at high rate. Specific antigens of these bacteria were also demonstrated immunohistologically in the pneumonic lesion. These findings indicated that the disease is equine transport pneumonia caused by a mixed infection of the three bacterial species. This is the first report on the isolation of P. caballi and S. suis from a racehorse in Japan. PMID:8357920

  15. Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Zamora-Espinosa, José Luis; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. This is the first report of capsular type A in P. multocida isolates from rabbits and duck origin in Mexico.

  16. Extracellular matrix hyaluronan signals via its CD44 receptor in the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, L F; Araldi, D; Bogen, O; Levine, J D

    2016-06-01

    We propose that the extracellular matrix (ECM) signals CD44, a hyaluronan receptor, to increase the responsiveness to mechanical stimulation in the rat hind paw. We report that intradermal injection of hyaluronidase induces mechanical hyperalgesia, that is inhibited by co-administration of a CD44 receptor antagonist, A5G27. The intradermal injection of low (LMWH) but not high (HMWH) molecular weight hyaluronan also induces mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect that was attenuated by pretreatment with HMWH or A5G27. Pretreatment with HMWH also attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by hyaluronidase. Similarly, intradermal injection of A6, a CD44 receptor agonist, produced hyperalgesia that was inhibited by HMWH and A5G27. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and Src, but not protein kinase C (PKC), significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by both A6 and LMWH. Finally, to determine if CD44 receptor signaling is involved in a preclinical model of inflammatory pain, we evaluated the effect of A5G27 and HMWH on the mechanical hyperalgesia associated with the inflammation induced by carrageenan. Both A5G27 and HMWH attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, while LMWH acts at its cognate receptor, CD44, to induce mechanical hyperalgesia, HMWH acts at the same receptor as an antagonist. That the local administration of HMWH or A5G27 inhibits carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia supports the suggestion that carrageenan produces changes in the ECM that contributes to inflammatory pain. These studies define a clinically relevant role for signaling by the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, in increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:26996509

  17. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Anna; Zeug, Andre; Skupien, Anna; Kaza, Beata; Mueller, Franziska; Chwedorowicz, Agnieszka; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis), we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a “stellate”-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological changes of

  18. Identification, design and synthesis of tubulin-derived peptides as novel hyaluronan mimetic ligands for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR).

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Tolg, Cornelia; Akentieva, Natalia; Price, Matthew; Cho, Choi-Fong; Lewis, John D; McCarthy, James B; Turley, Eva A; Luyt, Leonard G

    2015-12-01

    Fragments of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) promote tissue inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. HA fragments act through HA receptors including CD44, LYVE1, TLR2, 4 and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR). RHAMM is a multifunctional protein with both intracellular and extracellular roles in cell motility and proliferation. Extracellular RHAMM binds directly to HA fragments while intracellular RHAMM binds directly to ERK1 and tubulin. Both HA and regions of tubulin (s-tubulin) are anionic and bind to basic amino acid-rich regions in partner proteins, such as in HA and tubulin binding regions of RHAMM. We used this as a rationale for developing bioinformatics and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) based screening to identify high affinity anionic RHAMM peptide ligands. A library of 12-mer peptides was prepared based on the carboxyl terminal tail sequence of s-tubulin isoforms and assayed for their ability to bind to the HA/tubulin binding region of recombinant RHAMM using SPR. This approach resulted in the isolation of three 12-mer peptides with nanomolar affinity for RHAMM. These peptides bound selectively to RHAMM but not to CD44 or TLR2,4 and blocked RHAMM:HA interactions. Furthermore, fluorescein-peptide uptake by PC3MLN4 prostate cancer cells was blocked by RHAMM mAb but not by CD44 mAb. These peptides also reduced the ability of prostate cancer cells to degrade collagen type I. The selectivity of these novel HA peptide mimics for RHAMM suggest their potential for development as HA mimetic imaging and therapeutic agents for HA-promoted disease.

  19. More than just a filler - the role of hyaluronan for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Ulf; Simon, Jan C; Averbeck, Marco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, hyaluronan (HA) has become an increasingly attractive substance as a non-immunogenic filler and scaffolding material in cosmetic dermatology. Despite its wide use for skin augmentation and rejuvenation, relatively little is known about the molecular structures and interacting proteins of HA in normal and diseased skin. However, a comprehensive understanding of cutaneous HA homeostasis is required for future the development of HA-based applications for skin regeneration. This review provides an update on HA-based structures, expression, metabolism and its regulation, function and pharmacological targeting of HA in skin.

  20. Clinical Performance and Biocompatibility of Novel Hyaluronan-Based Heparin-Bonded Extracorporeal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Mccusker, Kevin; Vijay, Venkataramana

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We tested documented in vitro and ex vivo advantages of novel hyaluronan based heparin bonded extracorporeal circuits in a prospective randomized study. During the period from June until September 2005, 40 patients undergoing reoperation for coronary artery bypass grafting were allocated into two equal groups (n = 20): Group 1 was treated with hyaluronan-based heparin-bonded circuits and group 2 was treated with uncoated control circuits. Complete blood count, fibrinogen, albumin, C3a, interleukin-2 levels, and thromboelastographic data were documented after induction of anesthesia (T1) and heparin administration before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2), 15 minutes after initiation of CPB (T3), before cessation of CPB (T4), 15 minutes after reversal with protamine (T5), and the first postoperative day at 8:00 a.m. (T6). Hollow fibers were collected for consecutive biomaterial analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desorbed protein deposition on fibers was compared by spectrophotometry. Leukocyte counts were lower in T4-T6 in group 1 (p < .05). Platelet counts demonstrated significant differences at T4 and T5 in coated group (p < .05). Albumin and fibrinogen levels were better preserved in Group 1 at T4, T5 and T4, T6, consecutively (p < .05). C3a and IL-2 levels were lower at T3-T5 and T4-T5 in intervention group (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage was 412 ± 50 mL in group 1 and 684 ± 50 ml in group 2 (p < .05). Respiratory support time was shorter in group 1 versus control (p < .05). Platelet adhesion was significantly lower in intervention group. Amount of desorbed protein was 1.44 ± 0.01 mg/dL in group 1 and 1.94 ± 0.01 mg/dL in control (p < .05). SEM and spectrophotometry demonstrated better surface preservation in the hyaluronan coated group. Novel hyaluronan-based heparin-bonded circuits reduce platelet adhesion-aggregation and protein adsorption and provide better perioperative clinical parameters through platelet, albumin

  1. Inhibition of growth and alteration of host cell interactions of Pasteurella multocida with natural byproducts.

    PubMed

    Salaheen, S; Almario, J A; Biswas, D

    2014-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of fowl cholera in both free-range pasture and conventional/commercially raised poultry. Its infection is a serious threat to poultry health and overall flock viability. Organic poultry is comparatively more vulnerable to this pathogen. It is a significant cause of production loss and price increase of poultry products, specifically organic poultry products. Some plant products are well documented as sources of natural antimicrobials such as polyphenols found in different berry pomaces and citrus oil. Pomace, a byproduct (primarily of seeds and skins) of fruits used for juice and wine production, and citrus oil, the byproduct of citrus juice production, show promising antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. Here, we showed for the first time that blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts and citrus oil inhibited P. multocida growth. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined as 0.3 and 0.4 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent for blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts, respectively. Similarly, only 0.05% citrus oil (vol/vol) completely inhibited P. multocida growth. Under shaking conditions, the antimicrobial activity of both pomace extracts and citrus oil was more intensive. Even citrus oil vapor also significantly reduced the growth of P. multocida. In addition, cell surface hydrophobicity of P. multocida was increased by 2- to 3-fold and its adherence to chicken fibroblast (DF1) and bovine mammary gland (MacT) cells was reduced significantly in the presence of pomace extracts only. This study indicates that these natural products might be good alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents, and hence, may be used as feed or water supplements to control fowl cholera and reduce production loss caused by P. multocida. PMID:24879687

  2. Proximity-Dependent Inhibition of Growth of Mannheimia haemolytica by Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Kugadas, Abirami; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Call, Douglas R.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia trehalosi have been identified in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis). Of these pathogens, M. haemolytica has been shown to consistently cause fatal pneumonia in BHS under experimental conditions. However, M. haemolytica has been isolated by culture less frequently than the other bacteria. We hypothesized that the growth of M. haemolytica is inhibited by other bacteria in the lungs of BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether P. multocida inhibits the growth of M. haemolytica. Although in monoculture both bacteria exhibited similar growth characteristics, in coculture with P. multocida there was a clear inhibition of growth of M. haemolytica. The inhibition was detected at mid-log phase and continued through the stationary phase. When cultured in the same medium, the growth of M. haemolytica was inhibited when both bacteria were separated by a membrane that allowed contact (pore size, 8.0 μm) but not when they were separated by a membrane that limited contact (pore size, 0.4 μm). Lytic bacteriophages or bactericidal compounds could not be detected in the culture supernatant fluid from monocultures of P. multocida or from P. multocida-M. haemolytica cocultures. These results indicate that P. multocida inhibits the growth of M. haemolytica by a contact- or proximity-dependent mechanism. If the inhibition of growth of M. haemolytica by P. multocida occurs in vivo as well, it could explain the inconsistent isolation of M. haemolytica from the lungs of pneumonic BHS. PMID:22798357

  3. The effect of concurrent infections with Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli on free range chickens.

    PubMed

    Dahl, C; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M; Muhairwa, A P; Petersen, K M D; Poulsen, J S D; Jensen, A L

    2002-05-24

    Pasteurella multocida and Ascaridia galli are observed with high prevalences in free range chickens in Denmark, but the impact is unknown. A study was carried out to examine the interaction between A. galli and P. multocida in chickens and the impact on production. Five groups, each with 20 18-week-old Lohmann Brown chickens were infected. Group 1 was orally infected with 1000+/-50 embryonated A. galli eggs. Group 2 received 10(4) cfu P. multocida intratracheally. Group 3 was infected with A. galli and subsequently with P. multocida. Group 4 was infected with P. multocida followed by A. galli. Group 5 was the control. The study ran for 11 weeks where clinical manifestations, weight gain and egg production were recorded. Excretion of P. multocida was determined on individual basis and blood smears were made for differential counts. At the end of the study pathological lesions and the number of adult worms, larvae and eggs in the faeces were recorded. The birds were more severely affected when infected with both pathogens compared to single infections with A. galli or P. multocida, respectively. A lower weight gain and egg production was observed with dual infections. A. galli infection followed by a secondary P. multocida infection resulted in more birds with pathological lesions and continued P. multocida excretion. In conclusion a negative interaction between A. galli and P. multocida was observed and it is postulated that free range chickens are at higher risk of being subjected to outbreaks of fowl cholera when they are infected with A. galli.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin in healthy and Pasteurella multocida infected ducks.

    PubMed

    Tohamy, M A

    2011-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of orbifloxacin were studied in both healthy and naturally diseased ducks after a single intravenous and intramuscular dose of 5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight. The serum concentrations of orbifloxacin following single intravenous and intramuscular injections were higher in diseased than in healthy ducks. The disposition of orbifloxacin after a single intravenous injection was described by a two-compartment open model in both healthy and diseased ducks. Orbifloxacin was distributed and eliminated at a significantly slower rate in diseased than in healthy ducks. The total body clearance (Cl(B)) was lower in diseased (0·131 l kg⁻¹h⁻¹) than healthy ducks (0·191 l kg⁻¹h⁻¹). Following intramuscular administration of orbifloxacin, the peak serum concentration (C(max)) was higher in diseased than in healthy ducks, and this was achieved at a maximum time (t(max)) of 1·114 and 0·993 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated at a significant slower rate in diseased ducks (elimination half-life t (0·5(el))= 5·07 h) than in healthy ducks (elimination half-life t (0·5(el))= 4·18 h). These results indicate that drug elimination patterns in healthy and diseased ducks are not the same. The pharmacokinetic profile of the drug is altered in diseased ducks due to the increased serum orbifloxacin concentrations compared with clinically healthy ducks. In conclusion, 5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight of orbifloxacin administered as a single dose once daily could be useful in the treatment of disease caused by Pasteurella multocida pathogen in ducks.

  5. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Smith, Susan R.; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 × 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  6. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Miyamoto, A.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 ?? 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission.

  7. Localization of the Intracellular Activity Domain of Pasteurella multocida Toxin to the N Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brenda A.; Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Ho, Mengfei

    1999-01-01

    We have shown that Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) directly causes transient activation of Gqα protein that is coupled to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cβ1 in Xenopus oocytes (B. A. Wilson, X. Zhu, M. Ho, and L. Lu, J. Biol. Chem. 272:1268–1275, 1997). We found that antibodies directed against an N-terminal peptide of PMT inhibited the toxin-induced response in Xenopus oocytes, but antibodies against a C-terminal peptide did not. To test whether the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N terminus, we conducted a deletion mutational analysis of the PMT protein, using the Xenopus oocyte system as a means of screening for toxin activity. Using PCR and conventional cloning techniques, we cloned from a toxinogenic strain of P. multocida the entire toxA gene, encoding the 1,285-amino-acid PMT protein, and expressed the recombinant toxin as a His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. We subsequently generated a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletion mutants and expressed the His-tagged PMT fragments in E. coli. These proteins were screened for cytotoxic activity on cultured Vero cells and for intracellular activity in the Xenopus oocyte system. Only the full-length protein without the His tag exhibited activity on Vero cells. The full-length PMT and N-terminal fragments containing the first 500 residues elicited responses in oocytes, but the C-terminal 780 amino acid fragment did not. Our results confirm that the intracellular activity domain of PMT is localized to the N-terminal 500 amino acids of the protein and that the C terminus is required for entry into cells. PMID:9864199

  8. A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction for identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Miyamoto, Amy; Shadduck, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    A serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection and identification of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1, the causative agent of avian cholera in wild waterfowl. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to detect DNA fragments that distinguish serotype 1 from the other 15 serotypes of P. multocida (with the exception of serotype 14). Oligonucleotide primers were constructed from these sequences, and a PCR assay was optimized and evaluated. PCR reactions consistently resulted in amplification products with reference strains 1 and 14 and all other serotype 1 strains tested, with cell numbers as low as 2.3 cells/ml. No amplification products were produced with other P. multocida serotypes or any other bacterial species tested. To compare the sensitivity and further test the specificity of this PCR assay with traditional culturing and serotyping techniques, tissue samples from 84 Pekin ducks inoculated with field strains of P. multocida and 54 wild lesser snow geese collected during an avian cholera outbreak were provided by other investigators working on avian cholera. PCR was as sensitive (58/64) as routine isolation (52/64) in detecting and identifying P. multocida serotype 1 from the livers of inoculated Pekins that became sick or died from avian cholera. No product was amplified from tissues of 20 other Pekin ducks that received serotypes other than type 1 (serotype 3, 12 x 3, or 10) or 12 control birds. Of the 54 snow geese necropsied and tested for P. multocida, our PCR detected and identified the bacteria from 44 compared with 45 by direct isolation. The serotype-specific PCR we developed was much faster and less labor intensive than traditional culturing and serotyping procedures and could result in diagnosis of serotype 1 pasteurellosis within 24 hr of specimen submission. PMID:12061646

  9. Pasteurella multocida in scavenging family chickens and ducks: carrier status, age susceptibility and transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, P G; Njagi, L W; Nyaga, P N; Bebora, L C; Minga, U; Kamundia, J; Olsen, J E

    2008-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes fowl cholera, a highly contagious and severe disease in chickens and water fowls. The disease is not well described in less intensive production systems, including scavenging family poultry production in developing countries. P. multocida was isolated from 25.9% of healthy-looking ducks and 6.2% of chickens from free-range family poultry farms and at slaughter slabs at market. On experimental infection with 1.2 to 2.0 x 10(8) organisms of the P. multocida type strain (NCTC 10322(T)), 12-week-old chickens expressed fowl cholera clinical signs significantly more times (372 signs) than those of 4-week-old, 8-week-old and 16-week-old chickens (173, 272 and 187 signs) and more signs were severe. In family ducks the 8-week-old birds expressed clinical signs significantly more times (188 signs) than those of the other age groups (117, 80, and 83 signs, respectively) and severe signs were more frequent. P. multocida transmitted from seeder birds (n=12) to sentinel birds (n=30), which developed clinical signs, and in some cases lesions of fowl cholera allowed bacterial re-isolation, whether infected ducks served as seeders for chickens or chickens served as seeder for ducks. This study has documented the occurrence of P. multocida among healthy-appearing family poultry in a tropical setting, and demonstrated that age susceptibility is highest in 12-week-old family chickens and 8-week-old family ducks when challenged with a low-virulent strain of P. multocida. It has further demonstrated that cross-transmission of fowl cholera may happen between family ducks and chickens, and vice versa. PMID:18202950

  10. Phenotypic, antigenic, and molecular characterization of Pasteurella piscicida strains isolated from fish.

    PubMed Central

    Magariños, B; Romalde, J L; Bandín, I; Fouz, B; Toranzo, A E

    1992-01-01

    We compared Pasteurella piscicida strains isolated from different fish species in several European countries with strains isolated in Japan and the United States. The taxonomic analysis revealed that, regardless of the geographic origin and source of isolation, all the strains exhibited the same biochemical and physiological characteristics. Serological assays with different rabbit antisera demonstrated a high level of antigenic similarity among strains, with cross-agglutination titers of 20,480 to 40,960. This serological homogeneity was supported by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and membrane protein profiles. All the P. piscicida strains had the same electrophoretic LPS pattern, showing O side chains with a ladder-like structure, and shared at least four major outer membrane proteins, of 20, 30, 42, and 53 kDa. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with LPS and protein indicated that all the P. piscicida strains are immunologically related. In addition, the chromosomal DNA fingerprint patterns obtained for the European strains with the enzymes EcoRI and BamHI were practically identical to those of the Japanese and U.S. strains. Although some differences were found in the plasmid profiles of P. piscicida, a large number of strains possessed in common plasmid bands of 20 and 7 MDa. In addition, a plasmid of 50 MDa was present in the majority of the European strains. Restriction endonuclease analysis demonstrated the genetic homology of the plasmid bands shared by most of the European strains. All the P. piscicida strains had the same drug resistance patterns, indicating that a correlation between plasmid carriage and resistance to a specific antimicrobial agent cannot be established. The high levels of phenotypic, serological, and genetic homogeneity found among the P. piscicida strains should facilitate the development of DNA probes with diagnostic purposes as well as the design of effective vaccines. Images PMID:1444366

  11. Florfenicol As a Modulator Enhancing Antimicrobial Activity: Example Using Combination with Thiamphenicol against Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Shien, Jui-Hung; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Synergistic effects between the same class of antibiotics are rarely reported. Our previous study found synergistic-like interaction between florfenicol (FFC) and thiamphenicol (TAP) against Staphylococcus aureus. Here, the enhanced antimicrobial activity was evaluated in 97 clinical isolates of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Susceptible strains were initially identified by checkerboard microdilution assay (fractional inhibitory concentration index [FICI] ≤ 0.625), followed by confirmation of synergism using the time-kill methodology (≥2 log10 CFU/ml reduction). In all, 43% of Pasteurella multocida tested were susceptible to the enhanced bactericidal effect. In chicken fowl cholera models, FFC and TAP combination at much lower dosage that is correspondent to their MIC deduction provided maximum protection in vivo. Furthermore, synergistic combination of FFC with oxytetracycline (OTC) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro was also demonstrated. Based on the enhanced uptake of TAP and OTC, FFC presumably elicits enhanced antimicrobial activity in an orderly manner through alteration of bacterial membrane permeability or efflux systems and subsequent increase of intracellular concentration of the antibiotics used in combination. Results of ethidium bromide accumulation assay and RNA-seq showed little evidence for the involvement of efflux pumps in the synergy but further investigation is required. This study suggests the potentiality of a novel combination regimen involving FFC as an initiating modulator effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria depending on the antibiotics that are combined. The observed improvement of bacteriostatic effect to bactericidal, and the extended effectiveness against FFC-resistant bacterial strains warrant further studies. PMID:27065961

  12. Capsular serotyping of Pasteurella multocida from various animal hosts - a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, N D; Ajam, N; Blackall, P J; Asiah, N M; Ramlan, M; Maria, J; Yuslan, S; Thong, K L

    2011-04-01

    One hundred and fourteen strains of Pasteurella multocida were isolated from different domestic animals species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, dog, cat), avian species (chicken, duck, turkey) and wild animals (deer, tiger, orang utan, marmoset). The serogroups of P. multocida were determined by both conventional capsular serotyping and a multiplex PCR assay targeting specific capsular genes. Based on the conventional serotyping method, the 114 strains of P. multocida were subtyped into 55 species-specific (untypeable strains) P. multocida, 15 serogroup A, 23 serogroup B and 21 serogroup D. Based on the multiplex PCR assay on the specific capsular genes associated with each serogroup, the 114 strains were further divided to 22 species-specific P. multocida (KMT1 - 460 bp), 53 serogroup A (A - 1,044 bp), 33 serogroup B (B - 760 bp) and 6 serogroup D (D - 657 bp). No serogroup E (511 bp) or F (851 bp) was detected among the Malaysian P. multocida. PCR-based typing was more discriminative and could further subtype the previously untypeable strains. Overall, there was a significant and positive correlation between both methods in serogrouping P. multocida (r = 0.7935; p<0.4893). Various serogroups of P. multocida were present among the livestock with 75% of the strains belonging to serogroups A or B. PCR serotyping was therefore a highly species-specific, sensitive and robust method for detection and differentiation of P. multocida serogroups compared to conventional serotyping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from Malaysia of the application of a PCR to rapidly define the species-specific P. multocida and its serogroups as an important zoonotic pathogen in Malaysia.

  13. Combinations of Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Field Isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida▿

    PubMed Central

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections in cattle are commonly associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. These infections can generally be successfully treated in the field with one of several groups of antibiotics, including macrolides. A few recent isolates of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product of the erm(42) gene. The second class shows no lincosamide resistance and lacks erm(42) and concomitant 23S rRNA methylation. Sequencing of the genome of a representative strain from this class, P. multocida 3361, revealed macrolide efflux and phosphotransferase genes [respectively termed msr(E) and mph(E)] that are arranged in tandem and presumably expressed from the same promoter. The third class exhibits the most marked drug phenotype, with high resistance to all of the macrolides tested, and possesses all three resistance determinants. The combinations of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) are chromosomally encoded and intermingled with other exogenous genes, many of which appear to have been transferred from other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The presence of some of the exogenous genes explains recent reports of resistance to additional drug classes. We have expressed recombinant versions of the erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants. PMID:21709086

  14. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... diagnosis or management of GM3 synthase deficiency: American Epilepsy Society: Find a Doctor Clinic for Special Children ( ...

  15. Une arthrite septique sur prothèse totale de genou à Pasteurella multocida: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Kouevidjin, Biova Teko; Bassinga, Jonathan Sylvanus

    2015-01-01

    Une arthrite septique sur PTG est due essentiellement au Staphylococcus aureus suivie des staphylocoques à coagulase négative, et les streptocoques. Au cours de ses 40 dernières années très peu de cas d'infection sur arthroplastie à Pasteurella multocida ont été rapporté. La présentation clinique n'a rien de spécifique.la contamination survient après une morsure, griffure ou léchage d'un chat. L'interrogatoire et l'examen bactériologique est la clé du diagnostique. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 84 ans qui présente une infection a Pasteurella multocida suite à une morsure du chat 06 jours au paravent. Elle a bénéficié d'une prise en charge chirurgicale par lavage et synovectomie et une bi-antibiothérapie avec bonne évolution. PMID:26523162

  16. Comparative genome analysis of an avirulent and two virulent strains of avian Pasteurella multocida reveals candidate genes involved in fitness and pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fowl cholera is a highly contagious systemic disease affecting wild and domestic birds, frequently resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida). The completed genome of P. multocida strain Pm70 has been available for over eleven years and has...

  17. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  18. Initial stages of cell-matrix adhesion can be mediated and modulated by cell-surface hyaluronan.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Ella; Geiger, Benjamin; Addadi, Lia

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual temporal and spatial gap exists between the first encounter of a cell with an adhesive substrate and the advanced stages of focal adhesion formation. Although ample information is available on focal adhesions structure and function, the mechanism of the first interaction events and the nature of the molecules mediating them are largely unknown. In this paper we identify cell-surface-associated hyaluronan as a mediator and modulator of the first steps of adhesion of A6 and other cells to conventional tissue culture substrates as well as to the surfaces of calcium-(R,R)-tartrate tetrahydrate crystals. Treatment of A6 cells with hyaluronidase suppresses their rapid interactions with these adhesive substrates, and incubation of either the hyaluronidase-treated cells or the substrate with hyaluronan restores cell adhesion. In contrast, excess hyaluronan on both the cells and the substrate strongly inhibits adhesion. We thus propose that cell-surface-associated hyaluronan can mediate and modulate cell-matrix adhesion at the very first encounter with the substrate. It may promote it through the establishment of exquisitely stereospecific chemical interactions or inhibit it by virtue of steric exclusion and/or electrostatic repulsion. PMID:11916844

  19. Increased mucociliary differentiation and aquaporins formation of respiratory epithelial cells on retinoic acid-loaded hyaluronan-derivative membranes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsung-Wei; Chan, Yen-Hui; Su, Huang-Wei; Chou, Ya-Shuan; Young, Tai-Horng

    2013-06-01

    While playing a major role in maintaining the mucociliary phenotype of respiratory epithelial cells (RECs), retinoids are critical determinants of their normal function. However, despite being a powerful biological agent, retinoic acid (RA) is generally not used in regenerative medicine due to its scarce bioavailability via conventional administration. Therefore, the ability to incorporate RA into biomaterials allows for a combination of the biological effects of RA and biomaterials in influencing cellular behavior. This study attempts to develop RA-loaded hyaluronan-derivative membrane (RA-HAm) and investigates how this membrane affects the mucociliary differentiation and aquaporins (AQP) formation of RECs. In a simulated in vitro culture condition, the RA release from membranes is maintained for 7days. On the seventh day, the cumulative release rate of RA from supportive biomaterials is ~87% under detect limitation. RECs cultured on RA-HAm reveal numerous mature ciliated cells and microvilli compared to aggregated cilia-like structures on hyaluronan-derivative membrane (HAm). Moreover, the expression levels of MUC5AC and AQP on RA-HAm are higher than those on HAm. The proposed model elucidates the release of hydrophobic RA from hyaluronan-derivative biomaterials. We believe that RA-loaded hyaluronan biomaterials are highly promising biomaterials for use in sinonasal surgery and tissue engineering of the respiratory system.

  20. Sulfated hyaluronan improves bone regeneration of diabetic rats by binding sclerostin and enhancing osteoblast function.

    PubMed

    Picke, Ann-Kristin; Salbach-Hirsch, Juliane; Hintze, Vera; Rother, Sandra; Rauner, Martina; Kascholke, Christian; Möller, Stephanie; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Rammelt, Stefan; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C; Scharnweber, Dieter; Hofbauer, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2016-07-01

    Bone fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus heal poorly and require innovative therapies to support bone regeneration. Here, we assessed whether sulfated hyaluronan included in collagen-based scaffold coatings can improve fracture healing in diabetic rats. Macroporous thermopolymerized lactide-based scaffolds were coated with collagen including non-sulfated or sulfated hyaluronan (HA/sHA3) and inserted into 3 mm femoral defects of non-diabetic and diabetic ZDF rats. After 12 weeks, scaffolds coated with collagen/HA or collagen/sHA3 accelerated bone defect regeneration in diabetic, but not in non-diabetic rats as compared to their non-coated controls. At the tissue level, collagen/sHA3 promoted bone mineralization and decreased the amount of non-mineralized bone matrix. Moreover, collagen/sHA3-coated scaffolds from diabetic rats bound more sclerostin in vivo than the respective controls. Binding assays confirmed a high binding affinity of sHA3 to sclerostin. In vitro, sHA3 induced BMP-2 and lowered the RANKL/OPG expression ratio, regardless of the glucose concentration in osteoblastic cells. Both sHA3 and high glucose concentrations decreased the differentiation of osteoclastic cells. In summary, scaffolds coated with collagen/sHA3 represent a potentially suitable biomaterial to improve bone defect regeneration in diabetic conditions. The underlying mechanism involves improved osteoblast function and binding sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteoblast function. PMID:27131598

  1. Peritoneal Tumor Carcinomatosis: Pharmacological Targeting with Hyaluronan-Based Bioconjugates Overcomes Therapeutic Indications of Current Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, Isabella Monia; Merlo, Anna; Zuccolotto, Gaia; Renier, Davide; Campisi, Monica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Zanovello, Paola; Rosato, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis still lacks reliable therapeutic options. We aimed at testing a drug delivery strategy allowing a controlled release of cytotoxic molecules and selective targeting of tumor cells. We comparatively assessed the efficacy of a loco-regional intraperitoneal treatment in immunocompromised mice with bioconjugates formed by chemical linking of paclitaxel or SN-38 to hyaluronan, against three models of peritoneal carcinomatosis derived from human colorectal, gastric and esophageal tumor cell xenografts. In vitro, bioconjugates were selectively internalized through mechanisms largely dependent on interaction with the CD44 receptor and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, which led to accumulation of compounds into lysosomes of tumor cells. Moreover, they inhibited tumor growth comparably to free drugs. In vivo, efficacy of bioconjugates or free drugs against luciferase-transduced tumor cells was assessed by bioluminescence optical imaging, and by recording mice survival. The intraperitoneal administration of bioconjugates in tumor-bearing mice exerted overlapping or improved therapeutic efficacy compared with unconjugated drugs. Overall, drug conjugation to hyaluronan significantly improved the profiles of in vivo tolerability and widened the field of application of existing drugs, over their formal approval or current use. Therefore, this approach can be envisaged as a promising therapeutic strategy for loco-regional treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:25383653

  2. Sulfated hyaluronan improves bone regeneration of diabetic rats by binding sclerostin and enhancing osteoblast function.

