Science.gov

Sample records for pastures part ii

  1. VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART TWO OF PANORAMA, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  2. Monitoring pasture variability: optical OptRx(®) crop sensor versus Grassmaster II capacitance probe.

    PubMed

    Serrano, João M; Shahidian, Shakib; Marques da Silva, José Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Estimation of pasture productivity is an important step for the farmer in terms of planning animal stocking, organizing animal lots, and determining supplementary feeding needs throughout the year. The main objective of this work was to evaluate technologies which have potential for monitoring aspects related to spatial and temporal variability of pasture green and dry matter yield (respectively, GM and DM, in kg/ha) and support to decision making for the farmer. Two types of sensors were evaluated: an active optical sensor ("OptRx(®)," which measures the NDVI, "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index") and a capacitance probe ("GrassMaster II" which estimates plant mass). The results showed the potential of NDVI for monitoring the evolution of spatial and temporal patterns of vegetative growth of biodiverse pasture. Higher NDVI values were registered as pasture approached its greatest vegetative vigor, with a significant fall in the measured NDVI at the end of Spring, when the pasture began to dry due to the combination of higher temperatures and lower soil moisture content. This index was also effective for identifying different plant species (grasses/legumes) and variability in pasture yield. Furthermore, it was possible to develop calibration equations between the capacitance and the NDVI (R(2) = 0.757; p < 0.01), between capacitance and GM (R(2) = 0.799; p < 0.01), between capacitance and DM (R(2) =0.630; p < 0.01), between NDVI and GM (R(2) = 0.745; p < 0.01), and between capacitance and DM (R(2) = 0.524; p < 0.01). Finally, a direct relationship was obtained between NDVI and pasture moisture content (PMC, in %) and between capacitance and PMC (respectively, R(2) = 0.615; p < 0.01 and R(2) = 0.561; p < 0.01) in Alentejo dryland farming systems.

  3. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  4. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  5. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  6. Rickets: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shore, Richard M; Chesney, Russell W

    2013-01-01

    This is the continuation of a two-part review of rickets. This part emphasizes the specific pathophysiology, clinical features, pathoanatomy and radiographic findings of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Other forms of rickets, differential diagnostic considerations and the potential relationship between low levels of vitamin D metabolites and unexplained fractures in infants are also discussed.

  7. Understanding Math - Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the second remedial workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students at the secondary level. It covers fractions, geometry formulas, decimals and percents, and time. For the first workbook, see SE 015 827, and for the teacher's guide, see SE 015 829. (DT)

  8. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  9. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  10. Stimulus control: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations. PMID:22478222

  11. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture... National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... for pasture, incorporate the pasture management plan into their organic system plan (OSP), provide...

  12. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  13. The effect of sustained release boli with ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) on radiocesium accumulation in sheep grazing contaminated pasture

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H.S.; Hove, K.; Barvik, K.

    1996-11-01

    Sustained release boli with the cesium binder ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) (AFCF) were tested under practical conditions for sheep grazing on pastures contaminated with radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs+{sup 137}Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout. Two types of AFCF boli were developed: boli without a protective surface coating intended to last 4-8 wk; and boli coated by a wax-mixture with an extended duration of 10-12 wk. From 1989 to 1993 we measured the effect of wax-coated and uncoated boli administered at various times during the grazing season to a total of 3,248 animals. Reductions in radiocesium levels in meat of sheep were measured by in vivo monitoring. Administration of AFCF boli without a wax-coating reduced the mean radiocesium levels in lambs by 42-75% over a 408 wk period, and administration of the wax-coated AFCF boli reduced the mean radiocesium levels by 48-65% over a 9-11 wk period. The coefficients of variation in meat radiocesium levels were similar in treated and control groups at the end of the observation period, showing that the reduction of meat radiocesium values was homogeneous throughout the treated groups. The boli giving sustained release of AFCF is a labor-saving and cost effective counter-measure for sheep grazing radiocesium contaminated pastures. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  15. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  16. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  17. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  18. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  19. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  20. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  1. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  2. [Part II: Recognising facial expressions].

    PubMed

    Krolak-Salmon, P; Hénaff, M A; Bertrand, O; Vighetto, A; Mauguière, F

    2006-11-01

    In this second part, we address particularly the question of the neural mechanisms and structures involved in the recognition of facial emotional expressions that are crucial in social cognition. Emotion recognition in others can be critically impaired in some neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. That dysfunction sometimes correlated to disabling behavioural disorders and interpersonal communication impairment must be further understood. The results of a series of scalp and intracranial event related potential recordings, as well as recent advances in the literature, are reported. ERPs to facial emotional expressions were thus recorded in multiple subcortical and cortical areas in drug refractory epileptical patients implanted with depth electrodes. The roles of amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex located at crossroads between perceptive analysis and emotional conceptual knowledge are particularly underlined. Altogether, these studies demonstrate that facial expressions are widely processed in space and time, some structures reacting very early and automatically, others providing a sustained reaction depending on the attention.

  3. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    PubMed

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  4. Sports Concussion Management: part II.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Thomas R; Cox, Conrad B; Bielak, Ken; Casmus, Robert; Laskowitz, Daniel; Nichols, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    Millions of concussions occur every year in the United States. The public interest in concussion has increased after a number of high-profile deaths in high school athletes from sports-related head trauma and in some professional athletes from chronic traumatic encephalopathy. One of the most active areas of research in sports medicine during the last decade has been the evaluation and management of concussion. In this second article of a two-part series, we provide an overview of the latest scientific advances in concussion research. This overview includes an update on the pathobiological changes that occur during concussion and the results of biomechanical studies. In addition, to aid the practicing clinician, we review the literature on proven and currently studied concussion risk factors, including a history of concussion, fatigue, and age. Genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers may provide risk-prediction capability, but at present the research remains inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging are promising technologies that reveal more sophisticated data about the impact of concussion on the brain. We review the existing literature on the application of these neuroimaging modalities to sports concussion. An update from the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport, with highlights of new recommendations, and the presentation of the third edition of the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool to evaluate acute concussion, concludes our review.

  5. Tubing extrusion made easier, Part II.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Mike

    2004-11-01

    An increased understanding of the primary elements will lead to greater control of the extrusion process. In the ongoing quest to produce tubing with consistent properties. Part II of this two-part article makes recommendations on best practice in barrel and screw design, compression ratios and dies.

  6. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  7. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  8. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Part 257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... from 60 days at 15 °C to 40 days at 20 °C, with a volatile solids reduction of at least 38 percent. Air...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Part 257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... from 60 days at 15 °C to 40 days at 20 °C, with a volatile solids reduction of at least 38 percent. Air...

  11. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  12. Pasture nonstructural carbohydrates and equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Longland, Annette C; Byrd, Bridgett M

    2006-07-01

    Fresh forages constitute a majority of the diet for many horses and ponies that graze on pastures during the growing season in many parts of the world. Grasses generally predominate in such pastures, with varying proportions of legumes. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) (simple sugars, starch, and fructan) can induce laminitis experimentally, and NSC can accumulate to >400 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in pasture grasses. In this article we discuss the environmental factors affecting NSC accumulation in pastures and estimate the potential daily intakes of pasture NSC by grazing horses. We also discuss strategies for both reducing the NSC content of pastures and management practices that can help reduce intakes of pasture NSC by equines at risk of developing laminitis. This study reveals the importance of accurate forage analysis in the development of feeding regimens for equines at risk of laminitis.

  13. Photosensitivity disorders in children: part II.

    PubMed

    Chantorn, Rattanavalai; Lim, Henry W; Shwayder, Tor A

    2012-12-01

    Photosensitivity disorders in children encompass a diverse group of diseases. Some inherited disorders manifest with photosensitivity early in life. Specific extracutaneous association may be the clue to diagnosis in this group of pediatric photodermatoses. Part II of this 2-part review covers hereditary photodermatoses caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair, or localized or systemic biochemical abnormalities. Diagnosis and management of photoaggravated dermatoses are also discussed. Sun protection strategies are required in all patients with evidence of photosensitivity. Early recognition and prompt diagnosis is essential to minimize the long-term complications associated with inadequate photoprotection. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to...

  18. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  19. Prediction of periventricular leukomalacia. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Biswanath; Bird, Geoffrey L.; Kuijpers, Marijn; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Wernovsky, Gil; Clancy, Robert R.; Licht, Daniel J.; Gaynor, J. William; Nataraj, Chandrasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of Part II is to analyze the dataset of extracted hemodynamic features (Case 3 of Part I) through computational intelligence (CI) techniques for identification of potential prognostic factors for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) occurrence in neonates with congenital heart disease. Methods The extracted features (Case 3 dataset of Part I) were used as inputs to CI based classifiers, namely, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) in combination with genetic algorithms (GA) for selection of the most suitable features predicting the occurrence of PVL. The selected features were next used as inputs to a decision tree (DT) algorithm for generating easily interpretable rules of PVL prediction. Results Prediction performance for two CI based classifiers, MLP and PNN coupled with GA are presented for different number of selected features. The best prediction performances were achieved with 6 and 7 selected features. The prediction success was 100% in training and the best ranges of sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP) and accuracy (AC) in test were 60-73%, 74-84% and 71-74%, respectively. The identified features when used with the DTalgorithm gave best SN, SP and AC in the ranges of 87-90% in training and 80-87%, 74-79% and 79-82% in test. Among the variables selected in CI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and pCO2 figured prominently similar to Part I. Decision tree based rules for prediction of PVL occurrence were obtained using the CI selected features. Conclusions The proposed approach combines the generalization capability of CI based feature selection approach and generation of easily interpretable classification rules of the decision tree. The combination of CI techniques with DT gave substantially better test prediction performance than using CI and DT separately. PMID:19162456

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261 ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261 ...

  2. Pasture diversity and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit have been collecting pasture plant biodiversity data for over ten years and across the northeastern United States. We have identified more than three hundred species of vascular plants. The average pasture in this regi...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 153—Metric Units Used in Part 153 Parameter Metric (SI unit) Abbreviation Equivalent to English or... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS...

  7. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  12. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  13. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  14. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  15. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  16. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  17. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  18. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  19. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  20. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  1. Disks for the Laboratory Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Part 1 presents the chemistry, physics, and engineering technology associated with magnetic and optical disks. This part explores the subjects of archiving, security, validation and certification, and protection. Questions and issues are raised in each of the areas that both users and vendors should be aware. (JN)

  2. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of ADINA. Part II. Operating Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-08

    Mooney Rivlin material, small/ large deformation i) static ii) dynamic iii) frequency (linear) 3. Spherical shell; elastic, plastic, concrete, small...Neighborhood of Buckling Zone 13 11-8 Typical Negative Stiffness Generated in Neighborhood of Buckling Zone 14 III-1 Rubber Sheet Geometry Material...Properties and Element Model 26 111-2 Global Energy Increment of Rubber Sheet (1st Load Step) 28 111-3 Global Energy Increment of Rubber Sheet (1st Load

  4. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  5. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  6. Prescription pricing across Canada (Part II).

    PubMed

    Archer, F

    1984-09-01

    The first of a two part article entitled "Prescription Pricing Across Canada" appeared in the June issue of CPJ. The article was prompted by recent press reports of a prescription drug study commissioned by the Saskatchewan government, and the consequent attention-getting headlines. The first article dealt with the Western provinces. The second part discusses prescription pricing in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories.

  7. Searching LEXIS and WESTLAW: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This second of a three-part series compares search features (i.e., truncation symbols, boolean operators, proximity operators, phrase searching, save searches) of two databases providing legal information. Search tips concerning charges and effective searching and tables listing functions of commands and proximity operators for both databases are…

  8. The Metis Nation--Part Two II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, John

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with historical events involving the Metis people from the time Manitoba entered the Confederation to the conclusion of the 1885 battle at Fish Creek near Batoche, Saskatchewan. Part I is in the Summer, 1978 issue of the Northian. (Author/RTS)

  9. Cutting out the Middleman: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley; Crittenden, Chris

    1985-01-01

    The second part of the article published in "American School and University," December 1984 (EA 518 236), outlines specific steps administrators need to take to determine whether or not a direct purchase of natural gas is going to benefit their schools. (MLF)

  10. Cutting out the Middleman: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley; Crittenden, Chris

    1985-01-01

    The second part of the article published in "American School and University," December 1984 (EA 518 236), outlines specific steps administrators need to take to determine whether or not a direct purchase of natural gas is going to benefit their schools. (MLF)

  11. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  12. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  13. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  14. Corporate liability: security and violence--Part II.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1996-04-01

    A hospital can be held liable for injuries resulting from failure to provide adequate, reasonable security Part II of "corporate Liability: Security and Violence" addresses negligent hiring and supervision practices, injury and domestic violence in the workplace and communication procedures.

  15. Managing changes during a clinical investigation, Part II.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2003-10-01

    What are the European requirements for managing changes that may occur during a clinical investigation? Part II of this article discusses these requirements and the development of a standard operating procedure to help ensure consistent compliance.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use linear...

  17. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  18. Magnet hospitals: Part II. Institutions of excellence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Schmalenberg, C

    1988-02-01

    The oft repeated charge today is to "focus on those who are succeeding!" That's what this report does. Using the eight characteristics identified by Peters and Waterman in their book In Search of Excellence, the study analyzes 16 magnet hospitals to ascertain to what extent they possess characteristics similar to the 'best run' companies in the corporate community. The authors suggest that these magnet hospitals may be dealing effectively with the nursing shortage by creating organizational conditions conducive to eliminating internal nurse shortage. Part I of this article appeared the January 1988 issue of JONA.

  19. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    PubMed

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  20. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part II.

    PubMed

    Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.

  1. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  2. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  3. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  4. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part II.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics - pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy - started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning - as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder - 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  5. Adhesive-composite incompatibility, part II.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina P; e Silva, Safira M A; Castro, Fabrício L A

    2005-01-01

    Apart from some questions related to the repairability of resin composite restorations, dentists have always assumed that methacrylate-based resins are compatible with each other. For example, there is no clinically relevant problem in using a microfilled composite to laminate a Class IV restoration made with a hybrid composite, even if they are not of the same brand or manufacturer. In the context of adhesive systems, we have always believed that resin composites, regardless of their type or composition, bond well to all types of bonding agents. However, unexpected debonding of self-cured, core buildup composites that had been bonded with single-bottle adhesive systems was reported about 5 years ago. Subsequent studies demonstrated that there were, indeed, compatibility problems between simplified adhesive systems and self- or dual-cured resin composites. Apparently, when such combinations are used, reduced bond strengths and subsequent failures at the resin-adhesive interface can occur because of adverse reactions between the acidic resin monomers, an integral part of the simplified adhesive systems, and the chemicals involved in the polymerization mechanism of the self- or dual-cured composites, particularly the basic tertiary amines.

  6. DICOM: key concepts--part II.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two installments of IT World was to give a general overview of DICOM and to take a look at different parts of the standard to get a sense of its main themes. We found that the standard provides a common reference for all developers but does not impose a single type of implementation. This allows for innovation. The standard is also built for flexibility, able to adapt to new modalities that have a need to communicate. The speedy acceptance of DICOM by the medical imaging industry is opening new possibilities for healthcare organizations to increase the quality while decreasing the cost of patient care. All of the DICOM networked supporting medical equipment as well as the organization's computer systems made by multiple original equipment manufacturers and located at one site or many sites can communicate by means of DICOM. This gives us the opportunity for medical images to be captured and communicated quicker. The result enables physicians to make diagnoses and treatment decisions sooner. It's all good stuff and even more reason why we should endeavor to understand the basics of DICOM. DICOM is here to stay!

  7. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  8. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wave Propagation in Polymers, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newlander, David C.; Charest, Jacques A.; Lilly, Martin D.; Eisler, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    Work reported in a previous study (Wave Propagations in Polymers, Part I, J.A. Charest, M.D. Lilly, 44th ARA Meeting Munich, Germany Sept. 17-20, 1993) discussed gas gun plane wave impact work and the measurements of stress wave profiles in Polycarbonate at around 2 kbars. The wave profiles were obtained using combined carbon and PVDF thin film stress gauges. The results showed amplitude attenuation and dispersion effects which were neither expected nor predictable from available hydrocode models. The data have been revisited using a modified material model and the PUFF74 computer code. These new wave profile calculations show remarkable agreement with the previous experiments in Polycarbonate. The model treats the material as viscoelastic-plastic using methods developed by Bade (Dynamic Response Model for PMMA, W. L. Bade, AVCO Systems Division, TR K500-74-WLB-204, Oct. 1, 1974). The measured and calculated results are quite different from those exhibited by PMMA at similar impact conditions. This work is expected to further our understanding of the processes that control wave propagation in highly-compressible and viscoelastic/viscoplastic media. It is also expected to provide clues on the effects of high strain rates on properties such as the modulus of elasticity, strength, and material loading behavior.

  10. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    PubMed

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  12. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  13. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  14. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  15. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Corporate Library Impact, Part II: Methodological Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, William

    2004-01-01

    This article and its accompanying one address the corporate library's contribution to its parent firm. Part I reviews the literature on determining this contribution, revealing the need for a more theoretical approach to this problem. It then presents this approach. This article, Part II, reviews methodological trade-offs in pursuing this new…

  17. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  18. Analysis of the Spatial Organization of Pastures as a Contact Network, Implications for Potential Disease Spread and Biosecurity in Livestock, France, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    The use of pastures is part of common herd management practices for livestock animals, but contagion between animals located on neighbouring pastures is one of the major modes of infectious disease transmission between herds. At the population level, this transmission is strongly constrained by the spatial organization of pastures. The aim of this study was to answer two questions: (i) is the spatial configuration of pastures favourable to the spread of infectious diseases in France? (ii) would biosecurity measures allow decreasing this vulnerability? Based on GIS data, the spatial organization of pastures was represented using networks. Nodes were the 3,159,787 pastures reported in 2010 by the French breeders to claim the Common Agricultural Policy subsidies. Links connected pastures when the distance between them was below a predefined threshold. Premises networks were obtained by aggregating into a single node all the pastures under the same ownership. Although the pastures network was very fragmented when the distance threshold was short (1.5 meters, relevant for a directly-transmitted disease), it was not the case when the distance threshold was larger (500 m, relevant for a vector-borne disease: 97% of the nodes in the largest connected component). The premises network was highly connected as the largest connected component always included more than 83% of the nodes, whatever the distance threshold. Percolation analyses were performed to model the population-level efficacy of biosecurity measures. Percolation thresholds varied according to the modelled biosecurity measures and to the distance threshold. They were globally high (e.g. >17% of nodes had to be removed, mimicking the confinement of animals inside farm buildings, to obtain the disappearance of the large connected component). The network of pastures thus appeared vulnerable to the spread of diseases in France. Only a large acceptance of biosecurity measures by breeders would allow reducing this

  19. Analysis of the Spatial Organization of Pastures as a Contact Network, Implications for Potential Disease Spread and Biosecurity in Livestock, France, 2010.