    PubMed

    Picke, Ann-Kristin; Salbach-Hirsch, Juliane; Hintze, Vera; Rother, Sandra; Rauner, Martina; Kascholke, Christian; Möller, Stephanie; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Rammelt, Stefan; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C; Scharnweber, Dieter; Hofbauer, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2016-07-01

    Bone fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus heal poorly and require innovative therapies to support bone regeneration. Here, we assessed whether sulfated hyaluronan included in collagen-based scaffold coatings can improve fracture healing in diabetic rats. Macroporous thermopolymerized lactide-based scaffolds were coated with collagen including non-sulfated or sulfated hyaluronan (HA/sHA3) and inserted into 3 mm femoral defects of non-diabetic and diabetic ZDF rats. After 12 weeks, scaffolds coated with collagen/HA or collagen/sHA3 accelerated bone defect regeneration in diabetic, but not in non-diabetic rats as compared to their non-coated controls. At the tissue level, collagen/sHA3 promoted bone mineralization and decreased the amount of non-mineralized bone matrix. Moreover, collagen/sHA3-coated scaffolds from diabetic rats bound more sclerostin in vivo than the respective controls. Binding assays confirmed a high binding affinity of sHA3 to sclerostin. In vitro, sHA3 induced BMP-2 and lowered the RANKL/OPG expression ratio, regardless of the glucose concentration in osteoblastic cells. Both sHA3 and high glucose concentrations decreased the differentiation of osteoclastic cells. In summary, scaffolds coated with collagen/sHA3 represent a potentially suitable biomaterial to improve bone defect regeneration in diabetic conditions. The underlying mechanism involves improved osteoblast function and binding sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteoblast function.

  3. Treatment of partial thickness burns with Zn-hyaluronan: lessons of a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, I.; Zoltán, P.; Erdei, I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of Zn-hyaluronan gel for the treatment of partial thickness burns was carried out. 60 patients were enrolled in the study with an average of 3% TBSA burn. Exudation lasted 3 days, no infectious complications were observed. By day 14 the wounds of 52 patients have healed, average complete healing time was 10,5 days. An overall 93,3% healing rate was achieved within the planned observation period. Reduction of spontaneous and movementrelated pain was reduced to less than half of the initial values by day 5,5 and 6,3 respectively. Development of a thin, elastic, well tolerable and protective membrane-like layer was noted. This kept the wounds moist while clean during wound-healing, and was spontaneously shed as epithelisation proceeded. Zn-hyaluronan gel is a novel topical wound care product that has proven to be suitable for the treatment of partial thickness burns. PMID:23233826

  4. Survival of cord blood haematopoietic stem cells in a hyaluronan hydrogel for ex vivo biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Demange, Elise; Kassim, Yusra; Petit, Cyrille; Buquet, Catherine; Dulong, Virginie; Cerf, Didier Le; Buchonnet, Gérard; Vannier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) grow in a specified niche in close association with the microenvironment, the so-called 'haematopoietic niche'. Scaffolds have been introduced to overcome the liquid culture limitations, mimicking the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study the hyaluronic acid scaffold, already developed in the laboratory, has been used for the first time to maintain long-term cultures of CD34⁺ haematopoietic cells obtained from human cord blood. One parameter investigated was the impact on ex vivo survival of CD34⁺ cord blood cells (CBCs) on the hyaluronic acid surface, immobilized with peptides containing the RGD motif. This peptide was conjugated by coating the hyaluronan hydrogel and cultured in serum-free liquid phase complemented with stem cell factor (SCF), a commonly indispensable cytokine for haematopoiesis. Our work demonstrated that these hyaluronan hydrogels were superior to traditional liquid cultures by maintaining and expanding the HPCs without the need for additional cytokines, and a colonization of 280-fold increment in the hydrogel compared with liquid culture after 28 days of ex vivo expansion.

  5. Extracellular Vesicles from Caveolin-Enriched Microdomains Regulate Hyaluronan-Mediated Sustained Vascular Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Lennon, Frances E.; Mambetsariev, Bolot; Allen, Michael; Riehm, Jacob; Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Singleton, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in vascular integrity are an initiating factor in several disease processes. We have previously reported that high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a major glycosaminoglycan in the body, promotes rapid signal transduction in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC) leading to barrier enhancement. In contrast, low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), produced in disease states by hyaluronidases and reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces HPMVEC barrier disruption. However, the mechanism(s) of sustained barrier regulation by HA are poorly defined. Our results indicate that long-term (6–24 hours) exposure of HMW-HA induced release of a novel type of extracellular vesicle from HLMVEC called enlargeosomes (characterized by AHNAK expression) while LMW-HA long-term exposure promoted release of exosomes (characterized by CD9, CD63, and CD81 expression). These effects were blocked by inhibiting caveolin-enriched microdomain (CEM) formation. Further, inhibiting enlargeosome release by annexin II siRNA attenuated the sustained barrier enhancing effects of HMW-HA. Finally, exposure of isolated enlargeosomes to HPMVEC monolayers generated barrier enhancement while exosomes led to barrier disruption. Taken together, these results suggest that differential release of extracellular vesicles from CEM modulate the sustained HPMVEC barrier regulation by HMW-HA and LMW-HA. HMW-HA-induced specialized enlargeosomes can be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases involving impaired vascular integrity. PMID:26447809

  6. Design of benzimidazole- and benzoxazole-2-thione derivatives as inhibitors of bacterial hyaluronan lyase.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stephan; Botzki, Alexander; Salmen, Sunnhild; Textor, Christian; Bernhardt, Günther; Dove, Stefan; Buschauer, Armin

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial hyaluronan lyases (Hyal) degrade hyaluronan, an important component of the extracellular matrix, and are involved in microbial spread. Hyal inhibitors may serve as tools to study the role of the enzyme, its substrates and products in the course of bacterial infections. Moreover, such enzyme inhibitors are potential candidates for antibacterial combination therapy. Based on crystal structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Hyal in complex with a hexasaccharide substrate and with different inhibitors, 1-acylated benzimidazole-2-thiones and benzoxazole-2-thiones were derived as new leads for the inhibition of Streptococcus agalactiae strain 4755 Hyal. Structure-based optimization led to N-(3-phenylpropionyl)benzoxazole-2-thione, one of the most potent compounds known to date (IC(50) values: 24 μM at pH 7.4, 15 μM at pH 5). Among the 27 new derivatives, other N-acylated benzimidazoles and benzoxazoles are just as active at pH 7.4, but not at pH 5. The results support a binding mode characterized by interactions with residues in the catalytic site and with a hydrophobic patch.

  7. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Ningbo Wang, Xin Qin, Lei Guo, Zhengze Li, Dehua

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  8. Characterization of Biofilm Formation in [Pasteurella] pneumotropica and [Actinobacillus] muris Isolates of Mouse Origin.

    PubMed

    Sager, Martin; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Benga, Laurentiu

    2015-01-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris are the most prevalent Pasteurellaceae species isolated from laboratory mouse. However, mechanisms contributing to their high prevalence such as the ability to form biofilms have not been studied yet. In the present investigation we analyze if these bacterial species can produce biofilms in vitro and investigate whether proteins, extracellular DNA and polysaccharides are involved in the biofilm formation and structure by inhibition and dispersal assays using proteinase K, DNase I and sodium periodate. Finally, the capacity of the biofilms to confer resistance to antibiotics is examined. We demonstrate that both [P.] pneumotropica biotypes but not [A.] muris are able to form robust biofilms in vitro, a phenotype which is widely spread among the field isolates. The biofilm inhibition and dispersal assays by proteinase and DNase lead to a strong inhibition in biofilm formation when added at the initiation of the biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed [P.] pneumotropica biofilms, revealing thus that proteins and extracellular DNA are essential in biofilm formation and structure. Sodium periodate inhibited the bacterial growth when added at the beginning of the biofilm formation assay, making difficult the assessment of the role of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides in the biofilm formation, and had a biofilm stimulating effect when added on pre-established mature biofilms of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and a majority of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz strains, suggesting that the presence of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides on the bacterial surface might attenuate the biofilm production. Conversely, no effect or a decrease in the biofilm quantity was observed by biofilm dispersal using sodium periodate on further biotype Jawetz isolates, suggesting that polysaccharides might be incorporated in the biofilm structure. We additionally show that [P.] pneumotropica cells enclosed in biofilms

  9. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    PubMed

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P

  10. Induction of CD18-mediated passage of neutrophils by Pasteurella haemolytica in pulmonary bronchi and bronchioles.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Brogden, K A; Florance, A F; Kehrli, M E

    1999-02-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of cattle that incites extensive infiltrates of neutrophils into the lung. In addition to the parenchymal damage caused by factors released by P. haemolytica, neutrophils contribute to the pathologic changes in the lungs. Molecules which mediate neutrophil infiltration into the lungs during P. haemolytica pneumonia are poorly characterized. To determine whether the CD18 family (beta2-integrin) of leukocyte adhesion molecules mediates initial passage of neutrophils into the pulmonary bronchi and bronchioles of lungs infected with P. haemolytica, three Holstein calves homozygous for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) (CD18-deficient neutrophils), and three age- and breed-matched control calves (normal CD18 expression) were inoculated with P. haemolytica A1 via a fiberoptic bronchoscope and euthanized at 2 h postinoculation. Sections of lung were stained for neutrophils, and the intensity of neutrophilic infiltration was determined by computerized image analysis. Significantly fewer (P < 0.05) neutrophils infiltrated the lumen, epithelium, and adventitia of bronchioles and bronchi in lungs of calves with BLAD compared to normal calves, which had dense infiltrates within these sites at 2 h postinoculation. The reduced infiltration in calves with BLAD occurred despite the presence of an extremely large number of neutrophils in peripheral blood that is typical for these calves. The large number of neutrophils in the blood of calves with BLAD is probably a physiologic response that can occur without microbial colonization, since one calf with BLAD that was raised under germ-free conditions had large numbers of neutrophils in the blood that were similar to those in a calf with BLAD that was raised conventionally. Neutrophil counts in the germ-free and conventionally reared calves with BLAD were much higher than those in the three normal calves raised under germ-free conditions. The work in this study

  11. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 is a receptor for Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin in bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, S; Hsuan, S L; Kannan, M S; Walcheck, B; Wang, J F; Kehrli, M E; Lally, E T; Sieck, G C; Maheswaran, S K

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin (Lkt) causes cell type- and species-specific effects in ruminant leukocytes. Recent studies indicate that P. haemolytica Lkt binds to bovine CD18, the common subunit of all beta2 integrins. We designed experiments with the following objectives: to identify which member of the beta2 integrins is a receptor for Lkt; to determine whether Lkt binding to the receptor is target cell (bovine leukocytes) specific; to define the relationships between Lkt binding to the receptor, calcium elevation, and cytolysis; and to determine whether a correlation exists between Lkt receptor expression and the magnitude of target cell cytolysis. We compared Lkt-induced cytolysis in neutrophils from control calves and from calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), because neutrophils from BLAD-homozygous calves exhibit reduced beta2 integrin expression. The results demonstrate for the first time that Lkt binds to bovine CD11a and CD18 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]). The binding was abolished by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Lkt-induced calcium elevation in bovine alveolar macrophages (BAMs) was inhibited by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 MAb (65 to 94% and 37 to 98%, respectively, at 5 and 50 Lkt units per ml; P < 0.05). Lkt-induced cytolysis in neutrophils and BAMs was also inhibited by anti-CD11a or anti-CD18 MAb in a concentration-dependent manner. Lkt bound to porcine LFA-1 but did not induce calcium elevation or cytolysis. In neutrophils from BLAD calves, Lkt-induced cytolysis was decreased by 44% compared to that of neutrophils from control calves (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LFA-1 is a Lkt receptor, Lkt binding to LFA-1 is not target cell specific, Lkt binding to bovine LFA-1 correlates with calcium elevation and cytolysis, and bovine LFA-1 expression correlates with the magnitude of Lkt-induced target cell cytolysis. PMID:10603370

  12. Invasive Pasteurella multocida Infections - Report of Five Cases at a Minnesota Hospital, 2014.

    PubMed

    Talley, P; Snippes-Vagnone, P; Smith, K

    2016-09-01

    During October 2014, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of five Hospital A patients with Pasteurella multocida bacteraemia; three had died. Human soft tissue infection with P. multocida typically results from cat or dog bites or scratches. Invasive infection, defined as a P. multocida isolate from a usually sterile site, is rare. We evaluated P. multocida isolations at Hospital A, compared with other Minnesota hospitals to understand invasive infection trends. A case was defined as clinically confirmed P. multocida in a Minnesota resident during 2012-2014. All hospital laboratories were queried; Fisher's exact test was used for comparison. Medical charts were reviewed for 2014 Hospital A patients with P. multocida infections. The Minnesota clinical laboratories survey response rate was 79% (63/80). At Hospital A, proportion of P. multocida isolates from usually sterile sites increased from 0% (0/2) during 2012 to 11% (1/9) during 2013, and to 86% (5/6) during 2014. The proportion of patients with P. multocida isolated from sterile sites was 35% (6/17) at Hospital A compared with 10% (58/583) statewide during 2012-2014 combined (P < 0.05). Among 2014 Hospital A patients with invasive P. multocida infection, all five were men; median age was 70 (range: 44-78) years. Four were temporally clustered within a 33-day period; three of those had bacteraemia on admission, making hospital acquisition possible in only one. Among five bacteraemia patients, four had cirrhosis and/or skin ulcerations, and three died. The proportion of invasive P. multocida cases was substantially higher at Hospital A during 2014. No epidemiologic links between patients were found. Three had known pet exposure. Collaborative educational efforts of chronically ill pet owners by physicians and veterinarians can acknowledge the health benefits of pet ownership, while minimizing risk for serious invasive zoonotic infections, including those caused by P. multocida.

  13. Invasive Pasteurella multocida Infections - Report of Five Cases at a Minnesota Hospital, 2014.

    PubMed

    Talley, P; Snippes-Vagnone, P; Smith, K

    2016-09-01

    During October 2014, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of five Hospital A patients with Pasteurella multocida bacteraemia; three had died. Human soft tissue infection with P. multocida typically results from cat or dog bites or scratches. Invasive infection, defined as a P. multocida isolate from a usually sterile site, is rare. We evaluated P. multocida isolations at Hospital A, compared with other Minnesota hospitals to understand invasive infection trends. A case was defined as clinically confirmed P. multocida in a Minnesota resident during 2012-2014. All hospital laboratories were queried; Fisher's exact test was used for comparison. Medical charts were reviewed for 2014 Hospital A patients with P. multocida infections. The Minnesota clinical laboratories survey response rate was 79% (63/80). At Hospital A, proportion of P. multocida isolates from usually sterile sites increased from 0% (0/2) during 2012 to 11% (1/9) during 2013, and to 86% (5/6) during 2014. The proportion of patients with P. multocida isolated from sterile sites was 35% (6/17) at Hospital A compared with 10% (58/583) statewide during 2012-2014 combined (P < 0.05). Among 2014 Hospital A patients with invasive P. multocida infection, all five were men; median age was 70 (range: 44-78) years. Four were temporally clustered within a 33-day period; three of those had bacteraemia on admission, making hospital acquisition possible in only one. Among five bacteraemia patients, four had cirrhosis and/or skin ulcerations, and three died. The proportion of invasive P. multocida cases was substantially higher at Hospital A during 2014. No epidemiologic links between patients were found. Three had known pet exposure. Collaborative educational efforts of chronically ill pet owners by physicians and veterinarians can acknowledge the health benefits of pet ownership, while minimizing risk for serious invasive zoonotic infections, including those caused by P. multocida. PMID

  14. Characterization of Biofilm Formation in [Pasteurella] pneumotropica and [Actinobacillus] muris Isolates of Mouse Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Martin; Benten, W. Peter M.; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Benga, Laurentiu

    2015-01-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris are the most prevalent Pasteurellaceae species isolated from laboratory mouse. However, mechanisms contributing to their high prevalence such as the ability to form biofilms have not been studied yet. In the present investigation we analyze if these bacterial species can produce biofilms in vitro and investigate whether proteins, extracellular DNA and polysaccharides are involved in the biofilm formation and structure by inhibition and dispersal assays using proteinase K, DNase I and sodium periodate. Finally, the capacity of the biofilms to confer resistance to antibiotics is examined. We demonstrate that both [P.] pneumotropica biotypes but not [A.] muris are able to form robust biofilms in vitro, a phenotype which is widely spread among the field isolates. The biofilm inhibition and dispersal assays by proteinase and DNase lead to a strong inhibition in biofilm formation when added at the initiation of the biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed [P.] pneumotropica biofilms, revealing thus that proteins and extracellular DNA are essential in biofilm formation and structure. Sodium periodate inhibited the bacterial growth when added at the beginning of the biofilm formation assay, making difficult the assessment of the role of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides in the biofilm formation, and had a biofilm stimulating effect when added on pre-established mature biofilms of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and a majority of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz strains, suggesting that the presence of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides on the bacterial surface might attenuate the biofilm production. Conversely, no effect or a decrease in the biofilm quantity was observed by biofilm dispersal using sodium periodate on further biotype Jawetz isolates, suggesting that polysaccharides might be incorporated in the biofilm structure. We additionally show that [P.] pneumotropica cells enclosed in biofilms

  15. Purification and characterization of protein H, the major porin of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, G; Duclohier, H; Thomas, D; Shechter, E; Wróblewski, H

    1993-01-01

    Protein H (B. Lugtenberg, R. van Boxtel, D. Evenberg, M. de Jong, P. Storm, and J. Frik, Infect. Immun. 52:175-182, 1986) is the major polypeptide of the outer membrane of Pasteurella multocida, a bacterium pathogenic for humans and animals. We have purified this protein to homogeneity by size exclusion chromatography after selective extraction with surfactants and demonstrated its pore-forming ability after reincorporation into planar lipid bilayers. In these experiments, the current through the pores was a linear function of the applied voltage in the range of -50 to +50 mV. Voltages beyond +/- 50 mV tended to partially close the channels, giving rise to apparent negative resistances. These observations suggest that protein H channels are probably not voltage regulated in vivo. With the patch clamp technique, single-channel conductance fluctuations of 0.33 nS were recorded in 1 M KCl. Electrophoretic and circular dichroism analyses showed that protein H forms homotrimers stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate at room temperature, with a high content of beta-sheet secondary structure. Upon boiling, the trimers were fully dissociated into monomers with an increase of alpha helix and irregular structure, at the expense of beta sheets. The apparent molecular mass of fully denatured monomers ranged between 37 and 41.8 kDa, depending on the electrophoretic system used for analysis. The trimeric arrangement of protein H was confirmed by image analysis of negatively stained, two-dimensional crystal arrays. This morphological study revealed, in agreement with electrophoretical data, a trimeric structure with an overall diameter of 7.7 nm. Each monomer appeared to contain a pore with an average diameter of 1 nm. Quantitative comparisons revealed that the amino acid composition (hydropathy index of -0.40) and the N-terminal sequence (determined over 36 residues) of protein H are similar to those of bacterial general porins, notably porin P2 of Haemophilus influenzae. We conclude

  16. Small synthetic hyaluronan disaccharides afford neuroprotection in brain ischemia-related models.

    PubMed

    Egea, J; Parada, E; Gómez-Rangel, V; Buendia, I; Negredo, P; Montell, E; Ruhí, R; Vergés, J; Roda, J M; García, A G; López, M G

    2014-04-18

    High molecular weight (HMW) glycosaminoglycanes of the extracellular matrix have been implicated in tissue repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate if small synthetic hyaluronan disaccharides with different degrees of sulfation (methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, sodium salt (di0S), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-6-di-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, disodium salt (di6S) and methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-4,6-di-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, trisodium salt (di4,6S)) could improve cell survival in in vitro and in vivo brain ischemia-related models. Rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and a photothrombotic stroke model in mice were used. The three hyaluran disaccharides, incubated during the oxygen and glucose deprivation (15min) and re-oxygenation periods (120min), reduced cell death of hippocampal slices measured as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction, being the most potent di4,6S; in contrast, high molecular hyaluronan was ineffective. The protective actions of di4,6S against oxygen and glucose deprivation were related to activation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway, reduction of p65 translocation to the nucleus, inhibition of inducible nitric oxide oxidase induction and reactive oxygen species production, and to an increase in glutathione levels. Administered 1h post-stroke, di4,6S reduced cerebral infarct size and improved motor activity in the beam walk test. In conclusion, di4,6S affords neuroprotection in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic neuronal damage. Our results suggest that its neuroprotective effect could be exerted through its capability to reduce oxidative stress during ischemia. Its small molecular size makes it a more potential druggable drug to target the brain as compared with its HMW parent compound hyaluronan. PMID:24486437

  17. Small synthetic hyaluronan disaccharides afford neuroprotection in brain ischemia-related models.

    PubMed

    Egea, J; Parada, E; Gómez-Rangel, V; Buendia, I; Negredo, P; Montell, E; Ruhí, R; Vergés, J; Roda, J M; García, A G; López, M G

    2014-04-18

    High molecular weight (HMW) glycosaminoglycanes of the extracellular matrix have been implicated in tissue repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate if small synthetic hyaluronan disaccharides with different degrees of sulfation (methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, sodium salt (di0S), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-6-di-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, disodium salt (di6S) and methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-4,6-di-O-sulfo-α-d-glucopyranoside, trisodium salt (di4,6S)) could improve cell survival in in vitro and in vivo brain ischemia-related models. Rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and a photothrombotic stroke model in mice were used. The three hyaluran disaccharides, incubated during the oxygen and glucose deprivation (15min) and re-oxygenation periods (120min), reduced cell death of hippocampal slices measured as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction, being the most potent di4,6S; in contrast, high molecular hyaluronan was ineffective. The protective actions of di4,6S against oxygen and glucose deprivation were related to activation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway, reduction of p65 translocation to the nucleus, inhibition of inducible nitric oxide oxidase induction and reactive oxygen species production, and to an increase in glutathione levels. Administered 1h post-stroke, di4,6S reduced cerebral infarct size and improved motor activity in the beam walk test. In conclusion, di4,6S affords neuroprotection in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic neuronal damage. Our results suggest that its neuroprotective effect could be exerted through its capability to reduce oxidative stress during ischemia. Its small molecular size makes it a more potential druggable drug to target the brain as compared with its HMW parent compound hyaluronan.

  18. STRUCTURAL ENZYMOLOGY OF POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shiou-Chuan (Sheryl); Ames, Brian Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes structural and associated enzymological studies of polyketide synthases, including isolated single domains and multidomain fragments. The sequence–structure–function relationship of polyketide biosynthesis, compared with homologous fatty acid synthesis, is discussed in detail. Structural enzymology sheds light on sequence and structural motifs that are important for the precise timing, substrate recognition, enzyme catalysis, and protein–protein interactions leading to the extraordinary structural diversity of naturally occurring polyketides. PMID:19362634

  19. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of <10 years. Furthermore, HA and IαI amassed in follicular germinal centers and in T-cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  20. Enhanced Recovery of Airborne T3 Coliphage and Pasteurella pestis Bacteriophage by Means of a Presampling Humidification Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. T.; Warren, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments in which two methods of collecting airborne bacteriophage particles were compared. A standard aerosol sampler, the AGI-30, was evaluated for its competence in measuring the content of bacteriophage aerosols. It was used alone or with a prewetting or humidification device (humidifier bulb) to recover T3 coliphage and Pasteurella pestis bacteriophage particles from aerosols maintained at 21 C and varied relative humidity. Collection of bacteriophage particles via the humidifier bulb altered both the initial recovery level and the apparent biological decay. Sampling airborne bacteriophage particles by the AGI-30 alone yielded data that apparently underestimated the maximal number of potentially viable particles within the aerosol, sometimes by as much as 3 logs. PMID:4891719

  1. Viral-bacterial pneumonia in calves: duration of the interaction between bovine herpesvirus 1 and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D; Babiuk, L A; Jericho, K W

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen six to eight month old beef calves were exposed individually to a five minute aerosol of bovine herpesvirus 1, isolate 108. Aerosol exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) was administered individually for five minutes at either four, ten, 20 or 30 days after the virus. Fibrinous pneumonia and pleuritis occurred in all four groups but were most extensive and severe in those exposed to the virus and bacterium four days apart (the positive controls). Fibrinous pneumonia was associated with persistence of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the respiratory tract despite resolution of virus-induced necrotic lesions of the respiratory mucosa. The results presented here suggest that, although the severity of viral-bacterial synergism may be influenced by virus-induced morphological changes, the continued presence of viral antigens after the resolution of respiratory mucosal lesions may continue to exert some effect on host defenses and disease processes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6315196

  2. Computational Prediction of Immunodominant Epitopes on Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) H of Pasteurella multocida Toward Designing of a Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary vaccine design necessitates discrimination between the immunogenic and non-immunogenic components within a pathogen. To successfully target a humoral immune response, the vaccine antigen should contain not only B-cell epitopes but abounding Th-cell agretopes and MHC-II binding regions as well. No single computational method is available that allows the identification of such regions on antigens with good reliability. A consensus approach based on several prediction methods can be adopted to overcome this problem.Targeting the outer membrane protein (Omp) H as a candidate, a comprehensive work flow is described for the computational identification of immunodominant epitopes toward the designing of a peptide vaccine against Pasteurella multocida. PMID:27076289

  3. The Adhesion and Neurite Outgrowth of Neurons on Poly(D-lysine)/Hyaluronan Multilayer Films.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifei; Sheng, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Poly(D-lysine)/hyaluronan (PDL/HA) films were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly technique and chemically cross-linked with a water soluble carbodiimide (EDC) in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) through formation of amide bonds. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to follow the cross-linking reaction. Atomic force measurement, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were performed to study the chemical structure, topography, thickness and mechanical properties of the cross-linked films. QCM-D and Frictional force study were used to reveal the viscoelasticity of the films after cross-linking treatment. The stability of the films was studied via incubating the films in physiological environment. Finally, the neurons were used to evaluate the interaction between films and cells. The results indicated that the neurons were preferably proliferating and outgrowth neurite on cross-linked films while uncross-linked films are highly cell resistant. PMID:27427590

  4. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:26572322

  5. Characteristic Formation of Hyaluronan-Cartilage Link Protein-Proteoglycan Complex in Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Hiroko; Nishikado, Akira; Hayasaki, Hana; Isogai, Zenzo; Yoneda, Masahiko; Kawata, Ryo; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and its binding molecules, cartilage link protein (LP) and proteoglycan (PG), are structural components of the hydrated extracellular matrix. Because these molecules play important roles in the tumor microenvironment, we examined the distribution of HA, LP, versican, and aggrecan in salivary gland tumors using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, including double staining. LP was present in pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) tissues, and aggrecan was absent in the malignant tumors that we investigated. LP colocalized with both HA and aggrecan in the chondromyxoid matrix of PA, suggesting the presence of a HA-LP-aggrecan complex. Furthermore, the HA-LP-versican complex could be observed in the pseudocystic space of the cribriform structures in ACC. The characteristic HA-LP-PG complex in PA and ACC might play a role in the behavior of tumors, and immunohistochemical analysis of these molecules could represent a diagnostic adjunct for salivary gland tumors.

  6. Effect of hyaluronan supplementation on boar sperm motility and membrane lipid architecture status after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Johannisson, A; Wallgren, M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of supplementing extended boar semen with different amounts of hyaluronan (HA) prior to freezing on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Using a split sample design, the effect of HA at a final concentration of 500 or 1000 microg/ml semen on post-thaw motility parameters, and membrane lipid architecture status assessed by merocyanine-540/YOPRO-1 and flow cytometry were evaluated. HA-supplementation improved motility parameters (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and decreased the percentage of hyperactivated spermatozoa (P < 0.05). HA-supplemented samples had more spermatozoa showing high lipid membrane stability as assessed with merocyanine-540. In conclusion, HA appeared to preserve post-thaw spermatozoa viability in vitro and maintained membrane stability after cryopreservation. PMID:14643862

  7. Synthesis of novel amphiphilic hyaluronan containing-aromatic fatty acids for fabrication of polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Matelová, Alena; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Brůnová, Zdislava; Dušek, Jan; Vícha, Robert; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-10-20

    Novel hydrophobized hyaluronan (HA) derivatives, containing ω-phenylalkanoic acids (ω-PAA, 4-phenylbutyric acid, 6-phenylhexanoic, 8-phenyloctanoic or 11-tolylundecanoic acids) were prepared by esterification. Mixed anhydrides obtained after reaction of the carboxyl acid moiety and benzoyl chloride were found to be active acylating agents, affording hydrophobized HA in good yield and under mild conditions. The reactivity of the aromatic fatty acids towards esterification has decreased with the increasing length of the aliphatic spacer between the aromatic substituent and carboxylic acid moiety. The novel HA derivatives self-assembled from very low concentrations and were found to be non-cytotoxic. The potential use of ω-phenylalkanoic acids grafted-HA towards drug delivery applications was demonstrated by hydrophobic drugs (resveratrol and retinyl palmitate) encapsulation. The drug loading capacity of the novel HA derivatives was significantly improved most likely because of π⋯π interactions between the micelle core and loaded hydrophobic aromatic compound.

  8. Peptide-decorated polyvinyl alcohol/hyaluronan nanofibers for human induced pluripotent stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yinghui; Liang, Shangshang; Xu, Anxiu; Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-30

    Realization of the full potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in clinical applications requires development of well-defined conditions for their growth and differentiation. A novel fully defined polyvinyl alcohol/hyaluronan (PVA/HA) polysaccharide nanofiber was developed for hiPSCs culture in commercially available xeno-free, chemically defined medium. Vitronectin peptide (VP) was immobilized to PVA/HA nanofibers through NHS/EDC chemistry. The hiPSCs successfully grew and proliferated on the VP-decorated PVA/HA nanofibers, similar to those on Matrigel™. Such well-defined, xeno-free and safe nanofiber substrate that supports culture of hiPSCs will not only help to accelerate the translational perspectives of hiPSCs, but also provide a platform to investigate the cell-nanofiber interaction mechanisms that regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  9. 4-Methylumbelliferone Treatment and Hyaluronan Inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy in Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Nadine; Kuipers, Hedwich F.; Frymoyer, Adam R.; Ishak, Heather D.; Bollyky, Jennifer B.; Wight, Thomas N.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a prominent component of the extracellular matrix at many sites of chronic inflammation, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis, and numerous malignancies. Recent publications have demonstrated that when HA synthesis is inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), beneficial effects are observed in several animal models of these diseases. Notably, 4-MU is an already approved drug in Europe and Asia called “hymecromone” where it is used to treat biliary spasm. However, there is uncertainty regarding how 4-MU treatment provides benefit in these animal models and the potential long-term consequences of HA inhibition. Here, we review what is known about how HA contributes to immune dysregulation and tumor progression. Then, we review what is known about 4-MU and hymecromone in terms of mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and safety. Finally, we review recent studies detailing the use of 4-MU to treat animal models of cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:25852691

  10. Synthesis of novel amphiphilic hyaluronan containing-aromatic fatty acids for fabrication of polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Matelová, Alena; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Brůnová, Zdislava; Dušek, Jan; Vícha, Robert; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-10-20

    Novel hydrophobized hyaluronan (HA) derivatives, containing ω-phenylalkanoic acids (ω-PAA, 4-phenylbutyric acid, 6-phenylhexanoic, 8-phenyloctanoic or 11-tolylundecanoic acids) were prepared by esterification. Mixed anhydrides obtained after reaction of the carboxyl acid moiety and benzoyl chloride were found to be active acylating agents, affording hydrophobized HA in good yield and under mild conditions. The reactivity of the aromatic fatty acids towards esterification has decreased with the increasing length of the aliphatic spacer between the aromatic substituent and carboxylic acid moiety. The novel HA derivatives self-assembled from very low concentrations and were found to be non-cytotoxic. The potential use of ω-phenylalkanoic acids grafted-HA towards drug delivery applications was demonstrated by hydrophobic drugs (resveratrol and retinyl palmitate) encapsulation. The drug loading capacity of the novel HA derivatives was significantly improved most likely because of π⋯π interactions between the micelle core and loaded hydrophobic aromatic compound. PMID:27474668

  11. Hyaluronan Inhibits Tlr-4-Dependent RANKL Expression in Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hirabara, Shinya; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is activated in synovial fibroblast cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, are key molecules involved in the differentiation of osteoclasts and joint destruction in RA. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular component and an important immune regulator. In this study, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation significantly increases RANKL expression via a TLR-4 signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that HA suppresses LPS-induced RANKL expression, which is dependent on CD44, but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our study provides evidence for HA-mediated suppression of TLR-4-dependent RANKL expression. This could present an alternative target for the treatment of destructed joint bones and cartilages in RA. PMID:27054952

  12. Hyaluronan modulates TRPV1 channel opening, reducing peripheral nociceptor activity and pain.

    PubMed

    Caires, Rebeca; Luis, Enoch; Taberner, Francisco J; Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Balazs, Endre A; Gomis, Ana; Belmonte, Carlos; de la Peña, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in the extracellular matrix of all body tissues, including synovial fluid in joints, in which it behaves as a filter that buffers transmission of mechanical forces to nociceptor nerve endings thereby reducing pain. Using recombinant systems, mouse-cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in vivo experiments, we found that HA also modulates polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) channels. HA diminishes heat, pH and capsaicin (CAP) responses, thus reducing the opening probability of the channel by stabilizing its closed state. Accordingly, in DRG neurons, HA decreases TRPV1-mediated impulse firing and channel sensitization by bradykinin. Moreover, subcutaneous HA injection in mice reduces heat and capsaicin nocifensive responses, whereas the intra-articular injection of HA in rats decreases capsaicin joint nociceptor fibres discharge. Collectively, these results indicate that extracellular HA reduces the excitability of the ubiquitous TRPV1 channel, thereby lowering impulse activity in the peripheral nociceptor endings underlying pain.

  13. Pasteurella multocida produces a protein with homology to the P6 outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, R W; Hansen, L M; Hinojoza, J; Bieber, D; Ruehl, W W; Hirsh, D C

    1995-01-01

    An antibody specific for a 16-kDa outer membrane protein of a rabbit strain of Pasteurella multocida was used to probe representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes of P. multocida, as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9, and all were shown to express the protein. The gene encoding this protein was cloned and sequenced and found to have extensive sequence homology with the gene encoding the P6 protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The protein in P. multocida has been designated P6-like. The gene encoding the P6-like protein was used to probe members of the family Pasteurellaceae and other gram-negative bacteria. Representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes (as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9) of P. multocida hybridized with the P6-like gene under conditions of high stringency. The DNA from H. influenzae hybridized weakly with the P6-like gene under these conditions, but Pasteurella haemolytica (representatives of A and T biotypes), Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. avium, Actinobacillus suis, A. suis-like, A. lignieresii, A. ureae, A. rossii, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. equuli, and various members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium) did not hybridize detectably. Under conditions of lower stringency, the P6-like gene also hybridized strongly with DNA from P. multocida, H. influenzae, and A. rossii but weakly with DNA from P. haemolytica and members of the genus Actinobacillus. These results suggest that the P6-like protein of P. multocida might be useful as an immunizing product to protect poultry from avian cholera. This suggestion stems from (i) our finding that the P6-like protein in P. multocida is widely distributed among all the somatic serotypes and (ii) the previous work of others demonstrating that the P6 protein of H. influenzae elicits a protective immune response in animal models of human disease. PMID:7868272

  14. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation increases Pasteurella multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Shuping; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Fengmei; Li, Nengzhang; Yin, Jie; Peng, Yuanyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of graded doses of L-glutamine supplementation on the replication and distribution of Pasteurella multocida, and the expression of its major virulence factors in mouse model. Mice were randomly assigned to the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 % glutamine. Pasteurella multocida burden was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney after 12 h of P. multocida infection. The expression of major virulence factors, toll-like receptors (TLRs), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and anti-oxidative factors (GPX1 and CuZnSOD) was analyzed in the lung and spleen. Dietary 0.5 % glutamine supplementation has little significant effect on these parameters, compared to those with basal diet. However, results showed that a high dose of glutamine supplementation increased the P. multocida burden (P < 0.001) and the expression of its major virulence factors (P < 0.05) as compared to those with a lower dose of supplementation. In the lung, high dose of glutamine supplementation inhibited the proinflammatory responses (P < 0.05) and TLRs signaling (P < 0.05). In the spleen, the effect of glutamine supplementation on different components in TLR signaling depends on glutamine concentration, and high dose of glutamine supplementation activated the proinflammatory response. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation increased P. multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors, while affecting the functions of the lung and spleen.

  15. New amphiphilic lactic acid oligomer-hyaluronan conjugates: synthesis and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Pravata, Laurent; Braud, Christian; Boustta, Mahfoud; El Ghzaoui, Abdelsalam; Tømmeraas, Kristoffer; Guillaumie, Fanny; Schwach-Abdellaoui, Khadija; Vert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The "grafting onto" strategy was used to conjugate DL-lactic acid oligomers (OLA) to hyaluronan (HA) for the sake of developing novel degradable HA-based self-assembling polymeric systems. Grafting was achieved by reacting COCl-terminated OLA with cetyltrimethylammonium hyaluronate (CTA-HA) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The resulting CTA-HAOLA conjugates were purified and turned to sodium form (Na-HAOLA) by dissolution in a phosphate buffer-DMSO mixture and successive dialyses against DMSO, ethanol, and water. In contrast, when the same protocol was applied to CTA-HAOLA, phase separation with gel formation was observed. The solution phase was composed of Na-HAOLA whereas the gel phase was made of mixed CTA-Na-HAOLA salt with ca. 25% of the carboxyl groups neutralized by CTA. Gelation was assigned to intramolecular hydrophobic associations between OLA and cetyl alkyl chains that complemented electrostatic interactions between CTA and HA COO- groups synergistically. Therefore, the corresponding stabilized CTA ions required more drastic conditions to be released. Under the selected dialysis conditions, the CTA-Na-HAOLA gels formed tiny tubes. Na-HAOLA and CTA-Na-HAOLA were characterized by FTIR, one-dimensional 1H and two-dimensional 1H NMR. The extent of grafting was ca. 5% per disaccharidic repeating unit, regardless of the molecular weight, as determined by NMR and capillary zone electrophoresis. Amphiphilic Na-HAOLA molecules were aggregated and formed spherical species in water according to size exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering detection. The critical aggregation concentration ranged between 0.2 and 0.35% (w/v), depending of the molecular weight of the parent hyaluronan. PMID:18047288

  16. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  17. Glucose regulated proteins 78 and 75 bind to the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility in interphase microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, Hiroko . E-mail: pa2020@art.osaka-med.ac.jp; Yoneda, Masahiko; Hayasaki, Hana; Nakamura, Toshiya; Mori, Hiroshi

    2006-01-20

    The receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM), which is a hyaluronan-binding protein, is a centrosomal and microtubal protein. Here, we have identified two RHAMM-binding proteins, glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 and GRP75, using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These two proteins directly bound to glutathione-S-transferase-RHAMM fusion proteins. By double immunostaining, GRP78 and GRP75 colocalized with RHAMM in interphase microtubules, but were separated in mitotic spindles. Prevention of microtubule polymerization by TN-16 and vincristine sulfate induced RHAMM overexpression without a significant change in GRP78/75. Taken together, GRP78/75 and RHAMM complexes may stabilize microtubules in the interphase, associated with a downregulation of RHAMM. These results reveal a new biochemical activity of RHAMM.

  18. Acetohydroxyacid synthases: evolution, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadi; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase, a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme, can condense either two pyruvate molecules to form acetolactate for synthesizing L-valine and L-leucine or pyruvate with 2-ketobutyrate to form acetohydroxybutyrate for synthesizing L-isoleucine. Because the key reaction catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase in the biosynthetic pathways of branched-chain amino acids exists in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria, but not in animals, acetohydroxyacid synthase becomes a potential target for developing novel herbicides and antimicrobial compounds. In this article, the evolution, structure, and catalytic mechanism of acetohydroxyacid synthase are summarized. PMID:27576495

  19. Cytocompatible in situ forming chitosan/hyaluronan hydrogels via a metal-free click chemistry for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Mao, Jiahui; Zhang, Ziwei; Tan, Huaping

    2015-07-01

    Injectable hydrogels are important cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we report a new class of biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide hydrogels derived from chitosan and hyaluronan via a metal-free click chemistry, without the addition of copper catalyst. For the metal-free click reaction, chitosan and hyaluronan were modified with oxanorbornadiene (OB) and 11-azido-3,6,9-trioxaundecan-1-amine (AA), respectively. The gelation is attributed to the triazole ring formation between OB and azido groups of polysaccharide derivatives. The molecular structures were verified by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, giving substitution degrees of 58% and 47% for chitosan-OB and hyaluronan-AA, respectively. The in vitro gelation, morphologies, equilibrium swelling, compressive modulus and degradation of the composite hydrogels were examined. The potential of the metal-free hydrogel as a cell scaffold was demonstrated by encapsulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within the gel matrix in vitro. Cell culture showed that this metal-free hydrogel could support survival and proliferation of ASCs. A preliminary in vivo study demonstrated the usefulness of the hydrogel as an injectable scaffold for adipose tissue engineering. These characteristics provide a potential opportunity to use the metal-free click chemistry in preparation of biocompatible hydrogels for soft tissue engineering applications.

  20. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P

    2016-02-12

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm(2)/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm(2)/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis.

  1. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm2/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm2/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis. PMID:26868769

  2. Conformational Analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Hyaluronate Lyase and Characterization of Its Hyaluronan-specific Carbohydrate-binding Module*

    PubMed Central

    Suits, Michael D. L.; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Law, Adrienne; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S.; Chai, Wengang; Feizi, Ten; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2014-01-01

    For a subset of pathogenic microorganisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the recognition and degradation of host hyaluronan contributes to bacterial spreading through the extracellular matrix and enhancing access to host cell surfaces. The hyaluronate lyase (Hyl) presented on the surface of S. pneumoniae performs this role. Using glycan microarray screening, affinity electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry we show that the N-terminal module of Hyl is a hyaluronan-specific carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the founding member of CBM family 70. The 1.2 Å resolution x-ray crystal structure of CBM70 revealed it to have a β-sandwich fold, similar to other CBMs. The electrostatic properties of the binding site, which was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, are distinct from other CBMs and complementary to its acidic ligand, hyaluronan. Dynamic light scattering and solution small angle x-ray scattering revealed the full-length Hyl protein to exist as a monomer/dimer mixture in solution. Through a detailed analysis of the small angle x-ray scattering data, we report the pseudoatomic solution structures of the monomer and dimer forms of the full-length multimodular Hyl. PMID:25100731

  3. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  4. Hyaluronan Polymer Length, Grafting Density, and Surface Poly(ethylene glycol) Coating Influence in Vivo Circulation and Tumor Targeting of Hyaluronan-Grafted Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan-grafted liposomes (HA-liposomes) preferentially target CD44-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro via receptor-mediated endocytosis. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of HA-liposomes with various sizes of HA (MW 5–8, 50–60, and 175–350 kDa) in mice. Incorporation of negatively charged HA on the liposome surface compromised its blood circulation time, which led to decreased tumor accumulation in CD44+ human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts compared to PEGylated liposomes (PEG-5000). Clearance of HA-liposomes was HA polymer length-dependent; high MW (175–350 kDa, highest ligand binding affinity) HA-liposomes displayed faster clearance compared to low MW (5–8, 50–60 kDa) HA-liposomes or PEGylated liposomes. Surface HA ligand density can also affect clearance of HA-liposomes. Thus, HA is not an effective stealth coating material. When dual coating of PEG and HA was used, the PEG-HA-liposomes displayed similar blood circulation time and tumor accumulation to that of the PEGylated liposomes; however, the PEG-HA-liposomes displayed better cellular internalization capability in vivo. Tumor histology showed that PEG-HA-liposomes had a more direct association with CD44+ cancer cells, while PEGylated liposomes located predominantly in the tumor periphery, with less association with CD44+ cells. Flow cytometry analysis of ex vivo tumor cells showed that PEG-HA-liposomes had significantly higher tumor cell internalization compared to PEGylated liposomes. This study demonstrates that a long blood circulation time is critical for active tumor targeting. Furthermore, the use of the tumor-targeting ligand HA does not increase total tumor accumulation of actively targeted liposomes in solid tumors; however, it can enhance intracellular delivery. PMID:24806526

  5. Binding of Hyaluronan to the Native Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor LYVE-1 Is Critically Dependent on Receptor Clustering and Hyaluronan Organization*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance, William; Banerji, Suneale; Day, Anthony J.; Bhattacharjee, Shaumick; Jackson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic endothelial receptor LYVE-1 has been implicated in both uptake of hyaluronan (HA) from tissue matrix and in facilitating transit of leukocytes and tumor cells through lymphatic vessels based largely on in vitro studies with recombinant receptor in transfected fibroblasts. Curiously, however, LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium displays little if any binding to HA in vitro, and this has led to the conclusion that the native receptor is functionally silenced, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with its proposed in vivo functions. Nonetheless, as we reported recently, LYVE-1 can function as a receptor for HA-encapsulated Group A streptococci and mediate lymphatic dissemination in mice. Here we resolve these paradoxical findings and show that the capacity of LYVE-1 to bind HA is strictly dependent on avidity, demanding appropriate receptor self-association and/or HA multimerization. In particular, we demonstrate the prerequisite of a critical LYVE-1 threshold density and show that HA binding may be elicited in lymphatic endothelium by surface clustering with divalent LYVE-1 mAbs. In addition, we show that cross-linking of biotinylated HA in streptavidin multimers or supramolecular complexes with the inflammation-induced protein TSG-6 enables binding even in the absence of LYVE-1 cross-linking. Finally, we show that endogenous HA on the surface of macrophages can engage LYVE-1, facilitating their adhesion and transit across lymphatic endothelium. These results reveal LYVE-1 as a low affinity receptor tuned to discriminate between different HA configurations through avidity and establish a new mechanistic basis for the functions ascribed to LYVE-1 in matrix HA binding and leukocyte trafficking in vivo. PMID:26823460

  6. Hyaluronan polymer length, grafting density, and surface poly(ethylene glycol) coating influence in vivo circulation and tumor targeting of hyaluronan-grafted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Hye, Tanvirul; Alali, Amer; Liu, Xinli

    2014-06-24

    Hyaluronan-grafted liposomes (HA-liposomes) preferentially target CD44-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro via receptor-mediated endocytosis. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of HA-liposomes with various sizes of HA (MW 5-8, 50-60, and 175-350 kDa) in mice. Incorporation of negatively charged HA on the liposome surface compromised its blood circulation time, which led to decreased tumor accumulation in CD44+ human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenografts compared to PEGylated liposomes (PEG-5000). Clearance of HA-liposomes was HA polymer length-dependent; high MW (175-350 kDa, highest ligand binding affinity) HA-liposomes displayed faster clearance compared to low MW (5-8, 50-60 kDa) HA-liposomes or PEGylated liposomes. Surface HA ligand density can also affect clearance of HA-liposomes. Thus, HA is not an effective stealth coating material. When dual coating of PEG and HA was used, the PEG-HA-liposomes displayed similar blood circulation time and tumor accumulation to that of the PEGylated liposomes; however, the PEG-HA-liposomes displayed better cellular internalization capability in vivo. Tumor histology showed that PEG-HA-liposomes had a more direct association with CD44+ cancer cells, while PEGylated liposomes located predominantly in the tumor periphery, with less association with CD44+ cells. Flow cytometry analysis of ex vivo tumor cells showed that PEG-HA-liposomes had significantly higher tumor cell internalization compared to PEGylated liposomes. This study demonstrates that a long blood circulation time is critical for active tumor targeting. Furthermore, the use of the tumor-targeting ligand HA does not increase total tumor accumulation of actively targeted liposomes in solid tumors; however, it can enhance intracellular delivery. PMID:24806526

  7. A study on Ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis: Isolation and Identification of Pasteurellae and their antibiogram susceptibility pattern in Haramaya District, Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheep constitute the second major component of livestock in Ethiopia. However, efficient utilization of this potential resource is hampered by combination of health problems, poor management and feed shortage. Haramaya district is one of the remote settings in Ethiopia where information about the livestock disease is not well documented. Hence this study was conducted to determine the causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial Pasteurella isolates among pneumonic ovine in Haramaya district, Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia. Results Out of 256 samples examined, Pasterurella was isolated in 64 (25%), of which 38 (59.4%) were from lungs and 26 (40.6%) were from nasal cavities. 87.5% of the isolates were Mannheimia haemolytica and 12.5% were Pasteurella multocida. All of the isolates from the lungs were Mannheimia haemolytica whereas 69% of the isolates from nasals cavities were Mannheimia haemolytica. Age and body temperature were significantly associated with Pasteurella isolates from clinic (P < 0.05). Despite diverse in the site of origins, the isolates exhibited uniformity in sensitivity to a majority of the antibacterial agents. The most effective drug was Cholramphenicol (100%) followed by Sulfamethoxazole (89.1%) and Tetracycline (84.4%). Both species were completely resistant to Gentamycin and Vancomycin. Conclusion Mannheimia haemolytica is the most common cause of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis in the study area. The isolates were susceptible to limited antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the antimicrobial susceptibility test should be conducted before treatment, except for critical cases. PMID:24289236

  8. Specific Detection of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens with Fowl Cholera and in Pig Lung Tissues Using Fluorescent rRNA In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Christensen, Henrik; Boye, Mette; Petersen, Kamille Majken Dumong; Bisgaard, Magne; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2001-01-01

    A Pasteurella multocida species-specific oligonucleotide probe, pmhyb449, targeting 16S rRNA was designed and evaluated by whole-cell hybridization against 22 selected reference strains in animal tissues. It differentiated P. multocida from other bacterial species of the families Pasteurellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and also from divergent species of the order Cytophagales (except biovar 2 strains of Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella canis, which have high 16S rRNA similarity to P. multocida). The potential of the probe for specific identification and differentiation of P. multocida was further detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. In chicken lung tissues P. multocida cells were detected singly, in pairs, as microcolonies, and as massive colonies within air capillaries (septa and lumen), parabronchial septa, and blood vessels (wall and lumen). In pig lung, postmortem-injected P. multocida was detected in the alveoli (lumen and wall), and in both animals the bacterial cells were seen in the bronchi. The results showed that with the oligonucleotide probe pmhyb449, fluorescent in situ hybridization is a suitable and fast method for specific detection of P. multocida in histological formalin-fixed tissues. The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs due to P. multocida. PMID:11427580

  9. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  10. The SOD mimic MnTM-2-PyP(5+) reduces hyaluronan degradation-induced inflammation in mouse articular chondrocytes stimulated with Fe (II) plus ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Nastasi, Giancarlo; Micali, Antonio; Puzzolo, Domenico; Pisani, Antonina; Calatroni, Alberto; Campo, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    In pathological conditions, oxidative burst generates hyaluronan (HA) fragmentation with a consequent increase in the number of small HA oligosaccharides. These fragments are able to stimulate an inflammatory response in different cell types by activating the CD44 and the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR-4) and 2 (TLR-2). The stimulation of CD44 and TLRs in turn activates the NF-kB which induces the production of several pro-inflammatory mediators that amplify and perpetuate inflammation. We aimed to study the antioxidant effect of the SOD mimic, synthetic manganese porphyrin, Mn(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTM-2-PyP(5+)) on preventing HA degradation in mouse articular chondrocytes stimulated with Fe (II) plus ascorbate. Fe (II) plus ascorbate stimulation induced oxidative burst confirmed by high levels of hydroxyl radical/peroxynitrite production, increased lipid peroxidation and HA degradation. HA fragments highly induced mRNA expression and the related protein production of CD44, TLR-4 and TLR-2, NF-kB activation and significantly up-regulated the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and other pro-inflammatory mediators, i.e. matrix metalloprotease 13 (MMP-13) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment of cells with MnTM-2-PyP(5+)was able to attenuate oxidative burst, HA degradation and NF-kB activation, and markedly decreased mRNA expression of CD44, and TLRs and the related protein synthesis, as well as the levels of up-regulated inflammatory mediators. Adding a specific HA-blocking peptide (PEP-1) to cells significantly reduced all the inflammatory parameters up-regulated by Fe (II) plus ascorbate, and increased MnTM-2-PyP(5+) activity. These findings suggest that HA degradation plays a key role in the initial inflammatory response of cartilage and antioxidants and could be a useful tool to prevent the propagation of this mechanism. PMID:23692848

  11. Trichodiene synthase. Substrate specificity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Yang, G; Xue, Q; Shim, J H

    1995-02-28

    The substrate specificity of the sesquiterpene synthase trichodiene synthase was examined by determining the Vmax and Km parameters for the natural substrate, trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate (1), its stereoisomer, cis,trans-farnesyl diphosphate, and the tertiary allylic isomer, (3R)-nerolidyl diphosphate (3), using both the native fungal and recombinant enzymes. A series of farnesyl diphosphate analogs, 15, 16, 20, 7, 8, and 9, was also tested as inhibitors of trichodiene synthase. 10-Fluorofarnesyl diphosphate (15) was the most effective competitive inhibitor, with a K1 of 16 nM compared to the Km for 1 of 87 nM, while the ether analog of farnesyl diphosphate, 8, an extremely potent inhibitor of squalene synthase, showed only modest inhibition of trichodiene synthase, with a K1/Km of 70. PMID:7873526

  12. Green synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of hyaluronan/zinc oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Farideh; Azizi, Susan; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Rasedee, Abdullah; Soltani, Mozhgan; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The study describes an in situ green biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocomposite using the seaweed Sargassum muticum water extract and hyaluronan biopolymer. The morphology and optical properties of the hyaluronan/zinc oxide (HA/ZnO) nanocomposite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-vis analysis. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles were polydispersed with a mean size of 10.2±1.5 nm. The nanoparticles were mostly hexagonal in crystalline form. The HA/ZnO nanocomposite showed the absorption properties in the ultraviolet zone that is ascribed to the band gap of zinc oxide nanocomposite. In the cytotoxicity study, cancer cells, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PANC-1), ovarian adenocarcinoma (CaOV-3), colonic adenocarcinoma (COLO205), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were treated with HA/ZnO nanocomposite. At 72 hours of treatment, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value via the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was 10.8±0.3 μg/mL, 15.4±1.2 μg/mL, 12.1±0.9 μg/mL, and 6.25±0.5 μg/mL for the PANC-1, CaOV-3, COLO-205, and HL-60 cells, respectively, showing that the composite is most toxic to the HL-60 cells. On the other hand, HA/ZnO nanocomposite treatment for 72 hours did not cause toxicity to the normal human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line. Using fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis, HA/ZnO nanocomposite caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and stimulated apoptosis-related increase in caspase-3 and -7 activities of the HL-60 cells. Thus, the study shows that the HA/ZnO nanocomposite produced through green synthesis has great potential to be developed into an efficacious therapeutic agent for cancers. PMID:27555781

  13. Localized RNAi therapeutics of chemoresistant grade IV glioma using hyaluronan-grafted lipid-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Zvi R; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Peshes-Yaloz, Naama; Goldsmith, Meir; Wohl, Anton; Zibly, Zion; Peer, Dan

    2015-02-24

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most infiltrating, aggressive, and poorly treated brain tumors. Progress in genomics and proteomics has paved the way for identifying potential therapeutic targets for treating GBM, yet the vast majority of these leading drug candidates for the treatment of GBM are ineffective, mainly due to restricted passages across the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles have been emerged as a promising platform to treat different types of tumors due to their ability to transport drugs to target sites while minimizing adverse effects. Herein, we devised a localized strategy to deliver RNA interference (RNAi) directly to the GBM site using hyaluronan (HA)-grafted lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs). These LNPs having an ionized lipid were previously shown to be highly effective in delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into various cell types. LNP's surface was functionalized with hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan that specifically binds the CD44 receptor expressed on GBM cells. We found that HA-LNPs can successfully bind to GBM cell lines and primary neurosphers of GBM patients. HA-LNPs loaded with Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) siRNAs (siPLK1) dramatically reduced the expression of PLK1 mRNA and cumulated in cell death even under shear flow that simulate the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid compared with control groups. Next, a human GBM U87MG orthotopic xenograft model was established by intracranial injection of U87MG cells into nude mice. Convection of Cy3-siRNA entrapped in HA-LNPs was performed, and specific Cy3 uptake was observed in U87MG cells. Moreover, convection of siPLK1 entrapped in HA-LNPs reduced mRNA levels by more than 80% and significantly prolonged survival of treated mice in the orthotopic model. Taken together, our results suggest that RNAi therapeutics could effectively be delivered in a localized manner with HA-coated LNPs and ultimately may become a therapeutic modality for GBM.

  14. Green synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of hyaluronan/zinc oxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Namvar, Farideh; Azizi, Susan; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Rasedee, Abdullah; Soltani, Mozhgan; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The study describes an in situ green biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocomposite using the seaweed Sargassum muticum water extract and hyaluronan biopolymer. The morphology and optical properties of the hyaluronan/zinc oxide (HA/ZnO) nanocomposite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–vis analysis. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles were polydispersed with a mean size of 10.2±1.5 nm. The nanoparticles were mostly hexagonal in crystalline form. The HA/ZnO nanocomposite showed the absorption properties in the ultraviolet zone that is ascribed to the band gap of zinc oxide nanocomposite. In the cytotoxicity study, cancer cells, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PANC-1), ovarian adenocarcinoma (CaOV-3), colonic adenocarcinoma (COLO205), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were treated with HA/ZnO nanocomposite. At 72 hours of treatment, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value via the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was 10.8±0.3 μg/mL, 15.4±1.2 μg/mL, 12.1±0.9 μg/mL, and 6.25±0.5 μg/mL for the PANC-1, CaOV-3, COLO-205, and HL-60 cells, respectively, showing that the composite is most toxic to the HL-60 cells. On the other hand, HA/ZnO nanocomposite treatment for 72 hours did not cause toxicity to the normal human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line. Using fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis, HA/ZnO nanocomposite caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and stimulated apoptosis-related increase in caspase-3 and -7 activities of the HL-60 cells. Thus, the study shows that the HA/ZnO nanocomposite produced through green synthesis has great potential to be developed into an efficacious therapeutic agent for cancers. PMID:27555781

  15. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  16. The hyaluronan receptors CD44 and RHAMM (CD168) form complexeswith ERK1,2, which sustain high basal motility in breast cancercells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sara R.; Fard, Shireen F.; Paiwand, Frouz F.; Tolg,Cornelia; Veiseh, Mandana; Wang, Chao; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, MinaJ.; Koropatnick, James; Turley, Eva A.

    2007-03-28

    CD44 is an integral hyaluronan receptor that can promote or inhibit motogenic signaling in tumor cells. Rhamm is a non-integral cell surface hyaluronan receptor (CD168) and intracellular protein that promotes cell motility in culture and its expression is strongly upregulated in diseases like arthritis and aggressive cancers. Here we describe an autocrine mechanism utilizing cell surface Rhamm/CD44 interactions to sustain rapid basal motility in invasive breast cancer cell lines. This mechanism requires endogenous hyaluronan synthesis and the formation of Rhamm/CD44/ERK1, 2 complexes. Motile/ invasive MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells produce more endogenous hyaluronan, cell surface CD44 and Rhamm, an oncogenic Rhamm isoform, and exhibit elevated basal activation of ERK1, 2 than less invasive MCF7 and MCF10A breast cancer cells. Furthermore, CD44, Rhamm and ERK1, 2 uniquely co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize in MDA-MB-231 and Ras-MCF10A cells. Rapid motility of the invasive cell lines requires interaction of hyaluronan with cells, activation of ERK1, 2 and the participation of both cell surface CD44 and Rhamm. Combinations of anti-CD44, anti-Rhamm antibodies and a MEK1 inhibitor (PD098059) have less-than-additive blocking effects, suggesting action of all three proteins on a common motogenic signaling pathway. Collectively, these results show that cell surface Rhamm and CD44 act together in a hyaluronan-dependent, autocrine mechanism to coordinate sustained signaling through ERK1, 2 leading to high basal motility of invasive breast cancer cells. Since CD44/Rhamm complexes are not evident in less motile cells, an effect of CD44 on tumor cell motility may depend in part on its ability to partner with additional proteins, in this case cell surface Rhamm.