    PubMed

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    The use of pastures is part of common herd management practices for livestock animals, but contagion between animals located on neighbouring pastures is one of the major modes of infectious disease transmission between herds. At the population level, this transmission is strongly constrained by the spatial organization of pastures. The aim of this study was to answer two questions: (i) is the spatial configuration of pastures favourable to the spread of infectious diseases in France? (ii) would biosecurity measures allow decreasing this vulnerability? Based on GIS data, the spatial organization of pastures was represented using networks. Nodes were the 3,159,787 pastures reported in 2010 by the French breeders to claim the Common Agricultural Policy subsidies. Links connected pastures when the distance between them was below a predefined threshold. Premises networks were obtained by aggregating into a single node all the pastures under the same ownership. Although the pastures network was very fragmented when the distance threshold was short (1.5 meters, relevant for a directly-transmitted disease), it was not the case when the distance threshold was larger (500 m, relevant for a vector-borne disease: 97% of the nodes in the largest connected component). The premises network was highly connected as the largest connected component always included more than 83% of the nodes, whatever the distance threshold. Percolation analyses were performed to model the population-level efficacy of biosecurity measures. Percolation thresholds varied according to the modelled biosecurity measures and to the distance threshold. They were globally high (e.g. >17% of nodes had to be removed, mimicking the confinement of animals inside farm buildings, to obtain the disappearance of the large connected component). The network of pastures thus appeared vulnerable to the spread of diseases in France. Only a large acceptance of biosecurity measures by breeders would allow reducing this

  20. EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-RESIDENCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, PART I, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELICAN, ROBERT L.; PURCELL, FRANCIS P.

    THE TWO PARTS OF THIS DISCUSSION CONSIDER THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FOR VOCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TRAINING TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF THE LOW-INCOME SCHOOL DROPOUT. PART I REVIEWS THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RESIDENCY PROGRAMS IN SUCH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, CHURCHES, AND SUMMER CAMPS. PART II DEALS WITH THE…

  1. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1991-92. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report, which combined Part I and Part II of a benefit study, presents data from a survey of Ontario universities concerning fringe benefits offered in 1991-92. Part I is made up of a series of tables displaying the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution. The first five tables cover general aspects of benefits,…

  2. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  3. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  4. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  5. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  6. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  8. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  9. An analysis of the lumber planning process: Part II

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1956-01-01

    This study is part II of an investigation pertaining to the peripheral-milling process of planing lumber. Some relationships were determined between cutterhead horsepower and various combinations of specimen, cutterhead, and feed factors. Power demand curves were interpreted through comparison with simultaneously taken one micro-second photos of the forming chips....

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  13. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  14. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  15. Probabilistic finite-state machines--part II.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrique; Thollard, Frank; de la Higuera, Colin; Casacuberta, Francisco; Carrasco, Rafael C

    2005-07-01

    Probabilistic finite-state machines are used today in a variety of areas in pattern recognition or in fields to which pattern recognition is linked. In Part I of this paper, we surveyed these objects and studied their properties. In this Part II, we study the relations between probabilistic finite-state automata and other well-known devices that generate strings like hidden Markov models and n-grams and provide theorems, algorithms, and properties that represent a current state of the art of these objects.

  16. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:22807605

  18. Feedback Flow Control for a Pitching Turret (Part II) (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    imposes no penalty on the control input. VII. Closed-loop Control Run with an Advanced Controller Three compensators ( LQR regulators with Kalman...AFRL-RB-WP-TP-2010-3024 FEEDBACK FLOW CONTROL FOR A PITCHING TURRET (PART II) (POSTPRINT) T. Vaithianathan and H.A. Carlson Clear...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3

  19. Feasibility of Screening for Antibiotic Resistance-Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    antibiotic resistance - T +31 15 28 43000 F +31 152843991 part II Info-DenV@tno.nl Date August 2005 Author(s) M.P. Broekhuijsen, W.C.M. van Dijk...ciprofloxacineresistentie. Beide, De ontworpen methode kan nog verder methoden werden getest op kunstmatig worden verbeterd, en worden toegepast op een resistent ...resultaat te zettn. c otworen ethd erken ood behalen is. Deze mutatie-analysemethode is op de twee kunstmatig resistent gemaalcte tevens geschikter voor

  20. Seasonal changes in northeastern pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding how pasture plant species abundance changes with seasons and sites can provide the background information needed to manage pasture composition to best match the site type and to extend the grazing season. We sampled pastures on five grazing farms (four dairy, one beef): two in New York...

  1. Nutrient management on pasture and haylands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient management on pastures is a critical part of maintaining and improving their ability to provide key ecosystem services including forage and fuel production, clean air and water, and climate mitigation. Our objective was to determine the scientific underpinning for purported benefits of nutr...

  2. Animal behavior and pasture depletion in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Lyons, N A; Kerrisk, K L; Dhand, N K; Scott, V E; Garcia, S C

    2014-09-01

    In pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS), feed is the main incentive that can be managed to encourage reliable and consistent voluntary and distributed cow traffic. Modifying timing, placement and size of feed allocations is expected to have an effect on cow behavior that could avoid the occurrence of extended milking intervals, which have a negative effect on milk yield. Therefore, behavioral studies provide information on how cows modify their actions under different management regimes and can help explain the impact of those regimes. Behavioral observations were conducted in spring 2011 at the FutureDairy AMS research farm, as part of a study where a herd of 175 cows was split into two groups that received supplementary feed either before (PRE), or immediately after (POST) milking. In addition, all cows were offered access to two daily pasture allocations. Observations were conducted in the pasture allocation on 15 focal cows from each treatment group during four periods of 24 h to detect presence and behavior (grazing, ruminating, idling and other) every 15 min. In addition, bite rate and pasture biomass were measured every hour. Overall, despite the finding that more POST cows than PRE cows entered the pasture allocation during the first 8 h of active access, there was no difference in the total proportion of cows that had gained access by the end of the active access period (average 68% for both treatments). Cows in the PRE treatment started exiting the pasture allocation just 6 h after entering, compared with 8 h for POST cows, although their behaviors in the pasture allocation did not differ. Behaviors and bite rate were more dependent on pasture biomass than on supplementary feeding management.

  3. Pasture seed banks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  4. Pasture monitoring with Landsat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While Landsat data has been used to monitor primary production in range and pasture areas, such monitoring has generally been intended to track broad changes across multiple years. With an 8-day return time and 30m resolution, Landsat data can be used to assess intra-annual changes, even within rota...

  5. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum Powder: Part II. Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-12-01

    The optimal processing parameters that are required to atomize amorphous Al were established on the basis of numerical simulations in part I of this study. In this part II, the characterization of cooling rate experienced by gas-atomized, Al-based amorphous powders was studied via experiments. An experimental investigation was implemented to validate the numerical predictions reported in part I of this study. The cooling rate experienced by the powders, for example, was experimentally determined on the basis of dendrite arm spacing correlations, and the results were compared with the numerical predictions. The experimental studies were completed using commercial Al 2024 as a baseline material and Al90Gd7Ni2Fe1 metallic glass (MG). The results showed that the cooling rate of droplets increases with decreasing particle size, with an increasing proportion of helium in the atomization gas and with increasing melt superheat. The experimental results reported in this article suggest good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  7. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  8. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  9. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    PubMed

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Repair of articular cartilage defects: part II. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S; Frenkel, S R; Di Cesare, P E

    1999-02-01

    Articular cartilage injuries result in numerous clinical symptoms, such as pain and decreased functional levels. Current therapeutic options being used include articular surface debridement, such as chondral shaving, abrasion chondroplasty, and subchondral perforation; soft-tissue arthroplasties, such as perichondrial and periosteal grafts; and osteochondral transplantation. None of these therapies, however, has resulted in the successful regeneration of a hyaline-like tissue that withstands normal joint loading and activity over prolonged periods. As a result, research is also being conducted on alternative therapeutic procedures to enhance the repair process and to stimulate the regeneration of a repair tissue with hyaline-like structural and biologic properties. Part I of this paper, which was published in January, discussed the basic science of cartilage healing. Part II presents the treatment options.

  11. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  12. [The Mexican consensus on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Part II].

    PubMed

    Huerta-Iga, F; Tamayo-de la Cuesta, J L; Noble-Lugo, A; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres-Villalobos, G; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Pantoja-Millán, J P

    2013-01-01

    To update the themes of endoscopic and surgical treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) from the Mexican Consensus published in 2002. Part I of the 2011 Consensus dealt with the general concepts, diagnosis, and medical treatment of this disease. Part II covers the topics of the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD. In this second part, an expert in endoscopy and an expert in GERD surgery, along with the three general coordinators of the consensus, carried out an extensive bibliographic review using the Embase, Cochrane, and Medline databases. Statements referring to the main aspects of endoscopic and surgical treatment of this disease were elaborated and submitted to specialists for their consideration and vote, utilizing the modified Delphi method. The statements were accepted into the consensus if the level of agreement was 67% or higher. Twenty-five statements corresponding to the endoscopic and surgical treatment of GERD resulted from the voting process, and they are presented herein as Part II of the consensus. The majority of the statements had an average level of agreement approaching 90%. Currently, endoscopic treatment of GERD should not be regarded as an option, given that the clinical results at 3 and 5 years have not demonstrated durability or sustained symptom remission. The surgical indications for GERD are well established; only those patients meeting the full criteria should be candidates and their surgery should be performed by experts. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  15. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information for Government Monitoring Purposes II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. II Appendix II to Part 27—Information for Government...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 92 - Interpretive Ruling for § 92.705-Remedial Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Remedial Plans II Appendix II to Part 92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., App. II Appendix II to Part 92—Interpretive Ruling for § 92.705—Remedial Plans The following is an... manufacturers to better enable them to submit acceptable remedial plans. (2) Section 207(c)(1) requires the...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  10. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  13. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040... Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Schedule F... Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040). Abstract: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)...

  14. Fast transforms for acoustic imaging--part II: applications.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávio P; Nascimento, Vítor H

    2011-08-01

    In Part I ["Fast Transforms for Acoustic Imaging-Part I: Theory," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing], we introduced the Kronecker array transform (KAT), a fast transform for imaging with separable arrays. Given a source distribution, the KAT produces the spectral matrix which would be measured by a separable sensor array. In Part II, we establish connections between the KAT, beamforming and 2-D convolutions, and show how these results can be used to accelerate classical and state of the art array imaging algorithms. We also propose using the KAT to accelerate general purpose regularized least-squares solvers. Using this approach, we avoid ill-conditioned deconvolution steps and obtain more accurate reconstructions than previously possible, while maintaining low computational costs. We also show how the KAT performs when imaging near-field source distributions, and illustrate the trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. Finally, we show that separable designs can deliver accuracy competitive with multi-arm logarithmic spiral geometries, while having the computational advantages of the KAT.

  15. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part II: HIV.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV--zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy--a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of HIV blood concentration and often results in substantial recovery of impaired immunologic function. At present, there are over 20 drugs licensed and used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, and these drugs are divided into one of six classes. Investigational agents include GS-7340, the prodrug of tenofovir and BMS-663068--the first in a novel class of drugs that blocks the binding of the HIV gp120 to the CD4 receptor.

  16. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2017-07-06

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  17. The intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-Wales, UK: II. Metal concentrations in blood and wool.

    PubMed

    Smith, K M; Dagleish, M P; Abrahams, P W

    2010-02-01

    Sheep grazing metal-contaminated floodplain pastures across mid-Wales ingest high concentrations of lead (Pb) in vegetation and directly in the form of soil. Sheep whole blood analysis indicated that Pb concentrations can be significantly elevated for animals grazing contaminated sites: in winter/spring, a median blood concentration of 147 microg Pb l(-1) was found at the location with the highest soil enrichment of this metal compared to only 26 microg Pbl(-1) for the control flock. There was within-flock variability in blood-Pb concentration, and overlap between blood-Pb ranges in animals grazing control and contaminated sites, although use of the Kruskal-Wallis H test established a number of significant (P<0.05) differences between the blood-Pb content of flocks grazing the various study locations. Despite total daily intakes of up to 723 mg Pb d(-1), only one individual sheep showed a blood-Pb content above the 'normal safe' concentration of 250 microg l(-1). Blood and wool analyses were found to have limited value for the diagnosis of environmental exposure to Pb, and further consideration of metal accumulation in offal, bone and muscle tissue is recommended.

  18. What's new in pediatric dermatology?: part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pride, Howard B; Tollefson, Megha; Silverman, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The field of pediatric dermatology has been rich in new developments. Part II of this continuing medical education article will focus on new therapeutic modalities for several entities encountered in pediatric dermatology. The treatment of atopic dermatitis, exciting advances in the use of propranolol and other beta-blockers for the use of infantile hemangiomas, the use of rapamycin for vascular anomalies, the use of biologics in children, the central nervous system risks of general anesthesia in young children, side effects in the use of isotretinoin, the treatment of tinea capitis, treatment of herpes simplex infections, and the use of technologies such as texting and social media in medicine will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiversity on Swedish pastures: estimating biodiversity production costs.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Fredrik Olof Laurentius

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the costs of producing biological diversity on Swedish permanent grasslands. A simple model is introduced where biodiversity on pastures is produced using grazing animals. On the pastures, the grazing animals create a sufficient grazing pressure to lead to an environment that suits many rare and red-listed species. Two types of pastures are investigated: semi-natural and cultivated. Biological diversity produced on a pasture is estimated by combining a biodiversity indicator, which measures the quality of the land, with the size of the pasture. Biodiversity is, in this context, a quantitative measure where a given quantity can be produced either by small area with high quality or a larger area with lower quality. Two areas in different parts of Sweden are investigated. Box-Cox transformations, which provide flexible functional forms, are used in the empirical analysis and the results indicate that the biodiversity production costs differ between the regions. The major contribution of this paper is that it develops and tests a method of estimating biodiversity production costs on permanent pastures when biodiversity quality differs between pastures. If the method were to be used with cost data, that were more thoroughly collected and covered additional production areas, biodiversity cost functions could be estimated and used in applied policy work.

  20. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  1. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  2. Violence in the emergency department: an ethnographic study (part II).

    PubMed

    Lau, Jacqui Bee Chuo; Magarey, Judy; Wiechula, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a significant and complex problem worldwide. This is a part II of a 2-part series on an ethnographic study. The study which aimed at exploring the cultural aspects of violence was carried out at a major metropolitan ED for 3 months. This paper presents the findings and discussions of the study. One hundred and three violent incident questionnaires were completed. A total of 242.5h of observation and 34 (33%) interviews with nurses were conducted. From the data analysis, three critical cultural themes (i.e. 'problems and solutions', 'requests and demands' and 'them and us') were identified. The study indicated that the cultural meanings of violence were complex and highly subjective. Factors such as environment, conflicting messages regarding waiting time, and the nurse-patient/relative behaviours and the resulting reciprocal relationships were critical. Nurses' efforts to establish rapport with patients was crucial and needed to occur early. There was usually a 'turning point' that provided an opportunity for the nurse to avoid violence. While violence is a complex issue with many paradoxes, the study indicates that effective interpersonal empathetic communication has a significant role in reducing violence in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  4. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... II to Part 1039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 1039, App. II Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for...