  17. Hyaluronan – A Functional and Structural Sweet Spot in the Tissue Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Monslow, James; Govindaraju, Priya; Puré, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Transition from homeostatic to reactive matrix remodeling is a fundamental adaptive tissue response to injury, inflammatory disease, fibrosis, and cancer. Alterations in architecture, physical properties, and matrix composition result in changes in biomechanical and biochemical cellular signaling. The dynamics of pericellular and extracellular matrices, including matrix protein, proteoglycan, and glycosaminoglycan modification are continually emerging as essential regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular and tissue function. Nevertheless, the impact of matrix organization on inflammation and immunity in particular and the consequent effects on tissue healing and disease outcome are arguably under-studied aspects of adaptive stress responses. Herein, we review how the predominant glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) contributes to the structure and function of the tissue microenvironment. Specifically, we examine the evidence of HA degradation and the generation of biologically active smaller HA fragments in pathological settings in vivo. We discuss how HA fragments versus nascent HA via alternate receptor-mediated signaling influence inflammatory cell recruitment and differentiation, resident cell activation, as well as tumor growth, survival, and metastasis. Finally, we discuss how HA fragmentation impacts restoration of normal tissue function and pathological outcomes in disease. PMID:26029216

  18. Neocartilage formation from mesenchymal stem cells grown in type II collagen-hyaluronan composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsi-Yi; Lin, Ting-Yu; Lin, Chen-Huan; Yen, B Linju; Tsai, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) collagen type II-hyaluronan (HA) composite scaffolds (CII-HA) which mimics the extracellular environment of natural cartilage were fabricated in this study. Rheological measurements demonstrated that the incorporation of HA increased the compression modulus of the scaffolds. An initial in vitro evaluation showed that scaffolds seeded with porcine chondrocytes formed cartilaginous-like tissue after 8 weeks, and HA functioned to promote the growth of chondrocytes into scaffolds. Placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMC) and gingival fibroblasts (GF) were seeded on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), CII-HA films, and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) sheets for comparing their chondrogenesis differentiation potentials with those of adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADAS) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC). Among different cells, PDMC showed the greatest chondrogenic differentiation potential on both CII-HA films and SIS sheets upon TGF-β3 induction, followed by GF. This was evidenced by the up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II), which was not observed for cells grown on TCPS. This finding suggested the essential role of substrate materials in the chondrogenic differentiation of PDMC and GF. Neocartilage formation was more obvious in both PDMC and GF cells plated on CII-HA composite scaffolds vs. 8-layer SIS at 28 days in vitro. Finally, implantation of PDMC/CII-HA constructs into NOD-SCID mice confirmed the formation of tissue-engineered cartilage in vivo.

  19. Production of specific-molecular-weight hyaluronan by metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Kang, Zhen; Yuan, Panhong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) has attracted much attention because of its many potential applications. Here, we efficiently produced specific LMW-HAs from sucrose in Bacillus subtilis. By coexpressing the identified committed genes (tuaD, gtaB, glmU, glmM, and glmS) and downregulating the glycolytic pathway, HA production was significantly increased from 1.01gL(-1) to 3.16gL(-1), with a molecular weight range of 1.40×10(6)-1.83×10(6)Da. When leech hyaluronidase was actively expressed after N-terminal engineering (1.62×10(6)UmL(-1)), the production of HA was substantially increased from 5.96gL(-1) to 19.38gL(-1). The level of hyaluronidase was rationally regulated with a ribosome-binding site engineering strategy, allowing the production of LMW-HAs with a molecular weight range of 2.20×10(3)-1.42×10(6)Da. Our results confirm that this strategy for the controllable expression of hyaluronidase, together with the optimization of the HA synthetic pathway, effectively produces specific LMW-HAs, and could also be used to produce other LMW polysaccharides. PMID:26851304

  20. Hyaluronan-phosphatidylethanolamine polymers form pericellular coats on keratinocytes and promote basal keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Symonette, Caitlin J; Kaur Mann, Aman; Tan, Xiao Cherie; Tolg, Cornelia; Ma, Jenny; Perera, Francisco; Yazdani, Arjang; Turley, Eva A

    2014-01-01

    Aged keratinocytes have diminished proliferative capacity and hyaluronan (HA) cell coats, which are losses that contribute to atrophic skin characterized by reduced barrier and repair functions. We formulated HA-phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine, HA-PE) polymers that form pericellular coats around cultured dermal fibroblasts independently of CD44 or RHAMM display. We investigated the ability of these HA-PE polymers to penetrate into aged mouse skin and restore epidermal function in vivo. Topically applied Alexa(647)-HA-PE penetrated into the epidermis and dermis, where it associated with both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In contrast, Alexa(647)-HA was largely retained in the outer cornified layer of the epidermis and quantification of fluorescence confirmed that significantly more Alexa(647)-HA-PE penetrated into and was retained within the epidermis than Alexa(647)-HA. Multiple topical applications of HA-PE to shaved mouse skin significantly stimulated basal keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal thickness compared to HA or vehicle cream alone. HA-PE had no detectable effect on keratinocyte differentiation and did not promote local or systemic inflammation. These effects of HA-PE polymers are similar to those reported for endogenous epidermal HA in youthful skin and show that topical application of HA-PE polymers can restore some of the impaired functions of aged epidermis. PMID:25276814

  1. Novel synthetic method for the preparation of amphiphilic hyaluronan by means of aliphatic aromatic anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Bobek, Martin; Příkopová, Eva; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-10-13

    The present work describes a novel and efficient method of synthesis of amphiphilic hyaluronan (HA) by esterification with alkyl fatty acids. These derivatives were synthesized under mild aqueous and well controlled conditions using mixed aliphatic aromatic anhydrides. These anhydrides characterized by the general formula RCOOCOC6H2Cl3 can be easily prepared by the reaction of the corresponding fatty acid (R) with 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC) in the presence of triethylamine. The aliphatic aromatic anhydrides RCOOCOC6H2Cl3 then react with the polysaccharide and enable the synthesis of aliphatic acid esters of HA in good yields. No hydrolytic degradation of hyaluronic acid could be observed. Parameters controlling the degree of esterification were systematically studied. Fatty acids with different chain lengths can be introduced applying this methodology. The degree of substitution was decreasing with increasing length of hydrophobic chain. The reaction products were fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), SEC-MALLS and chromatographic analyses. Although the esterified HA products exhibited aggregation in solution as demonstrated by NMR, microscopy and rheology, they were still water-soluble.

  2. Hyaluronan's Role in Fibrosis: A Pathogenic Factor or a Passive Player?

    PubMed

    Albeiroti, Sami; Soroosh, Artin; de la Motte, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a debilitating condition that can lead to impairment of the affected organ's function. Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules is characteristic of most fibrotic tissues. Fibroblasts activated by cytokines or growth factors differentiate into myofibroblasts that drive fibrosis by depositing ECM molecules, such as collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the major profibrotic cytokines which promotes fibrosis by signaling abnormal ECM regulation. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major ECM glycosaminoglycan that is regulated by TGF-β and whose role in fibrosis is emerging. Aside from its role as a hydrating, space filling polymer, HA regulates different cellular functions and is known to have a role in wound healing and inflammation. Importantly, HA deposition is increased in multiple fibrotic diseases. In this review we highlight studies that link HA to fibrosis and discuss what is known about the role of HA, its receptors, and its anabolic and catabolic enzymes in different fibrotic diseases.

  3. Distribution of versican and hyaluronan in the mouse uterus during decidualization.

    PubMed

    San Martin, S; Soto-Suazo, M; Zorn, T M T

    2003-08-01

    Preparation for embryo implantation requires extensive adaptation of the uterine microenvironment. This process consists of cell proliferation and cell differentiation resulting in the transformation of endometrial fibroblasts into a new type of cell called decidual cell. In the present study, we followed the space-time distribution of versican and hyaluronan (HA) in different tissues of the uterus before and after embryo implantation. Fragments of mouse uteri obtained on the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh days of pregnancy were fixed in Methacarn, embedded in Paraplast and cut into 5-microm thick sections. HA was detected using a biotinylated fragment of the proteoglycan aggrecan, which binds to this glycosaminoglycan with high affinity and specificity. Versican was detected by a polyclonal antibody. Both reactions were developed by peroxidase methods. Before embryo implantation, both HA and versican were present in the endometrial stroma. However, after embryo implantation, HA disappeared from the decidual region immediately surrounding the implantation chamber, whereas versican accumulated in the same region. The differences observed in the expression of HA and versican suggest that both molecules may participate in the process of endometrial decidualization and/or embryo implantation.

  4. Matrix Hyaluronan Promotes Specific MicroRNA Upregulation Leading to Drug Resistance and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y. W.

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumor invasion, metastasis and therapeutic drug resistance are the common causes for serious morbidity and cancer recurrence in patients. A number of research studies have searched for malignancy-related biomarkers and drug targets that are closely linked to tumor cell properties. One of the candidates is matrix hyaluronan (HA), which is known as one of the major extracellular matrix (ECM) components. HA serves as a physiological ligand for surface CD44 molecule and also functions as a bio-regulator. The binding of HA to CD44 has been shown to stimulate concomitant activation of a number of oncogenic pathways and abnormal cellular processes in cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small RNAs containing ~20–25 nucleotides and are known to promote aberrant cellular functions in cancer cells. In this article, I have focused on the role of HA interaction with CD44 and several important signaling molecules in the regulation of unique miRNAs (e.g., miR-21, miR-302 and miR-10b) and their downstream targets leading to multiple tumor cell-specific functions (e.g., tumor cell growth, drug resistance and metastasis) and cancer progression. This new knowledge could provide the groundwork necessary for establishing new tumor markers and developing important, novel drugs targeted against HA/CD44-associated tumor progression, which can be utilized in the therapeutic treatment of metastatic cancer patients. PMID:27070574

  5. Hyaluronan Participates in the Epidermal Response to Disruption of the Permeability Barrier in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maytin, Edward V.; Chung, Helen H.; Seetharaman, V. Mani

    2004-01-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix of tissues that plays a role in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. Injury to the stratum corneum elicits an epidermal hyperproliferative response, a pathogenic feature in many cutaneous diseases including eczema and psoriasis. Because HA is abundant in the matrix between keratinocytes, we asked whether the presence of HA is required for epidermal hyperplasia to occur in response to barrier injury. Disruption of the stratum corneum, by acetone application on the skin of hairless mice, led to a marked accumulation of HA in the matrix between epidermal basal and spinous keratinocytes, and also within keratinocytes of the upper epidermis. To test whether HA may have a functional role in epidermal hyperplasia, we used Streptomyces hyaluronidase (StrepH), delivered topically, to degrade epidermal HA and blunt the accumulation of epidermal HA after acetone. StrepH signficantly reduced epidermal HA levels, and also significantly inhibited the development of epidermal hyperplasia. This reduction in epidermal thickness was not attributable to any decrease in keratinocyte proliferation, but rather to an apparent acceleration in terminal differentiation (ie, increased keratin 10 and filaggrin expression). Overall, the data show that HA is a significant participant in the epidermal response to barrier injury. PMID:15466397

  6. Computational Study of Nanosized Drug Delivery from Cyclodextrins, Crown Ethers and Hyaluronan in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Francisco; Castellano, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this work is the computational characterization of cyclodextrins, crown ethers and hyaluronan (HA) as hosts of inclusion complexes for nanosized drug delivery vehicles in pharmaceutical formulations. The difficulty is addressed through a computational study of some thermodynamic, geometric and topological properties of the hosts. The calculated properties of oligosaccharides of D-glucopyranoses allow these to act as co-solvents of polyanions in water. In crown ethers, the central channel is computed. Mucoadhesive polymer HA in formulations releases drugs in mucosas. Geometric, topological and fractal analyses are carried out with code TOPO. Reference calculations are performed with code GEPOL. From HA to HA·3Ca and hydrate, the hydrophilic solvent-accessible surface varies with the count of H-bonds. The fractal dimension rises. The dimension of external atoms rises resulting 1.725 for HA. It rises going to HA·3Ca and hydrate. Nonburied minus molecular dimension rises and decays. Hydrate globularity is lower than O(water), Ca(2+) and O(HA). Ca(2+) rugosity is smaller than for hydrate, O(HA) and O(water). Ca(2+) and O(water) accessibilities are greater than hydrate. Conclusions are drawn on: (1) the relative stability of linear/cyclic and shorter/larger polymers; (2) the atomic analysis of properties allows determining the atoms with maximum reactivity.

  7. Production of specific-molecular-weight hyaluronan by metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Kang, Zhen; Yuan, Panhong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) has attracted much attention because of its many potential applications. Here, we efficiently produced specific LMW-HAs from sucrose in Bacillus subtilis. By coexpressing the identified committed genes (tuaD, gtaB, glmU, glmM, and glmS) and downregulating the glycolytic pathway, HA production was significantly increased from 1.01gL(-1) to 3.16gL(-1), with a molecular weight range of 1.40×10(6)-1.83×10(6)Da. When leech hyaluronidase was actively expressed after N-terminal engineering (1.62×10(6)UmL(-1)), the production of HA was substantially increased from 5.96gL(-1) to 19.38gL(-1). The level of hyaluronidase was rationally regulated with a ribosome-binding site engineering strategy, allowing the production of LMW-HAs with a molecular weight range of 2.20×10(3)-1.42×10(6)Da. Our results confirm that this strategy for the controllable expression of hyaluronidase, together with the optimization of the HA synthetic pathway, effectively produces specific LMW-HAs, and could also be used to produce other LMW polysaccharides.

  8. Mechanically strong triple network hydrogels based on hyaluronan and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide).

    PubMed

    Tavsanli, Burak; Can, Volkan; Okay, Oguz

    2015-11-21

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a natural polyelectrolyte with distinctive biological functions. Cross-linking of HA to generate less degradable hydrogels for use in biomedical applications has attracted interest over many years. One limitation of HA hydrogels is that they are very brittle and/or easily dissolve in physiological environments, which limit their use in load-bearing applications. Herein, we describe the preparation of triple-network (TN) hydrogels based on HA and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) of high mechanical strength by sequential gelation reactions. TN hydrogels containing 81-91% water sustain compressive stresses above 20 MPa and exhibit Young's moduli of up to 1 MPa. HA of various degrees of methacrylation was used as a multifunctional macromer for the synthesis of the brittle first-network component, while loosely cross-linked PDMA was used as the ductile, second and third network components of TN hydrogels. By tuning the methacrylation degree of HA, double-network hydrogels with a fracture stress above 10 MPa and a fracture strain of 96% were obtained. Increasing the ratio of ductile-to-brittle components via the TN approach further increases the fracture stress above 20 MPa. Cyclic mechanical tests show that, although TN hydrogels internally fracture even under small strain, the ductile components hinder macroscopic crack propagation by keeping the macroscopic gel samples together.

  9. Hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for autoreactive T-cell trafficking, activation, and Th1 polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Hedwich F.; Rieck, Mary; Gurevich, Irina; Nagy, Nadine; Negrin, Robert S.; Wight, Thomas N.; Steinman, Lawrence; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) accumulates at sites of autoimmune inflammation, including white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its functional importance in pathogenesis is unclear. We have evaluated the impact of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an oral inhibitor of HA synthesis, on disease progression in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Treatment with 4-MU decreases the incidence of EAE, delays its onset, and reduces the severity of established disease. 4-MU inhibits the activation of autoreactive T cells and prevents their polarization toward a Th1 phenotype. Instead, 4-MU promotes polarization toward a Th2 phenotpye and induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Further, 4-MU hastens trafficking of T cells through secondary lymphoid organs, impairs the infiltration of T cells into the CNS parenchyma, and limits astrogliosis. Together, these data suggest that HA synthesis is necessary for disease progression in EAE and that treatment with 4-MU may be a potential therapeutic strategy in CNS autoimmunity. Considering that 4-MU is already a therapeutic, called hymecromone, that is approved to treat biliary spasm in humans, we propose that it could be repurposed to treat MS. PMID:26787861

  10. Hyaluronan modulates TRPV1 channel opening, reducing peripheral nociceptor activity and pain

    PubMed Central

    Caires, Rebeca; Luis, Enoch; Taberner, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Balazs, Endre A.; Gomis, Ana; Belmonte, Carlos; de la Peña, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in the extracellular matrix of all body tissues, including synovial fluid in joints, in which it behaves as a filter that buffers transmission of mechanical forces to nociceptor nerve endings thereby reducing pain. Using recombinant systems, mouse-cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in vivo experiments, we found that HA also modulates polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) channels. HA diminishes heat, pH and capsaicin (CAP) responses, thus reducing the opening probability of the channel by stabilizing its closed state. Accordingly, in DRG neurons, HA decreases TRPV1-mediated impulse firing and channel sensitization by bradykinin. Moreover, subcutaneous HA injection in mice reduces heat and capsaicin nocifensive responses, whereas the intra-articular injection of HA in rats decreases capsaicin joint nociceptor fibres discharge. Collectively, these results indicate that extracellular HA reduces the excitability of the ubiquitous TRPV1 channel, thereby lowering impulse activity in the peripheral nociceptor endings underlying pain. PMID:26311398

  11. AP-1-mediated invasion requires increased expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, R F; Hennigan, R F; Turnbull, K; Katsanakis, K D; MacKenzie, E D; Birnie, G D; Ozanne, B W

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblasts transformed by Fos oncogenes display increased expression of a number of genes implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In contrast to normal 208F rat fibroblasts, Fos-transformed 208F fibroblasts are growth factor independent for invasion. We demonstrate that invasion of v-Fos- or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transformed cells requires AP-1 activity. v-Fos-transformed cell invasion is inhibited by c-jun antisense oligonucleotides and by expression of a c-jun dominant negative mutant, TAM-67. EGF-induced invasion is inhibited by both c-fos and c-jun antisense oligonucleotides. CD44s, the standard form of a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, is implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that increased expression of CD44 in Fos- and EGF-transformed cells is dependent upon AP-1. CD44 antisense oligonucleotides reduce expression of CD44 in v-Fos- or EGF-transformed cells and inhibit invasion but not migration. Expression of a fusion protein between human CD44s and Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 208F cells complements the inhibition of invasion by the rat-specific CD44 antisense oligonucleotide. We further show that both v-Fos and EGF transformations result in a concentration of endogenous CD44 or exogenous CD44-GFP at the ends of pseudopodial cell extensions. These results support the hypothesis that one role of AP-1 in transformation is to activate a multigenic invasion program. PMID:9001250

  12. Antitumor effects of the hyaluronan inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone on pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Eri; Kudo, Daisuke; Nagase, Hayato; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suto, Shinichiro; Negishi, Mika; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Endo, Masahiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and influences tumor invasion and metastasis. In a previous study, the present authors reported for the first time that 4-methylumbelliferone (MU) inhibited HA synthesis and suppressed tumor growth. However, the localization of HA and the changes in ECM morphology caused by MU in pancreatic cancer remain to be examined in detail. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of MU and its effect on cellular proliferation was evaluated in the human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. The amount of HA synthesized and the retention of HA around the cells were quantitatively and immunohistochemically analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Structural changes in the ECM in the tumor tissue were investigated using an electron microscope. MU treatment led to a decrease in extracellular HA retention, as evidenced by a particle exclusion assay and immunohistochemical staining. Cell proliferation was suppressed by MU in a dose-dependent manner. The release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium due to damage to the cellular membrane did not increase following MU administration. In tumor-inoculated mice, MU suppressed any increase in tumor volume and decreased the quantity of HA. Electron microscopy revealed that MU attenuated the intercellular space and caused it to be less cohesive. These data indicate that MU inhibits HA synthesis and reduces the amount of HA in the ECM while exhibiting no obvious cytotoxic effect. These findings suggest that MU has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Laminin modified infection-preventing collagen membrane containing silver sulfadiazine-hyaluronan microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Eun; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Oh, Sang Ho; Suh, Hwal

    2002-06-01

    The newly developed laminin modified infection-preventing collagen membrane consists of a 3 component laminate, comprising 2 outer collagen layers and a central laminin layer. The 2 outer collagen layers (dense and porous layers) were fabricated by air-drying and freeze drying, respectively, and the laminin layer was formed by a straightforward liquid coating method. In addition, hyaluronan based microparticles containing silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) were incorporated into the 2 collagen layers (AgSD content 50 microg/cm2). Laminin coated collagen surfaces did not promote fibroblast attachment but showed a retarded fibroblast proliferation rate and an increased rate of collagen synthesis versus pure collagen surfaces. In an animal study, a laminin coating on a nonmedicated collagen membrane significantly increased both wound size reduction and vessel proliferation 7 days after application versus polyurethane film. Interestingly, the laminin coated AgSD medicated collagen membrane demonstrated higher wound size reduction and vessel proliferation and lower inflammation than the polyurethane control, suggesting that the laminin AgSD medicated collagen membrane substantially improves dermal wound healing.

  14. Visible Light Crosslinking of Methacrylated Hyaluronan Hydrogels for Injectable Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Spencer L.; Oldinski, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering hydrogels are primarily cured in situ using ultraviolet (UV) radiation which limits the use of hydrogels as drug or cell carriers. Visible green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a safe alternative to UV photocrosslinked hydrogels, without compromising material properties such as viscosity and stiffness. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize photocrosslinked hydrogels with well-regulated gelation kinetics and mechanical properties for the repair or replacement of soft tissue. An anhydrous methacrylation of hyaluronan (HA) was performed to control the degree of modification (DOM) of HA, verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. UV activated crosslinking was compared to visible green light activated crosslinking. While the different photocrosslinking techniques resulted in varied crosslinking times, comparable mechanical properties of UV and green light activated crosslinked hydrogels were achieved using each photocrosslinking method by adjusting time of light exposure. Methacrylated HA (HA-MA) hydrogels of varying molecular weight, DOM and concentration exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1 kPa to 116 kPa, for UV crosslinking, and 3 kPa to 146 kPa, for green light crosslinking. HA-MA molecular weight and concentration were found to significantly influence moduli values. HA-MA hydrogels did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic affects towards human mesenchymal stem cells. Green light activated crosslinking systems are presented as a viable method to form natural-based hydrogels in situ. PMID:26097172

  15. Nanoparticles for localized delivery of hyaluronan oligomers towards regenerative repair of elastic matrix.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Andrew; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Deb, Partha; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are rupture-prone progressive dilations of the infrarenal aorta due to a loss of elastic matrix that lead to weakening of the aortic wall. Therapies to coax biomimetic regenerative repair of the elastic matrix by resident, diseased vascular cells may thus be useful to slow, arrest or regress AAA growth. Hyaluronan oligomers (HA-o) have been shown to induce elastic matrix synthesis by healthy and aneurysmal rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro but only via exogenous dosing, which potentially has side-effects and limitations to in vivo delivery towards therapy. In this paper, we describe the development of HA-o loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted, controlled and sustained delivery of HA-o towards the elastogenic induction of aneurysmal rat aortic SMCs. These NPs were able to deliver HA-o over an extended period (>30 days) at previously determined elastogenic doses (0.2-20 μg ml(-1)). HA-o released from the NPs led to dose-dependent increases in elastic matrix synthesis, and the recruitment and activity of lysyl oxidase, the enzyme which cross-links elastin precursor molecules into mature fibers/matrix. Therefore, we were able to successfully develop a nanoparticle-based system for controlled and sustained HA-o delivery for the in vitro elastogenic induction of aneurysmal rat aortic smooth muscle cells. PMID:23917150

  16. Hydrogels of collagen/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronan interpenetrating polymer network for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Yuan, Tun; Xiao, Zhanwen; Tang, Pingping; Xiao, Yumei; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2012-09-01

    The network structure of a three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold dominates its performance such as mechanical strength, mass transport capacity, degradation rate and subsequent cellular behavior. The hydrogels scaffolds with interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) structure have an advantage over the individual component gels and could simulate partly the structure of native extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. In this study, to develop perfect cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds, IPN hydrogels of collagen/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronan were prepared via two simultaneous processes of collagen self-assembly and cross linking polymerization of chondroitin sulfate-methacrylate (CSMA) and hyaluronic acid-methacrylate. The degradation rate, swelling performance and compressive modulus of IPN hydrogels could be adjusted by varying the degree of methacrylation of CSMA. The results of proliferation and fluorescence staining of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro culture demonstrated that the IPN hydrogels possessed good cytocompatibility. Furthermore, the IPN hydrogels could upregulate cartilage-specific gene expression and promote the chondrocytes secreting glycosaminoglycan and collagen II. These results suggested that IPN hydrogels might serve as promising hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:22639153

  17. In vivo carotid artery closure by laser activation of hyaluronan-embedded gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Rossi, Francesca; Rossi, Giacomo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Puca, Alfredo; Albanese, Alessio; Maira, Giulio; Pini, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    We prove the first application of near-infrared-absorbing gold nanorods (GNRs) for in vivo laser closure of a rabbit carotid artery. GNRs are first functionalized with a biopolymeric shell and then embedded in hyaluronan, which gives a stabilized and handy laser-activable formulation. Four rabbits undergo closure of a 3-mm longitudinal incision performed on the carotid artery by means of a 810-nm diode laser in conjunction with the topical application of the GNRs composite. An effective surgery is obtained by using a 40-W/cm2 laser power density. The histological and electron microscopy evaluation after a 30-day follow-up demonstrates complete healing of the treated arteries with full re-endothelization at the site of GNRs application. The absence of microgranuloma formation and/or dystrophic calcification is evidence that no host reaction to nanoparticles interspersed through the vascular tissue occurred. The observation of a reshaping and associated blue shift of the NIR absorption band of GNRs after laser treatment supports the occurrence of a self-terminating process, and thus of additional safety of the minimally invasive laser procedure. This study underlines the feasibility of using GNRs for in vivo laser soldering applications, which represents a step forward toward the introduction of nanotechnology-based therapies in minimally invasive clinical practices.

  18. Water-insoluble thin films from palmitoyl hyaluronan with tunable properties.

    PubMed

    Foglarová, Marcela; Chmelař, Josef; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Vágnerová, Hana; Kulhánek, Jaromír; Bartoň Tománková, Kateřina; Minařík, Antonín; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-06-25

    Hyaluronan (HA) films exhibit properties suitable for various biomedical applications, but the solubility of HA limits their use in aqueous environments. Therefore, we developed water insoluble films based on palmitoyl esters of HA (pHA). Films were prepared from pHA samples with various degrees of substitution (DS) and molecular weights and their mechanical properties and swelling were characterized. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used for visualization. Despite being prepared by solution casting, the films had a very smooth surface and were homogeneous in thickness. The film properties were in accordance with the polymer DS and molecular weight, enabling to tailor them for future applications by choosing a suitable pHA material. The behavior of the films toward cells was assessed in vitro. All films were non-cytotoxic and showed no adhesion of cells. These results show that the developed films are suitable candidates for various biomedical applications such as tissue engineering or wound healing. PMID:27083794

  19. Linolenic acid grafted hyaluronan: Process development, structural characterization, biological assessing, and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Brandejsová, Martina; Kulhánek, Jaromír; Pavlík, Vojtěch; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Vágnerová, Hana; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-11-01

    In this study, hyaluronan (HA) was grafted with alpha-linolenic acid (αLNA) by benzoyl mixed anhydrides methodology, which allowed the derivatization of HA under mild reaction conditions. The reaction was optimized and transferred from laboratory to semi-scale production. The derivative revealed an unexpected cytotoxicity after oven drying and storage at 40°C. For this reason, the storage conditions of sodium linolenyl hyaluronate (αLNA-HA) were optimized in order to preserve the beneficial effect of the derivative. Oven, spray dried and lyophilized samples were prepared and stored at -20°C, 4°C and 25°C up to 6 months. A comprehensive material characterization including stability study of the derivative, as well as evaluation of possible changes on chemical structure and presence of peroxidation products were studied by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and complemented with assessment of in vitro viability on mouse fibroblasts NIH-3T3. The most stable αLNA-HA derivative was obtained after spray drying and storage at ambient temperature under inert atmosphere. The choice of inert atmosphere is recommended to suppress oxidation of αLNA supporting the positive influence of the derivative on cell viability. The encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs of αLNA-HA were also demonstrated. PMID:27516333

  20. Enhanced apoptotic effects of dihydroartemisinin-aggregated gelatin and hyaluronan nanoparticles on human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Teong, Benjamin; Chen, I-Fen; Chang, Shwu Jen; Gao, Jimin; Kuo, Shyh-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has anticancer properties. Due to poor water solubility, poor oral activity, and a short plasma half-life, large doses of DHA have to be injected to achieve the necessary bioavailability. This study examined increasing DHA bioavailability by encapsulating DHA within gelatin (GEL) or hyaluronan (HA) nanoparticles via an electrostatic field system. Observations from transmission electron microscopy show that DHA in GEL and HA nanoparticles formed GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates that were approximately 30-40 nm in diameter. The entrapment efficiencies for DHA were approximately 13 and 35% for the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates, respectively. The proliferation of A549 cells was inhibited by the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. Fluorescent annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining displayed low background staining with annexin V-FITC or PI on DHA-untreated cells. In contrast, annexin V-FITC and PI stains dramatically increased when the cells were incubated with GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. These results suggest that DHA-aggregated GEL and HA nanoparticles exhibit higher anticancer proliferation activities than DHA alone in A549 cells most likely due to the greater aqueous dispersion after hydrophilic GEL or HA nanoparticles aggregation. These results demonstrate that DHA can aggregate with nanoparticles in an electrostatic field environment to form DHA nanosized aggregates. PMID:24039154

  1. Hyaluronan nanoparticles bearing γ-secretase inhibitor: in vivo therapeutic effects on rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Heo, Roun; Park, Jong-Sung; Jang, Hye Jin; Kim, Seol-Hee; Shin, Jung Min; Suh, Yung Doug; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Jae Hyung

    2014-10-28

    γ-Secretase inhibitors which prevent Notch activation are emerging as potent therapeutics for various inflammatory diseases, including ischemic stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. However, their indiscriminate distribution in the body causes serious side effects after systemic administration, since Notch proteins are ubiquitous receptors that play an important role in cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, hyaluronan nanoparticles (HA-NPs) bearing a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) were prepared as potential therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis. In vivo biodistribution of the DAPT-loaded HA-NPs (DNPs), labeled with near-infrared dye, were observed using a non-invasive optical imaging system after systemic administration to a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. The results demonstrated that DNPs were effectively accumulated at the inflamed joint of the CIA mice. From the in vivo therapeutic efficacy tests, DNPs (1mg DAPT/kg) significantly attenuated the severity of RA induction compared to DAPT alone (2mg/kg), which was judged from clinical scores, tissue damage, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, DNPs dramatically reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IL-6, -12, -17) and collagen-specific auto-antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) in the serum of the CIA mice. These results suggest that DNPs have potential as therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Wound healing of different molecular weight of hyaluronan; in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Ebaid, Hossam; Hassan, Iftekhar; Al-Tamimi, Jameel; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Metwalli, Ali; Alhazza, Ibrahim; Rady, Ahmed; El-Faham, Ayman; Jancar, J

    2016-08-01

    Recruitment of cells and mediators is altered during impaired wound healing, thereby delaying this process. To overcome this problem, the correlation of wound healing in older rats, and the impact of different molecular weight of hyaluronan without silver nanoparticles; (low-HA1), (High-HA2), (Medium- HA3) and with silver nanoparticles (High-HA4) is investigated. The superior HA were selected to be further investigated onto diabetic wounds. Our results pointed to a marked deficiency in wounds granulation in older rats, which was accompanied with impairment of healing process. In older rats group treated with HA2 or HA4, granulation and dermal construction were improved. Furthermore, the number of pathogenic bacteria on wounds was declined throughout the first 24h by HA2 and HA4. The wound size in HA4-treated older rats was significantly smaller than that in other HA1, HA2 or HA3-treated older ones. Also, diabetes impaired the level of inflammatory cytokine, in diabetic model. On contrary, HA4 was found to normalize the level of inflammatory cytokine, in the diabetic model. Furthermore, HA4 was found to recover all oxidative and toxicity markers in diabetic models. This data confirms the critical role of HA4 to improve granulation and inflammatory mediators in impaired older and diabetic rat wound healing. PMID:27174907

  3. Crosslinked hyaluronan with a protein-like polymer: novel bioresorbable films for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pitarresi, G; Palumbo, F S; Calabrese, R; Craparo, E F; Giammona, G

    2008-02-01

    In this work, novel hydrogel films based on hyaluronan (HA) chemically crosslinked with the alpha,beta-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl) (2-aminoethylcarbamate)-D,L-aspartamide (PHEA-EDA) were produced by solution casting method. The goal was to exploit both the biological key role of HA in tissue repair and regeneration, and the versatility of a synthetic protein-like polymer as the PHEA-EDA, in order to obtain biomaterials with physicochemical and biological properties suitable for a clinical use. By varying the molar ratio between the PHEA-EDA amino groups and HA carboxyl groups, three different films were obtained and characterized. Particularly FTIR, swelling, hydrolysis, and enzymatic degradation studies were performed. In addition, the cytocompatibility of HA/PHEA-EDA hydrogel films was evaluated using human derm fibroblasts, by means of MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. The high swelling capability, the long-term hydrolysis resistance, and the resistance to hyaluronidase greater than that of only HA, together with the cell compatibility, have suggested the potential application of these novel HA-based hydrogel films in the biomedical field of tissue engineering.

  4. Novel enzymatically cross-linked hyaluronan hydrogels support the formation of 3D neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Broguiere, Nicolas; Isenmann, Luca; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of the central nervous system's extracellular matrix and its high molecular weight (MW) form has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties relevant for regenerative medicine. Here, we introduce a new hydrogel based on high MW HA which is cross-linked using the transglutaminase (TG) activity of the activated blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIIIa). These HA-TG gels have significant advantages for neural tissue engineering compared to previous HA gels. Due to their chemical inertness in the absence of FXIIIa, the material can be stored long-term, is stable in solution, and shows no cytotoxicity. The gelation is completely cell-friendly due to the specificity of the enzyme and the gelation rate can be tuned from seconds to hours at physiological pH and independently of stiffness. The gels are injectable, and attach covalently to fibrinogen and fibrin, two common bioactive components in in vitro tissue engineering, as well as proteins present in vivo, allowing the gels to covalently bind to brain or spinal cord defects. These optimal chemical and bioactive properties of HA-TG gels enabled the formation of 3D neuronal cultures of unprecedented performance, showing fast neurite outgrowth, axonal and dendritic speciation, strong synaptic connectivity in 3D networks, and rapidly-occurring and long-lasting coordinated electrical activity.

  5. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  6. Rapid identification of Pasteurella multocida organisms responsible for haemorrhagic septicaemia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, H J; Johnson, R B; Spencer, T L; Patten, B E

    1990-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is caused by specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida and is one of the major economic diseases of cattle and buffalo in South East Asia. Definitive diagnosis of the disease-causing organism with the available methods is labour intensive and not totally reliable, consequently, an ELISA system to identify P multocida organisms which cause HS was developed. One hundred and twenty-four P multocida isolates were tested, 58 were type strains and 66 were field isolates. Analysis of these strains indicated the assay had a specificity of 99 per cent and sensitivity of at least 86 per cent. The sensitivity could be an underestimate, as five isolates assumed to be false negative reactions may not all be HS-causing strains. The HS ELISA provides a rapid, simple, accurate and inexpensive diagnostic assay for identification of HS causing organisms but does not represent a new typing system for P multocida. This assay will also enable countries to assess the impact of HS more accurately.

  7. Genome sequencing of a virulent avian Pasteurella multocida strain GX-Pm reveals the candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjie; Sizhu, Suolang; Luo, Qingping; Xu, Xuewen; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Anding

    2016-04-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. First genomic study was performed on an avirulent avian strain Pm70, and until 2013, two genomes of virulent avian strains X73 and P1059 were sequenced. Comparative genome study supplied important information for further study on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In the previous study, a capsular serotype A strain GX-Pm was isolated from the liver of a chicken, which died during an outbreak of fowl cholera in 2011. The strain showed multiple drug resistance and was highly virulent to chickens. Therefore, the present study performed the genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis to reveal the candidate genes involved in virulence of P. multocida. Sequenced draft genome sequence of GX-Pm was 2,292,886 bp, contained 2941 protein-coding genes, 5 genomic islands, 4 IS elements and 2 prophage regions. Notability, all the predicted drug-resistance genes were included in predicted genomic islands. A comparative genome study on virulent avian strains P1059, X73 and GX-Pm with the avirulent avian strain Pm 70 indicated that 475 unique genes were only identified in either of virulent strains but absent in the avirulent strain. Among these genes, 20 genes were contained within genomes of all three virulent strains, including a few of putative virulence genes. Further characterization of the pathogenic functions of these genes would benefit the understanding of pathogenesis of fowl cholera.

  8. Lysates of turkey-grown Pasteurella multocida: effects of solubilizing agents on the immunologic properties of membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Brogden, K A; Rimler, R B

    1983-03-01

    Membrane vesicles from lysed suspensions of turkey-grown Pasteurella multocida were treated with various solubilizing agents to release protein that may contain cross-protection factor. Potassium thiocyanate, NaOH-glycine, lithium diiodosalicylate, guanidine hydrochloride, n-butanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, Triton X-100, and sodium lauryl sarcosinate were each tested as solubilizing agents. Vaccines made from combining solubilized membrane vesicles with complete lysate supernatant fluid produced various degrees of protection against challenge exposure with a heterologous serotype of P multocida in turkeys. Only vaccines prepared from membranes that were solubilized with potassium thiocyanate and sodium lauryl sarcosinate protected as well as complete lysate from turkey-grown P multocida. The amount of protein in each vaccine did not relate to protection. Distinct chemical differences were observed between lysates prepared from turkey-grown P multocida and lysates prepared from 41 C broth-grown P multocida. The external morphology of P multocida, after treatment with lysozyme and EDTA, was similar whether grown in broth or in turkeys.

  9. An ST11 clone of Pasteurella multocida, widely spread among farmed rabbits in the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates respiratory niche association.

    PubMed

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández, Ana; Sanz, Celia; Borobia, Marta; Cid, Dolores

    2015-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a veterinary pathogen causing diseases with considerable economic repercussions in a wide range of animal hosts. In rabbits, P. multocida infections cause a variety of clinical manifestations including rhinitis, pneumonia, septicemia, abscesses, mastitis, and pyometra. In this study, 100 P. multocida isolates from different commercial rabbit farms located throughout the Iberian Peninsula were molecularly characterized by capsular typing, detection of four virulence-associated genes (tbpA, toxA, hgbB, and pfhA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Rabbit P. multocida isolates belonged to three different capsular types: A (47.0%), D (28.0%), and F (25.0%). One group of P. multocida isolates of capsular type D and positive for the hgbB gene was significantly associated with the clinical presentation of respiratory disease (OR 5.91; 95%CI, 1.63-21.38). These isolates belonged to same sequence type, ST11, in the P. multocida Multi-host MLST database. The ST11 clone also includes isolates from porcine and avian pneumonia. This clonal group of epidemiologically unrelated P. multocida isolates could be a virulent clone with some degree of specificity for respiratory disease. These findings could be relevant in the development of vaccines for pasteurellosis prevention, especially respiratory disease.

  10. Identification of a virulence determinant that is conserved in the Jawetz and Heyl biotypes of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiraku; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Terayama, Hayato; Asano, Ryoki; Kawamoto, Eiichi; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Boot, Ron

    2016-08-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica is a ubiquitous bacterium frequently isolated from laboratory rodents. Although this bacterium causes various diseases in immunosuppressed animals, little is known about major virulence factors and their roles in pathogenicity. To identify virulence factors, we sequenced the genome of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl strain ATCC 12555, and compared the resulting non-contiguous draft genome sequence with the genome of biotype Jawetz strain ATCC 35149. Among a large number of genes encoding virulence-associated factors in both strains, four genes encoding for YadA-like proteins, which are known virulence factors that function in host cell adherence and invasion in many pathogens. In this study, we assessed YadA distribution and biological activity as an example of one of virulence-associated factor shared, with biotype Jawetz and Heyl. More than half of mouse isolates were found to have at least one of these genes; whereas, the majority of rat isolates did not. Autoagglutination activity, and ability to bind to mouse collagen type IV and mouse fibroblast cells, was significantly higher in YadA-positive than YadA-negative strains. To conclude, we identified a large number of candidate genes predicted to influence [P.] pneumotropica pathogenesis. PMID:27402782

  11. Identification of novel glycosyltransferases required for assembly of the Pasteurella multocida A:1 lipopolysaccharide and their involvement in virulence.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John D; Harper, Marina; St Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Aubry, Annie; Parnas, Henrietta; Logan, Susan M; Wilkie, Ian W; Ford, Mark; Cox, Andrew D; Adler, Ben

    2009-04-01

    We previously determined the structure of the Pasteurella multocida Heddleston type 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule and characterized some of the transferases essential for LPS biosynthesis. We also showed that P. multocida strains expressing truncated LPS display reduced virulence. Here, we have identified all of the remaining glycosyltransferases required for synthesis of the oligosaccharide extension of the P. multocida Heddleston type 1 LPS, including a novel alpha-1,6 glucosyltransferase, a beta-1,4 glucosyltransferase, a putative bifunctional galactosyltransferase, and two heptosyltransferases. In addition, we identified a novel oligosaccharide extension expressed only in a heptosyltransferase (hptE) mutant background. All of the analyzed mutants expressing LPS with a truncated main oligosaccharide extension displayed reduced virulence, but those expressing LPS with an intact heptose side chain were able to persist for long periods in muscle tissue. The hptC mutant, which expressed LPS with the shortest oligosaccharide extension and no heptose side chain, was unable to persist on the muscle or cause any disease. Furthermore, all of the mutants displayed increased sensitivity to the chicken antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin 1, with mutants expressing highly truncated LPS being the most sensitive. PMID:19168738

  12. Virulence gene profiling and antibiotic resistance pattern of Indian isolates of Pasteurella multocida of small ruminant origin.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Laxmi N; Thomas, P; Gupta, S K; Priyadarshini, A; Kumar, S; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Kumar, A; Singh, Vijendra P

    2015-02-01

    Pasteurellosis in small ruminants affects the livelihood of small and marginal farmers of India. The present study was undertaken to understand the trends in gene carriage and antibiotic resistance pattern of Pasteurella multocida isolates recovered from small ruminants over a period of 10 years in India. A total of 88 P. multocida isolates of small ruminant origin were subjected to virulence gene profiling for 19 genes by PCR and antibiogram study employing 17 different antibiotics. Virulence genes like exbB, exbD, tonB, oma87, sodA, sodC, nanB and plpB (100% prevalence) and ptfA and hsf-2 (>90% prevalence) were found to be uniformly distributed among isolates. Unexpectedly, a very high prevalence (95.45%) of pfhA gene was observed in the present study. Dermonecrotoxin gene (toxA) was observed in 48.9% of isolates with highest occurrence among serotype A isolates and interestingly, one of each isolate of serotype B and F were found to carry this gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed 17.04% isolates to be multidrug resistant. Amongst all the antibiotics tested, most of the P. multocida isolates were found to be susceptible to enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol. This study highlights novel epidemiological information on frequency and occurrence of virulence genes among Indian isolates from small ruminants.

  13. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanism of Clinical Isolates and Selected Mutants of Pasteurella multocida from Bovine Respiratory Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Ling-Cong; GAO, Duo; GAO, Yun-Hang; LIU, Shu-Ming; MA, Hong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), mutation prevention concentrations (MPCs) and contribution of quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations to fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin) susceptibility in 23 Pasteurella multocida (Pm) isolates were investigated. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (MICs ≤0.25 µg/ml, 9 isolates) had no QRDR mutations, and their respective MPCs were low. Fluoroquinolone-intermediate isolates (MICs=0.5 µg/ml, 14 isolates) had QRDR mutations (Asp87 to Asn or Ala84 to Pro in gyrA), and their respective MPCs were high (4–32 µg/ml). First-step mutants (n=5) and laboratory-derived highly resistant fluoroquinolone mutants (n=5) also had QRDR mutations. The MICs of fluoroquinolones for mutant-derived strains were decreased in the presence of efflux inhibitors. The results indicated that the fluoroquinolone resistance of Pm is mainly due to multiple target gene mutations in gyrA and parC and the overexpression of efflux pump genes. PMID:25649952

  14. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism of clinical isolates and selected mutants of Pasteurella multocida from bovine respiratory disease in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Cong; Gao, Duo; Gao, Yun-Hang; Liu, Shu-Ming; Ma, Hong-Xia

    2014-12-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), mutation prevention concentrations (MPCs) and contribution of quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations to fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin) susceptibility in 23 Pasteurella multocida (Pm) isolates were investigated. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (MICs ≤0.25 µg/ml, 9 isolates) had no QRDR mutations, and their respective MPCs were low. Fluoroquinolone-intermediate isolates (MICs=0.5 µg/ml, 14 isolates) had QRDR mutations (Asp87 to Asn or Ala84 to Pro in gyrA), and their respective MPCs were high (4-32 µg/ml). First-step mutants (n=5) and laboratory-derived highly resistant fluoroquinolone mutants (n=5) also had QRDR mutations. The MICs of fluoroquinolones for mutant-derived strains were decreased in the presence of efflux inhibitors. The results indicated that the fluoroquinolone resistance of Pm is mainly due to multiple target gene mutations in gyrA and parC and the overexpression of efflux pump genes.

  15. Pasteurella pneumotropica Evades the Human Complement System by Acquisition of the Complement Regulators Factor H and C4BP

    PubMed Central

    Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Granados Martinez, Adriana Patricia; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Castiblanco Valencia, Mónica Marcela; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. PMID:25347183

  16. Novel adhesin from Pasteurella multocida that binds to the integrin-binding fibronectin FnIII9-10 repeats.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lisa M; Nair, Sean P; Ward, John M; Rycroft, Andrew N; Williams, Rachel J; Robertson, Giles; Mordan, Nicky J; Henderson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Phage display screening with fragmented genomic DNA from the animal pathogen Pasteurella multocida has identified a gene encoding a putative fibronectin binding protein (19). Homologues of this gene (PM1665) are found in all other sequenced members of the Pasteurellaceae. Gene PM1665 has been cloned, and the protein has been expressed. Recombinant PM1665 protein binds to both soluble and immobilized fibronectin and is unique in that it interacts with the integrin-binding fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats FnIII(9-10) and not, as is the case for almost all other fibronectin adhesins, to the N-terminal type I repeats. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a complex binding mechanism with a K(D) (equilibrium dissociation constant) of 150 nM +/- 70 nM. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the PM1665 protein contains two helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs, and truncation mutation studies have identified the binding site in the protein as a combination of these two HhH motifs in conjunction with a conserved amino acid motif, VNINTA. We have shown that the PM1665 protein is on the cell surface and that binding of P. multocida to fibronectin is almost completely inhibited by anti-PM1665 antiserum. These results support the hypothesis that the PM1665 protein is a member of a new family of fibronectin binding adhesins that are important in the adhesion of P. multocida to fibronectin. PMID:18160478

  17. Tilmicosin does not inhibit interleukin-8 gene expression in the bovine lung experimentally infected with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Goubau, S; Morck, D W; Buret, A

    2000-10-01

    The expression of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene was examined by in situ hybridization in lung tissues from calves experimentally infected with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica and treated with tilmicosin. Interleukin-8 mRNA expression was detected in alveolar areas, particularly along interlobular septa, in the lumen, and in the epithelial cells of some bronchioles. In lesional lung tissues from animals that had received tilmicosin, we found large areas with limited inflammation. There was no staining for IL-8 mRNA in these areas. In contrast, in strongly inflamed areas, the same patterns and intensities of staining for IL-8 mRNA were detected in tilmicosin- and sham-treated animals. We conclude that tilmicosin does not affect the expression of IL-8 mRNA in tissue showing microscopic signs of inflammation. Together with previous reports, this supports the view that the pro-apoptotic properties of tilmicosin on neutrophils do not compromise the host defense mechanisms required to control the infection.

  18. Immunogenicity and efficacy of three recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Cheng-I; Winton, James R.; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Three short fragments of recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (rsPMT) were constructed for evaluation as candidate vaccines against progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine. PMT-specific antibody secreting cells and evidence of cellular immunity were detected in rsPMT-immunized pigs following authentic PMT challenge or homologous antigen booster. Piglets immunized with rsPMT fragments containing either the N-terminal or the C-terminal portions of PMT developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Pregnant sows immunized with rsPMT had higher levels of maternal antibodies in their colostrum than did those immunized with a conventional PAR-toxoid vaccine. Offspring from rsPMT vaccinated sows had better survival after challenge with a five-fold lethal dose of authentic PMT and had better growth performance after challenge with a sublethal dose of toxin. Our findings indicate these non-toxic rsPMT proteins are attractive candidates for development of a subunit vaccine against PAR in pigs.

  19. Passive immune cross-protection in mice produced by rabbit antisera against different serotypes of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Rimler, R B

    1996-05-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and fowl cholera (FC) are specific diseases caused by certain serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Strains that usually cause HS in cattle and water buffalo do not produce FC in avian species, and strains that cause FC do not produce HS in cattle and water buffalo. A variety of P. multocida serotypes, including unusual strains which can cause HS in wild ruminants, were evaluated in passive immune protection studies to determine the immunological relationship between strains associated with HS and FC. Various degrees of cross-protection were seen among the strains. Antiserum against a serotype B:3,4 strain protected against strains capable of causing HS (serotypes B:1, B:2, B:3,4, B:4 and E:2) and FC (serotypes A:1, A:3 and A:5). Antiserum against an FC strain (serotype A:5) similarly protected against strains capable of causing HS and FC. Antigenic analyses indicated that cross-protection was not necessarily induced by serotype-specific capsular (beta) or somatic (gamma) antigens or major porin protein. SDS-PAGE and immunoblots of whole cell lysates of the different HS and FC strains showed many protein-staining bands with similar mobilities and antigenic activity. These cross-reactive antigenic bands occurred in the 20- to 120-kDa range. Adsorption of antiserum with a heterologous serotype removed its reactivity with most of these bands, as well as its ability to cross-protect.

  20. The lumazine synthase/riboflavin synthase complex: shapes and functions of a highly variable enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Ladenstein, Rudolf; Fischer, Markus; Bacher, Adelbert

    2013-06-01

    The xylene ring of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) is assembled from two molecules of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate by a mechanistically complex process that is jointly catalyzed by lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase. In Bacillaceae, these enzymes form a structurally unique complex comprising an icosahedral shell of 60 lumazine synthase subunits and a core of three riboflavin synthase subunits, whereas many other bacteria have empty lumazine synthase capsids, fungi, Archaea and some eubacteria have pentameric lumazine synthases, and the riboflavin synthases of Archaea are paralogs of lumazine synthase. The structures of the molecular ensembles have been studied in considerable detail by X-ray crystallography, X-ray small-angle scattering and electron microscopy. However, certain mechanistic aspects remain unknown. Surprisingly, the quaternary structure of the icosahedral β subunit capsids undergoes drastic changes, resulting in formation of large, quasi-spherical capsids; this process is modulated by sequence mutations. The occurrence of large shells consisting of 180 or more lumazine synthase subunits has recently generated interest for protein engineering topics, particularly the construction of encapsulation systems.

  1. Kinetic investigation of the action of hyaluronidase on hyaluronan using the Morgan-Elson and neocuproine assays.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, K P; Lauwers, A R; Demeester, J M

    1995-08-15

    In this paper we describe kinetic investigations of the action of testicular hyaluronidase on hyaluronan. We have compared the use of two spectrophotometric assays, the first based on the Morgan-Elson reaction and the second on the neocuproine reaction. With the neocuproine reaction Km was found to be 0.46 mg/ml and Vmax to be 126 nmol l-1 s-1. Because of a low sensitivity and the production of interfering precipitates, the Morgan-Elson assay cannot be used for kinetic investigation of the enzyme. Furthermore this assay is prone to interference from compounds such as disodium cromoglycate, (+)-catechine, penicillamine, CaCl2 and acetate buffer.

  2. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

  3. Nitric oxide synthases in pregnant rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Farina, M; Ribeiro, M L; Franchi, A

    2001-03-01

    The conversion of [14C]arginine into [14C]citrulline as an indicator of nitric oxide synthesis was studied in uteri isolated from rats on different days of gestation, after labour and during dioestrus. Nitric oxide synthesis was present in uterine tissues isolated at each stage of gestation and also in tissues collected during dioestrus and after labour. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase was not detectable at any of the stages studied. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase was present at all the stages studied, but there was a significant increase on day 13 of gestation and a decrease thereafter, with the lowest expression recorded on the day after labour. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat uteri increased substantially during pregnancy, with the highest expression on day 13 of gestation; expression decreased at term and after labour. The changes in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were coincident with the changes in nitric oxide synthase activity in uteri treated with aminoguanidine. Thus, these findings indicate that an increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the uterus may be important for maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy and its decrease near the time of labour could have an effect on the start of uterine contractility. PMID:11226066

  4. Diversity of Mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella trehalosi serotypes from apparently healthy sheep and abattoir specimens in the highlands of Wollo, North East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sisay, T; Zerihun, A

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence and serotypic diversity of Mannheimia [Pasteurella] haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi from nasal swabs, sera and abattoir specimens from sheep in the highlands of Wollo, North East Ethiopia was investigated. Prevalence rates of 83% and 75% of these microorganisms were found in the serum samples and nasal swabs, respectively, from apparently healthy sheep. In a local abattoir, 205 lungs were investigated, 34% of which showed pneumonia, from which samples were collected from 51 lungs and the same number of corresponding tonsils. Mannheimia and Pasteurella species were isolated from 59% of these pneumonic lungs and 69% of the respective tonsils. M. haemolytica serotypes accounted for 41 (59%) and P. trehalosi for 11 (32%) of the isolates from the abattoir specimens. The majority (67%) of isolates from nasal swabs were P. trehalosi, M. haemolytica being isolated f rom 4 (13%) of the swabs. M. glucosida was isolated only from the tonsils. The predominant serotypes of the isolates from both the nasal swabs and the abattoir specimens were M. haemolytica A1 (17%) and P. trehalosi T4 (16%) and T3 (13%). P. trehalosi T15 was less commonly encountered, while M. haemolytica A9 and A13 were not isolated. Studies on sera from 100 sheep indicated that antibodies against M. haemolytica serotype A1 (14%) were most common, followed by A5 and A8 (each 10%) and A9 and P. trehalosi T3 (each 9%) and T4 (8%). Antibodies against M. glucosida or serotype All occurred in 2% of the sera. Multiple serotypes were common in all types of samples. The importance of including in vaccines the most prevalent serotypes involved in the pneumonia of sheep in the area is discussed. PMID:12625399

  5. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  6. Malate synthase a membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Turley, R.B.; Hermerath, C.A.; Carrapico, F.; Trelease, R.N.

    1987-04-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is generally regarded as a peripheral membrane protein, and believed by some to be ontogenetically associated with ER. However, immuno- and cyto-chemical in situ localizations show MS throughout the matrix of cotton (and cucumber) glyoxysomes, not specifically near their boundary membranes, nor in ER. Only a maximum of 50% MS can be solubilized from cotton glyoxysomes with 1% Triton X-100, 2mM Zwittergen 14, or 10mM DOC +/- salts. Cotton MS does not incorporate /sup 3/H-glucosamine in vivo, nor does it react with Con A on columns or blots. Cotton MS banded with ER in sucrose gradients (20-40%) in Tricine after 3h, but not after 22h in Tricine or Hepes, or after 3h in Hepes or K-phosphate. Collectively the authors data are inconsistent with physiologically meaningful MS-membrane associations in ER or glyoxysomes. It appears that experimentally-induced aggregates of MS migrate in ER gradients and occur in isolated glyoxysomes. These data indicate that ER is not involved in synthesis or modification of cottonseed MS prior to its import into the glyoxysomal matrix.

  7. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Pearce, F Grant; Perugini, Matthew A; McKerchar, Hannah J; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2006-12-01

    DHDPS (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) catalyses the branch point in lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants and is feedback inhibited by lysine. DHDPS from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima shows a high level of heat and chemical stability. When incubated at 90 degrees C or in 8 M urea, the enzyme showed little or no loss of activity, unlike the Escherichia coli enzyme. The active site is very similar to that of the E. coli enzyme, and at mesophilic temperatures the two enzymes have similar kinetic constants. Like other forms of the enzyme, T. maritima DHDPS is a tetramer in solution, with a sedimentation coefficient of 7.2 S and molar mass of 133 kDa. However, the residues involved in the interface between different subunits in the tetramer differ from those of E. coli and include two cysteine residues poised to form a disulfide bond. Thus the increased heat and chemical stability of the T. maritima DHDPS enzyme is, at least in part, explained by an increased number of inter-subunit contacts. Unlike the plant or E. coli enzyme, the thermophilic DHDPS enzyme is not inhibited by (S)-lysine, suggesting that feedback control of the lysine biosynthetic pathway evolved later in the bacterial lineage. PMID:16872276

  8. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  9. Energy transduction in ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, Timothy; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning Fo portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through Fo is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil γ-subunit. This acts as a rotating `cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this protonmotive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that Fo constitutes a rotary motor turning the γ shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility - supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump - can also be explained by our model.