  6. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  9. Part II--Management of pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

    PubMed

    Pinchefsky, Elana; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Friedman, Debbie; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Post-traumatic headache is one of the most common symptoms occurring after mild traumatic brain injury in children. This is an expert opinion-based two-part review on pediatric post-traumatic headaches. In part II, we focus on the medical management of post-traumatic headaches. There are no randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of therapies specifically for pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Thus, the algorithm we propose has been extrapolated from the primary headache literature and small noncontrolled trials of post-traumatic headache. Most post-traumatic headaches are migraine or tension type, and standard medications for these headache types are used. A multifaceted approach is needed to address all the possible causes of headache and any comorbid conditions that may delay recovery or alter treatment choices. For acute treatment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories can be used. If the headaches have migrainous features and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are not effective, triptans may be beneficial. Opioids are not indicated. Medication overuse should be avoided. For preventive treatments, some reports indicate that amitriptyline, gabapentin, or topiramate may be beneficial. Amitriptyline is a good choice because it can be used to treat both migraine and tension-type headaches. Nerve blocks, nutraceuticals (e.g. melatonin), and behavioral therapies may also be useful, and lifestyle factors, especially adequate sleep hygiene and strategies to cope with anxiety, should be emphasized. Improved treatment of acute post-traumatic headache may reduce the likelihood of developing chronic headaches, which can be especially problematic to effectively manage and can be functionally debilitating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    PubMed

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  11. Part 3: Pharmacogenetic Variability in Phase II Anticancer Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response to anticancer therapy. Known determinants that may affect the pharmacological response to a drug are, among others, nongenetic factors, including age, gender, use of comedication, and liver and renal function. Nonetheless, these covariates do not explain all the observed interpatient variability. Differences in genetic constitution among patients have been identified to be important factors that contribute to differences in drug response. Because genetic polymorphism may affect the expression and activity of proteins encoded, it is a key covariate that is responsible for variability in drug metabolism, drug transport, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability. This third part in the series of reviews is focused on genetic variability in phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases, methyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and N-acetyltransferases) and discusses the effects of genetic polymorphism within the genes encoding these enzymes on anticancer drug therapy outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are proposed. PMID:21659608

  12. Stem cells in dentistry--Part II: Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-10-01

    New technologies that facilitate solid alveolar ridge augmentation are receiving considerable attention in the field of prosthodontics because of the growing requirement for esthetic and functional reconstruction by dental implant treatments. Recently, several studies have demonstrated potential advantages for stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are now an excellent candidate for tissue replacement therapies, and tissue engineering approaches and chair-side cellular grafting approaches using autologous MSCs represent the clinical state of the art for stem-cell-based alveolar bone regeneration. Basic studies have revealed that crosstalk between implanted donor cells and recipient immune cells plays a key role in determining clinical success that may involve the recently observed immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Part II of this review first overviews progress in regenerative dentistry to consider the implications of the stem cell technology in dentistry and then highlights cutting-edge stem-cell-based alveolar bone regenerative therapies. Factors that affect stem-cell-based bone regeneration as related to the local immune response are then discussed. Additionally, pre-clinical stem cell studies for the regeneration of teeth and other oral organs as well as possible applications of MSC-based immunotherapy in dentistry are outlined. Finally, the marketing of stem cell technology in dental stem cell banks with a view toward future regenerative therapies is introduced. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  14. IPCC Working Group II: Impacts and Adaptation Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    The IPCC (as opposed to the UN Framework Convention) defines climate change as" any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity". The IPCC Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability) was charged with assessing the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of vulnerability to climate change, and, the negative and positive consequences for ecological systems, socio-economic sectors, and human health. The Working Group II report focused on the following issues for different sectors and regions (e.g. water, agriculture, biodiversity) and communities (coastal, island, etc.): · The role of adaptation in reducing vulnerability and impacts, · Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints, and · Enhancing adaptation practice and operations. This presentation will address the following questions in the context of the results of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG II: · What are the barriers, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for impacts assessments? · How are decisions about adaptation being made, and what types of adaptation strategies are being undertaken? · What are good adaptation practices and how are they learned over time? Examples will be drawn from the freshwater resources, small islands and adaptation chapters to which the presenter contributed. Many lessons have been identified but few have been implemented or evaluated over time. Adaptation occurs in the context of multiple stresses. Adaptation will be important in coping with early impacts in the near-term and continue to be important as our climate changes, regardless of how that change is derived. It is important to note that unmitigated climate change could, in the long term, exceed the capacity of different natural, managed and human systems to adapt. The assessment leads to the following conclusions: · Adaptation to climate change is already taking place, but on a limited basis · Adaptation measures

  15. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R; Sage, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures

  16. Discovery of Quantum structure and A Theory of Everything Part I and Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2012-10-01

    (Part I) During my research I discovered logical errors in the logic of science and in mathematics. These errors caused scientists missed out important information when interpreting data. This led me to revisit the method of science and the existing results and able to find new information, which lead to the discovery of photon's structure. A ``particle collision illumination'' experiment then provided direct evidence supported the structure. Analysis of the properties of the structure suggested an organized but not-continuous multi-dimension (n-D) space within. Therefore I formed a hypothesis of a not-continuous n-D space structure. In search for evidence, I turned into crystal technology, and found direct evidence supported the hypotesis, then further particle collision found more evidence support this finding. (Part II) Analysis of single electron buildup revealed star and galaxy formation is from a single particle following a predictable pattern. This pattern is also common in matter formation. Analysis of the quantum structure suggested the formation of a larger structure through the space expansion within the structure. Further experiment results support the finding and result revealed the expansion is through space folding. Result also suggested a violation of energy conservation law that energy is created during the formation of matter, and matter itself is moving from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. When putting all information together, I arrived to a theory of everything which gives explanations to all existing phenomenon in the universe including black hole, dark energy, star formation, consciousness.

  17. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  2. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  3. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  4. Coping With the Problems of a Technological Age, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…

  5. Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Bill D., Comp.

    These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

  6. CO2 balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture during pasture renewal via cultivation or direct drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Susanna; Mudge, Paul; Wall, Aaron; Campbell, Dave; Schipper, Louis

    2015-04-01

    of PR (here defined as the time between spraying and seedling emergence) varied between PR events and ranged from 15 to 79 days. The 'net impact of PR' of all four PR events ranged from 55 to 405 g C m-2 per PR event. While cultivation is often thought to lead to enhanced CO2 losses compared to no-till, data collected showed no evidence of lower CO2 losses of direct drilling compared to the full cultivations. Possibly, in our systems physical disturbance caused by cultivation was less important than lack of C inputs by photosynthesis which occurred using either method (CULT and DD). Therefore, if one aims to reduce C losses during PR, it is recommended to i) minimise the duration of the period between spraying the old pasture and establishment of the new pasture, and ii) renew pastures when conditions for soil microbial activity and photosynthesis are sub-optimal (in our case in autumn instead of spring because of lower soil moisture availability).

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to be...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1. This statement is to...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  12. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  13. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific "philosophy" of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with…

  14. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  15. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  16. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  17. Team effort: the nuclear medicine decision making process. Part II.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, S

    1991-06-01

    This two part article examines the nuclear medicine purchase of Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis, the largest private hospital in the nation. Part I (May 1991) focused on what their needs were. This concluding installment looks at the committee mechanism itself and the reasoning that went behind their decisions.

  18. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  19. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  20. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  1. Designing SoTL Studies--Part II: Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests solutions to common practical problems in designing SoTL studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of designs are discussed. [Part I available at EJ1029363.

  2. Predictors of performance on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Parts I and II*

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Angela R.; Harvey, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for success on Parts I and II of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) written examinations. Methods Two validity studies were conducted to examine the criterion validity of Logan College assessments for Part I and II NBCE scores. Both studies consisted of a longitudinal design to examine the validity of entrance grade point average (GPA), in-program chiropractic course content GPA, and an institutional practice exam on Parts I and II of the NBCE. Results Analyses revealed that Part I GPA and practice exam scores combined accounted for 72% of the variance within Part I NBCE scores. Furthermore, every subtest of the Part I NBCE could be reliably predicted by course performance. In the 2nd study, Part I GPA, Part I NBCE score, and Part II GPA accounted for 75% of the variance within Part II NBCE scores. Conclusions Internal training and educational assessments (eg, course grades and practice exams) proved to be strong determinants of NBCE performance above and beyond initial levels of preparedness, thus validating the impact of the chiropractic curriculum on NBCE test achievement. PMID:24611459

  3. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  4. Mental Retardation Grants; Part II, Research and Demonstration. Fiscal Year 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Part II of a two-part publication listing mental retardation grants awarded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in fiscal year 1968 (July 1, 1967, to June 30, 1968), the text includes grants awarded in the areas of research and demonstration. (Part I covers grants in training and construction.) Grants are arranged according to…

  5. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  6. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  7. Managing risks in professional and clinical performance dilemmas: Part II.

    PubMed

    Schwab, N C; Pohlman, K J

    2000-08-01

    The primary purpose of the second article in this 2-part series is to describe and illustrate the use of an analytical framework that may assist school nurses to approach and resolve the dilemmas they may face in practice. Part I of the article was published in the April issue of this journal. It defined the terms "professional performance issue" and "clinical performance issue" and described a 5-step framework for analyzing practice dilemmas related to clinical and performance issues. In this article, the framework will be applied to a specific case scenario involving unsafe staffing and delegation.

  8. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  9. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  10. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  11. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  12. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  13. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  14. Observations on medical device design, Part II: Good practice.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K; Clarkson, J; Bishop, D

    1999-10-01

    Current guidance on design is inadequate. This second article in a two-part series presents a framework for good design practice that attempts to improve designers' awareness of manufacturing and validation issues. Seven design tactics, derived from observations of current industry practice and design literature, seek to encourage good practice and achieve safer, more profitable devices.

  15. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  16. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  17. Report cards: Part II--Providers rating MCOs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J G

    1998-01-01

    Report cards on health plans and on physicians are becoming an increasingly important way of comparing health care quality from the perspective of consumers and the government. In the conclusion of a two-part article, the author suggests another side of the coin: physicians' own rating of health plans to guide their choices in health plan contracting.

  18. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing a Positive Self-Concept. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibrowski, Lee; Slater, Shirley

    This publication supplements an earlier publication, "What Do You Like about Yourself? Developing a Positive Self-Concept" that presented an introduction to self-concept and included activities that could be used with students of all ages. This particular document, divided into two parts, includes additional ideas and activities that relate to…

  20. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  1. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  2. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  3. Brief Internet and NREN Glossary: Part II (M-Z).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the second and final part of a selected glossary of terms commonly used in discussions relating to the Internet and the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include various network names; organizations; acronyms; user interfaces; network research testbeds; various protocols; remote login; and Wide Area Information…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  5. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  6. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  7. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  8. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  9. Diagnosis and local management of breast cancer: part II.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R

    2011-08-01

    This is the second of a two-part conference report and covers the other main themes of the Second Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC) including ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy and therapeutic algorithms for local management of breast cancer. Once again, this report emphasizes conclusions from the consensus sessions that were a key feature of the KBCCC.

  10. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  11. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  12. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  13. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  14. Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vuitton, Dominique A.; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M.; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M.; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S.; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission. PMID:16707064

  15. Dryland pasture and crop conditions as seen by HCMM. [Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D. (Principal Investigator); Harlan, J. C.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The soil moisture difference between the flight lines was partly due to water-holding capacity differences of the two soil types. Fields along the east flight line were in clay; while along the west flight line, the soil was sandy loam which holds less moisture. Due to differences in the amount of green material, the pastures were wetter than the wheat fields. Most of the pastures average from 40-80% green material, while wheat averages from 90-100% green material. A large amount of green material transpired more water and depleted the soil water content faster than dead vegetation. Visicorder data found temperature differences between the rangeland and winter wheat fields. Pasture had a larger percentage of dead material with different thermal properties than live vegetation, and surface temperature was primarily dependent on insolation. Dead material transpired less, but warms up faster than wheat fields.

  16. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  17. Sediment carbon concentration and transport from small pastured watersheds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the current emphasis on the role of carbon in the environment, agricultural systems and their impacts on the carbon cycle are important parts of the overall issue. Pasture systems and carbon that is transported attached to sediment has been addressed at the North Appalachian Experimental Waters...

  18. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  1. Wideband, low-frequency springless vibration energy harvesters: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendame, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Soliman, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    This paper concludes a two-part investigation of a novel architecture for vibration energy harvesting (VEH), the springless VEH. In this part, we study vertical springless electromagnetic VEHs where the direction of motion is aligned with the gravitational field. Experimental results show the existence of three topologies in the response of vertical springless VEHs; linear, single-impact, and double-impact. A model, encompassing all three topologies, was developed and validated by comparison to experimental results. We found that vertical springless VEHs demonstrate low frequency harvesting (<20 Hz), widebeand harvesting (bandwidths up to \\text{BW}=11.2 Hz), and an optimal output power of P  =  7.52 mW at a base acceleration of 0.6 g. While horizontal springless VEHs typically offer more output power, the single-impact regime of the vertical springless VEHs offers the simultaneous advantages of wider harvesting bandwidths at lower operating frequencies.

  2. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jaimie B; Kaur, Ravneet R; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  3. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Treesearch

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  4. Ada Integrated Environment II Computer Program Development Specification. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    No. 6, Part 2, July-August 1978. 18. Rochkind, M. J., The Source Code Control System, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-i, December 1975...TRACT (Continue an, reere side It noleearel and identfir &Y block number) The Ada Integrated Environment (AIE) consists of a set of software tools...intended to support design, development and maintenance of embedded computer software . A significant portion of an AIE includes software systems and

  5. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  6. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  7. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... Accounting Office at such reasonable times and places as may be mutually agreed upon by said...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  1. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  2. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1... certain Reactive Groups. Cargo Groups do not react hazardously with one another. Using the Compatibility...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix II to Part 1042 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  11. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  12. Cancer Chemotherapy: Past, Present, and Future—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer is of major concern today because of its high mortality. It is estimated that 66 million people in this country will eventually develop cancer; 1983 estimates were 855,000 new cases and 440,000 deaths from cancer. Because of limitations of surgery and radiation therapy in effecting a cure for cancer, chemotherapy has become increasingly important. The developments in the chemical control of cancer in man are encouraging. This two-part paper* covers the historical milestones in the development of the chemical and hormonal control of cancer, present successes with the use of polychemotherapy, and the hopeful trend in research. PMID:6492179

  13. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed.

  14. Alkali cold gelation of whey proteins. Part II: Protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2009-05-19

    The effect of the whey protein isolate (WPI) concentration on the sol-gel-sol transition in alkali cold gelation was investigated at pH 11.6-13 using oscillatory rheometry. The elastic modulus increases quickly with time to reach a local maximum (G'max), followed by a degelation step where the modulus decreases to a minimum value (G'min). Depending on the pH, a second gelation step will occur. At the end of the first gelation step around G'max, the system fulfilled the Winter-Chambon criterion of gelation. The analysis of the maximum moduli with the protein concentration shows that (i) there is a percolation concentration above which an elastic response is observed (approximately 6.8 wt %); (ii) there are two concentration regimes for G''max and G''max above this concentration, where we have considered power-law and percolation equations; (iii) there is a crossover concentration between the two regimes (at approximately 8 wt %) for both G'max and G''max when both moduli are equal, and this value is constant under all conditions tested (G'max=G''max approximately 4 Pa). Therefore, alkali cold gelation is better represented using two concentrations regimes than one, as observed for other biopolymers.

  15. Dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solids part II: modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kondiparty, Kirtiprakash; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh

    2012-11-27

    Recent studies on the spreading phenomena of liquid dispersions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) have revealed that the self-layering and two-dimensional structuring of nanoparticles in the three-phase contact region exert structural disjoining pressure, which drives the spreading of nanofluids by forming a continuous wedge film between the liquid (e.g., oil) and solid surface. Motivated by the practical applications of the phenomenon and experimental results reported in Part I of this two-part series, we thoroughly investigated the spreading dynamics of nanofluids against an oil drop on a solid surface. With the Laplace equation as a starting point, the spreading process is modeled by Navier-Stokes equations through the lubrication approach, which considers the structural disjoining pressure, gravity, and van der Waals force. The temporal interface profile and advancing inner contact line velocity of nanofluidic films are analyzed through varying the effective nanoparticle concentration, the outer contact angle, the effective nanoparticle size, and capillary pressure. It is found that a fast and spontaneous advance of the inner contact line movement can be obtained by increasing the nanoparticle concentration, decreasing the nanoparticle size, and/or decreasing the interfacial tension. Once the nanofluidic film is formed, the advancing inner contact line movement reaches a constant velocity, which is independent of the outer contact angle if the interfacial tension is held constant.

  16. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  17. Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.

  18. Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jane M; Barrett, Terry L

    2004-07-01

    A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).

  19. Solar System: Surfing the Edge of Chaos Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Danforth, C. M.

    2008-05-01

    The orbital positions and masses of the Jovian planets are known only to a few parts in 107. At the 2006 DDA meeting in Halifax, I presented results, recently published in Nature Physics and MNRAS, which demonstrated the existence of both chaotic and near-regular orbits within the current observational error volume. In this talk, joint work with Chris Danforth of the University of Vermont, we present results demonstrating extremely rich structure of Lyapunov times within the uncertainty volume across many two-dimensional slices through initial-condition space. These slices include the Cartesian product of every pair of orbital semi-major axes ap, plus Cartesian products between ap and eccentricity ep for each Jovian planet p. Some of the observed structure is reminiscent of Guzzo's "Web of 3-body resonances", although it is not clear that 3-body resonances are the cause in this case since the structure extends several orders of magnitude below the scale at which Murray + Holman's 3-body resonance theory has been explored. Some of the structure is entirely unlike that seen in Guzzo's Web, and may require further theoretical development to understand. Finally, several "zoom-in” plots, reminiscent of those done for the Mandelbrot set, demonstrate that the structure continues down, at least, to scales of about one part in 109. In all cases, we verify the reliability of our integrations using convergence tests to demonstrate that the picture does not change even when the integration timestep is decreased significantly.

  20. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects.

  1. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects. PMID:23730696

  2. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    PubMed

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions.

  3. Modified sprint interval training protocols. Part II. Psychological responses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Logan K; Islam, Hashim; Dunn, Emily; Eys, Mark; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Hazell, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Sprint-interval training (SIT) is a viable method to improve health and fitness. However, researchers have questioned the utility of SIT because of its strenuous nature. The current study aimed to determine if manipulating the sprint and recovery duration, while maintaining the 1:8 work to rest ratio, could uncover a more favourable SIT protocol. Nine healthy active males (age, 23.3 ± 3.0 years; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2); maximal oxygen consumption, 48.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in 3 experimental running SIT sessions: (i) 30:240 (4 × 30-s efforts, 240-s recovery), (ii) 15:120 (8 × 15-s efforts, 120-s recovery), (iii) 5:40 (24 × 5-s efforts, 40-s recovery), and (iv) a final behavioural choice follow-up session. Affect, intentions, task self-efficacy, enjoyment, and preference were evaluated. Midway through exercise, affect became more positive for 5:40 compared with 30:240 (p < 0.05) and postexercise affect was greater for both 5:40 (p = 0.014) and 15:120 (p = 0.015) compared with 30:240. Participants expressed greater intentions to perform 5:40 3 and 5 times/week compared with 15:120 and 30:240 (p < 0.05). Participants felt more confident in their ability to perform 5:40 (p = 0.001) and 15:120 (p = 0.008) compared with 30:240. The 5:40 session was also rated as more enjoyable than 15:120 (p = 0.025) and 30:240 (p = 0.026). All participants preferred the 5:40 protocol. These data suggest that shorter sprints with more repetitions are perceived as more enjoyable and lead to greater intentions to engage in SIT.

  4. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George; Abel, David

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  5. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    PubMed

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  6. Theory of edge radiation. Part II: Advanced applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we exploit a formalism to describe edge radiation, which relies on Fourier optics techniques [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, Theory of edge radiation. Part I: foundations and basic applications, submitted for publication]. First, we apply our method to develop an analytical model to describe edge radiation in the presence of a vacuum chamber. Such model is based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Second, we consider the use of edge radiation as a tool for electron-beam diagnostics. We discuss coherent edge radiation, extraction of edge radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of edge radiation on X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) setups and we discuss recent results.

  7. Solar box-cooker: Part II-analysis and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasi Das, T.C. ); Karmakar, S. ); Rao, D.P. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model proposed in the companion paper (Part I), a method is outlined simulation of the solar box-cookers loaded with one, two, or four vessels. The relative importance of various heat-exchange rates in the cooker were examined. The effect of parameters such as the thickness and size of the absorber plate, emissivity of the vessel, insulation thickness, and cooking time were studied. Cookers of three sizes were simulated to assess their adequacy in cooking. The studies indicate that the black paint on the vessels could be avoided if weathered stainless steel or aluminum vessels are used. The cooker with inner dimensions of 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.1 m[sup 3] was found to be adequate to cook lunch and dinner on a clear day even in the winter months. Experimental studies carried out to obtain the heat-transfer coefficients, required for simulation, are presented.

  8. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Part II: clinical and imaging considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Burns, SH; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA

    1991-01-01

    In this, the second of a two part series, we continue to review the recent literature pertaining to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Caused by the compromise of the spinal canal resulting from the superimposition of spondylotic changes upon a congenitally narrowed canal, CSM has a predictable radiographic and clinical presentation. The clinical presentation frequently includes both upper and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Careful analysis of the plain film images usually reveals a spinal canal measuring 12 mm or less. Additional imaging modalities confirm the diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical and imaging characteristics underlying CSM and stresses the importance of including CSM in the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of neck and leg dysfunctions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  9. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  10. MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART II. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 37, PART 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPEN, ROBERT A.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY DIRECTLY SUPPLEMENTS AND IS INTENDED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF "MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART I." THE RANGE OF SUBJECT MATTER, HOWEVER, GOES FAR BEYOND THE SPECIFIC CONCERNS OF THE FIRST VOLUME, COVERING GENERAL AND SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHIES, UNSIGNED REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, OFFICIAL HISTORIES,…

  11. A Linear Stochastic Dynamical Model of ENSO. Part II: Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. J.; Battisti, D. S.

    2001-02-01

    In this study the behavior of a linear, intermediate model of ENSO is examined under stochastic forcing. The model was developed in a companion paper (Part I) and is derived from the Zebiak-Cane ENSO model. Four variants of the model are used whose stabilities range from slightly damped to moderately damped. Each model is run as a simulation while being perturbed by noise that is uncorrelated (white) in space and time. The statistics of the model output show the moderately damped models to be more realistic than the slightly damped models. The moderately damped models have power spectra that are quantitatively quite similar to observations, and a seasonal pattern of variance that is qualitatively similar to observations. All models produce ENSOs that are phase locked to the annual cycle, and all display the `spring barrier' characteristic in their autocorrelation patterns, though in the models this `barrier' occurs during the summer and is less intense than in the observations (inclusion of nonlinear effects is shown to partially remedy this deficiency). The more realistic models also show a decadal variability in the lagged autocorrelation pattern that is qualitatively similar to observations.Analysis of the models shows that the greatest part of the variability comes from perturbations that project onto the first singular vector, which then grow rapidly into the ENSO mode. Essentially, the model output represents many instances of the ENSO mode, with random phase and amplitude, stimulated by the noise through the optimal transient growth of the singular vectors.The limit of predictability for each model is calculated and it is shown that the more realistic (moderately damped) models have worse potential predictability (9-15 months) than the deterministic chaotic models that have been studied widely in the literature. The predictability limits are strongly correlated with the stability of the models' ENSO mode-the more highly damped models having much shorter

  12. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  13. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  14. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  15. Simulation of Slag Freeze Layer Formation: Part II: Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Fernando J.; Irons, Gordon A.

    2011-08-01

    The experiments from Part I with CaCl2-H2O solidification in a differentially heated, square cavity were simulated in two dimensions using a control volume technique in a fixed grid. The test conditions and physical properties of the fluid resulted in Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range of 50 and 2.1 × 108, respectively, and the solidification was observed to be planar with dispersed solid particles. In the mathematical model, temperature-dependent viscosity and density functions were employed. To suppress velocities in the solid phase, various models were tested, and a high effective viscosity was found most appropriate. The results compare well with the experiments in terms of solid layer growth, horizontal and vertical velocities, heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions. Hydrodynamic boundary layers on the solidified front and on the hot vertical wall tend to be nonsymmetric, as well on the top and bottom adiabatic walls. The high viscosity value imposed on the two-phase zone affects the velocity profile close to the solid front and modifies the heat transfer rate.

  16. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  17. Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Research Summary No. 36-3, Volume I, Part II. Volume I, Part Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  19. Studies in Enrollment Trends and Patterns. Part II--Summer Quarter: 1940-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Calvin F.; Watson, F. Jean

    This is the second part of a report on major facets of institutional change at the University of Washington. Part II is a detailed analysis of Summer Quarter students and covers: class differentials in enrollment trends; trends in undergraduate students by major field and college; trends in graduate and professional students by major field and…

  20. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)

  1. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  2. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  3. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  4. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  5. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  6. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Joshua A.; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  7. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  8. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Barth, A.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Beckert, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present progressive work that is based on our recently developed rapid control prototyping system (RCP), designed for the implementation of high-performance adaptive optical control algorithms using a continuous de-formable mirror (DM). The RCP system, presented in 2014, is resorting to a Xilinx Kintex-7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), placed on a self-developed PCIe card, and installed on a high-performance computer that runs a hard real-time Linux operating system. For this purpose, algorithms for the efficient evaluation of data from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) on an FPGA have been developed. The corresponding analog input and output cards are designed for exploiting the maximum possible performance while not being constrained to a specific DM and control algorithm due to the RCP approach. In this second part of our contribution, we focus on recent results that we achieved with this novel experimental setup. By presenting results which are far superior to the former ones, we further justify the deployment of the RCP system and its required time and resources. We conducted various experiments for revealing the effective performance, i.e. the maximum manageable complexity in the controller design that may be achieved in real-time without performance losses. A detailed analysis of the hidden latencies is carried out, showing that these latencies have been drastically reduced. In addition, a series of concepts relating the evaluation of the wavefront as well as designing and synthesizing a wavefront are thoroughly investigated with the goal to overcome some of the prevalent limitations. Furthermore, principal results regarding the closed-loop performance of the low-speed dynamics of the integrated heater in a DM concept are illustrated in detail; to be combined with the piezo-electric high-speed actuators in the next step

  9. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film.

  10. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Joshua A; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  11. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    PubMed Central

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  12. The intra-uterine device. Part II: technical problems.

    PubMed

    Alexander, I

    1980-10-01

    In discussing the technical problems associated with the IUD, focus is on the basic insertion technique, the technique to use with the various IUDs (Copper 7, Lippes Loop, Copper T models, the Saf-T-coil, and the multiload 250), the timing of the insertion, and removal of the IUD. Bimanual examination of the pelvis must be performed before an IUD is inserted. Prior to starting the insertion, the patient should be given an explanation of what is to be done. As patients are unfamiliar with the appearance of most of the instruments, it is advisable to keep them from view. Having visualized the cervix and fixed the blades of the Cusco speculum in the open position, the cervix can be seized with a single toothed tenaculum or 7 inch Allis forceps. It is generally necessary to steady the cervix with a forcep as it straightens out the canal and uterine flexion. Sounding the uterine cavity will reveal its length and confirm any angulation. On occasion it is impossible to sound the cavity because the internal os is too tight or the endocervical canal has a pinhole external os. Force should be avoided. High fundal placement without perforating the uterus is the objective when inserting any IUD, and this is particularly important with the copper IUDs which depend on a close association of their copper elements to the endometrium. Generally, it is easier to insert a coil towards the end of the period when the cervix is partly dilated and any bleeding that occurs is masked. Insertion following abortion is commonly performed, and encouraging results have been achieved with insertions immediately postpartum. Removal can be done at any time.

  13. Part I: Microscopic description of liquid He II. Part II: Uniformly approximated WKB method as used for the calculation of phase shifts in heavy-ion collision problems

    SciTech Connect

    Suebka, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part I, the excitation spectrum of liquid He II is obtained using the two-body potential consists of a hardcore potential plus an outside attractive potential. The sum of two gaussian potential of Khanna and Das which is similar to the Lennard-Jones potential is chosen as the attractive potential. The t-matrix method due to Brueckner and Sawada is adopted with modifications to replace the interaction potential. The spectrum gives the phonon branch and the roton dip which resemble the excitation spectrum for liquid He II. The temperature dependence of the excitation spectrum enters into calculation through the zero-momentum state occupation number. A better approximation of thermodynamic functions is obtained by extending Landau's theory to the situation where the excitation is a function of temperature as well as of momentum. Our thermodynamic calculations also bear qualitative agreement with measurements on He II as expected.

  14. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  15. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  16. Nurse staffing in a decentralized organization: part II.

    PubMed

    Althaus, J N; Hardyck, N M; Pierce, P B; Rodgers, M S

    1982-04-01

    It must be emphasized that none of the steps described in this planning process emerged overnight. Rather, they were achieved through a process of evolution, sometimes through trial and error, and always with consultation and participation by many members of the hospital nursing staff. Participation by many in the process of planning for a workable staffing system has been essential to its success. Indeed, creative scheduling by the head nurse is possible because of the way in which the system has been organized. The fact that head nurses are responsible for staffing their own units makes it infinitely easier for them to see what they need to make their units operate effectively and efficiently. Creative scheduling includes the possibility of arranging nurses' hours outside the rigid three-shift schedule used by so many hospitals. Many El Camino nurses now report for work at different hours. In addition, the use of flexible work weeks has proven valuable. Some head nurses now allow for a ten-hour, four-day work week; in emergency staffing situations there have, on occasion, been twelve-hour days. Even as this system evolves, it faces change. Just as the requirements for staff cannot be rigid, so must problem solving be flexible and constantly under review. The fact that El Camino believes in constant monitoring of its system is essential to its success. A key philosophical foundation of decentralization is that it must be subject to change. This is no less true in staffing than in other parts of the decentralization structure. By agreeing that change is constant and necessary and that participation is required at all levels of the staffing planning process, we have constructed the outlines of a system that will work in the future as well as it does in the present. Our system centers around the head nurses. It involves their planning; thus it also involves the support of those members of the nursing staff who can provide essential information. But the decisions

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part II

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques

  18. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement

  19. Implementing a predictive modeling program, part II: Use of motivational interviewing in a predictive modeling program.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Jean; Admire, Kaye S

    2005-01-01

    This is the second article of a two-part series about issues encountered in implementing a predictive modeling program. Part I looked at how to effectively implement a program and discussed helpful hints and lessons learned for case managers who are required to change their approach to patients. In Part II, we discuss the readiness to change model, examine the spirit of motivational interviewing and related techniques, and explore how motivational interviewing is different from more traditional interviewing and assessment methods.

  20. Guidelines for clinical engineering programs--Part I: guidelines for electrical isolation; Part II: performance evaluation of clinical engineering programs.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, M

    1980-01-01

    This series presents guidelines for: electrically isolated inputs and outputs; measuring the performance of hospital biomedical engineering programs; evaluating the risk of electric shock in hospitals; and for isolated power in anesthetizing locations. In Part I, specific recommendations are given for the use of insulated approach, battery-powered monitors in surgery, and for isolation requirements for devices connected to cardiac leads. In Part II, checklists are provided for the self-evaluation of an in-house, biomedical engineering staff. Parts III and IV, in future issues of this Journal, will include discussion of the theoretical electrical hazard potential in reference to the use of isolated power systems. The question of whether isolated power should be required in all anesthetizing locations will be discussed in Part IV.

  1. On Idiosyncratic Systems. Part I. Idiosyncratic Systems. Part II. On Being Creative with Computer Aided Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-31

    Catholic, good singer, vowel at the end of his name , likes pasta and red wine . Traversing this continuum has the intriguing property of reordering...feeling of transcendence , an aesthetic pleasure , or a good laugh. While one is 1101 Steven Coons, Computer graphics, initrodu ctionu . no less...a t i v - ’ - t , cL l e m s i - i - aesthetics , vol. 10, January 1970, 58—70. ‘.- i : i c~~, I:i tertia t nos ,ri l__liOirt:al ob ts:t,”tsa

  2. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  3. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  4. Factors Related to the Pronunciation of Vowel Clusters. Part II (of 3 Parts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.

    Children's pronunciations of vowel clusters in synthetic words were analyzed in relation to common English words containing the same vowel clusters. Subjects were 436 elementary students of both high and low reading levels from a suburban, an urban, and a rural community. Conclusions of the study, reported in Part 2, were (1) pronunciations more…

  5. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  6. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  7. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  8. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1993-94, Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1993-94. Part I covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes,…

  9. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  10. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  11. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  12. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  13. More Stable Productivity of Semi Natural Grasslands than Sown Pastures in a Seasonally Dry Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M.; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures. PMID:22590506

  14. More stable productivity of semi natural grasslands than sown pastures in a seasonally dry climate.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures.

  15. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

  16. Effect of Afforestation and Reforestation of Pastures on the Activity and Population Dynamics of Methanotrophic Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Tate, Kevin R.; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B.; Macdonald, Catriona A.; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J. Colin

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils. PMID:17574997

  17. Health care technology assessment: implications for modern medical practice. Part II. Decision making on technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Read G; Bozic, Kevin J; Hall, Bruce Lee; Breivis, James

    2007-02-01

    Health care technology assessment, the multidisciplinary evaluation of clinical and economic aspects of technology, has come to have an increasingly important role in health policy and clinical decision-making. In Part I--Understanding Technology Adoption and Analyses--this review addressed the difficult challenges posed by assessment and provided a guide to the methodologies used. Part II presents the factors that drive the technology choices made by patients, by individual physicians, by provider groups, and by hospital administrators.

  18. Models and the dynamics of theory-building in physics. Part II-Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emch, Gérard G.

    In Part I, it was argued that models are best explained by considering the strategies from which they issue. A distinction was proposed between two classes of modeling that contribute to theory-building: H-modeling and L-modeling. Case studies are presented in this Part II to illustrate the characteristic features of these modeling strategies; examples are drawn from classical statistical mechanics and quantum physics.

  19. A Study to Determine the Optimal Frequency for Conducting Periodic Dental Examinations, Recruit Needs. Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    HEALTH CARE STUDIES DIVISION REPORT #80-004 A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL FREQUENCY FOR CONDUCTING PERIODIC DENTAL EXAMINATIONS RECRUIT NEEDS (Part...CONDUCTING PERIODIC DENTAL EXAMINATIONS - RECRUIT July 1979 to June 1980 NEEDS PART II G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT...KEY WORDS (Continue an reveree side if neceeary end Identify by block number) Dental ; Recruits; Care needs; Treatment Time; Age; Oral health 2a *srhA&T

  20. Biology--Chemistry--Physics, Students' Guide, A Three-Year Sequence, Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Arthur; And Others

    Parts I and II of the students' guide to the three-year integrated biology, chemistry, and physics course being prepared by the Portland Project Committee are contained in this guide. A committee reviewed and selected material developed by the national course improvement groups--Physical Science Study Committee, Chemical Bond Approach, Chemical…

  1. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  2. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  3. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  4. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    PubMed

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  5. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  6. 48 CFR 15.204-3 - Part II-Contract Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part II-Contract Clauses. 15.204-3 Section 15.204-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... uniform contract format. An index may be inserted if this section's format is particularly complex. ...

  7. 48 CFR 15.204-3 - Part II-Contract Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part II-Contract Clauses. 15.204-3 Section 15.204-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... uniform contract format. An index may be inserted if this section's format is particularly complex. ...

  8. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  9. Thermoelectric Properties of Pristine and Doped Graphene Nanosheets and Graphene Nanoribbons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muley, Sarang V.; Ravindra, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    In Part II of this study, approaches to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) of graphene nanosheets and nanoribbons is discussed. The presence of vacancies in graphene is found to increase the ZT of zigzag graphene nanoribbons significantly. Graphene can be a promising material with much better thermoelectric performance than conventional thermoelectrics.

  10. Coupled ADCIRC Model Systems Part I: HYCOM/ADCIRC Part II: HLRDHM/SWAN/ADCIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolar, R. L.; Dresback, K. M.; Blain, C. A.; Luettich, R.; Cooten, S. V.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Szpilka, C.; Nemunaitis, K.; Szpilka, A.

    2010-12-01

    ADCIRC (Advanced CIRCulation) is a 2D/3D hydrodynamic model based on the St. Venant equations subject to the standard Boussinesq approximation; applications over its 20-year history range from predicting the effects of coastal dredging to developing a tidal database to estimating the extent of hurricane storm surge inundation. In order to extend the capabilities of ADCIRC and improve its predictive ability in these and other applications, the development team has been coupling ADCIRC to other models, either dynamically or one-way, depending on the physics of the problem. Herein, we discuss two such coupled systems. In the first, 3D baroclinic ADCIRC is coupled to the regional HYCOM model. The work is motivated by our interest in using an unstructured, high resolution, near-coastal model to capture the complex fluid dynamics that occurs in topographically-challenging regions. Specifically, this presentation will summarize the procedures as applied to the coupled HYCOM/ADCIRC system in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In the second part of the presentation, 2D ADCIRC is dynamically coupled to the SWAN wave model, and the HLRDHM hydrologic model provides fresh water inflows for major rivers and tributaries. The objective of this work is to generate a more holistic description of coastal flooding due to the combined effects of hurricane storm surge and upland runoff. Furthermore, it addresses NOAA’s call for a “total water level” prediction system. Initially, it is being tested on the Tar-Neuse-Pamlico Sound basin in North Carolina; preliminary results from Hurricane Isabel hindcasts will be shown. Hurricane Isabel significant wave heights (m) and wind vectors (m/s) at 1600 UTC 18 September 2003 for the coastal regions of North Carolina using the coupled HLRDHM/SWAN/ADCIRC system.

  11. Advantages of pasture-based milk products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has focused on determining the biologically active compounds naturally occurring in milk from pasture-fed cows and evaluating the impact of processing on these compounds. This research addresses one of the critical goals of the Northeast Pasture Consortium to “summarize conjugated li...

  12. The Basket Method for Selecting Balanced Samples. Part II. Applications to Price Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AD-AI12 949 CLEMSON UNIV SC OEPT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES F/B 12/1 THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES. PART 11. APPL-ETC(U) DEC SI K T...1111󈧝 1.4 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHARTNN’( 4~ THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES - PART II: APPLICATIONS TO PRICE ESTIMATION * K...for Selecting Balanced Samples Part I: Applications to Price Estimation AB9TRACT The "Basket Method" of sampling, a tool designed to achieve

  13. In vitro performance of Class I and II composite restorations: a literature review on nondestructive laboratory trials--part II.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Argente, A; Krejci, I; Mandikos, M

    2013-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on adhesive Class I and II restorations and nondestructive in vitro tests using the PubMed/Medline database for the 1995-2010 period. The first part of this review has presented and critically appraised selected literature dealing with the quality and in vitro behavior of adhesive Class II restorations using photoelasticity, finite element analysis, and microleakage study protocols. This second part reviews additional parameters, which are deformation and fracture resistance to cyclic loading, shrinkage stress and tooth deformation following restoration placement, bond strength (microtensile, tensile, and shear tests), and marginal and internal adaptation. In addition, a "relevance score" has been proposed that aims to classify the different study protocols according, firstly, to the resulting quality, quantity, and consistency of the evidence and then, secondly, to their potential clinical relevance, as estimated by their ability to simulate oral and biomechanical strains. The highest clinical relevance was attributed to marginal and internal adaptation studies, following cyclic loading in a moist environement. However, a combination of in vitro protocols will have an even greater predictive potential and has to be considered as a crucial preclinical research approach with which to investigate the numerous restorative configurations that cannot be efficiently and rapidly tested in vivo.

  14. C storage in Amazonia pastures, effects of age, climate and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja; Stahl, Clement; Blanfort, Vincent; Fontaine, Sebstien; Burban, Benoit; Darsonville, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Amazonian region is one of the major C storing areas, with 36-60% of ecosystem C being stored in forest soils. During last decades, more than 15% of Amazonian tropical forest has been converted to pastures. A number of studies provide evidence that soil C stocks of topsoil (0-20 cm) can be higher in grasslands than in native forests after more than 20 years after conversion (e.g. Don et al 2011). As for younger pastures (< 20 years old), results are less evident, showing either an increase or decrease of in topsoil C stock. The absence of a clear pattern was mostly explained due to conjoined changes following deforestation, such as climate conditions and pasture management. Accordingly, the question remains whether tropical permanent pastures can restore soil C stocks after deforestation and what is the capacity of tropical pastures to initiate a recurrent C storage. Pastures are largely affected by agricultural practices, influencing their carbon balance, in interaction with climate effect. In the past 10 years two major droughts (in 2005 and 2010 [2]) were reported for the Amazonian area. A better insight on effects of climatic variability and agricultural management on carbon storage is, thus, valuable to improve/maintain C storage of pastures in tropical regions. Here we like to assess whether tropical permanent pastures i) can restore soil C stocks after deforestation; ii) and to what extend and iii) which role play management practices with respect to climate variability to maintain a recurrent C storage. To establish reliable estimates of soil C storage in Amazonian region, the net C balance of pastures and native forests was quantified by two independent and complementary studies in French Guiana: a chronosequence study including a soil inventory of soil C stocks (0-100 cm depth) in 24 pastures of various ages (i.e. 0 to 42 yrs after deforestation) and 4 native forests, and 5 years of eddy covariance flux measurements (EC) for a young intensively used

  15. Confirming the validity of Part II of the National Board Dental Examinations: a practice analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Gene A; Neumann, Laura M

    2003-12-01

    Successful completion of Part II of the National Board Dental Examinations is a part of the licensure process for dentists. Good testing practice requires that the content of a high stakes examination like Part II be based on a strong relationship between the content and the judgments of practicing dentists on what is important to their practice of dentistry. In an effort to demonstrate this relationship for Part II, the Joint Commission conducted a practice analysis, which involved a two-dimensional model. The sixty-three Competencies of the New Dentist, developed and promulgated by the American Dental Education Association, were used for one dimension, and the current content specifications were used for the other. A survey of 520 practicing dentists was conducted to determine the importance of each of the competencies for patient care. These dentists were recent graduates of accredited programs and passed Part II three to five years prior to the conduct of the practice analysis. The survey directed the respondents to rate the importance of the competencies on a scale from 1 to 5. Of the 520 in the sample, 244 dentists responded. The reliability index was above 0.90. The importance rating for each competency was translated into the associated number of items. The number of items devoted to each competency was allocated to the current content elements that are related to the knowledge and problem-solving skills that support each competency. The findings specified revisions in the relative number of items dedicated to the various elements in the specifications. These findings indicate that the items on the examination under the current distribution adequately reflected practice. In general, there were relatively small changes in the content specifications. The total number of changes in items was forty-eight, which represents changes in slightly less than 10 percent of the overall number of items.

  16. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  17. Part I. The fire properties of polymer clay nanocomposites. Part II. Thermal rearrangement of donor-acceptor substituted cyclopropanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shengpei

    2003-08-01

    This work consists of two parts. Part I, which includes chapter 1--5, is focused on the fire properties of nanocomposites while part II deals with thermal rearrangement of the donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. In chapter 1 of the first part an introduction to the preparation of polymer-clay nanocomposites is provided along with their application to fire retardancy. Chapter 2 details the exfoliation process of clay using in situ polymerization; the results show that the exfoliation process is related to the monomer, the modified clay and the initiator. Chapter 3 concentrates on the preparation of nanocomposites by melt blending with polymer modified clays. Three different polymer modified clays (PS, PMMA and PBD modified clay) and six polymers (PS, HIPS, ABS, PMMA, PP and PE) are reported. The morphology, thermal stability, fire behavior and mechanical properties were studied. This research shows that the exfoliation process by melt blending is controlled by the types of interactions between the various polymers, the silicate surfaces and the organic modifier. The combination of polar polymer matrix and non-polar polymer modified clay with large d-spacing will be more likely to give the exfoliated nanocomposites. TGA-FTIR results show that the mechanism of degradation of polystyrene is changed in the presence of the clay. In order to better understand the effects of the organic modifier, PS surfactants with five different pendant groups, dimethylhexadecylamine, trimethylamine, dimethylbenzylamine, 1,2-dimethylimidizole and triphenylphosphine, were used and the results show that the degradation depends upon the pendant. Chapter 5 provides some suggestions for future work based upon this work. The synthesis of several new and previously reported donor-acceptor cyclopropanes is reported in part II. The study shows that the facility of the donor-acceptor cyclopropane ring cleavage is strongly influenced by the kind of activating substitutes on the cyclopropane ring, and the

  18. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Intervention in Older Persons with Acute Coronary Syndrome—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Brett C.; Stearns, Sally C.; Massing, Mark W.; Stouffer, George A.; D’Arcy, Laura P.; Carey, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part article on treatment of acute coronary syndrome in the older population. Part I (published in the October issue of Clinical Geriatrics) analyzed the differential utilization of invasive therapies with respect to age and heart disease. Part II summarizes information from the literature on acute coronary syndrome outcomes from invasive treatments (percutaneous coronary interventions or coronary artery bypass grafting) among older persons. PMID:20607092

  19. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, J; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  20. Paleotectonic investigations of the Mississippian System in the United States: Parts I and II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Lawrence C.; Connor, Carol Waite; Others,

    1979-01-01

    This professional paper is the fifth in a series of paleotectonic studies each covering a geologic system in the conterminous United States. Part I provides a region-by-region discussion of data concerning the Mississippian System and an explanation and documentation for the maps and sections contained in part III. Part II of the paper provides a summary of the Mississippian System, presents interregional interpretations permitted by this study, and includes sections on notable features of the system. The maps contained in the separate case as part III may be divided into two groups: (1) a sequence of factual or basic maps that shows, with a minimum of interpretation, the Mississippian System as it occurs today, and (2) interpretive maps that attempt a reasonable reconstruction of the original extent of the system, its tectonics, environment, and geography.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  6. The structure and interpretation of cosmology: Part II. The concept of creation in inflation and quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Gordon

    The purpose of the paper, of which this is part II, is to review, clarify, and critically analyse modern mathematical cosmology. The emphasis is upon mathematical objects and structures, rather than numerical computations. Part II provides a critical analysis of inflationary cosmology and quantum cosmology, with particular attention to the claims made that these theories can explain the creation of the universe.

  7. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  8. DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2006-08-17

    Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I discussed the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

  9. Patient safety in procedural dermatology: Part II. Safety related to cosmetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Lolis, Margarita; Dunbar, Scott W; Goldberg, David J; Hansen, Timothy J; MacFarlane, Deborah F

    2015-07-01

    Cosmetic procedures are growing in popularity and are associated with unique risks. Considering potential complications and prioritizing patient safety will help practitioners improve outcomes of elective procedures. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we provide a comprehensive review of patient safety in cosmetic procedures, including medical and legal issues surrounding the supervision and training of physician extenders. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting performance on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam Part II.

    PubMed

    Woloschuk, Wayne; McLaughlin, Kevin; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Being able to predict which residents will likely be unsuccessful on high-stakes exams would allow residency programs to provide early intervention. To determine whether measures of clinical performance in clerkship (in-training evaluation reports) and first year of residency (program director ratings) predict pass-fail performance on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam Part II (MCCQE Part II). Residency program directors assessed the performance of our medical school graduates (Classes 2004-2007) at the end of the 1st postgraduate year. We subsequently collected clerkship in-training evaluation reports for these graduates. Using a neutral third party and unique codes, an anonymous dataset containing clerkship, residency, and MCCQE Part II performance scores was created for our use. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, receiver operating characteristics, and the Youdin index. Regression was also performed to further study the relationship among the variables. Complete data were available for 78.6% of the graduates. Of these participants, 94% passed the licensing exam on their first attempt. Receiver operating characteristics revealed that the area under the curve for clerkship in-training evaluation reports was 0.67 (p<.05) and 0.66 (p<.05) for residency program directors assessments. Corresponding Youdin indices for in-training evaluation reports and residency program director assessments were 0.30 and 0.23, respectively. Although clerkship in-training evaluation reports and residency program director ratings are significant predictors of pass-fail performance on the MCCQE Part II, the effectiveness of each one to predict pass-fail performance was relatively small. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  11. Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process. Phase II. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    RD-A154 613 RECRUITMENT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM AND ACCESSION i/7 CONTINGENCY PLANNING PROCE..(U) ECONOMIC RESEARCH LAB INC RESTON YA L GOLDBERG ET AL...11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process Phase II, Part 1 Final Report...GROUP Early Warning System, Forecasting, Manpower Planning LV &V WA&Vm 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block ny.1ber

  12. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  13. Can focusing on UPDRS Part II make assessments of Parkinson disease progression more efficient?

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Harrison et al. have attempted to validate Part II of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II) as a medication-independent measure of disease progression. The authors collected cross-sectional data from a cohort of 888 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, and they found a robust association between UPDRS II scores and disease duration. Other variables considered were the patients' levodopa status, age at disease onset, and scores on UPDRS I, II and III. The results suggest that a single UPDRS II measurement might be a good indicator of progression at a given time point, irrespective of the current disease-related circumstances. This concept is attractive in its simplicity and patient-centeredness. However, this evidence came from a single-center, retrospective study, the statistical model was constructed using a nonvalidated surrogate as an independent variable, and no external replication was conducted. Until further confirmation, therefore, Harrison et al.'s proposal can only be considered to be a working hypothesis.

  14. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  15. Validity of NBME Parts I and II for the Selection of Residents: The Case of Orthopaedic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Susan M.

    The predictive validity of scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I and Part II examinations for the selection of residents in orthopaedic surgery was investigated. Use of NBME scores has been criticized because of the time lag between taking Part I and entering residency and because Part I content is not directly linked to…

  16. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  17. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Composition and aroma compounds of Ragusano cheese: native pasture and total mixed rations.

    PubMed

    Carpino, S; Mallia, S; La Terra, S; Melilli, C; Licitra, G; Acree, T E; Barbano, D M; Van Soest, P J

    2004-04-01

    Raw milk from 13 cows fed TMR supplemented with native pasture and from 13 cows fed only TMR on one farm was collected separately 4 times with an interval of 15 d between collections. Two blocks (14 kg each) of cheese were made from each milk. The objective was to determine the influence of consumption of native plants in Sicilian pastures on the aroma compounds present in Ragusano cheese. Milk from cows that consumed native pasture plants produced cheeses with more odor-active compounds. In 4-mo-old cheese made from milk of pasture-fed cows, 27 odor-active compounds were identified, whereas only 13 were detected in cheese made from milk of total mixed ration-fed cows. The pasture cheeses were much more rich in odor-active aldehyde, ester, and terpenoid compounds than cheeses from cows fed only total mixed ration. A total of 8 unique aroma-active compounds (i.e., not reported in other cheeses evaluated by gas chromatography olfactory) were detected in Ragusano cheese made from milk from cows consuming native Sicilian pasture plants. These compounds were 2 aldehydes ([E,E]-2,4-octadienal and dodecanal), 2 esters (geranyl acetate and [E]-methyl jasmonate), 1 sulfur compound (methionol), and 3 terpenoid compounds (1-carvone, L(-) carvone, and citronellol). Geranyl acetate and (E)-methyl jasmonate were particularly interesting because these compounds are released from fresh plants as they are being damaged and are part of a possible plant defense mechanism against damage from insects. Most of the odor-active compounds that were unique in Ragusano cheese from pasture-fed cows appeared to be compounds created by oxidation processes in the plants that may have occurred during foraging and ingestion by the cow. Some odor-active compounds were consistently present in pasture cheeses that were not detected in the total mixed ration cheeses or in the 14 species of pasture plants analyzed. Either these compounds were present in other plants not analyzed, created in the rumen

  19. Enhancing the profitability of pasture-based dairy production in the humid tropics through improved nutrition.

    PubMed

    van Houtert, M F; Sykes, A R

    1999-01-27

    Dairy production in the tropics represents a major challenge, especially when reliant on grazed forages, because of the conflicting factors of a high nutritional demand to sustain lactation on the one hand, and the relatively low quality of tropical grasses and a stressful environment, on the other. This paper focuses primarily on those tropical situations where grazed pasture is the cheapest feed resource. Effective management of the pasture as well as the animals that graze it is required in order to maximize economic viability of the farming enterprise. Feed planning helps to ensure that pasture use is maximized, either directly by grazing or, where profitable, indirectly by cutting for conservation. High rates of pasture utilization at each grazing minimize pasture senescence and decay and ensure that pasture remains in a vegetative state of the highest possible nutritional quality. Total annual feed requirements of the grazing herd must therefore be matched as closely as possible to the total annual pasture production on the farm. Stocking rate is critical in this regard, and is the single most important determinant of productivity in pastoral farming. Periods of pasture surplus or deficit will inevitably arise, but can be minimized by matching the monthly feed requirements of the herd as closely as possible to the monthly feed production on the farm. Herd requirements can be influenced, for example, through altering calving patterns and drying off dates. Even with good pasture management practices, it is highly likely that tropical pasture quality will be low for part of the year. Utilization of low-quality forages can be improved through the appropriate use of feed supplements, and the key principles are discussed. Firstly, conditions for optimum fermentative digestion in the rumen must be promoted through adequate provision of fermentable energy and nitrogen as well as essential minerals, such as phosphorus and sulfur. Further supplementation with

  20. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  1. Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads—Part II: Unknown Parameters and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-03-01

    This two-part paper considers the coordination of a population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) with unknown parameters to achieve group objectives. The problem involves designing the bidding and market clearing strategy to motivate self-interested users to realize efficient energy allocation subject to a peak power constraint. The companion paper (Part I) formulates the problem and proposes a load coordination framework using the mechanism design approach. To address the unknown parameters, Part II of this paper presents a joint state and parameter estimation framework based on the expectation maximization algorithm. The overall framework is then validated using real-world weather data and price data, and is compared with other approaches in terms of aggregated power response. Simulation results indicate that our coordination framework can effectively improve the efficiency of the power grid operations and reduce power congestion at key times.

  2. Three generations of zirconia: 
From veneered to monolithic. Part II.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Keul, Christin; Eichberger, Marlis; Figge, David; Edelhoff, Daniel; Lümkemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the historical development of the different generations of zirconia and their range of indications, from veneered to monolithic zirconia restorations. While Part I concentrated on detailed information about the development of zirconia for dental use and the mechanical and optical properties, Part II deals with the resulting guidelines for working with the relevant generations by summarizing the correct cementation procedure. Furthermore, this part also focuses on translucency measurements for better characterization and understanding of the different materials. The results obtained from measuring light transmission and contrast ratio are compared and discussed in detail, with the aid of clinical photographs. Finally, the reader is given practice-relevant recommendations for different areas of clinical use of the zirconia generations along with advice on how to process them appropriately.

  3. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; ...

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  4. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  5. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  6. PREFACE: Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reyer

    2009-03-01

    This Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series forms Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. Part II contains the papers of short oral and poster presentations. In addition, it provides general information about the LT25 conference, such as a Report from the Organizers, an Activity Report to the IUPAP of the C5 Chairs, an overview of Committees, Sponsors and Exhibitors, and some Conference Statistics. Part I of the Proceedings of LT25 is a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. It contains the majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London Prize Lectures, the IUPAP Young Scientist Award Lectures, the Plenary and Half Plenary and Public Lectures, and the Historical Lectures presented at the conference excursion to Leiden. The JPCM LT25 special issue is available for free for a period of one year from publication (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter). To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series, every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The Editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and with the reviewing of the 900 papers appearing in Parts I and II of these Proceedings. In particular, we like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, and Fons de Waele. Guest Editors Peter Kes and Reijer Jochemsen Leiden University, The Netherlands Conference logo

  7. On waves in gases. Part II: Interaction of sound with magnetic and internal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.