  10. Tumor targeting profiling of hyaluronan-coated lipid based-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahy, Shoshy; Goldsmith, Meir; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Kisin-Finfer, Einat; Redy, Orit; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Shabat, Doron; Godin, Biana; Peer, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression. Low Mw (LMw, <10 kDa) HA has been reported to provoke inflammatory responses, such as induction of cytokines, chemokines, reactive nitrogen species and growth factors. Herein, we prepared and characterized two types of HA coated (LMw and HMw) lipid-based targeted and stabilized nanoparticles (tsNPs) and tested their binding to tumor cells expressing the HA receptor (CD44), systemic immunotoxicity, and biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. In vitro, the Mw of the surface anchored HA had a significant influence on the affinity towards CD44 on B16F10 murine melanoma cells. LMw HA-tsNPs exhibited weak binding, while binding of tsNPs coated with HMw HA was characterized by high binding. Both types of tsNPs had no measured effect on cytokine induction in vivo following intravenous administration to healthy C57BL/6 mice suggesting no immune activation. HMw HA-tsNPs showed enhanced circulation time and tumor targeting specificity, mainly by accumulating in the tumor and its vicinity compared with LMw HA-tsNPs. Finally, we show that methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, entrapped in HMw HA-tsNPs slowly diffused from the particles with a half-life of 13.75 days, and improved the therapeutic outcome in a murine B16F10 melanoma model compared with NPs suggesting an active cellular targeting beyond the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Taken together, these findings have major implications for the use of high molecular weight HA in nanomedicine as a selective and safe active cellular targeting moiety.Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression

  11. Interactions between Hyaluronan and Its Receptors (CD44, RHAMM) Regulate the Activities of Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Suniti; Hascall, Vincent C.; Markwald, Roger R.; Ghatak, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a major component of extracellular matrices, and cell surface receptors of HA have been proposed to have pivotal roles in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, which are necessary for inflammation and cancer progression. CD44 and receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM) are the two main HA-receptors whose biological functions in human and murine inflammations and tumor cells have been investigated comprehensively. HA was initially considered to be only an inert component of connective tissues, but is now known as a “dynamic” molecule with a constant turnover in many tissues through rapid metabolism that involves HA molecules of various sizes: high molecular weight HA (HMW HA), low molecular weight HA, and oligosaccharides. The intracellular signaling pathways initiated by HA interactions with CD44 and RHAMM that lead to inflammatory and tumorigenic responses are complex. Interestingly, these molecules have dual functions in inflammations and tumorigenesis. For example, the presence of CD44 is involved in initiation of arthritis, while the absence of CD44 by genetic deletion in an arthritis mouse model increases rather than decreases disease severity. Similar dual functions of CD44 exist in initiation and progression of cancer. RHAMM overexpression is most commonly linked to cancer progression, whereas loss of RHAMM is associated with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor growth. HA may similarly perform dual functions. An abundance of HMW HA can promote malignant cell proliferation and development of cancer, whereas antagonists to HA-CD44 signaling inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by interfering with HMW HA-CD44 interaction. This review describes the roles of HA interactions with CD44 and RHAMM in inflammatory responses and tumor development/progression, and how therapeutic strategies that block these key inflammatory/tumorigenic processes may be developed in rodent and human diseases. PMID:25999946

  12. Hyaluronan Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7-dependent Prevention and Reversal of Myofibroblast Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Adam C.; Duggal, Lucy; Jenkins, Robert; Hascall, Vincent; Steadman, Robert; Phillips, Aled O.; Meran, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) promotes transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-driven myofibroblast phenotype. However, HA can also have disease-limiting activity. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is an antifibrotic cytokine that antagonizes TGF-β1, and isolated studies have demonstrated that HA can both mediate and modulate BMP7 responses. In this study, we investigated whether BMP7 can modulate HA in a manner that leads to prevention/reversal of TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation in human lung fibroblasts. Results demonstrated that BMP7 prevented and reversed TGF-β1-driven myofibroblast differentiation through a novel mechanism. BMP7 promoted the dissolution and internalization of cell-surface HA into cytoplasmic endosomes. Endosomal HA co-localized with the HA-degrading enzymes, hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2). Moreover, BMP7 showed differential regulation of CD44 standard and variant isoform expression, when compared with TGF-β1. In particular, BMP7 increased membrane expression of CD44v7/8. Inhibiting CD44v7/8 as well as blocking Hyal2 and the Na+/H+ exchanger-1 at the cell-surface prevented BMP7-driven HA internalization and BMP7-mediated prevention/reversal of myofibroblast phenotype. In summary, a novel mechanism of TGF-β1 antagonism by BMP7 is shown and identifies alteration in HA as critical in mediating BMP7 responses. In addition, we identify Hyal2 and CD44v7/8 as new potential targets for manipulation in prevention and reversal of fibrotic pathology. PMID:25716319

  13. Inter-α-inhibitor Impairs TSG-6-induced Hyaluronan Cross-linking*

    PubMed Central

    Baranova, Natalia S.; Foulcer, Simon J.; Briggs, David C.; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Enghild, Jan J.; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2013-01-01

    Under inflammatory conditions and in the matrix of the cumulus-oocyte complex, the polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) becomes decorated covalently with heavy chains (HCs) of the serum glycoprotein inter-α-inhibitor (IαI). This alters the functional properties of the HA as well as its structural role within extracellular matrices. The covalent transfer of HCs from IαI to HA is catalyzed by TSG-6 (tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6), but TSG-6 is also known as a HA cross-linker that induces condensation of the HA matrix. Here, we investigate the interplay of these two distinct functions of TSG-6 by studying the ternary interactions of IαI and TSG-6 with well defined films of end-grafted HA chains. We demonstrate that TSG-6-mediated cross-linking of HA films is impaired in the presence of IαI and that this effect suppresses the TSG-6-mediated enhancement of HA binding to CD44-positive cells. Furthermore, we find that the interaction of TSG-6 and IαI in the presence of HA gives rise to two types of complexes that independently promote the covalent transfer of heavy chains to HA. One type of complex interacts very weakly with HA and is likely to correspond to the previously reported covalent HC·TSG-6 complexes. The other type of complex is novel and binds stably but noncovalently to HA. Prolonged incubation with TSG-6 and IαI leads to HA films that contain, in addition to covalently HA-bound HCs, several tightly but noncovalently bound molecular species. These findings have important implications for understanding how the biological activities of TSG-6 are regulated, such that the presence or absence of IαI will dictate its function. PMID:24005673

  14. Incorporation of Pentraxin 3 into Hyaluronan Matrices Is Tightly Regulated and Promotes Matrix Cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Baranova, Natalia S.; Inforzato, Antonio; Briggs, David C.; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Enghild, Jan J.; Thakar, Dhruv; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are surrounded by a highly hydrated hyaluronan (HA)-rich extracellular matrix with embedded cumulus cells, forming the cumulus cell·oocyte complex (COC) matrix. The correct assembly, stability, and mechanical properties of this matrix, which are crucial for successful ovulation, transport of the COC to the oviduct, and its fertilization, depend on the interaction between HA and specific HA-organizing proteins. Although the proteins inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) have been identified as being critical for COC matrix formation, its supramolecular organization and the molecular mechanism of COC matrix stabilization remain unknown. Here we used films of end-grafted HA as a model system to investigate the molecular interactions involved in the formation and stabilization of HA matrices containing TSG-6, IαI, and PTX3. We found that PTX3 binds neither to HA alone nor to HA films containing TSG-6. This long pentraxin also failed to bind to products of the interaction between IαI, TSG-6, and HA, among which are the covalent heavy chain (HC)·HA and HC·TSG-6 complexes, despite the fact that both IαI and TSG-6 are ligands of PTX3. Interestingly, prior encounter with IαI was required for effective incorporation of PTX3 into TSG-6-loaded HA films. Moreover, we demonstrated that this ternary protein mixture made of IαI, PTX3, and TSG-6 is sufficient to promote formation of a stable (i.e. cross-linked) yet highly hydrated HA matrix. We propose that this mechanism is essential for correct assembly of the COC matrix and may also have general implications in other inflammatory processes that are associated with HA cross-linking. PMID:25190808

  15. Characterization of CD44-Mediated Cancer Cell Uptake and Intracellular Distribution of Hyaluronan-Grafted Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Liu, Xinli

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable linear polysaccharide which is of interest for tumor targeting through cell surface CD44 receptors. HA binds with high affinity to CD44 receptors, which are overexpressed in many tumors and involved in cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of HA molecular weight (MW), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density on endocytosis of HA-grafted liposomes (HA-liposomes) by cancer cells. Additionally, the intracellular localization of the HA-liposomes was determined. HAs of different MWs (5-8, 10-12, 175-350, and 1600 kDa) were conjugated to liposomes with varying degrees of grafting density. HA surface density was quantified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide turbidimetric method. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization of HA-liposomes were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Mean particle sizes of HA-liposomes ranged from 120 to 180 nm and increased with the bigger size of HA. HA-liposome uptake correlated with HA MW (5-8 < 10-12 < 175-350 kDa), grafting density, and CD44 receptor density and exceeded that obtained with unconjugated plain liposomes. HA-liposomes were taken up into cells via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, which is both energy- and cholesterol-dependent. Once within cells, HA-liposomes localized primarily to endosomes and lysosomes. The results demonstrate that cellular targeting efficiency of HA-liposomes depends strongly upon HA MW, grafting density, and cell surface receptor CD44 density. The results support a role of HA-liposomes for targeted drug delivery. PMID:21696190

  16. Antitumor effects of the hyaluronan inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone on pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Eri; Kudo, Daisuke; Nagase, Hayato; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suto, Shinichiro; Negishi, Mika; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Endo, Masahiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and influences tumor invasion and metastasis. In a previous study, the present authors reported for the first time that 4-methylumbelliferone (MU) inhibited HA synthesis and suppressed tumor growth. However, the localization of HA and the changes in ECM morphology caused by MU in pancreatic cancer remain to be examined in detail. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of MU and its effect on cellular proliferation was evaluated in the human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. The amount of HA synthesized and the retention of HA around the cells were quantitatively and immunohistochemically analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Structural changes in the ECM in the tumor tissue were investigated using an electron microscope. MU treatment led to a decrease in extracellular HA retention, as evidenced by a particle exclusion assay and immunohistochemical staining. Cell proliferation was suppressed by MU in a dose-dependent manner. The release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium due to damage to the cellular membrane did not increase following MU administration. In tumor-inoculated mice, MU suppressed any increase in tumor volume and decreased the quantity of HA. Electron microscopy revealed that MU attenuated the intercellular space and caused it to be less cohesive. These data indicate that MU inhibits HA synthesis and reduces the amount of HA in the ECM while exhibiting no obvious cytotoxic effect. These findings suggest that MU has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27698797

  17. The pharmacokinetics and dosing of oral 4-methylumbelliferone for inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, H F; Nagy, N; Ruppert, S M; Sunkari, V G; Marshall, P L; Gebe, J A; Ishak, H D; Keswani, S G; Bollyky, J; Frymoyer, A R; Wight, T N; Steinman, L; Bollyky, P L

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in using 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) to inhibit hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in mouse models of cancer, autoimmunity and a variety of other inflammatory disorders where HA has been implicated in disease pathogenesis. In order to facilitate future studies in this area, we have examined the dosing, treatment route, treatment duration and metabolism of 4-MU in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Mice fed chow containing 5% 4-MU, a dose calculated to deliver 250 mg/mouse/day, initially lose substantial weight but typically resume normal weight gain after 1 week. It also takes up to a week to see a reduction in serum HA in these animals, indicating that at least a 1-week loading period on the drug is required for most protocols. At steady state, more than 90% of the drug is present in plasma as the glucuronidated metabolite 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (4-MUG), with the sulphated metabolite, 4-methylumbelliferyl sulphate (4-MUS) comprising most of the remainder. Chow containing 5% but not 0·65% 4-MU was effective at preventing disease in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, as well as in the DORmO mouse model of autoimmune diabetes. While oral 4-MU was effective at preventing EAE, daily intraperitoneal injections of 4-MU were not. Factors potentially affecting 4-MU uptake and plasma concentrations in mice include its taste, short half-life and low bioavailability. These studies provide a practical resource for implementing oral 4-MU treatment protocols in mice. PMID:27218304

  18. A novel eliminase from a marine bacterium that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenjun; Wang, Wenshuang; Zhao, Mei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2014-10-01

    Lyases cleave glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in an eliminative mechanism and are important tools for the structural analysis and oligosaccharide preparation of GAGs. Various GAG lyases have been identified from terrestrial but not marine organisms even though marine animals are rich in GAGs with unique structures and functions. Herein we isolated a novel GAG lyase for the first time from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509 and then recombinantly expressed and characterized it. It showed strong lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) and was designated as HA and CS lyase (HCLase). It exhibited the highest activities to both substrates at pH 8.0 and 0.5 m NaCl at 30 °C. Its activity toward HA was less sensitive to pH than its CS lyase activity. As with most other marine enzymes, HCLase is a halophilic enzyme and very stable at temperatures from 0 to 40 °C for up to 24 h, but its activity is independent of divalent metal ions. The specific activity of HCLase against HA and CS reached a markedly high level of hundreds of thousands units/mg of protein under optimum conditions. The HCLase-resistant tetrasaccharide Δ(4,5)HexUAα1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)β1-4GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)β1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) was isolated from CS-D, the structure of which indicated that HCLase could not cleave the galactosaminidic linkage bound to 2-O-sulfated d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in CS chains. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that HCLase may work via a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr-His acts as the Brønsted base and acid. Thus, the identification of HCLase provides a useful tool for HA- and CS-related research and applications.

  19. Increased concentration of hyaluronan in tears after soaking contact lenses in Biotrue multipurpose solution

    PubMed Central

    Scheuer, Catherine A; Rah, Marjorie J; Reindel, William T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine 1) the concentration of hyaluronan (HA) in the tear films of contact lens (CL) wearers versus non-CL wearers and 2) whether HA sorbed from Biotrue, an HA-containing multipurpose solution (MPS), onto senofilcon A lenses affects the concentration of HA in tears after 2 hours of wear. Patients and methods Tears of habitual CL wearers and non-CL wearers were collected on Schirmer strips at baseline and after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A CLs that had first been either rinsed with Sensitive Eyes Saline or soaked in Biotrue MPS for 14 hours. HA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and adjusted for sample volumes. Results No difference in baseline concentrations of HA in tears was found between CL wearers and non-CL wearers (P=0.07), nor between males and females (P=0.06). However, age was significantly negatively associated with HA concentration (P<0.01), and mostly, CL wear contributed to a significant association (P<0.01). Among saline-rinsed CL wearers, no change in HA concentration in tears was observed after 2 hours of wear (P=0.38). By contrast, a significant increase in HA concentration was observed in the tears from eyes that had worn CLs soaked in Biotrue MPS when compared to baseline (P=0.01) or to saline-rinsed control (P=0.03). Conclusion 1) In this study population, no difference in baseline concentration of HA was observed between CL wearers and non-CL wearers, and 2) after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A lenses that were soaked in Biotrue MPS, HA concentrations in the tear films of CL wearers increased. PMID:27784983

  20. Coating with artificial matrices from collagen and sulfated hyaluronan influences the osseointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Matthias C; Korn, Paula; Stadlinger, Bernd; Range, Ursula; Möller, Stephanie; Becher, Jana; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Mai, Ronald; Scharnweber, Dieter; Eckelt, Uwe; Hintze, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants are an established therapy for oral rehabilitation. High success rates are achieved in healthy bone, however, these rates decrease in compromised host bone. Coating of dental implants with components of the extracellular matrix is a promising approach to enhance osseointegration in compromised peri-implant bone. Dental titanium implants were coated with an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) consisting of collagen type I and either one of two regioselectively low sulfated hyaluronan (sHA) derivatives (coll/sHA1Δ6s and coll/sHA1) and compared to commercial pure titanium implants (control). After extraction of the premolar teeth, 36 implants were inserted into the maxilla of 6 miniature pigs (6 implants per maxilla). The healing periods were 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. After animal sacrifice, the samples were evaluated histomorphologically and histomorphometrically. All surface states led to a sufficient implant osseointegration after 4 and 8 weeks. Inflammatory or foreign body reactions could not be observed. After 4 weeks of healing, implants coated with coll/sHA1Δ6s showed the highest bone implant contact (BIC; coll/sHA1Δ6s: 45.4%; coll/sHA1: 42.2%; control: 42.3%). After 8 weeks, a decrease of BIC could be observed for coll/sHA1Δ6s and controls (coll/sHA1Δ6s: 37.3%; control: 31.7 %). For implants coated with coll/sHA1, the bone implant contact increased (coll/sHA1: 50.8%). Statistically significant differences could not be observed. Within the limits of the current study, aECM coatings containing low sHA increase peri-implant bone formation around dental implants in maxillary bone compared to controls in the early healing period.

  1. Hemocompatibility and Hemodynamics of Novel Hyaluronan-Polyethylene Materials for Flexible Heart Valve Leaflets.

    PubMed

    Prawel, David A; Dean, Harold; Forleo, Marcio; Lewis, Nicole; Gangwish, Justin; Popat, Ketul C; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad; James, Susan P

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric heart valves (PHVs) hold the promise to be more durable than bioprosthetic heart valves and less thrombogenic than mechanical heart valves. We introduce a new framework to manufacture hemocompatible polymeric leaflets for HV (PHV) applications using a novel material comprised of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of hyaluronan (HA) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). We establish and characterize the feasibility of the material as a substitute leaflet material through basic hemodynamic measurements in a trileaflet configuration, in addition to demonstrating superior platelet response and clotting characteristics. Plain LLDPE sheets were swollen in a solution of silylated-HA, the silylated-HA was then crosslinked to itself before it was reverted back to native HA via hydrolysis. Leaflets were characterized with respect to (1) bending stiffness, (2) hydrophilicity, (3) whole blood clotting, and (4) cell (platelet and leukocyte) adhesion under static conditions using fresh human blood. In vitro hemodynamic testing of prototype HA/LLDPE IPN PHVs was used to assess feasibility as functional HVs. Bending stiffness was not significantly different from natural fresh leaflets. HA/LLDPE IPNs were more hydrophilic than LLDPE controls. HA/LLDPE IPNs caused less whole blood clotting and reduced cell adhesion compared to the plain LLDPE control. Prototype PHVs made with HA/LLDPE IPNs demonstrated an acceptable regurgitation fraction of 4.77 ± 0.42%, and effective orifice area in the range 2.34 ± 0.5 cm(2). These results demonstrate strong potential for IPNs between HA and polymers as future hemocompatible HV leaflets. Further studies are necessary to assess durability and calcification resistance. PMID:24729797

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to CD44 and their influence on hyaluronan recognition

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Antibodies to CD44 have been used to inhibit a variety of processes which include lymphohemopoiesis, lymphocyte migration, and tumor metastasis. Some, but not all, CD44-mediated functions derive from its ability to serve as a receptor for hyaluronan (HA). However, sites on CD44 that interact with either ligands or antibodies are poorly understood. Interspecies rat/mouse CD44 chimeras were used to analyze the specificity of 25 mAbs and to determine that they recognize at least seven epitopes. Amino acid substitutions that resulted in loss of antibody recognition were all located in the region of homology to other cartilage link family proteins. While at least five epitopes were eliminated by single amino acid replacements, multiple residues had to be changed to destroy binding by other antibodies. One antibody was sensitive to changes in any of three separate parts of the molecule and some antibodies to distinct epitopes cross-blocked each other. Certain antibodies had the ability to increase HA binding by lymphocytes but this did not correlate absolutely with antibody specificity and was only partially attributable to CD44 cross-linking. Antibodies that consistently blocked HA recognition were all sensitive to amino acid changes within a short stretch of CD44. Such blocking antibodies interacted with CD44 more strongly than ligand in competition experiments. One large group of antibodies blocked ligand binding, but only with a particular cell line. This detailed analysis adds to our understanding of functional domains within CD44 and requirements for antibodies to influence recognition of one ligand. PMID:7542251

  3. A Novel Eliminase from a Marine Bacterium That Degrades Hyaluronan and Chondroitin Sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenjun; Wang, Wenshuang; Zhao, Mei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Lyases cleave glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in an eliminative mechanism and are important tools for the structural analysis and oligosaccharide preparation of GAGs. Various GAG lyases have been identified from terrestrial but not marine organisms even though marine animals are rich in GAGs with unique structures and functions. Herein we isolated a novel GAG lyase for the first time from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509 and then recombinantly expressed and characterized it. It showed strong lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) and was designated as HA and CS lyase (HCLase). It exhibited the highest activities to both substrates at pH 8.0 and 0.5 m NaCl at 30 °C. Its activity toward HA was less sensitive to pH than its CS lyase activity. As with most other marine enzymes, HCLase is a halophilic enzyme and very stable at temperatures from 0 to 40 °C for up to 24 h, but its activity is independent of divalent metal ions. The specific activity of HCLase against HA and CS reached a markedly high level of hundreds of thousands units/mg of protein under optimum conditions. The HCLase-resistant tetrasaccharide Δ4,5HexUAα1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)β1-4GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)β1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) was isolated from CS-D, the structure of which indicated that HCLase could not cleave the galactosaminidic linkage bound to 2-O-sulfated d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) in CS chains. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that HCLase may work via a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr-His acts as the Brønsted base and acid. Thus, the identification of HCLase provides a useful tool for HA- and CS-related research and applications. PMID:25122756

  4. Hyaluronan-conjugated liposomes encapsulating gemcitabine for breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Kyung; Shin, Dae Hwan; Kim, Jung Seok; Weon, Kwon Yeon; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of potential therapeutics for targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is important because these cells are regarded as culprit of breast cancer relapse. Accomplishing this kind of strategy requires a specific drug-delivery system using the distinct features of liposomes. Studies on targeted liposomal delivery systems have indicated the conjugation of hyaluronan (HA), a primary ligand for CD44 surface markers, as an appropriate method for targeting BCSCs. For this study, enriched BCSCs were obtained by culturing MCF-7 breast cancer cells in nonadherent conditions. The enriched BCSCs were challenged with HA-conjugated liposomes encapsulating gemcitabine (2, 2-difluoro-2-deoxycytidine, GEM). In vitro study showed that the HA-conjugated liposomes significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity, anti-migration, and anti-colony formation abilities of GEM through targeting of CD44 expressed on BCSCs. In pharmacokinetic study, area under the drug concentration vs time curve (AUC) of the immunoliposomal GEM was 3.5 times higher than that of free GEM, indicating that the HA-conjugated liposomes enhanced the stability of GEM in the bloodstream and therefore prolonged its half-life time. The antitumor effect of the immunoliposomal GEM was 3.3 times higher than that of free GEM in a xenograft mouse model, probably reflecting the unique targeting of the CD44 receptor by HA and the increased cytotoxicity and stability through the liposomal formulation. Furthermore, marginal change in body weight demonstrated that the use of liposomes considerably reduced the systemic toxicity of GEM on normal healthy cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that HA-conjugated liposomes encapsulating GEM show promise for the therapy of breast cancer in vitro and in a xenograft model by targeting the BCSCs. PMID:27103799

  5. CD44, Hyaluronan, the Hematopoietic Stem Cell, and Leukemia-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Margot

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is an adhesion molecule that varies in size due to glycosylation and insertion of so-called variant exon products. The CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is highly expressed in many cells and most abundantly in cells of the hematopoietic system, whereas expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) is more restricted. CD44s and CD44v are known as stem cell markers, first described for hematopoietic stem cells and later on confirmed for cancer- and leukemia-initiating cells. Importantly, both abundantly expressed CD44s as well as CD44v actively contribute to the maintenance of stem cell features, like generating and embedding in a niche, homing into the niche, maintenance of quiescence, and relative apoptosis resistance. This is surprising, as CD44 is not a master stem cell gene. I here will discuss that the functional contribution of CD44 relies on its particular communication skills with neighboring molecules, adjacent cells and, last not least, the surrounding matrix. In fact, it is the interaction of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 with its prime ligand, which strongly assists stem cells to fulfill their special and demanding tasks. Recent fundamental progress in support of this “old” hypothesis, which may soon pave the way for most promising new therapeutics, is presented for both hematopoietic stem cell and leukemia-initiating cell. The contribution of CD44 to the generation of a stem cell niche, to homing of stem cells in their niche, to stem cell quiescence and apoptosis resistance will be in focus. PMID:26074915

  6. Coating with artificial matrices from collagen and sulfated hyaluronan influences the osseointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Matthias C; Korn, Paula; Stadlinger, Bernd; Range, Ursula; Möller, Stephanie; Becher, Jana; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Mai, Ronald; Scharnweber, Dieter; Eckelt, Uwe; Hintze, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants are an established therapy for oral rehabilitation. High success rates are achieved in healthy bone, however, these rates decrease in compromised host bone. Coating of dental implants with components of the extracellular matrix is a promising approach to enhance osseointegration in compromised peri-implant bone. Dental titanium implants were coated with an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) consisting of collagen type I and either one of two regioselectively low sulfated hyaluronan (sHA) derivatives (coll/sHA1Δ6s and coll/sHA1) and compared to commercial pure titanium implants (control). After extraction of the premolar teeth, 36 implants were inserted into the maxilla of 6 miniature pigs (6 implants per maxilla). The healing periods were 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. After animal sacrifice, the samples were evaluated histomorphologically and histomorphometrically. All surface states led to a sufficient implant osseointegration after 4 and 8 weeks. Inflammatory or foreign body reactions could not be observed. After 4 weeks of healing, implants coated with coll/sHA1Δ6s showed the highest bone implant contact (BIC; coll/sHA1Δ6s: 45.4%; coll/sHA1: 42.2%; control: 42.3%). After 8 weeks, a decrease of BIC could be observed for coll/sHA1Δ6s and controls (coll/sHA1Δ6s: 37.3%; control: 31.7 %). For implants coated with coll/sHA1, the bone implant contact increased (coll/sHA1: 50.8%). Statistically significant differences could not be observed. Within the limits of the current study, aECM coatings containing low sHA increase peri-implant bone formation around dental implants in maxillary bone compared to controls in the early healing period. PMID:24113890

  7. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa.

  8. Rheological study of in-situ crosslinkable hydrogels based on hyaluronanic acid, collagen and sericin.

    PubMed

    Vulpe, Raluca; Le Cerf, Didier; Dulong, Virginie; Popa, Marcel; Peptu, Catalina; Verestiuc, Liliana; Picton, Luc

    2016-12-01

    The elaboration of chemically crosslinked hydrogels based on collagen (C), hyaluronanic acid (HA) and sericin (S) with different polymer ratios was investigated by in-situ rheology. This reaction was performed via amide or ester bond reaction activated by carbodiimide, in pure water. Prior to molecule crosslinking, the rheological behaviour of the biopolymers (alone or in mixture) was characterized in a semi-dilute concentration regime. Both flow and dynamic measurements showed that uncrosslinked collagen alone appears to be rather elastic with yield stress properties, whereas uncrosslinked HA alone appears to be rather shear thinning and viscoelastic in agreement with entangled polymer behaviour. Sericin exhibited Newtonian low viscosity behaviour according to its very low molar mass. Before crosslinking, HA exhibited viscoelastic behaviour at concentrations above the critical entangled concentration (C*) in the mixtures, thus HA shows promise as a matrix for future crosslinked networks, whereas sericin did not significantly modify the rheology. During the reaction, followed by rheology, the kinetics were slower for pure HA systems compared with the mixtures (i.e., with added collagen and/or to a lesser extent sericin). At the same time, the final network of hydrogels (i.e., the elastic modulus) was more structured in the mixture based systems. This result is explained by ester bonds (the only possibility for pure HA systems), which are less favourable and reactive than amide bonds (possible with sericin and collagen). The presence of collagen in the HA matrix reinforced the hydrogel network. SEM studies confirmed the structure of the hydrogels, and in vitro degradability was globally consistent with the effect of the selected enzyme according to the hydrogel composition. All the elaborated hydrogels were non-cytotoxic in vitro. PMID:27612727

  9. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa. PMID:27335141

  10. Hyaluronan-conjugated liposomes encapsulating gemcitabine for breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Na-Kyung; Shin, Dae Hwan; Kim, Jung Seok; Weon, Kwon Yeon; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of potential therapeutics for targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is important because these cells are regarded as culprit of breast cancer relapse. Accomplishing this kind of strategy requires a specific drug-delivery system using the distinct features of liposomes. Studies on targeted liposomal delivery systems have indicated the conjugation of hyaluronan (HA), a primary ligand for CD44 surface markers, as an appropriate method for targeting BCSCs. For this study, enriched BCSCs were obtained by culturing MCF-7 breast cancer cells in nonadherent conditions. The enriched BCSCs were challenged with HA-conjugated liposomes encapsulating gemcitabine (2, 2-difluoro-2-deoxycytidine, GEM). In vitro study showed that the HA-conjugated liposomes significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity, anti-migration, and anti-colony formation abilities of GEM through targeting of CD44 expressed on BCSCs. In pharmacokinetic study, area under the drug concentration vs time curve (AUC) of the immunoliposomal GEM was 3.5 times higher than that of free GEM, indicating that the HA-conjugated liposomes enhanced the stability of GEM in the bloodstream and therefore prolonged its half-life time. The antitumor effect of the immunoliposomal GEM was 3.3 times higher than that of free GEM in a xenograft mouse model, probably reflecting the unique targeting of the CD44 receptor by HA and the increased cytotoxicity and stability through the liposomal formulation. Furthermore, marginal change in body weight demonstrated that the use of liposomes considerably reduced the systemic toxicity of GEM on normal healthy cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that HA-conjugated liposomes encapsulating GEM show promise for the therapy of breast cancer in vitro and in a xenograft model by targeting the BCSCs. PMID:27103799

  11. Hyperglycemia Diverts Dividing Osteoblastic Precursor Cells to an Adipogenic Pathway and Induces Synthesis of a Hyaluronan Matrix That Is Adhesive for Monocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aimin; Midura, Ronald J.; Vasanji, Amit; Wang, Andrew J.; Hascall, Vincent C.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured in osteogenic medium in which the normal 5.6 mm glucose is changed to hyperglycemic 25.6 mm glucose greatly increase lipid formation between 21–31 days of culture that is associated with decreased biomineralization, up-regulate expression of cyclin D3 and two adipogenic markers (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) within 5 days of culture, increase neutral and polar lipid synthesis within 5 days of culture, and form a monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix through an endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagic mechanism. Evidence is also provided that, by 4 weeks after diabetes onset in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, there is a large loss of trabecular bone mineral density without apparent proportional changes in underlying collagen matrices, a large accumulation of a hyaluronan matrix within the trabecular bone marrow, and adipocytes and macrophages embedded in this hyaluronan matrix. These results support the hypothesis that hyperglycemia in bone marrow diverts dividing osteoblastic precursor cells (bone marrow stromal cells) to a metabolically stressed adipogenic pathway that induces synthesis of a hyaluronan matrix that recruits inflammatory cells and establishes a chronic inflammatory process that demineralizes trabecular cancellous bone. PMID:24569987

  12. Capsular polysaccharide vaccine for Group B Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli K1, and Pasteurella haemolytica A2

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel; Xie, Guilin; Hanson, Lars Å.; Miller, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the literature that is the basis for our proposal that (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac conjugates will be safe and effective vaccines for Group B meningococci (GBMs), Escherichia coli K1, and Pasteurella haemolytica A2. Although (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac is a virulence factor and a protective antigen of these three pathogens, it is also a component of normal tissues (neural cell adhesion molecule). Natural, anti–(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac present in most adults, vaccine-induced antibodies, and even high levels of spontaneously appearing monoclonal anti–(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac did not cause autoimmunity. Although it is not possible to prove a null hypothesis, there are no epidemiologic, serologic, immunologic, or clinical data to indicate that (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac antibodies will induce pathology or an autoimmune disease. No increased pathology caused by these antibodies was found, even in neonates and infants of mothers recovered from GBM meningitis. The lack of pathology mediated by anti–(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac may be explained by different presentations of (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac on bacterial and mammalian cells and by the unusual physicochemical properties of anti–(2→8)-α-Neu5Ac. Based on clinical and experimental data collected over 30 y and because (2→8)-α-Neu5Ac is an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen for GBM, E. coli K1, and P. haemolytica A2, protein conjugates of it are easy to prepare using inexpensive and plentiful ingredients, and they would be compatible with routinely administered infant vaccines, clinical studies of these conjugates should proceed. PMID:22025709

  13. Characterization of PaxA and Its Operon: a Cohemolytic RTX Toxin Determinant from Pathogenic Pasteurella aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnert, Peter; Heyberger-Meyer, Bénédicte; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella aerogenes is known as a commensal bacterium or as an opportunistic pathogen, as well as a primary pathogen found to be involved in abortion cases of humans, swine, and other mammals. Using broad-range DNA probes for bacterial RTX toxin genes, we cloned and subsequently sequenced a new operon named paxCABD encoding the RTX toxin PaxA in P. aerogenes. The pax operon is organized analogous to the classical RTX operons containing the activator gene paxC upstream of the structural toxin gene paxA, which is followed by the secretion protein genes paxB and paxD. The highest sequence similarity of paxA with known RTX toxin genes is found with apxIIIA (82%). PaxA is structurally similar to ApxIIIA and also shows functional analogy to ApxIIIA, since it shows cohemolytic activity with the sphingomyelinase of Staphylococcus aureus, known as the CAMP effect, but is devoid of direct hemolytic activity. In addition, it shows to some extent immunological cross-reactions with ApxIIIA. P. aerogenes isolated from various specimens showed that the pax operon was present in about one-third of the strains. All of the pax-positive strains were specifically related to swine abortion cases or septicemia of newborn piglets. These strains were also shown to produce the PaxA toxin as determined by the CAMP phenomenon, whereas none of the pax-negative strains did. This indicated that the PaxA toxin is involved in the pathogenic potential of P. aerogenes. The examined P. aerogenes isolates were phylogenetically analyzed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing in order to confirm their species. Only a small heterogeneity (<0.5%) was observed between the rrs genes of the strains originating from geographically distant farms and isolated at different times. PMID:10603361

  14. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and fumonisin B1 in the porcine respiratory tract as studied by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Roland; Donkó, Tamás; Bogner, Péter; Kovács, Melinda; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, toxigenic Pasteurella multocida serotype D, and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) was studied. On day 0 of the experiment, 28 artificially reared 3-day-old piglets were divided into 4 groups (n = 7 each): a control group (A), a group fed FB1 toxin (B), a group infected with the 2 pathogens (C), and a group infected with the 2 pathogens and fed FB1 toxin (D). The B. bronchiseptica infection [with 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] was performed on day 4 and the P. multocida infection (with 108 CFU/mL) on day 16. From day 16 a Fusarium verticillioides fungal culture (dietary FB1 toxin content 10 mg/kg) was mixed into the feed of groups B and D. In groups C and D, clinical signs including mild serous nasal discharge, sneezing, panting, and hoarseness appeared from day 4, and then from day 16 some piglets had coughing and dyspnea as well. Computed tomography (CT) performed on day 16 demonstrated lung lesions attributable to colonization by B. bronchiseptica in the infected groups. By day 25 the number of piglets exhibiting lesions had increased, and the lesions appeared as well-circumscribed, focal changes characterized by a strong density increase in the affected areas of the lungs. The gross pathological findings confirmed the results obtained by CT. These results indicate that, when combined with dual infection by B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida, dietary exposure of pigs to FB1 toxin raises the risk of pneumonia and increases the extent and severity of the pathological changes. PMID:22210993

  15. Use of DNA analysis of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T isolates to monitor transmission in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, M D; Ward, A C; Hunter, D L; Wesley, I V

    1993-01-01

    Pneumonia has been identified as a major cause of poor lamb survival in indigenous herds of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in central Idaho. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from five adult Rocky Mountain bighorn ewes captured from a free-ranging herd in central Idaho. The lambs from two of these ewes delivered by cesarean section were free of P. haemolytica until 40 days of age and after repeated contact with their dams. The lambs subsequently developed signs of pneumonia, and P. haemolytica was isolated from nasal, pharyngeal, and transtracheal wash samples from each lamb. All P. haemolytica biotype T isolates from the ewes and lambs, as well as those from a 9-month-old lamb of the same herd from which samples for culture were obtained 2 years earlier, were subjected to HaeIII restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping. Two ribotypes and seven REA patterns were visually distinguishable by these procedures. Similarity coefficients (SAB) of 0.09 to 0.95 were calculated for the seven REA patterns. The REA patterns of the isolates from the lambs were identical (SAB = 1.0). The isolates from the lambs also had SAB values of 1.0, which was indicative of identity with one of the seven isolates cultured from the ewes at the time of capture and with the organism isolated from the 9-month-old lamb. These procedures have the discriminatory capabilities necessary to monitor the transmission of specific strains of bacteria within and between animal populations. Images PMID:8385150

  16. Passage of CD18- and CD18+ bovine neutrophils into pulmonary alveoli during acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A

    1996-11-01

    CD18 is a subunit for three beta 2 integrin molecules (Mac-1, p150, 95, LFA-1), which are expressed on the plasma membrane of neutrophils. These molecules mediate passage of neutrophils into sites of infection. In children and animals that lack CD18 expression, neutrophil infiltration is impaired in most tissues. However, in lung, CD18- neutrophils have been identified in the airway spaces during spontaneous episodes of pneumonia. To determine whether CD18 is vital for passage through the pulmonary alveolar wall, lung lobes of cattle with neutrophils that were deficient in CD18 expression (CD18-) and cattle with normal CD18 expression (CD18+) were inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica by fiberoptic bronchoscopy; control lobes were inoculated with pyrogen-free saline (PFS). Neutrophil passage into alveolar lumina at 4 and 6 hours postinoculation was measured by computerized image analysis. Blood levels of neutrophils for CD18- cattle ranged from 12- to 26-fold higher than for CD18+ cattle prior to inoculation, and counts in both groups rose slightly postinoculation. In P. haemolytica-inoculated lobes, total numbers of neutrophils in alveolar lumina of the two groups were similar. An increase in the number of neutrophils in the alveolar wall was fourfold greater in CD18- cattle than in CD18+ cattle. In PFS-inoculated lobes, the number of neutrophils in the alveolar wall was sixfold higher in CD18 cattle than in CD18+ cattle. This work shows that by 4 and 6 hours, CD18- neutrophils enter the alveolar lumen at a rate similar to that in CD18+ cattle. Higher numbers of CD18- neutrophils are present in the alveolar wall of control (PFS) and bacteria-inoculated lobes. Thus, the CD18- cells are increased in the walls of alveoli and numbers of neutrophils that enter the alveolar lumen are similar in CD18+ and CD18- cattle. PMID:8952022

  17. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Repella, Tana L.; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P. M.; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity. PMID:22053287

  18. Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, R Y; Shewen, P E; Strathdee, C A; Greer, C N

    1985-01-01

    A clone bank of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 was constructed by partial digestion of the genomic DNA with Sau3A and ligation of 5- to 10-kilobase-pair fragments into the BamHI site of the plasmid vector pBR322. After transformation into Escherichia coli K-12, a total of 4 X 10(3) recombinant clones was obtained. These were screened for the production of P. haemolytica soluble antigens by a colony enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blot method with a rabbit antiserum raised against the soluble antigens. The clones producing P. haemolytica soluble antigens were then analyzed for the production of the leukotoxin by a cytotoxicity assay with cells from a bovine leukemia-derived B-lymphocyte cell line as the target cells. Positive clones were identified, and subsequent restriction analysis of the recombinant plasmids showed that the same 6.3 kilobase pairs of insert DNA was cloned in either of the two orientations into the plasmid vector pBR322. One of the clones was selected for further characterization of the leukotoxin as produced in E. coli. Tests for heat lability and target cell species specificity with canine, porcine, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes indicated that the activity of the cloned leukotoxin was identical to that of the P. haemolytica leukotoxin. Furthermore, the E. coli-produced leukotoxin was also neutralized by bovine or rabbit antiserum known to have antitoxic activity. When cellular proteins from the E. coli clones were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis, a 100,000-dalton protein was identified which corresponded to one of the soluble antigens found in the leukotoxic culture supernatant of P. haemolytica. These results demonstrated that the gene(s) for the P. haemolytica leukotoxin have been cloned and that the leukotoxin was expressed in E. coli. Images PMID:3905610

  19. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  20. Influence of Pasteurella multocida infection on the pharmacokinetic behavior of marbofloxacin after intravenous and intramuscular administrations in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abo-el-Sooud, K; Goudah, A

    2010-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic behavior of marbofloxacin was studied in healthy (n = 12) and Pasteurella multocida infected rabbits (n = 12) after single intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administrations. Six rabbits in each group (control and diseased) were given a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (bw) of marbofloxacin intravenously. The other six rabbits in each group were given the same dose of the drug intramuscularly. The concentration of marbofloxacin in plasma was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentrations were higher in diseased rabbits than in healthy rabbits following both routes of injections. Following i.v. administration, the values of the elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)), and area under the curve were significantly higher, whereas total body clearance was significantly lower in diseased rabbits. After i.m. administration, the elimination half-life (t(1/2el)), mean residence time, and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) were higher in diseased rabbits (5.33 h, 7.35 h and 2.24 microg/mL) than in healthy rabbits (4.33 h, 6.81 h and 1.81 microg/mL, respectively). Marbofloxacin was bound to the extent of 26 +/- 1.3% and 23 +/- 1.6% to plasma protein of healthy and diseased rabbits, respectively. The C(max)/MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC/MIC ratios were significantly higher in diseased rabbits (28 and 189 h) than in healthy rabbits (23 and 157 h), indicating the favorable pharmacodynamic characteristics of the drug in diseased rabbits.

  1. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

    2014-06-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures.

  2. Protective efficacy afforded by live Pasteurella multocida vaccines in chickens is independent of lipopolysaccharide outer core structure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2016-03-29

    Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge.

  3. A Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase displaying dual trans-sialidase activities for production of 3'-sialyl and 6'-sialyl glycans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S; Arnous, Anis; Li, Haiying; Kirpekar, Finn; Mikkelsen, Jørn D

    2014-01-20

    This study examined a recombinant Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase exhibiting dual trans-sialidase activities. The enzyme catalyzed trans-sialylation using either 2-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid or casein glycomacropeptide (whey protein) as the sialyl donor and lactose as the acceptor, resulting in production of both 3'-sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose. This is the first study reporting α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity of this sialyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.1 and 2.4.99.4). A response surface design was used to evaluate the effects of three reaction parameters (pH, temperature, and lactose concentration) on enzymatic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactoses using 5% (w/v) casein glycomacropeptide (equivalent to 9mM bound sialic acid) as the donor. The maximum yield of 3'-sialyllactose (2.75±0.35mM) was achieved at a reaction condition with pH 6.4, 40°C, 100mM lactose after 6h; and the largest concentration of 6'-sialyllactose (3.33±0.38mM) was achieved under a condition with pH 5.4, 40°C, 100mM lactose after 8h. 6'-sialyllactose was presumably formed from α-2,3 bound sialic acid in the casein glycomacropeptide as well as from 3'-sialyllactose produced in the reaction. The kcat/Km value for the enzyme using 3'-sialyllactose as the donor for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis at pH 5.4 and 40°C was determined to be 23.22±0.7M(-1)s(-1). Moreover, the enzyme was capable of catalyzing the synthesis of both 3'- and 6'-sialylated galactooligosaccharides, when galactooligosaccharides served as acceptors.

  4. Clinico-pathology, hematology, and biochemistry responses toward Pasteurella multocida Type B: 2 via oral and subcutaneous route of infections

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Adamu, Lawan; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bakar, Md Zuki Abu; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pasteurella multocida a Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. Hemorrhagic septicemia is a disease caused by P. multocida serotype B:2 and E:2. The organism causes acute, a highly fatal septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, post mortem and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida Type B:2 infections initiated through the oral and subcutaneous routes. Methods: Nine buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline; Groups 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of 1012 colony forming unit of P. multocida Type B:2 subcutaneously and orally respectively. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in temperature between the subcutaneous and the control group. The results revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, leukocytes, monocytes, and A: G ratio between the subcutaneous and the control group. Furthermore, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in leukocytes, band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, gamma glutamyl tranferase and A: G ratio between the oral and the control group. The post mortem lesions of the subcutaneous group buffaloes showed generalized hyperemia, congestion and hemorrhage of the immune organs, gastro-intestinal tract organs and vital organs. The oral group buffaloes showed mild lesions in the lung and liver. Histologically, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in hemorrhage and congestion; necrosis and degeneration; inflammatory cells infiltration; and edema in between the groups. Conclusion: This study was a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida Type B:2

  5. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and fumonisin B1 in the porcine respiratory tract as studied by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Roland; Donkó, Tamás; Bogner, Péter; Kovács, Melinda; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, toxigenic Pasteurella multocida serotype D, and the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) was studied. On day 0 of the experiment, 28 artificially reared 3-day-old piglets were divided into 4 groups (n = 7 each): a control group (A), a group fed FB(1) toxin (B), a group infected with the 2 pathogens (C), and a group infected with the 2 pathogens and fed FB(1) toxin (D). The B. bronchiseptica infection [with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] was performed on day 4 and the P. multocida infection (with 10(8) CFU/mL) on day 16. From day 16 a Fusarium verticillioides fungal culture (dietary FB(1) toxin content 10 mg/kg) was mixed into the feed of groups B and D. In groups C and D, clinical signs including mild serous nasal discharge, sneezing, panting, and hoarseness appeared from day 4, and then from day 16 some piglets had coughing and dyspnea as well. Computed tomography (CT) performed on day 16 demonstrated lung lesions attributable to colonization by B. bronchiseptica in the infected groups. By day 25 the number of piglets exhibiting lesions had increased, and the lesions appeared as well-circumscribed, focal changes characterized by a strong density increase in the affected areas of the lungs. The gross pathological findings confirmed the results obtained by CT. These results indicate that, when combined with dual infection by B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida, dietary exposure of pigs to FB(1) toxin raises the risk of pneumonia and increases the extent and severity of the pathological changes.

  6. Critical aspartic acid residues in pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Paulson, J L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-08-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine at particular positions in certain RNA molecules. Genomic data base searches and sequence alignments using the first four identified pseudouridine synthases led Koonin (Koonin, E. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2411-2415) and, independently, Santi and co-workers (Gustafsson, C., Reid, R., Greene, P. J., and Santi, D. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3756-3762) to group this class of enzyme into four families, which display no statistically significant global sequence similarity to each other. Upon further scrutiny (Huang, H. L., Pookanjanatavip, M., Gu, X. G., and Santi, D. V. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 344-351), the Santi group discovered that a single aspartic acid residue is the only amino acid present in all of the aligned sequences; they then demonstrated that this aspartic acid residue is catalytically essential in one pseudouridine synthase. To test the functional significance of the sequence alignments in light of the global dissimilarity between the pseudouridine synthase families, we changed the aspartic acid residue in representatives of two additional families to both alanine and cysteine: the mutant enzymes are catalytically inactive but retain the ability to bind tRNA substrate. We have also verified that the mutant enzymes do not release uracil from the substrate at a rate significant relative to turnover by the wild-type pseudouridine synthases. Our results clearly show that the aligned aspartic acid residue is critical for the catalytic activity of pseudouridine synthases from two additional families of these enzymes, supporting the predictive power of the sequence alignments and suggesting that the sequence motif containing the aligned aspartic acid residue might be a prerequisite for pseudouridine synthase function.

  7. Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuuki; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Komatsu, Mamoru; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Omura, Satoshi; Cane, David E.; Ikeda, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    Odoriferous terpene metabolites of bacterial origin have been known for many years. In genome-sequenced Streptomycetaceae microorganisms, the vast majority produces the degraded sesquiterpene alcohol geosmin. Two minor groups of bacteria do not produce geosmin, with one of these groups instead producing other sesquiterpene alcohols, whereas members of the remaining group do not produce any detectable terpenoid metabolites. Because bacterial terpene synthases typically show no significant overall sequence similarity to any other known fungal or plant terpene synthases and usually exhibit relatively low levels of mutual sequence similarity with other bacterial synthases, simple correlation of protein sequence data with the structure of the cyclized terpene product has been precluded. We have previously described a powerful search method based on the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and protein families database (Pfam) search that has allowed the discovery of monoterpene synthases of bacterial origin. Using an enhanced set of HMM parameters generated using a training set of 140 previously identified bacterial terpene synthase sequences, a Pfam search of 8,759,463 predicted bacterial proteins from public databases and in-house draft genome data has now revealed 262 presumptive terpene synthases. The biochemical function of a considerable number of these presumptive terpene synthase genes could be determined by expression in a specially engineered heterologous Streptomyces host and spectroscopic identification of the resulting terpene products. In addition to a wide variety of terpenes that had been previously reported from fungal or plant sources, we have isolated and determined the complete structures of 13 previously unidentified cyclic sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. PMID:25535391

  8. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Paweł; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent.

  9. A case of cervical cancer expressed three mRNA variant of Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Ruíz, Vanessa; Salcedo, Mauricio; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; de Oca, Edén V Montes; Román-Basaure, Edgar; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second malignancy in Mexico, little is known about the prognostic factors associated with this disease. Several cellular components are important in their transformation and progression. Alternative mRNA splice is an important mechanism for generating protein diversity, nevertheless, in cancer unknown mRNA diversity is expressed. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR, RHAMM, CD168) is a family member of proteins, hyaluronan acid dependent, and has been associated with different malignant processes such as: angiogenesis, cell invasiveness, proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome in some tumors. In the present study we identified expression of HMMR in cervical cancer by means of RT-PCR and sequencing. Our results indicate co-expression of two HMMR variants in all samples, and one case expressed three alternative HMMR splice transcripts. These results showed the heterogeneity of mRNA transcripts of HMMR that could express in cancer and the expression of HMMR could be marker of malignancy in CC. PMID:24966934

  10. Property peculiarities of the atelocollagen-hyaluronan conjugates crosslinked with a short chain di-oxirane compound.

    PubMed

    Maier, Vasilica; Lefter, Cristina M; Maier, Stelian S; Butnaru, Maria; Danu, Maricel; Ibanescu, Constanta; Popa, Marcel; Desbrieres, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Minimal amounts of a short-chain bifunctional crosslinker of about 1.3 nm length, the 1,4-butanediol-diglycidyl ether (BDDGE), were used to generate atelocollagen-hyaluronan conjugates in hydrogel state. Two a priori constraints were considered in recipe/procedure developing: (i) working in nondenaturing conditions, and (ii) ensuring a low cytotoxicity of the final product. Both atelocollagen (aK) and hyaluronan (NaHyal) were accurately purified to reduce their molecular-weight dispersity, in order to ensure the reproducibility of hydrogels characteristics. 1:5 aK:NaHyal weight ratios and 1:2.5 to 1:5 α-NH2:BDDGE molar ratios were found to be the most favorable recipe prescriptions that allow the obtaining of rheo-mechanically stable hydrogels, able to be manipulated during cell culturing protocols. Experiments revealed two unexpected effects due to the crosslinking reactions mediated by a short-chain molecule: (i) the occurrence of two thresholds in the rheological behavior of the hydrogels, related with the amount of added crosslinker, and (ii) a quasi-denaturation side-effect induced over the protein component by large or in excess amounts of crosslinker. PMID:25063116

  11. Use of novel silver nanoparticles with Hyaluronan as potential biological labels for determining the quality of embryos development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Hevkan, Ivan I.; Bilyi, Oleksandr I.; Osypchuk, Oleksandr S.; Zyuzyun, Aza B.

    2013-09-01

    In reproductive medicine it is important to determine the quality of embryo development without interference in their function and viability. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles makes them promising candidates for optical sensing, molecular labeling and imaging applications. Furthermore unique optical properties of silver nanoparticles provide an opportunity to use them as real time analytic tools in living state especially for observation of dynamic processes in gametes and embryos. The main aim of the study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of novel silver nanoparticles with prospect of their use for the determining the quality of embryo development. For this purpose, we investigated the optical properties of new silver nanoparticles in biological mediums during cultivation and their influence on rabbit's embryos development in vitro. The physicochemical and biological properties of novel silver nanoparticles were compared with silver nanoparticles identical in size and shapes but with different chemical surfaces modifications by polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. The results suggest that silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid were disintegrated with the formation of new complexes with proteins in biological mediums. This property with strong optical surface plasmon resonance of novel silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan makes them promising candidates in diagnostic area and gives reasons to explore them as biomarkers of target molecules. Nevertheless novel silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan at the concentrations of 0.1-1 μg/ml have no toxic effect on rabbit's embryos development and can be successfully applied in reproductive medicine.

  12. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for hyaluronidase detection via hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghua; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-05-15

    Hyaluronidase (HAase), which is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, can selectively degrade hyaluronan (HA) into small fragments, and it has been reported as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer. Herein, a facile ratiometric fluorescent sensing system for HAase has been developed, which is based on hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers and can realize sensitive detection of HAase with a detection limit of 0.007 U/mL. A positively-charged pyrene analog (N-Py) has been synthesized and then mixed with the negatively-charged HA, due to electrostatic interaction between the two components, aggregation along with the N-Py excimers readily form which emits red light. While in the presence of HAase, the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of HA into small fragments, which in turn triggers disassembly of excimers; consequently the N-Py excimer emission turns into monomer emission. The emission ratio resulted from the excimer-monomer transition can be used as the sensing signal for detecting HAase. The probe features visible-light excitation and red light emission (excimer), which is conducive to reducing possible interference from autofluorescence of biological samples. Furthermore, the assay system can be successfully used to determine HAase in human urine samples with satisfactory accuracy. This strategy may provide a suitable sensitive and accurate assay for HAase as well as an effective approach for developing fluorescent ratiometric assays for other enzymes. PMID:26774093

  13. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, K; Mráček, T; Vrbacký, M; Kaplanová, V; Karbanová, V; Nůsková, H; Pecina, P; Houštěk, J

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of ATP synthase, the key enzyme of mitochondrial energy provision belong to the most severe metabolic diseases presenting as early-onset mitochondrial encephalo-cardiomyopathies. Up to now, mutations in four nuclear genes were associated with isolated deficiency of ATP synthase. Two of them, ATP5A1 and ATP5E encode enzyme's structural subunits alpha and epsilon, respectively, while the other two ATPAF2 and TMEM70 encode specific ancillary factors that facilitate the biogenesis of ATP synthase. All these defects share a similar biochemical phenotype with pronounced decrease in the content of fully assembled and functional ATP synthase complex. However, substantial differences can be found in their frequency, molecular mechanism of pathogenesis, clinical manifestation as well as the course of the disease progression. While for TMEM70 the number of reported patients as well as spectrum of the mutations is steadily increasing, mutations in ATP5A1, ATP5E and ATPAF2 genes are very rare. Apparently, TMEM70 gene is highly prone to mutagenesis and this type of a rare mitochondrial disease has a rather frequent incidence. Here we present overview of individual reported cases of nuclear mutations in ATP synthase and discuss, how their analysis can improve our understanding of the enzyme biogenesis.

  14. An investigation into eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Lu, Chuan

    2014-08-01

    A common post-transcriptional modification of RNA is the conversion of uridine to its isomer pseudouridine. We investigated the biological significance of eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conducted a comprehensive statistical analysis on growth data from automated perturbation (gene deletion) experiments, and used bi-logistic curve analysis to characterise the yeast phenotypes. The deletant strains displayed different alteration in growth properties, including in some cases enhanced growth and/or biphasic growth curves not seen in wild-type strains under matched conditions. These results demonstrate that disrupting pseudouridine synthases can have a significant qualitative effect on growth. We further investigated the significance of post-transcriptional pseudouridine modification through investigation of the scientific literature. We found that (1) In Toxoplasma gondii, a pseudouridine synthase gene is critical in cellular differentiation between the two asexual forms: Tachyzoites and bradyzoites; (2) Mutation of pseudouridine synthase genes has also been implicated in human diseases (mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA); dyskeratosis congenita). Taken together, these results are consistent with pseudouridine synthases having a Gene Ontology function of "biological regulation".

  15. Vaccination with Pasteurella multocida recombinant OmpA induces strong but non-protective and deleterious Th2-type immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Dabo, S Mady; Confer, Anthony; Montelongo, Marie; York, Petrina; Wyckoff, John H

    2008-08-12

    Pasteurella multocida OmpA (PmOmpA) belongs to the major and multifunctional Escherichia coli OmpA family of proteins. We have previously reported that the protein is conserved, immunogenic and an adhesin that binds host cells and host cell extracellular matrix molecules [Dabo SM, Confer AW, Quijano-Blas RA. Molecular and immunological characterization of Pasteurella multocida serotype A:3 OmpA: evidence of its role in P. multocida interaction with extracellular matrix molecules. Microb Pathog 2003;35(4):147-157]. In this study, we found that immunization of mice with the recombinant PmOmpA elicited strong Th2-type immune response, characterized by high immunoglobulin G(1) (IgG(1)) antibodies production. Subsequent intraperitoneal homologous challenge of the immunized mice resulted in lack of protection associated with the high IgG(1) titers in anti-rPmOmpA sera. Furthermore, the protection afforded by vaccination with P. multocida OMPs alone was adversely affected by the addition of the rPmOmpA to the vaccine preparations. The results demonstrate that PmOmpA has a detrimental effect on the efficacy of vaccination with OMPs in mice. Targeted inactivation of pmOmpA gene in P. multocida 232 represents a potential mean towards the development of an effective vaccine candidate.

  16. Exploring biosynthetic diversity with trichodiene synthase.

    PubMed

    Vedula, L Sangeetha; Zhao, Yuxin; Coates, Robert M; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2007-10-15

    Trichodiene synthase is a terpenoid cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trichodiene (89%), at least five sesquiterpene side products (11%), and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)). Incubation of trichodiene synthase with 2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate or 4-methylfarnesyl diphosphate similarly yields sesquiterpene mixtures despite the electronic effects or steric bulk introduced by substrate derivatization. The versatility of the enzyme is also demonstrated in the 2.85A resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex with Mg(2+) (3)-PP(i) and the benzyl triethylammonium cation, which is a bulkier mimic of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate in catalysis. Taken together, these findings show that the active site of trichodiene synthase is sufficiently flexible to accommodate bulkier and electronically-diverse substrates and intermediates, which could indicate additional potential for the biosynthetic utility of this terpenoid cyclase. PMID:17678871

  17. Cellulose Synthase Complexes: Composition and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Live cell imaging has greatly advanced our knowledge on the molecular mechanism by which cellulose is deposited. Both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton are involved in assuring the proper distribution, organization, and dynamics of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). This review is an update on the most recent progress on the characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of CSCs. With the newly identified cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) on hand, we begin to unveil the mystery of an intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and microtubules. PMID:22639663

  18. Improvement and enhancement of antibladder carcinoma cell effects of heteronemin by the nanosized hyaluronan aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han Hsiang; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Wu, Yi-Jhen; Su, Jui-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The effects against tumors exerted by marine active compounds have been highlighted and investigated. Polymeric nanoparticles made from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules such as hyaluronan (HA) and chitosan (CHI) are able to aggregate the compounds to enhance their activities against tumor cells and reduce the toxicity on normal cells. Here, we extensively examined the antitumor activities and the mechanisms of HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated heteronemin (HET) extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of pure HET toward T24 bladder carcinoma cells is ~0.28 µg/mL. Pure HET from 0.2 to 0.8 µg/mL and HA nanoparticles-aggregated HET at 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability. Compared to pure HET, HA nanoparticles/HET aggregates showed much weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 normal fibroblasts. HET dose-dependently suppressed cancer cell migration as HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated HET displayed stronger migration-inhibitory effects than pure HET. Flow cytometric analysis showed that pure HET increased early/total apoptosis and JC-1 monomer fluorescence, while HA/CHI nanoparticles-aggregated HET induced higher apoptosis and JC-1 monomer rates than pure HET, suggesting that aggregation of HA nanoparticles offers HET stronger apoptosis-inducing capacity through mitochondrial depolarization. Western blot analysis showed that HA nanoparticles-aggregated HET further increased mitochondrial-associated, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent, as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors in comparison with pure HET. These data indicated that pure HET possesses cytotoxic, antimigratory, and apoptosis-inducing effects on bladder cancer cells in vitro, and its induction of apoptosis in bladder carcinoma cells is mainly caspase dependent. Moreover, HA nanoparticle aggregation reinforced the cytotoxic, antimigratory, and apoptosis-inducing activities against bladder carcinoma

  19. Spheroid formation of mesenchymal stem cells on chitosan and chitosan-hyaluronan membranes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Shiang; Dai, Lien-Guo; Yen, Betty L; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2011-10-01

    Stem cells can lose their primitive properties during in vitro culture. The culture substrate may affect the behavior of stem cells as a result of cell-substrate interaction. The maintenance of self-renewal for adult human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by a biomaterial substrate, however, has not been reported in literature. In this study, MSCs isolated from human adipose (hADAS) and placenta (hPDMC) were cultured on chitosan membranes and those further modified by hyaluronan (chitosan-HA). It was observed that the MSCs of either origin formed three-dimensional spheroids that kept attached on the membranes. Spheroid formation was associated with the increased MMP-2 expression. Cells on chitosan-HA formed spheroids more quickly and the size of spheroids were larger than on chitosan alone. The expression of stemness marker genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) for MSCs on the materials was analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR. It was found that formation of spheroids on chitosan and chitosan-HA membranes helped to maintain the expression of stemness marker genes of MSCs compared to culturing cells on polystyrene dish. The maintenance of stemness marker gene expression was especially remarkable in hPDMC spheroids (vs. hADAS spheroids). Blocking CD44 by antibodies prevented the spheroid formation and decreased the stemness gene expression moderately; while treatment by Y-27632 compound inhibited the spheroid formation and significantly decreased the stemness gene expression. Upon chondrogenic induction, the MSC spheroids showed higher levels of Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen type II gene expression and were stained positive for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. hPDMC had better chondrogenic differentiation potential than hADAS upon induction. Our study suggested that the formation of adhered spheroids on chitosan and chitosan-HA membranes may sustain the expression of stemness marker genes of MSCs and increase their chondrogenic differentiation capacity. The Rho

  20. Homology study of two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases from Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Umeda, F; Nishikawa, T; Miyasaka, H; Maeda, I; Kawase, M; Yagi, K

    2001-11-01

    Recently, we have cloned and analyzed two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes (phaC1 and phaC2 in the pha cluster) from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. In this report, the deduced amino acid (AA) sequences of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 from P. aureofaciens are compared with those from three other bacterial strains (Pseudomonas sp. 61-3, P. oleovorans and P. aeruginosa) containing the homologous pha cluster. The level of homology of either PHA synthase 1 or PHA synthase 2 was high with each enzyme from these three bacterial strains. Furthermore, multialignment of PHA synthase AA sequences implied that both enzymes of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 were highly conserved in the four strains including P. aureofaciens. PMID:11916262

  1. Occurrence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khamesipour, Faham; Momtaz, Hassan; Azhdary Mamoreh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence-associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87, and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA, and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn't carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH, and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1) and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB) genes occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors (VFs) in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The results

  2. Occurrence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khamesipour, Faham; Momtaz, Hassan; Azhdary Mamoreh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence-associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87, and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA, and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn't carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH, and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1) and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB) genes occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors (VFs) in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The results

  3. The efficacy of oral vaccination of mice with alginate encapsulated outer membrane proteins of Pasteurella haemolytica and One-Shot.