    1987-04-01

    This work completes a two-part review on waves in gases, of which the first part

    [Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 117 (1986)]
    dealt with the modern aspects of acoustics of jets, turbulence, and ducts; this second part extends the range of topics from sound to magnetic, internal, and (to a lesser extent) inertial waves, thus considering all four restoring forces (pressure, gravity, and Lorentz and Coriolis forces). The motivations for the study of these waves were outlined in the introduction to Part I. Part II reviews the coupling of acoustic, magnetic, and internal waves, in four stages: in Sec. I dispersion relations are used to study the propagation and radiation of magneto-acoustic-gravity-inertial waves in media for which the wave speeds and scattering scales are constant; in Sec. II the case of linear waves in stratified media, with nonuniform propagation velocity, is then discussed by means of special functions, appearing as exact solutions of second-order problems; in Sec. III the study of linear waves with variable propagation speeds is extended to certain classes of higher-order problems including a discussion of cutoff frequencies, critical levels, partition of energy, mode coupling and conversion, etc; in Sec. IV the preceding studies are extended to damped and nonlinear waves, to include dissipation with variable damping scales and large disturbances in media under nonuniform external forces, such as magnetic flux tubes. The conclusion (Sec. V) sums up both parts of the review, in the sense that it deals with all types of waves in fluids; it mentions a few currently controversial topics, points out some directions for future research, and indicates methods available to address these issues.

  8. Part I - Viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria Part II - Effects of body elasticity on stability of fish motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu

    2011-12-01

    Vortex dynamics and solid-fluid interactions are two of the most important and most studied topics in fluid dynamics for their relevance to a wide range of applications from geophysical flows to locomotion in moving fluids. In this work, we investigate two problems in two parts: Part I studies the viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria; Part II studies the effects of body elasticity on the passive stability of submerged bodies. In Part I, we describe the viscous evolution of point vortex configurations that, in the absence of viscosity, are in a state of fixed or relative equilibrium. In particular, we examine four cases, three of them correspond to relative equilibria in the inviscid point vortex model and one corresponds to a fixed equilibrium. Our goal is to elucidate the dominant transient dynamical features of the flow. A multi-Gaussian "core growing" type of model is typically used in high fidelity numerical simulations, but we propose to implement it as a low-order model for the flow field. We show that all four configurations immediately begin to rotate unsteadily. We then examine in detail the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the structures as they evolve, and for each case show the sequence of topological bifurcations that occur both in a fixed reference frame, and in an appropriately chosen rotating reference frame. Comparisons between the cases help to reveal different features of the viscous evolution for short and intermediate time scales of vortex structures. We examine the dynamical evolution of passive particles in the viscously evolving flows and interpret it in relation to the evolving streamline patterns. Although the low-order multi-Gaussian model does not exactly coincide with the Navier-Stokes solution, the two results show remarkable resemblances in many aspects. In Part II, we examine the effects of body geometry and elasticity on the passive stability of motion in a perfect fluid. Our main motivation is to understand the

  9. A pre-partum lift in ewe nutrition from a high-energy lick or maize or by grazing Lotus uliginosus pasture, increases colostrum production and lamb survival.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

    2009-08-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that a lift in the nutrition of ewes, before lambing, to increase colostrum production would enhance lamb survival. In all, 261 mature Corriedale ewes, each with a single fetus from a synchronised mating, grazed native pasture to day 130 after mating; at which point they were weighed, condition scored and allocated to graze either native pasture or a pasture dominant with Lotus uliginosus. Five days later (14 days before the expected start of lambing) the ewes were allocated to one of four treatments and fed: (i) native pasture alone, (ii) native pasture plus a commercial high-energy lick, (iii) L. uliginosus pasture alone or (iv) L. uliginosus pasture plus whole maize. The weight, viscosity and concentration of components and immunoglobulin G in the colostrum that had accumulated at parturition, were measured for 10 ewes in each treatment. The lambs that survived to 20 days of age from the 221 ewes that were not milked, were recorded. The ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain and those that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone accumulated two to three times more colostrum at birth than the ewes that grazed native pasture alone (396, 635 and 662 g v. 206 g; P < 0.01). The colostrum from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was more viscous (lower score) than that from the ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain or the ewes that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone (scores of 4.1 v. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.4, P < 0.001) and, not surprisingly, the concentration of lactose in the colostrum of the ewes fed only native pasture was also much lower (1.1% v. 3.0%, 2.8% and 2.6%; P < 0.001)he survival of lambs from the ewes fed only native pasture was less than that of the lambs from ewes fed native pasture plus the commercial lick (81.8% v. 95.5%; P < 0.05) or the L. uliginosus pasture alone (92.4%, P < 0.05), and also tended to be lower than that for lambs born to ewes fed L. uliginosus pasture plus maize (91.8%, P = 0

  10. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  11. PHOTOMETRY OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF THE ALL SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Edward G.; Hemen, Brian; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: bhemen1@bigred.unl.edu E-mail: lthacke1@bigred.unl.edu

    2009-06-15

    We have obtained VR photometry of 282 Cepheid variable star candidates from the northern part of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). These together with data from the ASAS and the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) were used to redetermine the periods of the stars. We divided the stars into four groups based on location in a plot of mean color, (V-R), versus period. Two of the groups fell within the region of the diagram containing known type II Cepheids and yielded 14 new highly probable type II Cepheids. The properties of the remaining stars in these two groups are discussed but their nature remains uncertain. Unexplained differences exist between the sample of stars studied here and a previous sample drawn from the NSVS by Akerlof et al. This suggests serious biases in the identification of variables in different surveys.

  12. REINFORCEMENT IN CLASSROOM LEARNING. PART II, STUDIES OF REINFORCEMENT IN SIMULATED CLASSROOM SITUATIONS. PART III, IDENTIFICATION OF REINFORCERS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRAVERS, ROBERT M.W.; AND OTHERS

    REINFORCEMENT CONCEPTS DERIVED LARGELY FROM RESEARCH OF SUBHUMAN SUBJECTS WERE TESTED FOR APPLICABILITY TO HUMAN-LEARNING SITUATIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE THAT OCCUR IN SCHOOLS. A SERIES OF EXPLORATORY STUDIES CONDUCTED IS DESCRIBED IN PART II OF THIS REPORT. IN PART III, TWO EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE REINFORCING VALUE OF DIFFERENT STIMULI…

  13. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  14. Linking pasture and animal processes Let’s allocate the pasture in the afternoon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research conducted in Argentina, US, Australia and Europe has shown significant variations in chemical composition of pasture throughout the day, which results in an increase in pasture digestibility and energy concentration as the day progresses. Cattle have adapted their grazing patterns during th...

  15. PA impairment due to HIV infection. Part II: Building a professional support network. Forum.

    PubMed

    Behar, M; Bogstad, J R; Gage, L; James, D A; Mott, J S

    1989-11-01

    Several members of the AAPA's Lesbian and Gay Physician Assistants Caucus who participated in the roundtable PAs and HIV-Antibody Testing: The Need for Guidelines When the Practitioner Is at Risk (1989;13[5]:146-158) met with members of the 12-Step/Caduceus Caucus to begin developing a cooperative effort to assist PAs who test positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus, and to explore other HIV-associated impairment issues. Part II focuses on concerns of the provider who is HIV-antibody positive as well as ways PA groups can cooperate to raise the profession's conciousness further and recommend guidelines and policy.

  16. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part II: validation and application.

    PubMed

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, that has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, the framework for BDFT analysis, as presented in Part I of this dual publication, is validated and applied. The goal of this framework is twofold. First of all, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in BDFT literature. Secondly, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. Using recently obtained measurement data, parts of the framework that were not already addressed elsewhere, are validated. As an example of a practical application of the framework, it will be demonstrated how the effects of control device dynamics on BDFT can be understood and accurately predicted. Other ways of employing the framework are illustrated by interpreting the results of three selected studies from the literature using the BDFT framework. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part II, addresses the validation and application of the framework. Part I, which is also published in this journal issue, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  17. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  18. Part I. Inviscid, Swirling Flows and Vortex Breakdown. Part II. a Numerical Investigation of the Lundgren Turbulence Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntine, James Douglas

    Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time -independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters (both pipe inlet conditions and geometry) does a (unique) solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A "quasi-cylindrical" simplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. "Criticality" or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi -cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between "failure" of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a "critical" flow state. Other criteria for predicting the onset of vortex breakdown are considered in the context of the model employed, particularly those of Brown & Lopez and Spall, Gatski & Grosch. Part II. Lundgren (1982) developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin & Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the

  19. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented.

  20. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremliovsky, Michael; Kadtke, James

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes.

  1. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    PubMed

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  2. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  3. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience. Part II: Ceramic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Makenas, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is Part II of a review focusing on the United States experience with oxide, carbide, and nitride fast reactor fuel fabrication. Over 60 years of research in fuel fabrication by government, national laboratories, industry, and academia has culminated in a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate these fuel types. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies in the United States for each of these fuel types, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  4. Patient variation in veterinary medicine--part II--influence of physiological variables.

    PubMed

    Modric, S; Martinez, M

    2011-06-01

    In veterinary medicine, the characterization of a drug's pharmacokinetic properties is generally based upon data that are derived from studies that employ small groups of young healthy animals, often of a single breed. In Part I of the series, we focused on the potential influence of disease processes, stress, pregnancy and lactation on drug pharmacokinetics. In this Part II of the series, we consider other covariates, such as gender, heritable traits, age, body composition, and circadian rhythms. The impact of these factors with respect to predicting the relationship between dose and drug exposure characteristics within an animal population is illustrated through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Ultimately, an appreciation of these potential influences will improve the prediction of situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  6. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  7. Investigational drug tracking: phases I-III and NDA submissions--Part II.

    PubMed

    Grant, K L

    1994-10-01

    The author catalogs over 800 investigational drugs/biologicals currently in Phase I, II or III clinical trials or drugs/biologicals submitted to the FDA as new drug applications. Part I of this article appeared in the September issue of Hospital Pharmacy. The list assists in predicting when new drugs will be marketed. The entries include generic/chemical name, investigational drug number, synonyms, trade names, manufacturers, clinical trial status, predicted approval year, indications or drug class, whether the drug has been developed through biotechnology, and references. Entries were gleaned from medical journals, stock market analysis publications, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association's Medicines in Development Series. The list is alphabetized by the generic/chemical name or investigational drug number and cross-indexed by the trade name and synonyms. The list reflects those drugs which were not FDA approved as of April 15, 1994. Part I concludes with the remaining alphabetical listing by generic/chemical name or investigational drug number.

  8. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremliovsky, M.; Kadtke, J.

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Investigations about Starting Cracks in DC-Casting of 6063-Type Billets Part II: Modelling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. K.; Schneider, W.

    Influence on starting crack tendency of varying a number of casting parameters has been studied by experiments, Part I (1), and by model calculations, Part II. Both studies point to starting block shape as a most important single factor in controlling starting cracks. By using the thermal model ALSIM-2 in analysing initial experimental results, the variable heat transfer towards the starting block was determined. This made possible a satisfactory model analysis of the starting phase and likewise the formulation of a useful cracking concept. Thus by using calculated and measured liquid pool depth curve in the starting phase of casting as a basis, an effective starting block shape was found. This new shape practically eliminates the starting crack problems in extrusion billets of the AA6063 type alloys.

  10. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  11. Microarchitectured solid oxide fuel cells with improved energy efficiency (Part II): Fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Chan; Liu, Mingfei; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Liu, Meilin; Das, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Part I of this study presented a computational model-based approach for enhancing the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with designed microarchitecture. The performance of such SOFCs was predicted to greatly improve through a systematic computational design and optimization approach. Part II here proves through experimental fabrication and characterization that microarchitectured SOFC performance can be improved as predicted by the model. A real and specific SOFC is chosen, fabricated and characterized to demonstrate the proof-of-concept. Fabrication techniques using sintering and laser ablation are demonstrated. Pore size and geometry are characterized by interferometry-based surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. SOFC button cell performance testing including power output performance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed. The results show that SOFC performance in a microarchitectured cell can be improved over a baseline button cell by 9-17% in current density and by 7-19% in power density.

  12. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  13. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  14. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK). Volume IV. Sortie Generation Subsystem. Parts I and II. Program Maintenance Manual. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-03

    No. Change No. Title Page, Part I 0 215 1 ii 2 216-260 0 iii-viii 2 260.1-260.2 2 ix 0 Title Page, Part II 0 1-1.2 2 ii -iii 2 2 2 iv 1 3 0 v 2 4-b 1 vi...Page ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................... ii ABSTRACT .................... ....................... ix 1. GENERAL...260.1 DD Form 1473 ............. . .......... .... .. .............. .. 260.3 Part II 4. PLANOUT MODULE

  15. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Frequency Regulation by Commercial Buildings – Part II: Results and Performance Evaluation

    DOE PAGES

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Kara, Emre Can; MacDonald, Jason; ...

    2016-11-15

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series presenting the results from an experimental demonstration of frequency regulation in a commercial building test facility. We developed relevant building models and designed a hierarchical controller for reserve scheduling, building climate control and frequency regulation in Part I. In Part II, we introduce the communication architecture and experiment settings, and present extensive experimental results under frequency regulation. More specifically, we compute the day-ahead reserve capacity of the test facility under different assumptions and conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of model predictive control to satisfy comfort constraints under frequency regulation,more » and show that fan speed control can track the fast-moving RegD signal of the Pennsylvania, Jersey, and Maryland Power Market (PJM) very accurately. In addition, we discuss potential effects of frequency regulation on building operation (e.g., increase in energy consumption, oscillations in supply air temperature, and effect on chiller cycling), and provide suggestions for real-world implementation projects. Our results show that hierarchical control is appropriate for frequency regulation from commercial buildings.« less

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Frequency Regulation by Commercial Buildings – Part II: Results and Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Kara, Emre Can; MacDonald, Jason; Andersson, Goran; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2016-11-15

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series presenting the results from an experimental demonstration of frequency regulation in a commercial building test facility. We developed relevant building models and designed a hierarchical controller for reserve scheduling, building climate control and frequency regulation in Part I. In Part II, we introduce the communication architecture and experiment settings, and present extensive experimental results under frequency regulation. More specifically, we compute the day-ahead reserve capacity of the test facility under different assumptions and conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of model predictive control to satisfy comfort constraints under frequency regulation, and show that fan speed control can track the fast-moving RegD signal of the Pennsylvania, Jersey, and Maryland Power Market (PJM) very accurately. In addition, we discuss potential effects of frequency regulation on building operation (e.g., increase in energy consumption, oscillations in supply air temperature, and effect on chiller cycling), and provide suggestions for real-world implementation projects. Our results show that hierarchical control is appropriate for frequency regulation from commercial buildings.

  18. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from forests and pastures of various ages in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melillo, J. M.; Steudler, P. A.; Feigl, B. J.; Neill, C.; Garcia, D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Cerri, C. C.; Tian, H.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from tropical forest soils are thought to account for 2.2-3.7 Tg N yr-1 of the total annual global production of 10-17 Tg N yr-1. Recent research suggests that clearing of tropical forest for pasture can increase N2O emissions but that the period of elevated emissions may be limited and fluxes from older pastures may be lower than from the original forest. Here we report N2O emissions from two land-use sequences in the Brazilian Amazon's state of Rondônia. Each sequence includes a forest and a set of pastures of different ages. One sequence contains a newly created pasture that we studied intensively through its first 2 years, including forest cutting, burning, and the planting of forage grasses. Emissions from the newly created pasture were about two and one half times the forest emissions during the first 2 years (5.0 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). Nitrous oxide fluxes from pastures older than 3 years were on average about one third lower than fluxes from uncut forest (1.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). The best predictor of N2O flux across the chronosequences was the magnitude of the NO3 pool in the upper 10 cm of soil measured at the time of gas sampling. Using a simple cohort model combined with deforestation rates estimated from satellite images by Brazil's Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) for the period 1978 through 1997, we estimate that for the Brazilian Amazon the basin-wide flux of N2O-N from pasture soils was 0.06 Tg in 1997. This is ˜8% of the combined forest plus pasture flux of 0.78 Tg N2O-N we estimate for the Brazilian part of the basin in 1997. In the absence of any forest-to-pasture conversion in the Brazilian part of the basin, we estimate that the basin-wide flux of N2O-N would have been only slightly larger: 0.80 Tg in 1997. Through a second modeling analysis we estimate that for the whole of the Amazon Basin, including parts of the basin outside of Brazil, the N2O

  20. An Evaluative Survey Report on ESEA Title II: Fiscal Years 1966-1968. Part I, Analysis and Interpretation. Part II, Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report provides benchmark data on the effects that the provision of school library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials under Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) has had on education in the nation's public and private elementary and secondary schools. The passage of Title II of ESEA set the stage…

  1. Seeing the pasture through the trees: A household model explaining silvo-pastoral landscapes in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, A. M.; Rudel, T.; Schneider, L.; Burbano, D.; McGroddy, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the Amazon basin the destruction of old growth forests has meant, for the most part, the expansion of pastures for livestock and destruction of a global carbon sink. As these pastures have grown in extent and age, questions about what happens to the biodiversity and carbon sequestration in these pastoral landscapes has assumed more importance. In the research reported here, we offer a preliminary answer to these questions. Our study focuses on the southern Ecuadorian Amazon, where there have recently been trends of spontaneous silvo-pastoral landscapes. These landscapes are a result of land managers allowing trees to grow in cattle pastures, potentially leading to seed sources for native species regeneration and carbon sequestration. This paper discusses demographic, economic and cultural shifts, potentially in light of the expansion of urban areas and off-farm employment, which could impact pasture management in Morona Santiago, Ecuador. Tree cover in pastures is modeled against household demographic, economic and environmental variables that demonstrate which variables affect tree cover in managed landscapes. This analysis sheds light into current processes affecting pasture management in the Amazon, and in turn important landscape outcomes such as dual management systems that include pastures and tree regeneration.

  2. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  3. A model of neurovascular coupling and the BOLD response PART II.

    PubMed

    Mathias, E J; Plank, M J; David, T

    2017-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes a signalling mechanism of neurovascular coupling with a model of a pyramidal neuron and its corresponding fMRI BOLD response. In the first part of two papers (Part I) we described the integration of the neurovascular coupling unit extended to include a complex neuron model, which includes the important Na/K ATPase pump, with a model that provides a BOLD signal taking its input from the cerebral blood flow and the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption. We showed that this produced a viable signal in terms of initial dip, positive and negative BOLD signals. In this paper (PART II) our model predicts the variations of the BOLD response due to variations in neuronal activity and indicates that the BOLD signal could be used as an initial biomarker for neuronal dysfunction or variations in the perfusion of blood to the cerebral tissue. We have compared the simulated hypoxic BOLD response to experimental BOLD signals observed in the hippocampus during hypoxia showing good agreement. This approach of combined quantitative modelling of neurovascular coupling response and its BOLD response will enable more specific assessment of a brain region.

  4. On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--part II: derivation and special cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2006-09-10

    Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier's law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as non-linear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier's law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or sufficient.

  5. Biomechanics and muscle coordination of human walking: part II: lessons from dynamical simulations and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Felix E; Neptune, Richard R; Kautz, Steven A

    2003-02-01

    Principles of muscle coordination in gait have been based largely on analyses of body motion, ground reaction force and EMG measurements. However, data from dynamical simulations provide a cause-effect framework for analyzing these measurements; for example, Part I (Gait Posture, in press) of this two-part review described how force generation in a muscle affects the acceleration and energy flow among the segments. This Part II reviews the mechanical and coordination concepts arising from analyses of simulations of walking. Simple models have elucidated the basic multisegmented ballistic and passive mechanics of walking. Dynamical models driven by net joint moments have provided clues about coordination in healthy and pathological gait. Simulations driven by muscle excitations have highlighted the partial stability afforded by muscles with their viscoelastic-like properties and the predictability of walking performance when minimization of metabolic energy per unit distance is assumed. When combined with neural control models for exciting motoneuronal pools, simulations have shown how the integrative properties of the neuro-musculo-skeletal systems maintain a stable gait. Other analyses of walking simulations have revealed how individual muscles contribute to trunk support and progression. Finally, we discuss how biomechanical models and simulations may enhance our understanding of the mechanics and muscle function of walking in individuals with gait impairments.

  6. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Priest, David-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners. PMID:22577473

  7. Johne's disease in Canada part II: disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Shawn L B; Keefe, Greg P; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W

    2006-11-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne's disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN dollars 1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne's disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling.

  8. Electron diffraction based analysis of phase fractions and texture in nanocrystalline thin films, part II: implementation.

    PubMed

    Lábár, János L

    2009-02-01

    This series of articles describes a method that performs (semi)quantitative phase analysis for nanocrystalline transmission electron microscope samples from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Volume fractions of phases and their textures are obtained separately in the method. First, the two-dimensional SAED pattern is converted into an X-ray diffraction-like one-dimensional distribution. Volume fractions of the nanocrystalline components are determined by fitting the spectral components, calculated for the previously identified phases with a priori known structures. Blackman correction is also applied to take into account dynamic effects for medium grain sizes. Peak shapes and experimental parameters (camera length, etc.) are refined during the fitting iterations. Parameter space is explored with the help of the Downhill-SIMPLEX algorithm. Part I presented the principles, while Part II now elaborates current implementation, and Part III will demonstrate its usage by examples. The method is implemented in a computer program that runs under the Windows operating system on IBM PC compatible machines.

  9. The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part II. Neoplastic and drug-related causes of oculocutaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Day, Antoinette; Abramson, Amanda K; Patel, Mahir; Warren, Richard B; Menter, M Alan

    2014-05-01

    There are a multitude of diseases that commonly affect both the skin and the eye. Part II of this 2-part series reviews the oculocutaneous manifestations of neoplasms, both benign and malignant, and adverse drug reactions affecting the skin and the eye. Though rare, a number of neoplasms that primarily involve the skin, such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, can metastasize to the eye, leading to permanent damage if not properly treated. In addition, periocular neoplasms can irritate the conjunctiva and lid, reducing a patient's ability to see clearly. Neoplastic diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and multiple myeloma, can also lead to permanent changes in the eye if not discovered and managed promptly. Furthermore, there are a multitude of drugs, including those commonly used by dermatologists, which can result in permanent damage to the eye. With proper knowledge of the ocular manifestations and treatment recommendations described in this 2-part series, dermatologists with the assistance of their ophthalmology colleagues can help avoid the complications, including permanent blindness, associated with infectious, inflammatory, genetic, neoplastic, and drug-related conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Collision of a vortex ring on granular material. Part II. Erosion of the granular layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Masuda, Naoya; Ito, Boku; Furuya, Takayoshi; Sano, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    In our previous paper (part I), an experimental result was presented on the normal impact of a vortex ring on the granular layer (glass beads of diameter 0.10 mm), which was placed at a specified distance from the outlet of the vortex ring generator. The Reynolds number of the vortex ring ranged from 1000 to 6000, whereas the traveling distance ranged from 2 to 13 times of the diameter of the vortex ring generator nozzle. In part I, the deformation of the vortex ring impacting on the granular layer and the development of the secondary vortex ring were focused. In this paper (part II), the erosion of the granular surface by the vortex ring is described. Various patterns were found depending on the Reynolds number of the vortex ring and the traveling distance. Two patterns, one (grooves) which has radial striations from the central depressed region to the outer edge of the rim and the other (dimples) which is characterized by isolated small depressions around the outer edge of the rim, are examined in detail. The formation processes of these patterns are elucidated in terms of the deformation of the vortex ring.

  11. Local spectrum analysis of field propagation in an anisotropic medium. Part II. Time-dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkelman, Igor; Melamed, Timor

    2005-06-01

    In Part I of this two-part investigation [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22, 1200 (2005)], we presented a theory for phase-space propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields in an anisotropic medium characterized by a generic wave-number profile. In this Part II, these investigations are extended to transient fields, setting a general analytical framework for local analysis and modeling of radiation from time-dependent extended-source distributions. In this formulation the field is expressed as a superposition of pulsed-beam propagators that emanate from all space-time points in the source domain and in all directions. Using time-dependent quadratic-Lorentzian windows, we represent the field by a phase-space spectral distribution in which the propagating elements are pulsed beams, which are formulated by a transient plane-wave spectrum over the extended-source plane. By applying saddle-point asymptotics, we extract the beam phenomenology in the anisotropic environment resulting from short-pulsed processing. Finally, the general results are applied to the special case of uniaxial crystal and compared with a reference solution.

  12. Local spectrum analysis of field propagation in an anisotropic medium. Part II. Time-dependent fields.

    PubMed

    Tinkelman, Igor; Melamed, Timor

    2005-06-01

    In Part I of this two-part investigation [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1200 (2005)], we presented a theory for phase-space propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic fields in an anisotropic medium characterized by a generic wave-number profile. In this Part II, these investigations are extended to transient fields, setting a general analytical framework for local analysis and modeling of radiation from time-dependent extended-source distributions. In this formulation the field is expressed as a superposition of pulsed-beam propagators that emanate from all space-time points in the source domain and in all directions. Using time-dependent quadratic-Lorentzian windows, we represent the field by a phase-space spectral distribution in which the propagating elements are pulsed beams, which are formulated by a transient plane-wave spectrum over the extended-source plane. By applying saddle-point asymptotics, we extract the beam phenomenology in the anisotropic environment resulting from short-pulsed processing. Finally, the general results are applied to the special case of uniaxial crystal and compared with a reference solution.

  13. Compassionate care: enhancing physician-patient communication and education in dermatology: Part II: Patient education.

    PubMed

    Hong, Judith; Nguyen, Tien V; Prose, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    Patient education is a fundamental part of caring for patients. A practice gap exists, where patients want more information, while health care providers are limited by time constraints or difficulty helping patients understand or remember. To provide patient-centered care, it is important to assess the needs and goals, health beliefs, and health literacy of each patient. This allows health care providers to individualize education for patients. The use of techniques, such as gaining attention, providing clear and memorable explanations, and assessing understanding through "teach-back," can improve patient education. Verbal education during the office visit is considered the criterion standard. However, handouts, visual aids, audiovisual media, and Internet websites are examples of teaching aids that can be used as an adjunct to verbal instruction. Part II of this 2-part series on patient-physician interaction reviews the importance and need for patient education along with specific guidelines and techniques that can be used. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorption modelling on illite. Part II: Actinide sorption and linear free energy relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.

    2009-02-01

    Sorption edge data for Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV) [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009) Sorption modelling on illite. Part I: titration measurements and sorption of Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV), Part I] on purified Na-Illite du Puy are available from some previous work, and some new measurements for Am(III), Th(IV), Pa(V) and U(VI) are presented here. All of these sorption edge measurements have been modelled with a 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model for which the site types, site capacities and protolysis constants were fixed [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009), Part I]. In addition, two further data sets for the sorption of Am(III) and Np(V) on Illite du Puy, obtained from the literature, were also modelled in this work. Thus, surface complexation constants for the strong sites in the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model for nine metals with valence states from II to VI have been obtained. A linear relationship between the logarithm of strong site metal binding constants, SK x-1, and the logarithm of the corresponding aqueous hydrolysis stability constant, OHK x, extending over nearly 35 orders of magnitude is established here for illite for these nine metals. Such correlations are often termed linear free energy relationships (LFER), and although they are quite common in aqueous phase chemistry, they are much less so in surface chemistry, especially over this large range. The LFER for illite could be described by the equation: logSK=7.9±0.4+(0.83±0.02)logOHKx where, " x" is an integer. A similar relationship has been previously obtained for montmorillonite, thus LFERs relating to the sorption on two of the most important clay minerals present in natural systems have been established. Such an LFER approach is an extremely useful tool for estimating surface complexation constants for metals in a chemically consistent manner. It provides a means of obtaining sorption values for

  15. Sexuality and Personal Relationships for People with an Intellectual Disability. Part II: Staff and Family Carer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, D. S.; McGuire, B. E.; Healy, E.; Carley, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability (ID), although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the…

  16. Learning Climate in Schools: Part II. Teacher Views of the Learning and Organizational Climate in Schools. Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Carolyn

    Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…

  17. Developmental Students Don't Know That They Don't Know Part II: Bridging the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dawn B.; Ley, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Presents Part II of a two-part article on developmental students' self-regulatory deficiencies. Suggests four teaching guidelines for selecting specific activities that structure and promote self-regulation, based on documented self-regulation deficiencies or needs in the areas of: preparing, organizing, monitoring, and evaluating. (SR)

  18. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  19. Sexuality and Personal Relationships for People with an Intellectual Disability. Part II: Staff and Family Carer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, D. S.; McGuire, B. E.; Healy, E.; Carley, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability (ID), although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the…

  20. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  1. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  2. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    PubMed

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  3. Putting microbes to work: dairy fermentation, cell factories and bioactive peptides. Part II: bioactive peptide functions.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2007-04-01

    A variety of milk-derived biologically active peptides have been shown to exert both functional and physiological roles in vitro and in vivo, and because of this are of particular interest for food science and nutrition applications. Biological activities associated with such peptides include immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and opioid-like properties. Milk proteins are recognized as a primary source of bioactive peptides, which can be encrypted within the amino acid sequence of dairy proteins, requiring proteolysis for release and activation. Fermentation of milk proteins using the proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria is an attractive approach for generation of functional foods enriched in bioactive peptides given the low cost and positive nutritional image associated with fermented milk drinks and yoghurt. In Part II of this review, we focus on examples of milk-derived bioactive peptides and their associated health benefits, to illustrate the potential of this area for the design and improvement of future functional foods.

  4. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment.

  5. Arbitrary-Order Conservative and Consistent Remapping and a Theory of Linear Maps: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, Paul A.; Devendran, Dharshi; Johansen, Hans

    2016-04-01

    The focus on this series of articles is on the generation of accurate, conservative, consistent, and (optionally) monotone linear offline maps. This paper is the second in the series. It extends on the first part by describing four examples of 2D linear maps that can be constructed in accordance with the theory of the earlier work. The focus is again on spherical geometry, although these techniques can be readily extended to arbitrary manifolds. The four maps include conservative, consistent, and (optionally) monotone linear maps (i) between two finite-volume meshes, (ii) from finite-volume to finite-element meshes using a projection-type approach, (iii) from finite-volume to finite-element meshes using volumetric integration, and (iv) between two finite-element meshes. Arbitrary order of accuracy is supported for each of the described nonmonotone maps.

  6. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part II: nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karen; Redden, Maurine

    2002-08-01

    Third-space fluid shift is the mobilisation of body fluid to a non-contributory space rendering it unavailable to the circulatory system. It is a recurrent clinical phenomenon requiring swift identification to minimise deleterious effects. Nurses experience difficulties however in its early identification, diagnosis and subsequent treatment because of the lack of consensual and consistent information regarding third-spacing. This article, part II, building on the previous article, explores the clinical validly and reliability of signs and symptoms of both phases of third-space fluid shift. In addition it reinforces the use multiple patient assessment cues if nurses are to differentiate between, and accurately respond to, the various causes of both hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia. It assists nurses to increase their knowledge and uderstanding of third-space fluid shift in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

  7. Perspectives and challenges of photon-upconversion nanoparticles - Part II: bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Gorris, Hans H; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2017-07-07

    In Part II of this review series on lanthanide-doped photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), we present and critically discuss the performance and suitability of UCNPs as background-free luminescent reporters in bioimaging and bioanalytical applications. The preparation of a biocompatible nanoparticle surface is an integral step for all life - science-related applications. UCNPs have found their way into a large number of diagnostic platforms, homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats, and sensor applications. Many bioanalytical detection schemes involve Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which is still debated for UCNPs and needs to be much improved. The need for dedicated and standardized instruments as well as recent studies on the dissolution and potential toxicity of UCNPs are addressed. Finally we outline future trends and challenges in the field of upconversion. Graphical Abstract Both synthesis / spectroscopy as well bioanalytical applications of UCNPs are driven by the COST Action CM1403 "The European Upconversion Network".

  8. Pasture Condition Scoring at the Whole-Farm Scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers need monitoring and assessment tools to aid in pasture management. One such tool, the pasture condition score system, has been developed by the USDA-NRCS for use as a pasture monitoring and management tool. Ten key indicators (percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, plant r...

  9. Seasonal changes in plant diversity and abundance in Northeastern pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The number and identity of plant species varies by season and location. We sampled pastures on five grazing farms (four dairy, one beef): two in New York, two in Pennsylvania, and one in Maryland. Pasture plant composition was measured on five to seven pastures in the spring (April-May), summer (Jul...

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: What Happens after Pasture is Terminated?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pastures are a major land use throughout the southeastern USA. In fact there is almost as much pasture land (48 million acres) as crop land (64 million acres) in the region. Soil under pastures accumulates organic matter (composed mostly of carbon), because (a) soil is not disturbed, (b) forages o...

  11. Sediment-bound and dissolved carbon concentration and transport from a small pastured watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the current emphasis on the role of carbon in the environment, agricultural systems and their impacts on the carbon cycle are important parts of the overall issue. Pasture systems and organic carbon that is transported attached to sediment has been addressed at the North Appalachian Experimenta...

  12. Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities. Bulletin, 1930, No. 9. Volume II. [Part I - Part VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    The attached document covers the initial sections of the second volume of the Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities, from Part I to Part VI. Part I, Arts and sciences, contains the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Arts and science organization; (3) Specialization; (4) Enrollments and salaries; (5) Articulation with secondary…

  13. Poultry litter application on pastures and hayfields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment....

  14. Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

  15. What attracts elk onto cattle pasture? Implications for inter-species disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, M; Seidel, D; Boyce, M S; Musiani, M; Massolo, A; Kutz, S; Orsel, K

    2014-11-15

    In Southwest Alberta, beef cattle and wild elk (Cervus elaphus) have similar habitat preferences. Understanding their inter-species contact structure is important for assessing the risk of pathogen transmission between them. These spatio-temporal patterns of interactions are shaped, in part, by range management and environmental factors affecting elk distribution. In this study, resource selection modeling was used to identify factors influencing elk presence on cattle pasture and elk selection of foraging patches; furthermore, consequences for inter-species disease transmission were discussed. Data on pasture management practices and observations of elk were collected from 15 ranchers during interviews. Pasture use by elk was defined based on telemetry data (from GPS collars deployed on 168 elk in 7 herds) and rancher observations. At the patch scale, foraging patches used by elk were identified by spatio-temporal cluster analysis of telemetry data, whereas available patches were randomly generated outside the area delimited by used patches. For pastures and patches, landscape and human-managed features were characterized using remote sensing data and interviews, respectively. Attributes of available and used pastures (or patches) were compared using resource selection functions, on annual and seasonal (or annual and monthly) time scales. Additionally, intensity of pasture use was modeled using negative binomial regression. Cultivated hay land and mineral supplements were associated with elk presence on cattle pastures, whereas pastures with manure fertilization and higher traffic-weighted road densities were less likely to be used by elk. The effects of landscape (elevation, aspect, water access) and vegetation (forest cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) characteristics on patch selection were consistent with typical elk habitat requirements. The presence of cattle and the traffic-weighted road density were negatively associated with patch selection

  16. Feeding value of pastures for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, G C; Clark, D A

    2004-12-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seedhead development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and saprophytic fungi in dead material at the base of the sward, especially when mature and laxly grazed. Feeding forage legumes to ruminants grazing grass-dominant pastures will improve animal performance and lessen the reliance on a single species to meet all nutritional requirements. The FV of forage is a function of intake and NV, measured by chemical analyses and animal feeding trials. Performance of individual animals grazing forages is usually limited by energy intake because structural fibre can slow digestion and clearance from the rumen and because of competition between individuals for available feed. The use of metabolisable energy (ME) content of forage to signify FV can give a reasonable indication of animal performance, but it should be used in conjunction with chemical analyses to improve the accuracy of predictions. The relationship between FV, pasture production, animal performance and profitability is complex. The importance of skilled management to maintain pasture quality and optimise animal performance under inconsistent climatic conditions should not be underestimated. Acceptable animal performance with minimal veterinary intervention requires good nutrition, but the genetic potential of livestock in New Zealand cannot be met solely by grazing pasture, especially when a high utilisation of pasture is required to maintain quality and profitability. Producers are responding to industry demands to reduce the seasonality in supply of milk and meat by changing lambing and calving dates, and extending lactation length in dairy cows

  17. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of immunosuppressants in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: Part II

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2015-01-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article, part II, we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. There are several studies demonstrating that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared to MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include “–omics” based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics and proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses. PMID:26620047

  18. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.

  19. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  20. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  2. Cervical spine injuries in children, part II: management and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Barkin, Roger; Rosen, Carlo L; Ban, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of cervical spine injury is more complex in children than in adults. Part I of this series stressed the importance of tailoring the evaluation of cervical spine injuries based on age, mechanism of injury, and physical examination findings. Part II will discuss the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the management of pediatric cervical spine injuries in the emergency department. Children have several common variations in their anatomy, such as pseudosubluxation of C2-C3, widening of the atlantodens interval, and ossification centers, that can appear concerning on imaging but are normal. Physicians should be alert for signs or symptoms of atlantorotary subluxation and spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality when treating children with spinal cord injury, as these conditions have significant morbidity. MRI can identify injuries to the spinal cord that are not apparent with other modalities, and should be used when a child presents with a neurologic deficit but normal X-ray study or CT scan. With knowledge of these variations in pediatric anatomy, emergency physicians can appropriately identify injuries to the cervical spine and determine when further imaging is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between DNA and gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery, provides distinct treatment modalities for the inherited and acquired diseases, relies upon the encapsulation of a gene of interest, which is then ideally delivered to the target cells. Variations in the chemical structure of gemini surfactants and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of the gemini-based lipoplexes and their impact on efficient gene transfection were assessed in part I, which was published in first March 2016 issue of Nanomedicine (1103). In order to design an efficient vector using gemini surfactants, the interaction of the surfactant with DNA and other components of the delivery system must be characterized, and more critically, well understood. Such studies will help to understand how nonviral transfection complexes, in general, overcome various cellular barriers. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer studies, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, are extensively used to evaluate the interaction behavior of gemini surfactants with DNA and other vector components. Part II of this review focuses on the use of these unique techniques to understand their interaction with DNA.

  4. Polarized Light Scanning Cryomacroscopy, Part II: Thermal Modeling and Analysis of Experimental Observations

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Justin S.G.; Solanki, Prem K.; Eisenberg, David P.; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy. PMID:27343139

  5. A novel embeddable spherical smart aggregate for structural health monitoring: part II. Numerical and experimental verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Fan, Shuli; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The newly developed spherical smart aggregate (SSA) based on a radially polarized spherical piezoceramic shell element has unique omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities that can greatly improve the detection aperture and provide additional functionalities in health monitoring applications in concrete structures. Detailed fabrication procedures and electrical characterization of the SSA have been previously studied (Part I). In this second paper (Part II), the functionalities of the SSA used in both active sensing and passive sensing approaches were investigated in experiments and numerical simulations. One SSA sample was embedded in a 1 ft3 concrete specimen. In the active sensing approach, the SSA was first utilized as an actuator to generate stress waves and six conventional smart aggregates (SA) mounted on the six faces of the concrete cube were utilized as sensors to detect the wave response. Conversely, the embedded SSA was then utilized as a sensor to successively detect the wave response from each SA. The experimentally obtained behavior of the SSA was then compared with the numerical simulation results. Further, a series of impact tests were conducted to verify the performance of the SSA in the detection of the impact events from different directions. Comparison with the wave response associated with different faces of the cube verified the omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities of the SSA.

  6. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  7. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2015-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future. PMID:25227756

  9. Geomagnetic Field Variations as Determined from Bulgarian Archaeomagnetic Data. Part II: The Last 8000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, Mary; Jordanova, Neli; Karloukovski, Vassil

    The knowledge about past secular variations of the geomagnetic field is achieved on the basis of archaeomagnetic researches of which the Bulgarian studies form an extended data set. In Part I (Kovacheva and Toshkov, 1994), the methodology used in the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory was described and the secular variation curves for the last 2000 years were shown. In Part II (this paper), the basic characteristics of the prehistoric materials used in the archaeomagnetic studies are emphasised, particularly in the context of the rock magnetic studies used in connection with palaeointensity determinations. The results of magnetic anisotropy studies of the prehistoric ovens and other fired structures are summarised, including the anisotropy correction of the palaeointensity results for prehistoric materials, different from bricks and pottery. Curves of the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field during the last 8000 years in Bulgaria are given. The available directional and intensity values have been used to calculate the variation curve of the virtual dipole moment (VDM) for the last 8000 years based on different time interval averages. The path of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions is discussed.

  10. Fracture prediction for the proximal femur using finite element models: Part II--Nonlinear analysis.

    PubMed

    Lotz, J C; Cheal, E J; Hayes, W C

    1991-11-01

    In Part I we reported the results of linear finite element models of the proximal femur generated using geometric and constitutive data collected with quantitative computed tomography. These models demonstrated excellent agreement with in vitro studies when used to predict ultimate failure loads. In Part II, we report our extension of those finite element models to include nonlinear behavior of the trabecular and cortical bone. A highly nonlinear material law, originally designed for representing concrete, was used for trabecular bone, while a bilinear material law was used for cortical bone. We found excellent agreement between the model predictions and in vitro fracture data for both the onset of bone yielding and bone fracture. For bone yielding, the model predictions were within 2 percent for a load which simulated one-legged stance and 1 percent for a load which simulated a fall. For bone fracture, the model predictions were within 1 percent and 17 percent, respectively. The models also demonstrated different fracture mechanisms for the two different loading configurations. For one-legged stance, failure within the primary compressive trabeculae at the subcapital region occurred first, leading to load transfer and, ultimately, failure of the surrounding cortical shell. However, for a fall, failure of the cortical and trabecular bone occurred simultaneously within the intertrochanteric region. These results support our previous findings that the strength of the subcapital region is primarily due to trabecular bone whereas the strength of the intertrochanteric region is primarily due to cortical bone.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  12. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Diagnosing DSM-IV--Part II: Eysenck (1986) and the essentialist fallacy.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J C

    1997-07-01

    In Part I (Wakefield, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 633-649) of this two-article series, I used the harmful dysfunction analysis of the concept of disorder (Wakefield, 1992a, American Psychologist, 47, 373-388) to 'diagnose' a problem with DSM-IV. I argued that DSM-IV diagnostic criteria often violate the 'dysfunction' requirement by invalidity classifying harms not caused by dysfunctions as disorders. In Part II, I examine Eysenck's (Eysenck, 1986, Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV) argument that DSM commits a 'categorical fallacy' and should be replaced by dimensional diagnoses based on Eysenckian personality traits. I argue that Eysenck's proposed diagnostic criteria violate the 'harm' requirement by invalidly classifying symptomless conditions as disorders. Eysenck commits an 'essentialist fallacy'; he misconstrues 'disorder' as an essentialist theoretical concept when in fact it is a hybrid theoretical-practical or 'cause-effect' concept. He thus ignores the harmful effects essential to disorder that are captured in DSM's symptom-based categories.

  14. Elastodynamic analysis of a gear pump. Part II: Meshing phenomena and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.; Rivola, A.

    2010-10-01

    A non-linear lumped kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps is presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machines. Two main sources of noise and vibration can be considered: pressure and gear meshing. Fluid pressure distribution on gears, which is time-varying, is computed and included as a resultant external force and torque acting on the gears. Parametric excitations due to time-varying meshing stiffness, the tooth profile errors (obtained by a metrological analysis), the backlash effects between meshing teeth, the lubricant squeeze and the possibility of tooth contact on both lines of action were also included. Finally, the torsional stiffness and damping of the driving shaft and the non-linear behaviour of the hydrodynamic journal bearings were also taken into account. Model validation was carried out on the basis of experimental data concerning case accelerations and force reactions. The model can be used in order to analyse the pump dynamic behaviour and to identify the effects of modifications in design and operation parameters, in terms of vibration and dynamic forces. Part I is devoted to the calculation of the gear eccentricity in the steady-state condition as result of the balancing between mean pressure loads, mean meshing force and bearing reactions, while in Part II the meshing phenomena are fully explained and the main simulation results are presented.

  15. Stability of Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride Nanocrystalline During Hydrogen Cycling. Part II: Microstructure Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chengshang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Bowman, Jr., Robert C.; Xia, Yang; Lu, Jun; Luo, Xiangyi; Ren, Yang

    2015-09-11

    In Part I, the cyclic stabilities of the kinetics of catalyzed MgH2 systems including MgH2–TiH2, MgH2–TiMn2, and MgH2–VTiCr were investigated, showing stable kinetics at 300 °C but deteriorations of the hydrogenation kinetics at temperatures below 150 °C. The present Part II describes the characterization of uncycled and cycled catalyzed MgH2 by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis shows the crystallite sizes of the Mg and MgH2 significantly increased after the cycling. The mean crystallite sizes of the catalysts (TiH2 and VTiCr) increased moderately after the cycling. SEM and TEM imaging were used to compare the microstructures of uncycled (as-milled) and cycled materials, revealing a drastic change of the microstructure after 100 cycles. In particular, results from energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping show that a change of distribution of the catalyst particles in the Mg and MgH2 phase occurred during the cycling.

  16. Population-based public health interventions: innovations in practice, teaching, and management. Part II.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.

  17. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine and modern urology: part II: bladder calculi.

    PubMed

    Madineh, Sayed Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In the previous issue of the Urology Journal, a comparison of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine with modern urologic findings was done in part I of this article, addressing bladder anatomy and physiology and bladder calculi. In part II of this review, the remaining chapters of the Canon of Medicine on bladder calculi are reviewed. Avicenna points to perineal urethrostomy (perineostomy), which is today performed as the last therapeutic line or as a temporary remedy before surgical treatment. He also describes surgery via transperineal route and warns the surgeon of the proximity of vasa deferentia, prostate gland, and neurovascular bundle and their exposure in this position. Usage of grasping forceps for removal of bladder calculus and emphasis on removing all calculus fragments are the interesting points of this chapter. Avicenna explains a technique similar to the use of a Babcock forceps for prevention of calculus migration. Complications of bladder calculus surgery and cystostomy are also addressed with scientific precision in the Canon. It is noteworthy that 8 centuries before Fournier described necrotizing fasciitis in male genitalia, Avicenna had described Fournier gangrene in his book.

  18. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  19. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  20. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-09-13

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  1. Surgical Management of Stones: American Urological Association/Endourological Society Guideline, PART II.

    PubMed

    Assimos, Dean; Krambeck, Amy; Miller, Nicole L; Monga, Manoj; Murad, M Hassan; Nelson, Caleb P; Pace, Kenneth T; Pais, Vernon M; Pearle, Margaret S; Preminger, Glenn M; Razvi, Hassan; Shah, Ojas; Matlaga, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    This Guideline is intended to provide a clinical framework for the surgical management of patients with kidney and/or ureteral stones. The summary presented herein represents Part II of the two-part series dedicated to Surgical Management of Stones: American Urological Association/Endourological Society Guideline. Please refer to Part I for introductory information and a discussion of pre-operative imaging and special cases. A systematic review of the literature (search dates 1/1/1985 to 5/31/2015) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed studies relevant to the surgical management of stones. The review yielded an evidence base of 1,911 articles after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. These publications were used to create the Guideline statements. Evidence-based statements of Strong, Moderate, or Conditional Recommendation were developed based on benefits and risks/burdens to patients. Additional directives are provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions when insufficient evidence existed. The Panel identified 12 adult Index Patients to represent the most common cases seen in clinical practice. Three additional Index Patients were also created to describe the more commonly encountered special cases, including pediatric and pregnant patients. With these patients in mind, Guideline statements were developed to aid the clinician in identifying optimal management. Proper treatment selection, which is directed by patient- and stone-specific factors, remains the greatest predictor of successful treatment outcomes. This Guideline is intended for use in conjunction with the individual patient's treatment goals. In all cases, patient preferences and personal goals should be considered when choosing a management strategy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  3. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  4. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  5. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  6. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume II, Part II. Biological Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    contained two or more species of cactus on each site. Grasses included Aristida purpurea, Bromus tectorum, Hilaria jamesii, Oryzopsis hymen - oides, and...TR-48-II-Il 260 tolerances to salinity: Atriplex canescens and Atriplex hymen - elytra can survive very high salinity conditions; Ambrosia dumosa

  7. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  8. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  9. Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Goel, Harsh; Dunbar, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant treatment gap, this presents a major opportunity for developers. Importantly, the established regimen is cardioprotective, so the pathway is likely beneficial. Moreover, though effective, the established cardioprotective regimen is cumbersome, limiting clinical use. At the same time, the ER alternative has been thoroughly discredited as a viable substitute for the established cardioprotective regimen. Therefore, by exploiting the pathway and skillfully avoiding the problems with the established cardioprotective regimen and the ER alternative, developers could validate cardioprotective variations facing little meaningful competition from their predecessors. Thus, shrewd developers could effectively tap into a gold mine at the grave of the ER alternative. The GPR109A receptor was discovered a decade ago, leading to a large body of evidence commending the niacin pathway to a lower cardiovascular risk beyond statins. While mediating niacin's most prominent adverse effects, GPR109A also seems to mediate anti-lipolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects of niacin. Several developers are investing heavily in novel strategies to exploit niacin's therapeutic pathways. These include selective GPR109A receptor agonists, niacin prodrugs, and a niacin metabolite, with encouraging early phase human data. In part II of this review, we summarize the accumulated results of these early phase studies of emerging niacin mimetics.

  10. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C. B.; Dill, L. H.; Kreider, K. L.; Young, G. W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S. I.

    2005-08-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  11. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-08-15

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  12. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  13. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  14. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Structural interfaces in linear elasticity. Part II: Effective properties and neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, K.; Bigoni, D.; Drugan, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The model of structural interfaces developed in Part I of this paper allows us to analytically attack and solve different problems of stress concentration and composites. In particular, (i) new formulae are given for effective properties of composite materials containing dilute suspensions of (randomly oriented) reinforced elliptical voids or inclusions; (ii) a new definition is proposed for inclusion neutrality (to account for the fact that the matrix is always 'overstressed', and thus non-neutral in a classical sense, at the contacts with the interfacial structure), which is shown to provide interesting stress optimality conditions. More generally, it is shown that the incorporation of an interfacial structure at the contact between two elastic solids exhibits properties that cannot be obtained using the more conventional approach of the zero-thickness, linear interface. For instance: contrary to the zero-thickness interface, both bulk and shear effective moduli can be optimized for a structural interface; effective properties higher that those possible with a perfect interface can be attained with a structural interface; and neutrality holds with a structural interface for a substantially broader range of parameters than for a zero-thickness interface.

  16. Seasonal changes in cyclists' performance. Part II. The British Olympic track squad.

    PubMed Central

    White, J. A.; Quinn, G.; Al-Dawalibi, M.; Mulhall, J.

    1982-01-01

    In Part II of the study, the British Olympic track (sprint) squad cyclists demonstrated reductions in body fat index, % body fat and endomorphy (p greater than .05), increased Hb and PCV % (p greater than .05), and lowered HR at rest and in warm-up exercise (p greater than .05), but no change in leg power. Repeated interval sprints of short duration, maximal exercise on an "ergowheel" ergometer, at standardised power output, showed increased anaerobic index (p greater than .05) and acceleratory power (p greater than .01) but no change in sustained power output. Compared with "non-select" riders, a case study of the single "select" rider showed anthropometric differences in terms of lower height, weight, body fat index, % body fat and endomorphy, but enhanced mesomorphy and FEV %. Furthermore, the "select" rider demonstrated temporarily latent functional performance capabilities, in that increased anaerobic index, acceleratory and sustained power indices, as well as enhanced relative power output, were not identified until late in the competitive season. Images p13-a p16-a PMID:7066610

  17. Bone tissue engineering: current strategies and techniques--part II: Cell types.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Barbaro, Marissa; Sagebin, Fabio; Warren, Stephen M

    2012-08-01

    Bone repair and regeneration is a dynamic process that involves a complex interplay between the (1) ground substance; (2) cells; and (3) milieu. Each constituent is integral to the final product, but it is often helpful to consider each component individually. While bone tissue engineering has capitalized on a number of breakthrough technologies, one of the most valued advancements is the incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells (SCs) into bone tissue engineering applications. With this new idea, however, came new found problems of guiding SC differentiation. Moreover, investigators are still working to understand which SCs source produces optimal bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs and adipose-derived SCs have been researched most extensively, but other SC sources, including dental pulp, blood, umbilical cord blood, epithelial cells reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent SCs, among others, are being investigated. In Part II of this review series, we discuss the variety of cell types (e.g., osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, mesenchymal SCs, and vasculogenic cells) important in bone tissue engineering.

  18. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  19. Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist, part II: cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, coronary venous system.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Habib, Ammar; Kapa, Suraj; Bisco, Susan E; Venkatachalam, K L; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac Ganglia, Phrenic Nerve, Coronary Venous System. There is an increasing need for invasive electrophysiologists to appreciate the exact anatomy of the epicardial space and the coronary veins. The location of the epicardial fat, the complementary relationship with the main cardiac veins, and the location of sensitive structures (arteries, phrenic nerve, esophagus) have become required knowledge for electrophysiologists, and accessing the epicardial space with this thorough knowledge of the pericardial sinuses and recesses is essential to allow radiographic correlation during catheter manipulation. In this review, we briefly describe the anatomy of the pericardial space and then discuss the specific correlation for the invasive electrophysiologist, highlighting epicardial access, catheter navigation, and avoidance of collateral injury, with specific attention to the important recesses of the pericardial space, their regional anatomy, and radiographic correlation when navigating catheters to these locations. We also discuss the anatomy of the main cardiac veins in the context of catheter mapping and ablation of the epicardial substrate through the venous system and without subxiphoid pericardial access. In part II of this series we discuss the detailed regional anatomy of the cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, and coronary venous system.

  20. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.