    PubMed

    Kidane, A; Guimond, P; Ju, T R; Sanchez, M; Gibson, J; Bowersock, T L

    2001-03-21

    The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of oral delivery of alginate encapsulated outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Pasteurella haemolytica and a commercial One-Shot vaccine in inducing protection in mice against lethal challenge with virulent P. haemolytica. We examined two alginate microsphere formulations and compared them with oral unencapsulated and subcutaneously administered vaccines. Alginate microspheres were made by the emulsion-cross-linking technique. They were examined for size, hydrophobicity, and antigen loading efficiency before they were used in the study. Mice were vaccinated by administering 200 microg of antigens in 200 microl of microspheres suspension orally or subcutaneously. One group of mice received blank microspheres and a second group was given unencapsulated antigen orally. A third and a fourth group received different formulations of alginate encapsulated antigens by oral administration. Three groups received subcutaneous inoculations (alginate encapsulated, non-adjuvanted and unencapsulated antigens, and adjuvanted One-Shot), and one group received water (naïve group). Mice were vaccinated orally for four consecutive days and challenged with P. haemolytica 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Weekly serum and feces samples were assayed for antigen specific antibodies. The number of dead mice in each group 4 days post challenge was used to compare the efficacy of the various vaccination groups. The mean volume sizes of blank alginate microsphere formulations A, and AA were 15.9, 16 and 9.2 microm, respectively. Hydrophobicity of the microspheres was evaluated by measuring contact angle on a glass slide coated with the microspheres. The contact angles on A and AA were 37.8 and 74.3 degrees, respectively. Antigen concentration in a 1:1 w/w suspension of microspheres in water was 0.9 mg/ml. Rate of death for the blank group was 42.8% whereas for groups vaccinated with antigens encapsulated in A and AA the death rates were 40

  4. In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Radi, Z A; Register, K B; Lee, E K; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A; Gallup, J M; Ackermann, M R

    1999-09-01

    The in situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in normal and pneumonic lung tissues of Holstein calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was compared with that of age-matched non-BLAD Holstein calves by in situ hybridization. Twenty-four Holstein calves (both BLAD and non-BLAD) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups and inoculated intrabronchially with Pasteurella haemolytica or pyrogen-free saline. Lung tissues were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formalin at 2 or 4 hours postinoculation (PI). The expression and distribution of ICAM-1 mRNA in the different cell types of the lung tissue was detected by in situ hybridization with a 307-base-pair bovine ICAM-1 riboprobe. In lungs of both non-BLAD and BLAD saline-inoculated calves, ICAM-1 expression was present in epithelial cells but occurred in <30% of cells in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells was present in <30% of cells in pulmonary arteries and veins. The expression of ICAM-1 was significantly greater (>60% of cells) in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD calves inoculated with P. haemolytica. Bronchiolar epithelium had the highest intensity of mRNA expression and highest percentage of cells that were stained, whereas bronchial epithelium had the lowest intensity and percentage of cells stained. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs also expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD calves at 2 hours PI as compared with non-BLAD calves but not at 4 hours PI. The increased expression of ICAM-1 during acute P. haemolytica pneumonia in calves suggests that ICAM-1 is upregulated and may play a role in leukocyte infiltration. The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non

  5. Influence of beta(2)-integrin adhesion molecule expression and pulmonary infection with Pasteurella haemolytica on cytokine gene expression in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A; Gallup, J M; Ackermann, M R

    2000-07-01

    beta(2)-Integrins are leukocyte adhesion molecules composed of alpha (CD11a, -b, -c, or -d) and beta (CD18) subunit heterodimers. Genetic CD18 deficiency results in impaired neutrophil egress into tissues that varies between conducting airways and alveoli of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether CD18 deficiency in cattle affects proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) expression in pulmonary tissue after respiratory infection with Pasteurella haemolytica. Cattle were infected with P. haemolytica via fiberoptic deposition of organisms into the posterior part of the right cranial lung lobe. Animals were euthanized at 2 or 4 h postinoculation (p.i.), and tissues were collected to assess PIC gene expression using antisense RNA probes specific for bovine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) along with the beta-actin (beta-Act) housekeeping gene. Expression of PIC was induced at 2 h p.i. in P. haemolytica-infected cattle and continued to 4 h p.i. At 2 h p.i., induction of gene expression and increase of cells that expressed PIC were observed both in CD18(+) and CD18(-) cattle after inoculation of P. haemolytica. The induction of gene expression with P. haemolytica inoculation was more prominent in CD18(-) cattle than in CD18(+) cattle by comparison to pyrogen-free saline (PFS)-inoculated control animals. At 4 h p.i., however, the induction of PIC, especially IL-1alpha, IL-6, and IFN-gamma, in the lungs of CD18(+) cattle inoculated with P. haemolytica was greater than that in lungs of the CD18(-) cattle. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha genes were not increased in P. haemolytica-inoculated CD18(-) cattle lungs compared to the PFS-inoculated control lungs at 4 h p.i. In PFS-inoculated lungs, we generally observed a higher percentage of cells and higher level of gene expression in the lungs of CD18(-) cattle than in the lungs of CD18(+) cattle, especially at 4 h p.i. The rate of neutrophil

  6. Identification of novel sesterterpene/triterpene synthase from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tsutomu; Yamaga, Hiroaki; Kashima, Shoji; Murata, Yusuke; Shinada, Tetsuro; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-05-10

    Basic enzyme: The tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue from the alkalophilic Bacillus clausii catalyses conversions of a geranylfarnesyl diphosphate and a hexaprenyl diphosphate into novel head-to-tail acyclic sesterterpene and triterpene. Tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologues represent a new family of terpene synthases that form not only sesquarterpene but also sesterterpene and triterpene. PMID:23554321

  7. Lessons from 455 Fusarium polyketide synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities. The most studied SMs are toxic to animals and/or plants, alter plant growth, have beneficial pharmaceutical activities, and/or are brightly colored pigm...

  8. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  9. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  10. Properties of newly-synthesized cationic semi-interpenetrating hydrogels containing either hyaluronan or chondroitin sulfate in a methacrylic matrix.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Annalisa La; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Papa, Agata; Rosa, Mario De

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix components such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were combined with a synthetic matrix of p(HEMA-co-METAC) (poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium)) at 1% and 2% w/w concentration following a previously developed procedure. The resulting semi-interpenetrating hydrogels were able to extensively swell in water incrementing their dry weight up to 13 fold depending on the glycosamminoglycan content and nature. When swollen in physiological solution, materials water uptake significantly decreased, and the differences in swelling capability became negligible. In physiological conditions, HA was released from the materials up to 38%w/w while CS was found almost fully retained. Materials were not cytotoxic and a biological evaluation, performed using 3T3 fibroblasts and an original time lapse videomicroscopy station, revealed their appropriateness for cell adhesion and proliferation. Slight differences observed in the morphology of adherent cells suggested a better performance of CS containing hydrogels.

  11. Self-patterning of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes cocultured on hyaluronan-grafted chitosan surface.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsi-Yi; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2016-03-01

    The articular cartilage, once injured, has a limited capacity for intrinsic repair. Preparation of functionally biocartilage substitutes in vitro for cartilage repair is an attractive concept with the recent advances in tissue engineering. In this study, adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADAS) and chondrocytes (Ch) were cocultured in different population ratios on the surface of hyaluronan-grafted chitosan (CS-HA) membranes. The two types of cells could self-assemble into cospheroids with different morphologies. In particular, when ADAS and Ch were cocultured at an initial ratio of 7:3 on CS-HA surface, the expression of chondrogenic markers was upregulated, leading to preferred chondrogenesis of the cospheroids. Therefore, using the ADAS/Ch 7:3 cospheroids derived on CS-HA surface instead of using only a single type of cells may be favorable for future therapeutic applications. PMID:26916660

  12. Properties of newly-synthesized cationic semi-interpenetrating hydrogels containing either hyaluronan or chondroitin sulfate in a methacrylic matrix.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Annalisa La; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Papa, Agata; Rosa, Mario De

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix components such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were combined with a synthetic matrix of p(HEMA-co-METAC) (poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium)) at 1% and 2% w/w concentration following a previously developed procedure. The resulting semi-interpenetrating hydrogels were able to extensively swell in water incrementing their dry weight up to 13 fold depending on the glycosamminoglycan content and nature. When swollen in physiological solution, materials water uptake significantly decreased, and the differences in swelling capability became negligible. In physiological conditions, HA was released from the materials up to 38%w/w while CS was found almost fully retained. Materials were not cytotoxic and a biological evaluation, performed using 3T3 fibroblasts and an original time lapse videomicroscopy station, revealed their appropriateness for cell adhesion and proliferation. Slight differences observed in the morphology of adherent cells suggested a better performance of CS containing hydrogels. PMID:24955528

  13. Systemic delivery of siRNA by hyaluronan-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chong; Wei, Wei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Ding, Jing-Song; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform spherical core-shell morphology with an approximate size of 170 nm and zeta potential of -12 mV. The coating of hydrophilic HA improved the physical stability of nanoparticles over one month due to the strong interactions between phosphonate and calcium. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could effectively deliver EGFR-targeted siRNA into A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis and significantly down-regulate the level of EGFR expression. Also, the internalized CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs exhibited a pH-responsive release of siRNA, indicating that the acidification of lysosomes probably facilitated the disassembling of nanoparticles and the resultant ions sharply increased the inner osmotic pressure and thus expedited the release of siRNA from late lysosomes into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, in vivo tumor therapy demonstrated that high accumulation of CaP-AHA/siEGFR NPs in tumor led to a significant tumor growth inhibition with a specific EGFR gene silencing effect after intravenous administration in nude mice xenografted with A549 tumor, along with a negligible body weight loss. These results suggested that the CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could be an effective and safe systemic siRNA delivery system for a RNAi-based tumor targeted therapy strategy.In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform

  14. Hyaluronan-decorated polymer nanoparticles targeting the CD44 receptor for the combined photo/chemo-therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, Sara; Moret, Francesca; Conte, Claudia; Fraix, Aurore; Tirino, Pasquale; Ungaro, Francesca; Sortino, Salvatore; Reddi, Elena; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2015-03-01

    In the attempt to develop novel concepts in designing targeted nanoparticles for combination therapy of cancer, we propose here CD44-targeted hyaluronan-decorated double-coated nanoparticles (dcNPs) delivering the lipophilic chemotherapeutic docetaxel (DTX) and an anionic porphyrin (TPPS4). dcNPs are based on electrostatic interactions between a negative DTX-loaded nanoscaffold of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), a polycationic shell of polyethyleneimine entangling negatively-charged TPPS4 and finally decorated with hyaluronan (HA) to promote internalization through CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis. DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs, prepared through layer-by-layer deposition, showed a hydrodynamic diameter of around 180 nm, negative zeta potential and efficient loading of both DTX and TPPS4. DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs were freeze-dried with trehalose giving a powder that could be easily dispersed in different media. Excellent stability of dcNPs in specific salt- and protein-containing media was found. Spectroscopic behavior of DTX/TPPS4-dcNPs demonstrated a face-to-face arrangement of the TPPS4 units in non-photoresponsive H-type aggregates accounting for an extensive aggregation of the porphyrin embedded in the shell. Experiments in MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing the CD44 receptor demonstrated a 9.4-fold increase in the intracellular level of TPPS4 delivered from dcNPs as compared to free TPPS4. Light-induced death increased tremendously in cells that had been treated with a combination of TPPS4 and DTX delivered through dcNPs as compared with free drugs, presumably due to efficient uptake and co-localization inside the cells. In perspective, the strategy proposed here to target synergistic drug combinations through HA-decorated nanoparticles seems very attractive to improve the specificity and efficacy of cancer treatment.In the attempt to develop novel concepts in designing targeted nanoparticles for combination therapy of cancer, we propose here CD44-targeted hyaluronan-decorated double

  15. Vitrification is not superior to rapid freezing of normozoospermic spermatozoa: effects on sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and hyaluronan binding.

    PubMed

    Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nabi, Ali; Ashourzadeh, Sareh

    2014-03-01

    Human sperm vitrification is a new cryopreservation method. This study compared the effects of rapid freezing and vitrification on various sperm parameters, hyaluronan-binding assay and DNA fragmentation and assessed the impact of cryoprotectant agents (CPA) with vitrification. A total of 30 normo-ejaculates were prepared by swim up and the motile sperm fraction was divided into four: fresh (control), rapid freezing, and two vitrification groups (a, lacking CPA; b, with CPA). For rapid freezing, a cryovial of sperm suspension was held just above the liquid nitrogen surface, and for vitrification, 30μl suspension was dropped directly into liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters, including motility, viability and morphology, declined after cryopreservation in both groups. DNA fragmentation was not significantly higher in the vitrification (15.7±4.4%) or rapid freezing (16.6±5.6%) groups when compared with controls (11.6±4.5%). The rates of hyaluronan binding were similar between the control and cryopreserved groups. Moreover, addition of CPA for vitrification had a neutral effect on rates of sperm recovery. In conclusion, vitrification has great potential for human sperm cryopreservation and does not require CPA, with its possible toxicity. However, it is not superior to rapid cryopreservation regarding sperm recovery rate in normozoospermia. Human sperm vitrification is a new cryopreservation method that has been introduced recently. This study compared the effects of rapid freezing with vitrification on rates of sperm parameters, hyaluronan-binding assay and DNA fragmentation after thawing/warming and assessed the impact of cryoprotectant agent (CPA) on vitrification. The study was performed on 30 ejaculates prepared using the swim-up technique. Each motile sperm suspension was divided into four: control (fresh); rapid freezing; and two vitrification groups (a, lacking CPA; b, with CPA). For rapid freezing, a cryovial of sperm suspension was held above the surface of

  16. A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ballios, Brian G.; Cooke, Michael J.; Donaldson, Laura; Coles, Brenda L.K.; Morshead, Cindi M.; van der Kooy, Derek; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC)-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability. PMID:25981414

  17. N-Terminal signal sequence is required for cellular trafficking and hyaluronan-depolymerization of KIAA1199.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nagaoka, Aya; Nakamura, Sachiko; Tobiishi, Megumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we disclosed that KIAA1199-mediated hyaluronan (HA) depolymerization requires an acidic cellular microenvironment (e.g. clathrin-coated vesicles or early endosomes), but no information about the structural basis underlying the cellular targeting and functional modification of KIAA1199 was available. Here, we show that the cleavage of N-terminal 30 amino acids occurs in functionally matured KIAA1199, and the deletion of the N-terminal portion results in altered intracellular trafficking of the molecule and loss of cellular HA depolymerization. These results suggest that the N-terminal portion of KIAA1199 functions as a cleavable signal sequence required for proper KIAA1199 translocation and KIAA1199-mediated HA depolymerization. PMID:24269685

  18. Revealing the Mechanisms of Protein Disorder and N-Glycosylation in CD44-Hyaluronan Binding Using Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular N-terminal hyaluronan binding domain (HABD) of CD44 is a small globular domain that confers hyaluronan (HA) binding functionality to this large transmembrane glycoprotein. When recombinantly expressed by itself, HABD exists as a globular water-soluble protein that retains the capacity to bind HA. This has enabled atomic-resolution structural biology experiments that have revealed the structure of HABD and its binding mode with oligomeric HA. Such experiments have also pointed to an order-to-disorder transition in HABD that is associated with HA binding. However, it had remained unclear how this structural transition was involved in binding since it occurs in a region of HABD distant from the HA-binding site. Furthermore, HABD is known to be N-glycosylated, and such glycosylation can diminish HA binding when the associated N-glycans are capped with sialic acid residues. The intrinsic flexibility of disordered proteins and of N-glycans makes it difficult to apply experimental structural biology approaches to probe the molecular mechanisms of how the order-to-disorder transition and N-glycosylation can modulate HA binding by HABD. We review recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that provide atomic-resolution mechanistic understanding of such modulation to help bridge gaps between existing experimental binding and structural biology data. Findings from these simulations include: Tyr42 may function as a molecular switch that converts the HA-binding site from a low affinity to a high affinity state; in the partially disordered form of HABD, basic amino acids in the C-terminal region can gain sufficient mobility to form direct contacts with bound HA to further stabilize binding; and terminal sialic acids on covalently attached N-glycans can form charge-paired hydrogen bonding interactions with basic amino acids that could otherwise bind to HA, thereby blocking HA binding to glycosylated CD44 HABD. PMID:26136744

  19. Restored perfusion and reduced inflammation in the infarcted heart after grafting stem cells with a hyaluronan-based scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Muscari, Claudio; Bonafè, Francesca; Martin-Suarez, Sofia; Valgimigli, Simond; Valente, Sabrina; Fiumana, Emanuela; Fiorelli, Federico; Rubini, Giuseppe; Guarnieri, Carlo; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Capitani, Ombretta; Arpesella, Giorgio; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the blood perfusion and the inflammatory response of the myocardial infarct area after transplanting a hyaluronan-based scaffold (HYAFF®11) with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nine-week-old female pigs were subjected to a permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks. According to the kind of the graft, the swine subjected to myocardial infarction were divided into the HYAFF®11, MSCs, HYAFF®11/MSCs and untreated groups. The animals were killed 8 weeks after coronary ligation. Scar perfusion, evaluated by Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound echography, was doubled in the HYAFF®11/MSCs group and was comparable with the perfusion of the healthy, non-infarcted hearts. The inflammation score of the MSCs and HYAFF®11/MSCs groups was near null, revealing the role of the grafted MSCs in attenuating the cell infiltration, but not the foreign reaction strictly localized around the fibres of the scaffold. Apart from the inflammatory response, the native tissue positively interacted with the HYAFF®11/MSCs construct modifying the extracellular matrix with a reduced presence of collagene and increased amount of proteoglycans. The border-zone cardiomyocytes also reacted favourably to the graft as a lower degree of cellular damage was found. This study demonstrates that the transplantation in the myocardial infarct area of autologous MSCs supported by a hyaluronan-based scaffold restores blood perfusion and almost completely abolishes the inflammatory process following an infarction. These beneficial effects are superior to those obtained after grafting only the scaffold or MSCs, suggesting that a synergic action was achieved using the cell-integrated polymer construct. PMID:23480821

  20. Systemic delivery of siRNA by hyaluronan-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chong; Wei, Wei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Ding, Jing-Song; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-07-14

    In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform spherical core-shell morphology with an approximate size of 170 nm and zeta potential of -12 mV. The coating of hydrophilic HA improved the physical stability of nanoparticles over one month due to the strong interactions between phosphonate and calcium. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could effectively deliver EGFR-targeted siRNA into A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis and significantly down-regulate the level of EGFR expression. Also, the internalized CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs exhibited a pH-responsive release of siRNA, indicating that the acidification of lysosomes probably facilitated the disassembling of nanoparticles and the resultant ions sharply increased the inner osmotic pressure and thus expedited the release of siRNA from late lysosomes into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, in vivo tumor therapy demonstrated that high accumulation of CaP-AHA/siEGFR NPs in tumor led to a significant tumor growth inhibition with a specific EGFR gene silencing effect after intravenous administration in nude mice xenografted with A549 tumor, along with a negligible body weight loss. These results suggested that the CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could be an effective and safe systemic siRNA delivery system for a RNAi-based tumor targeted therapy strategy. PMID:27314204

  1. Re-Citrate Synthase from Clostridium kluyveri Is Phylogenetically Related to Homocitrate Synthase and Isopropylmalate Synthase Rather Than to Si-Citrate Synthase† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph H.; Seedorf, Henning; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity. PMID:17400742

  2. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  3. Application of intact cell-based NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay for Pasteurella multocida toxin-mediated activation of calcium signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) stimulates and subsequently uncouples phospholipase C β1 (PLCβ1) signal transduction through its selective action on the alpha subunit of the Gq protein. Here, we describe the application of an NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay as a functional readout for PMT-induced activation of the Gq-protein-coupled PLCβ1-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway. Use of the NFAT-β-lactamase reporter assay with a cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate provides high sensitivity due to the absence of endogenous β-lactamase activity in mammalian cells. This assay system was optimized for cell density, dose and time exposure of PMT stimulation. It is suited for quantitative characterization of PMT activity in mammalian cells and for use as a high-throughput screening method for PMT deletion and point mutants suitable for vaccine development. This method has application for diagnostic screening of clinical isolates of toxinogenic P. multocida. PMID:18190943

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints and disk diffusion inhibitory zone interpretive criteria for tilmicosin susceptibility testing against Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae associated with porcine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Staples, J Mitchell; DeRosa, David C

    2002-09-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic developed for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Tilmicosin has been approved as a feed premix to control porcine respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines for tilmicosin was predicated on the relationship of clinical efficacy studies that demonstrated a favorable therapeutic outcome, on pharmacokinetic data, and on in vitro test data, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The approved breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration dilution testing for both species are resistant, > or = 32 microg/ml, and susceptible, < or = 16 microg/ml. The zone of inhibition interpretive criteria for disk diffusion testing with a 15-microg tilmicosin disk are resistant, < or = 10 mm, and susceptible, > or = 11 mm.

  5. Pasteurella multocida non-native joint infection after a dog lick: A case report describing a complicated two-stage revision and a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Philip W, Lam; Page, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are commonly caused by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, other microbial etiologies and specific risk factors are increasingly recognized. Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the normal oral flora in many animals, and is particularly common in dogs and cats. PJIs caused by P multocida have been reported only rarely in the literature and typically occur in the context of an animal bite or scratch. The present article describes a P multocida joint infection that occurred after a dog lick and complicated a two-stage revision arthroplasty. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding P multocida PJIs follows. PMID:26361490

  6. Abnormally high body mass index and tobacco use are associated with poor sperm quality as revealed by reduced sperm binding to hyaluronan-coated slides.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Carole C; Clifford, Alicia L; Jilbert, Patricia M; Henry, Michael A; Gentry, William L

    2010-01-01

    Responses on a lifestyle questionnaire were correlated with results from traditional semen analysis and a newer functional sperm assay, namely, the ability of sperm to bind to a hyaluronan-coated slide. Increased percent normal morphology and motile sperm concentration were positively correlated with increased HA-binding score, whereas tobacco use (either current or previous history) and abnormally high body mass index were associated with lower binding scores.

  7. Glycosaminoglycan in cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem of young sheep brain with particular reference to compositional and structural variations of chondroitin-dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kilia, Virginia; Skandalis, Spyros S; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Theocharis, Dimitrios A; Karamanos, Nikos K; Papageorgakopoulou, Nickoletta

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate chains have suggested important biological functions in the development of the brain. Several studies have demonstrated that the composition of chondroitin sulfate chains changes with aging and normal brain maturation. In this study, we determined the concentration of all glycosaminoglycan types, i.e. chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin in cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem of young sheep brain. In all cases, chondroitin sulfate was the predominant glycosaminoglycan type, comprising about 54-58% of total glycosaminoglycans, with hyaluronan being present also in significant amounts of about 19-28%. Of particular interest was the increased presence of the disulfated disaccharides and dermatan sulfate in cerebellum and brainstem, respectively, as well as the detectable and measurable occurrence of chondroitin in young sheep brain. Among the three brain areas, cerebrum was found to be significantly richer in chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan, two major extracellular matrix components. These findings imply that the extracellular matrix of the cerebrum is different from those of cerebellum and brainstem, and probably this fact is related to the particular histological and functional characteristics of each anatomic area of the brain.

  8. Efficacy of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on implantation and pregnancy rates in fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sungwook; Seo, Jung Eun; Rim, Yun Jeung; Joo, Jae Hong; Lee, Yong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on pregnancy and implantation rates in fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure. Methods This retrospective study included 283 blastocyst transfers in patients with previous embryo transfer failure at a private fertility clinic. In the study group (n=88), blastocyst transfers were performed using an hyaluronan-rich transfer medium prior to transfer, whereas blastocyst transfers without any treatment served as controls (n=195). According to the type of transfer (fresh elective or frozen-thawed), all the blastocyst transfers were divided into two study and two control groups. Results The patient's mean age, serum anti-Müllerian hormone level, causes of infertility, embryo quality, and the number of transferred embryos were comparable between the study and control groups. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (45.5% vs. 43.1%), implantation rate (28.9% vs. 28.8%), and clinical abortion rate (10.0% vs. 8.3%) between the two groups, and these findings were not changed after subgroup analysis according to the type of transfer. Conclusion The use of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium in the blastocyst transfer does not appear to have any significant effect on the implantation and pregnancy rates in patients with previous implantation failure. PMID:27200310

  9. High-resolution crystal structures of alternate forms of the human CD44 hyaluronan-binding domain reveal a site for protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kai; Finzel, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Two new crystal structures of the extracellular hyaluronan-binding domain of human CD44 are described at high resolution. A hexagonal crystal form at 1.60 Å resolution and a monoclinic form at 1.08 Å resolution both have two molecules in the asymmetric unit arranged about a similar noncrystallographic twofold axis of symmetry. These structures are compared with those previously reported at 2.20 Å resolution to show that the fold is quite resistant to structural deformation in different crystal environments. Unexpectedly, a short peptide is found in the monoclinic crystals at a site remote from the known hyaluronan-binding groove. The peptide with a valine at the carboxy-terminus must have co-purified from the bacterial expression host and binds on the opposite side of the domain from the known hyaluronan-binding groove. This opportunistic binding may identify a site of interaction used as CD44 assembles with other proteins to accomplish effective signaling regarding changes to the extracellular environment. PMID:25195884

  10. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of versican, aggrecan and link protein, and histochemistry of hyaluronan in the developing mouse limb bud cartilage.

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Fukada, K; Imai, H; Abe, T; Yamashita, Y

    2003-10-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of versican, aggrecan, link protein and hyaluronan in the developing limb bud cartilage of the fetal mouse using in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Versican mRNA and immunostaining were detected in the mesenchymal cell condensation of the future digital bone at E13. Versican mRNA expression rapidly disappeared from the tibial cartilage, as cartilage formation progressed during E13-15, but the immunostaining was gradually replaced by aggrecan immunostaining from the diaphysis. Immunostaining for both molecules thus had a 'nega-posi' pattern and consequently versican immunostaining was still detected at the epiphyseal end at E15. This result indicated that versican functions as a temporary framework in newly formed cartilage matrix. An aggrecan-positive region within the cartilage invariably had intense hyaluronan staining, whereas a versican-positive region also had affinity for hyaluronan within the cartilage, but not in the mesenchymal cell condensation. Therefore, the presence of versican aggregates was not confirmed in the developing limb bud cartilage. Furthermore, although link protein was more closely related with aggrecan than versican during limb bud cartilage formation, there was a discrepancy between the expression of aggrecan and link protein in tibial cartilage at E15. In particular, only a link protein-positive region was present in the marginal area of the metaphysis and the epiphysis at this stage. This finding may indicate a novel role for link protein.

  11. Benzophenone synthase from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarps.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Morita, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Keishi; Kushiro, Tetsuo; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-05-01

    The cDNA of a benzophenone synthase (BPS), a type III polyketide synthase (PKS), was cloned and the recombinant protein expressed from the fruit pericarps of Garcinia mangostana L., which contains mainly prenylated xanthones. The obtained GmBPS showed an amino acid sequence identity of 77-78% with other plant BPSs belonging to the same family (Clusiaceae). The recombinant enzyme produced 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone as the predominant product with benzoyl CoA as substrate. It also accepted other substrates, such as other plant PKSs, and used 1-3 molecules of malonyl CoA to form various phloroglucinol-type and polyketide lactone-type compounds. Thus, providing GmBPS with various substrates in vivo might redirect the xanthone biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (