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Sample records for patch tests

  1. Patch tests.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field.

  2. Patch tests*

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field. PMID:24474094

  3. Results of patch tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to construct, install, and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. A 2,000-hour patch test was conducted on ceramic disks of materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic cross-flow filters. The primary issues addressed in these tests were the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse-cleaning systems. Results on three samples, or patches, 10 cm in diameter are given.

  4. Biocide patch tests.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E; Veien, N K

    1985-02-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox 3522, BIT and the 2 formaldehyde releasers, Preventol D2 and Grotan BK. These reactions could not, however, be explained. The MOAHL-index (% of Male patients, Occupational cases, Atopic patients, Hand eczemas, and Leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis) for patients from the 6 clinics showed equal frequencies of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors.

  5. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  6. The "edge effect" with patch test materials.

    PubMed

    Fyad, A; Masmoudi, M L; Lachapelle, J M

    1987-03-01

    A positive "edge effect", i.e., the accumulation on the skin of a chemical solution (such as fluorescein 0.01% in a 50/50 water-ethanol solution) at the periphery of the patch test sites has been demonstrated. It occurs with different test materials (Finn Chamber; Silver Patch Test; Patch Test Chamber). Practical implications are discussed: this observation could be important when discussing results of laboratory investigations. In clinical practice, it could explain the occurrence of "ring-shaped" positive allergic patch test reactions to chemicals used in solution, i.e., Kathon CG or hydrocortisone.

  7. [Glossodynia--indication for patch testing?].

    PubMed

    Bäurle, G; Schönberger, A

    1986-08-15

    100 patients suffering from glossodynia without pathologic changes of the oral mucosa and 16 patients with suspected allergic contact stomatitis underwent patch testing using standard patch test and dental materials. The results were compared with those of patients in dental occupations suffering from hand eczema. As there is no clinical relevance of allergens in patients with glossodynia, patch testing seems to be unnecessary. On the other hand, patch test results of patients with stomatitis and dentures often suggest a causal allergy. In most of those cases, this was confirmed by complete healing after changing the denture bases, whereas in glossodynia such replacements never brought about a convincing improvement of the symptoms.

  8. Patch testing for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Sahil; Nedorost, Susan T

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions result in a substantial number of hospital admissions and inpatient events. Diagnosis usually is made with clinical judgment and circumstantiality without diagnostic testing. Furthermore, even in situations where diagnostic testing is performed, no safe gold standard tests exist. Oral rechallenge is currently the gold standard but carries the risk of recrudescence of severe allergic symptoms. Other tests include skin prick tests, the lymphocyte transformation test, immunohistochemistry, and patch testing. This article provides a review of patch testing in cases of adverse drug reactions and presents new data on this topic.

  9. Patch-testing with hairdressing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael Z; Farmer, Sara A; Richardson, Donna M; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Hairdressing chemicals may be associated with allergic contact dermatitis. To review our experience of patch-testing with hairdressing chemicals. We reviewed results from patients who underwent patch testing with our standard allergen series (including 15 hairdressing chemicals) and a supplementary "hairdresser series" (18 additional hairdressing chemicals) at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN; Scottsdale, AZ; and Jacksonville, FL) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2008. Two hundred ten patients (mean age, 53.8 years [SD, 16.9 yr]; female, 94.8%) were patch-tested. The most common sites of dermatitis were the scalp, face, and hands. Patients had widely varying occupations. The most common occupations were cosmetologist (10.5%), housewife (9.5%), and beautician (5.2%); 14.3% were retired. The hairdresser series detected 13 additional patients with allergies (6.4%; 204 patients tested with both series) who would not have been detected with the standard allergen series alone. The highest allergic patch-test rates in the supplemental hairdresser series were with ammonium persulfate (14.4%), 4-aminoazobenzene (13.4%), and pyrogallol (9.1%). Patch-testing with hairdressing-specific chemicals (standard series plus supplemental hairdresser series) was appropriate for numerous clinical situations and was not limited to patients in hair care occupations. The supplemental hairdresser series helped identify more patients than would have been identified with the standard series alone.

  10. A Practical Guide to Patch Testing.

    PubMed

    Fonacier, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common disease seen by allergists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians. The gold standard for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is patch testing and is indicated in any patient with a chronic, pruritic, eczematous, or lichenified dermatitis if underlying or secondary ACD is suspected. Patients with acute generalized dermatitis who have extensive eczema on the back, are on immunosuppressant medications, and have applied topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, or ultraviolet radiation to the patch test (PT) site may have suppressed PT reactions. The procedure of patch testing is not a difficult one to perform, but the interpretation of the PT needs some critical components, including having an appropriate level of suspicion for the diagnosis of ACD, testing the relevant allergens in their proper vehicle and concentration, and the necessary experience to properly interpret the results. Careful history and physical examination must be correlated with the result of the PT to establish clinical relevance. Once the PT is completed, allergens are identified, and relevance has been established, educating the patient about the avoidance of exposure is critical. The Joint Task Force of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology has developed updated practice parameters for contact dermatitis and patch testing, and their recommendations will be discussed (Fonacier LF, Bernstein DI, Pacheco K, Holness DL. Contact dermatitis: a practice parameter update 2015. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2015; 3(3S):S1-S40.).

  11. Volatility of fragrance chemicals: patch testing implications.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah J; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic and predictive patch testing to determine contact allergy due to fragrance materials requires applying a fixed dose of material to the skin. This dose can be affected by the volatile nature of fragrances; little data exist on how the loss of fragrance dose due to volatility affects patch testing. (1) To evaluate pH dependence and evaporation rates of two fragrance chemicals, geraniol, citronellol, and a common fragrance solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and (2) Assess implications for predictive patch-testing methods for fragrances. pH analysis of each material at 1% for three values (4.0, 5.0, 7.0) was done over 40 hours. Volatility experiments for each material, nonradiolabeled and radiolabeled, were conducted over a 24-hour period, taking readings at six time points (5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours). Evaporation rates were not sensitive to pH shifts from 4.0 to 7.0. Evaporation rates for nonradiolabeled materials were low: after 24 hours, geraniol lost 8.9%, citronellol 27.0% and DEP 14.5%. The volatility data for radiolabeled materials demonstrated that geraniol loses up to 39% of its dose, citronellol loses up to 26%, and DEP up to 14% within 40 minutes. The tendency of fragrance materials to evaporate can impact the dose being applied to the patch and therefore the result of the patch and ultimately the decision-making process regarding that fragrance material's safety. These data, developed with DEP, utilized in a predictive sensitization assay cannot be generalized.

  12. Patch testing of ceramic barrier filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to construct, install and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. Long-term patch tests'' will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible clogging of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation. Progress is discussed.

  13. Patch testing of ceramic barrier filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this work are to construct, install and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. Long-term ``patch tests`` will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible clogging of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation. Progress is discussed.

  14. Patch testing with natural rubber latex: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Bendewald, Margo J; Farmer, Sara A; Davis, Mark D P

    2010-01-01

    delayed hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have been recognized. These reactions may contribute to allergic contact dermatitis. We therefore have undertaken patch testing of patients with NRL if they are suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis to rubber. to review results of patch testing with NRL (January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2007). patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis from rubber who underwent patch testing with NRL were identified retrospectively. For safety reasons, patients with immediate hypersensitivity to NRL were excluded from patch testing. of 148 patients patch-tested with NRL, 3 (2.0%) had an allergic patch-test reaction. NRL is as common a cause of allergic contact dermatitis as many of the other allergens included in a specialized rubber allergen series. Patients suspected to be allergic to rubber should be patch-tested with NRL (provided they do not have type 1 hypersensitivity to NRL).

  15. Patch testing for noncontact dermatitis: the atopy patch test for food and inhalants.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Vogel, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) is defined as a patch test procedure to assess delayed type hypersensitivity reactions against those protein allergens known to elicit IgE-mediated type I reactions in atopic patients. This patch test procedure uses intact protein allergens instead of haptens in an optimized test setting and with a special reading key. It may be clinically useful especially for atopic dermatitis, as the currently available test procedures either target the wrong reaction type (type I and not type IV) or use the wrong allergens (haptens and not protein allergen). A positive APT reaction correlates with a positive lymphocyte transformation test and allergen-specific Th2 cells in the peripheral blood. As even small changes in the test procedure influence the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the APT, the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) has developed a standardized APT technique: Intact protein allergens, purified in petrolatum, are applied in 12-mm-diameter Finn chambers mounted on Scanpor tape for 48 h to non-irritated, non-abraded, or tape-stripped skin of the upper back for 48 h; the evaluation of the test reaction is done after 48 and 72 h using the ETFAD reading key, assessing erythema as well as number and distribution pattern of the papules. The APT may reveal type IV sensitization in patients who are negative for the respective type I tests. Limited availability of the expensive test substances and limited reimbursement is among the factors restricting the routine use of the APT.

  16. A diagnostic "patch test" for onchocerciasis using topical diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Stingl, P; Ross, M; Gibson, D W; Ribas, J; Connor, D H

    1984-01-01

    There is great need for a simple, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic test for onchocerciasis, especially in endemic areas where trained personnel and laboratory facilities are limited. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was applied as a "patch test" to the skin of 45 patients with onchocerciasis in the Southern Sudan. 75 tests were done on these 45 patients, and 69 (92%) were positive. A positive reaction was a papular eruption beneath the patch. Histopathological studies of the skin beneath the patch revealed the microscopic features of a severe Mazzotti reaction, including degenerating microfilariae in the upper dermis and within epidermal eosinophilic abscesses.

  17. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  18. Unusual edge effect in patch testing with silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Iliev, D; Elsner, P

    1998-03-01

    Silver nitrate is a widely used substance and has been applied topically for cauterizing bleeding and healing wounds. In the past it has even been used to mark patch test sites, when no one knew that the substance itself might be a sensitizer. However, there are also toxic reactions to that substance. We report a case in which a positive "edge effect" at the periphery of the patch test site could be shown. It can be explained by the unequal distribution of patch test solutions in the different patch test systems with a concentration at the rim. Distinguishing between allergic and toxic reactions may be difficult when an edge effect occurs. Therefore, in certain rare cases a biopsy or a lymphocyte transformation test might be of help.

  19. Patch-testing with plastics and glues series allergens.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Farmer, Sara A; Davis, Mark D P

    2010-01-01

    Few US studies have reported results of patch testing with plastics and glues. To report our institution's results of testing patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues with a comprehensive plastics and glues series and to compare these results with previously published data. Retrospective review of results of patch-testing with plastics and glues allergens at our institution between 2000 and 2007. In total, 444 patients were patch-tested with up to 56 plastics and glues allergens in the specialized series and up to five plastics and glues allergens in a baseline series. Positive-reaction rates were compared to other patch testing reports. Of patients, 97 (22%) had irritant reactions, and 201 (45%) had at least one allergic reaction. Bis(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether 1%, benzoyl peroxide 1%, epoxy resin, bisphenol F 0.25%, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate 2%, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate 0.1% had the highest allergy reaction rates. Testing with specialized series identified 193 patients with plastics and glues allergy, of whom 162 were not identified by testing with baseline series alone. For patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues, patch-testing with specialized series of plastics and glues allergens is an important adjunct to patch-testing with baseline series.

  20. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  1. Patch test reactivity to DMDM hydantoin. Relationship to formaldehyde allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van Joost, T; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; Weyland, J W

    1988-04-01

    The relationship between contact allergy to formaldehyde and positive patch test reactions to DMDM hydantoin was investigated. 35 formaldehyde-allergic patients were patch tested with serial dilutions of formaldehyde (0.1%-0.3%-1.0% aq.) and DM hydantoin (the non-formaldehyde-containing parent compound of DMDM hydantoin). 21 were also patch tested with MDM hydantoin (1 molecule formaldehyde) in serial dilutions: 7 (33%) reacted to 1 or more concentrations. The other 14 were also tested with DMDM hydantoin (2 molecules formaldehyde) in serial dilutions: 8 (57%) reacted to 1 or more concentrations. Patients patch-test-positive to formaldehyde 0.1% and/or 0.3% tended to show more patch test reactivity to (D)MDM hydantoin than those who reacted only to 1%. Aqueous solutions of (D)MDM hydantoin in concentrations as used in cosmetic products therefore contain enough free formaldehyde to cause dermatitis in a patch test system in some formaldehyde-allergic patients: 12 such patients applied a cream containing 1% DMDM hydantoin to the flexor aspect of the lower arm twice daily for 1 week; 4 (33%) developed dermatitis. The use of a cream containing 0.25% DMDM hydantoin in these 4 patients still caused dermatitis in 1 and provoked itching in another. An increase in the use of DMDM hydantoin in cosmetic products will also inevitable increase the risk of cosmetic dermatitis in consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

  2. Epicutaneous patch testing in drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Felicidade; Gonçalo, Margarida; Vieira, Ricardo; Coelho, Sónia; Figueiredo, Américo

    2010-01-01

    In some patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, and depending on the culprit drug, patch testing has been helpful in confirming its cause. Its value in Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has not been established in a large cohort of patients. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety and usefulness of patch testing in DRESS. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we studied 56 patients with DRESS induced by antiepileptic agents in 33 patients (59%), allopurinol in 19 (34%) and sulfasalazine, cotrimoxazole, tenoxicam, and amoxicillin in 1 patient each (7%). A positive patch test reaction was observed in 18 patients (32.1%), of which 17 were with antiepileptics and 1 with tenoxicam. In the antiepileptic group, carbamazepine alone was responsible for 13 of 17 positive reactions (76.5%). Patch tests with allopurinol and its metabolite were negative in all cases attributed to this drug. In this study, patch testing was a safe and useful method in confirming the culprit drug in DRESS induced by antiepileptic drugs, whereas it had no value in DRESS induced by allopurinol. The pathogenesis of DRESS is not yet entirely clarified, but positive patch tests suggest a drug-dependent delayed hypersensitivity mechanism.

  3. Atopy patch testing for foods: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn P; Martinez, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was first reported in 1895 by the German dermatologist, Jadassohn and was used for evaluation of contact dermatitis. The first documented epicutaneous application of aeroallergens was by Rostenberg and Sulzbergen in 1937. Although others including Mitchell and Platts-Mills, further described patch testing with aeroallergens, Langeland et al. initially described the use of patch testing with foods by testing atopic patients against egg white. Subsequently, food patch testing has gained popularity and has been included as a potential test to assess for food allergy not only for atopic dermatitis (AD) but also eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, although its role still remains unclear. Through a comprehensive literature review, this article addresses the use of APT for foods and its application in AD and other allergic diseases. There will be inclusion of some data from aeroallergen and hapten patch testing as a basis from which our knowledge for food APT is derived. The data, in particular the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values, vary widely from 0 to 100%, depending on the study. Given this large variation in test results, food APT use in isolation is not recommended at this time. Additional studies are needed to standardize, improve accuracy and reproducibility, and determine its role in the evaluation of allergic diseases.

  4. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  5. Utility of patch testing for patients with drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ohtoshi, S; Kitami, Y; Sueki, H; Nakada, T

    2014-04-01

    Patch testing is less dangerous than oral provocation testing for identification of the causative drug for patients with drug eruption; however, its usefulness for such identification is controversial. To clarify the rates of positive patch testing for patients with drug eruption, classified by causative drugs and clinical features. We analysed results during the period 1990-2010 for 444 patients (151 men, 293 women; mean ± SD age 49.9 ± 18.6 years) who were tested for drug eruption. In the patient group, there were 309 people (69.1%) with maculopapular eruption and 31 (6.9%) with severe drug eruption. The test materials were applied to the back and left for 2 days under occlusion, then results were assessed by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3 days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Of the 444 patients, 100 (22.4%) had a positive patch test result to a suspected drug. Positive rates were 23.6% and 20.0% for maculopapular eruption and fixed drug eruption, respectively. The class of materials to which most patients reacted positively was contrast medium (n = 53; 41.1%), followed by drugs acting on the central nervous system (n = 18; 28.6%). In the latter group, 16 of the 18 patients were positive to antiepileptics. Positive rates depend on the causative drug rather than the clinical features of the drug eruption. Patch testing is useful when contrast medium or antiepileptics are suspected to be the causative drugs. However, standardization of patch test materials and method of reading is needed, as well as guidelines regarding when testing should be performed. Although patch testing for drug eruption has significant potential, it requires further validation. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction. PMID:27828643

  7. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Aline Soares de; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction.

  8. Patch testing practices of American Contact Dermatitis Society members.

    PubMed

    Schleichert, Rachel A; Hostetler, Sarah G; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Patch testing is an important part of diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis although there is much variability in methodology among practitioners. We surveyed members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) to quantify time spent with patients with contact dermatitis; to characterize patch testing practices, including the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous (T.R.U.E.) Test; and to assess utilization of the Contact Allergen Replacement Database (CARD). An electronic survey was sent to all members of the ACDS. Our survey was sent to the 600 members of the ACDS; 100 members participated (a response rate of 16.6%). Respondents used patch testing trays that contained an average of 62 allergens; 68% of respondents used the North American Contact Dermatitis Group series, and only 9% used the T.R.U.E. Test. Respondents' biggest criticism of the T.R.U.E. Test was its low number of allergens, and 94% of respondents used CARD regularly. ACDS members used patch testing trays with many allergens. Despite the T.R.U.E. Test's popularity among general dermatologists and allergists, few ACDS members used it. Routine CARD usage should be encouraged.

  9. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  10. Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Dinakar, Devina; Kurian, Swetha S.; Bindoo, Y. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental products are widely used by patients and dental personnel alike and may cause problems for both. Dental materials could cause contact allergy with varying manifestations such as burning, pain, stomatitis, cheilitis, ulcers, lichenoid reactions localized to the oral mucosa in patients, and hand dermatitis in dental personnel. Patch testing with the dental series comprising commonly used materials can be used to detect contact allergies to dental materials. Aim: This study aimed to identify contact allergy among patients who have oral mucosal lesions after dental treatment and among dental personnel who came in contact with these materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who had undergone dental procedures with symptoms of oral lichen planus, oral stomatitis, burning mouth, and recurrent aphthosis, were included in the study. Dental personnel with history of hand dermatitis were also included in the study. Patch testing was performed using Chemotechnique Dental Series and results interpreted as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG). Results: Out of 13 patients who had undergone dental treatment/with oral symptoms, six patients with stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, and oral ulcers showed positive patch tests to a variety of dental materials, seven patients with ulcers had negative patch tests, seven dental personnel with hand dermatitis showed multiple allergies to various dental materials, and most had multiple positivities. Conclusion: The patch test is a useful, simple, noninvasive method to detect contact allergies among patients and among dental personnel dealing with these products. Long term studies are necessary to establish the relevance of these positive patch tests by eliminating the allergic substances, identifying clinical improvement, and substituting with nonallergenic materials. PMID:25165644

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of patch test in children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Caglayan Sozmen, Sule; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Gioia, Edoardo; Mastrorilli, Carla; Rizzuti, Laura; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gold standard test for confirming whether a child has clinical hypersensitivity reactions to foods is the oral food challenge. Therefore, there is increasing interest in simpler diagnostic markers of food allergy, especially in children, to avoid oral food challenge. The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of atopy patch test in comparison with oral food challenge. We investigated 243 children (mean age, 51 months) referred for evaluation of suspected egg or cow's milk allergy. Skin prick test and atopy patch test were carried out, and after a 2 weeks elimination diet, oral food challenge was performed. Two hundred and forty-three children underwent OFC to the suspected food. We found clinically relevant food allergies in 40 (65%) children to egg and in 22 (35%) to cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test for both milk and egg was 92%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 35%, and negative predictive value of 93%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of atopy patch test for both milk and egg were 21%, 73%, 20%, and 74%, respectively. Our study suggests that there is insufficient evidence for the routine use of atopy patch test for the evaluation of egg and cow's milk allergy. OFC remains gold standard for the diagnosis of egg and milk allergy even in the presence of high costs in terms of both time and risks during application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Patch testing custom isocyanate materials from the workplace.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Dianne; Houle, Marie-Claude; Holness, D Linn; DeKoven, Joel; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Patch testing with standard trays of commercially available allergens is the current practice for investigating suspected cases of isocyanate-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In some facilities, these standard trays are further supplemented with custom preparations of isocyanate-containing materials. The aim was to determine whether added value exists in patch testing patients to custom isocyanate preparations in suspected cases of ACD. We performed a retrospective analysis of 11 patients referred to our specialty clinic between January 2003 and March 2011 for suspected patients of ACD who had custom testing with isocyanate materials from their workplace. In addition to standard trays of allergens, all patients were patch tested with custom isocyanate materials from their workplaces. Three (27%) of 11 patients showed an added value in testing to custom isocyanate allergens. Of these 3 patients, one had a reaction that reinforced positive reactions to the standard isocyanate tray, but the other 2 (18%) had no reactions to any of the commercially available allergens. Because of the high proportion of reactions (27%), we recommend the use of custom testing to workplace isocyanate products as a supplement to current standard patch testing procedures.

  13. Cinnamic aldehyde: a survey of consumer patch-test sensitization.

    PubMed

    Danneman, P J; Booman, K A; Dorsky, J; Kohrman, K A; Rothenstein, A S; Sedlak, R I; Steltenkamp, R J; Thompson, G R

    1983-12-01

    The potential for cinnamic aldehyde, an important fragrance and flavour ingredient, to induce or to elicit delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions in man was evaluated by analysing patch-test data. Results of studies involving a total of 4117 patch tests on various consumer products and fragrance blends containing cinnamic aldehyde and on the material itself were collected from fragrance and formulator companies. The data indicate that cinnamic aldehyde contained in consumer products and fragrance blends at concentrations up to 6 X 10(-1)%, and patch-tested at concentrations up to 8 X 10(-3)%, has no detectable potential to induce hypersensitivity. Cinnamic aldehyde when tested alone induced a dose-related hypersensitivity response. According to published reports, cinnamic aldehyde elicited positive delayed hypersensitivity responses in dermatitic patients. However, results of the current survey show that when cinnamic aldehyde was tested alone or as part of a mixture in subjects in the general population, no pre-existing hypersensitivity reactions to the fragrance material were observed in any of the 4117 patch tests which constituted the survey. Cinnamic aldehyde at the concentrations contained in consumer products and fragrances, has a very low potential to induce hypersensitivity ('induced' reactions) or to elicit sensitization reactions ('elicited' reactions) in the general population.

  14. Technical and ethical problems associated with patch testing.

    PubMed

    Storrs, F J

    1996-01-01

    When relevant allergens are identified by patch testing, and patients can avoid them in their environment, improvement of dermatitis is the rule. Some forms of chronic dermatitis may not clear completely, but patients are usually satisfied with modification of their previously more severe problem. In 1981 when asked what he felt were the five most important advances in clinical dermatology during the 20th century, Dr. Marion B. Sulzburger, an icon in American dermatology, said that, "The increased use and usefulness of the patch test and the international standardization of test concentrations and methods" was number one. Those of us who are enthusiastic patch testers and fascinated by the evaluation of patients with irritant and allergic contact dermatitis would agree. It is a thrilling clinical experience to be able to tell a machinist that he need not stop his lifelong occupation, but instead will do fine if he will simply avoid the waterless hand cleanser he has been using which is preserved with glutaraldehyde. The woman whose facial dermatitis has embarrassed her for years and clears when she stops using the Quaternium-15 preserved moisturizer that you have identified in your patch testing is grateful to you forever, and again happy in her own life. In 1991, my research assistants, Patricia Norris and Mary Lou Belozer, and I studied 30 university hospital workers who answered our advertisement asking for individuals who believed they were troubled by their rubber gloves (unreported study). By evaluating these people through history, physical examination, and patch testing, we were able to prove glove relatedness in 14 of them. Nine of the 14 had contact urticaria to latex, and only 5 had allergic contact dermatitis to rubber glove ingredients. Fifteen of our patients had irritant dermatitis. In this study, none of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis to glove ingredients had contact urticaria. However, since that time, we have observed a number of

  15. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  16. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis in the allergist office.

    PubMed

    Fonacier, Luz; Charlesworth, Ernest N

    2003-07-01

    The identification of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is key to the management of this disease. The patch test (PT) is the only safe, objective, scientific, and practical method for the diagnosis of ACD. There is no single PT panel that will screen all the relevant allergens in a patient's environment. It is generally thought that 20 to 30 allergens in routine screening tests can identify 50% to 70% of clinically relevant ACD. However, the usefulness of patch testing is enhanced with the number of allergens tested. Although the PT might be simple to apply, it might be difficult to read, interpret, and correlate to the patient's symptoms. A familiarity with the patient's environment, the process of the industry in that environment, and the uses of various chemicals in the industry is needed in most cases.

  17. Designing and testing a wearable, wireless fNIRS patch.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Cay, Gozde; Saikia, Manob Jyoti; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Optical brain monitoring using near infrared (NIR) light has got a lot of attention in order to study the complexity of the brain due to several advantages as oppose to other methods such as EEG, fMRI and PET. There are a few commercially available functional NIR spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain monitoring systems, but they are still non-wearable and pose difficulties in scanning the brain while the participants are in motion. In this work, we present our endeavors to design and test a low-cost, wireless fNIRS patch using NIR light sources at wavelengths of 770 and 830nm, photodetectors and a microcontroller to trigger the light sources, read photodetector's output and transfer data wirelessly (via Bluetooth) to a smart-phone. The patch is essentially a 3-D printed wearable system, recording and displaying the brain hemodynamic responses on smartphone, also eliminates the need for complicated wiring of the electrodes. We have performed rigorous lab experiments on the presented system for its functionality. In a proof of concept experiment, the patch detected the NIR absorption on the arm. Another experiment revealed that the patch's battery could last up to several hours with continuous fNIRS recording with and without wireless data transfer.

  18. Increased sensitivity of patch testing by standardized tape stripping beforehand: a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Kreft, Burkhard; Kuss, Oliver; Worm, Margitta; Soost, Stephanie; Brasch, Jochen; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Grabbe, Jürgen; Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Elsner, Peter; Fluhr, Joachim; Altmeyer, Peter; Geier, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    As a modification of patch testing, the strip patch test was established to obtain more sensitive and reliable test results. Comparative data on diagnostic accuracy for both tests are missing. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of strip patch tests and patch tests in detecting sensitizations in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis by using patient history as the reference standard. In a multicentre, prospective, investigator-blinded study 790 patients were enrolled. The defined reference standard was established prior to patch testing. Patch tests were performed with nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, and lanolin alcohol. Duplicate tests were simultaneously performed on both sides of the back, of which one randomly chosen side was tape stripped beforehand, according to a standardized procedure. Primary outcome was the difference in sensitivity between strip patch test and patch test. Seven hundred and eighty-seven patients were included in the analysis. Strip patch tests detected considerably more sensitization to nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate than patch tests: differences of sensitivities were 16.4% (95% CI, 8.7-24.1%) for nickel sulfate and 25.0% (95% CI, 8.9-41.0%) for potassium dichromate, both favouring the strip patch test. The standardized strip patch test proved to be accurate and clinically safe and is promising to improve diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis beyond the patch test.

  19. Impulse Testing of Corporate-Fed Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel method for detecting faults in antenna arrays. The method, termed Impulse Testing, was developed for corporate-fed patch arrays where the element is fed by a probe and is shorted at its center. Impulse Testing was devised to supplement conventional microwave measurements in order to quickly verify antenna integrity. The technique relies on exciting each antenna element in turn with a fast pulse (or impulse) that propagates through the feed network to the output port of the antenna. The resulting impulse response is characteristic of the path through the feed network. Using an oscilloscope, a simple amplitude measurement can be made to detect faults. A circuit model of the antenna elements and feed network was constructed to assess various fault scenarios and determine fault-detection thresholds. The experimental setup and impulse measurements for two patch array antennas are presented. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed along with applications to other antenna array topologies

  20. DRESS Syndrome Following Levofloxacin Exposure With Positive Patch-test.

    PubMed

    Charfi, Ons; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Sahnoun, Rim; Badri, Talel; Daghfous, Riadh; El Aidli, Sihem; Kastalli, Sarah; Zaïem, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome) in a severe cutaneous drug reaction, which can be life threatening. Levofloxacin has not been reported in literature as a causative drug. We are presenting an exceptional case of levofloxacin-induced DRESS without eosinophilia and with positive patch-tests to levofloxacin. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Patch Test as a Diagnostic Tool in Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Vigneshkarthik, Natarajan; Kuruvila, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of hand eczema. Patch testing is the only investigation available to prove the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Exposures to allergens differ according to geographical, occupational, economic and social factors. Accordingly, patterns of allergic contact dermatitis differ in different parts of the world and different regions of the same country. Aim To study the causes of allergic contact dermatitis in adult patients with hand eczema with the help of patch testing. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 54 hand eczema patients conducted between October 2013 and June 2015, at a tertiary care centre in Southern India. After a detailed history including history of occupational exposure and detailed examination, patch test was done on these patients with Indian standard series. The patches were removed after 48 hours. Another reading was taken after 72 hours. The readings were interpreted according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group criteria and noted down. The data were summarized using mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical and dichotomous variables. The test of association was done with Fisher’s-exact test. Results Hyperkeratotic hand eczema was the commonest morphological type (29%), followed by discoid eczema. Pompholyx was significantly more common among patients with history of atopy. A total of 20 patients (37%) showed patch test positivity to a total of 25 allergens. Nickel was the most common allergen (11.11%) followed by para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (7.4%). Nickel (6 patients) and cobalt (3 patients) were the common allergens among women, while potassium dichromate (3 patients) and parthenium (2 patients) were the common allergens among men. Potassium dichromate allergy was significantly more common among masons and PPD allergy was significantly more common among hair dye users. Discoid pattern of

  2. Comparison of urine to sweat patch test results in court ordered testing.

    PubMed

    Levisky, J A; Bowerman, D L; Jenkins, W W; Johnson, D G; Levisky, J S; Karch, S B

    2001-10-15

    A former cocaine and methamphetamine abuser was continuously monitored with both sweat patch and urine testing for approximately 6 months. Thirteen sweat patches were applied and collected, five were positive for cocaine and/or methamphetamine, but all the urine specimens collected were negative at the analytical cut-off levels. The high incidence of false positive sweat patch tests in relation to the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the sweat patch assay is discussed. Possible mechanisms, which can lead to false positive results, are presented. The results of our study raise further questions about the preferential use of the sweat patch in detecting new episodes of drug use in formerly chronic drug users.

  3. Cumulative irritation patch test of sanitary pads on sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda; Stadler, Angela

    2005-09-01

    Tools are needed to assess the effects of various products on sensitive skin. To investigate the cutaneous compatibility of various sanitary pads in people with self-declared sensitive skin. Eight subjects, who considered their skin to be sensitive and who reported adverse skin responses to everyday products or clothing, were patch tested on the arm with two, low-irritancy sanitary pads for four consecutive 24-hour periods. Test products differed only in their surface covering. Sodium lauryl sulfate solution (0.1% w/v) and physiological saline served as standard irritant and nonirritant controls, respectively. Skin irritation (erythema) was graded after each 24-hour period. No significant difference in skin erythema scores was observed between groups (scores on day 4: 1.06 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.13, on a five-point scale, P < 0.05). The temporal development of cumulative irritation associated with the pads was comparable to that observed with the nonirritant control (a plateau in maximal group scores) and distinct from that of the irritant control (continuously rising scores). Sanitary pads under investigation elicited negligible cumulative irritation in a four-day patch test on subjects with self-declared sensitive skin. The temporal pattern of cumulative response was consistent with the inherently low irritation potential of the products.

  4. Multicentre patch test study of air-oxidized ethoxylated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Matura, Mihaly; Bodin, Anna; Skare, Lizbet; Nyrén, Miruna; Hovmark, Anders; Lindberg, Magnus; Lundeberg, Lena; Wrangsjö, Karin; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2004-10-01

    Frequent exposure to water and surfactants is considered to be the main cause of hand eczema from wet work. Ethoxylated surfactants are susceptible to oxidation and some of the oxidation products formed have proved to be contact sensitizers in guinea pigs. The question of human sensitization to oxidized surfactants was addressed in a multicentre study in the Stockholm region. 528 consecutive dermatitis patients were patch tested with widely used ethoxylated surfactants in oxidized and non-oxidized form as well as certain identified oxidation compounds. 61 patients presented with mild, clearly irritant reactions to some of the surfactants tested. 18 patients showed not only erythema but also oedema and/or papules and vesicles, using a morphologic descriptive system for reading the patch test reactions. These reactions occurred mostly to oxidized surfactants and oxidation products. When retesting 9 of these 18 patients only an allergic reaction to acetaldehyde was confirmed. We conclude that oxidized ethoxylated surfactants have increased irritant potential compared to non-oxidized material. Our working hypothesis is that oxidized surfactants of technical quality exert a lower risk of sensitization than do oxidized homologous pure surfactants. Among the potential allergens formed during autoxidation, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde must be considered as a source of unexpected exposure.

  5. Nevirapine patch testing in Thai human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with nevirapine drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Prasertvit, Piyatida; Chareonyingwattana, Angkana; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2017-08-06

    Antiretroviral drug hypersensitivity in HIV patients is common. Publications have shown that Abacavir (ABC) patch testing is useful in confirming ABC hypersensitivity in 24-50% of cases with a 100% sensitivity of HLA-B*5701 in patch test positive cases. However, Nevirapine (NVP) patch testing has not been reported. (1) To evaluate the usefulness and safety of NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity. (2) To assess the correlation of positive patch tests with HLA-B*3505. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) study group of 20 HIV NVP hypersensitivity patients and (2) control group of 15 volunteers without NVP hypersensitivity. Both groups were patch tested with purified and commercialized form of NVP in various vehicles. Two HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity were patch test positive. All controls tested negative. Three HIV patients were positive for HLA-B*3505 and the two patients with positive patch testing were both HLA-B*3505 positive. NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients is safe and can be used to help confirm the association between NVP and hypersensitivity skin reactions. NVP patch test results significantly correlated with HLA-B*3505. The sensitivity of HLA-B*3505 for positive patch test was 100%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of patch test results with denture material series.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, M; Geier, J

    1996-03-01

    791 patients, among them 59 dental technicians and 732 other patients, were tested with the denture material series (DMS) recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) in the hospitals of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between January 1990 and July 1993. Most frequently, positive reactions occurred to cadmium chloride in both groups. However, there was no evidence at all for relevance of these reactions. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) ranked 2nd in patch test positivity. Although not statistically significant, reactions were more frequent in dental technicians, who might be exposed to BPO the in working environment. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were common sensitizers in dental technicians but not in other patients. This finding, too, has its explanation in the working process of manufacturing dental prostheses.

  7. Priming and testing silicon patch-clamp neurochips.

    PubMed

    Py, Christophe; Denhoff, Michael W; Sabourin, Nicaulas; Weber, John; Shiu, Matthew; Zhao, Ping

    2014-09-25

    We report on the systematic and automated priming and testing of silicon planar patch-clamp chips after their assembly in Plexiglas packages and sterilization in an air plasma reactor. We find that almost 90% of the chips are successfully primed by our automated setup, and have a shunt capacitance of between 10 pF and 30 pF. Blocked chips are mostly due to glue invasion in the well, and variability in the manual assembly process is responsible for the distribution in shunt capacitance value. Priming and testing time with our automated setup is less than 5 min per chip, which is compatible with the production of large series for use in electrophysiology experiments.

  8. The effect of patch testing on surgical practices and outcomes in orthopedic patients with metal implants.

    PubMed

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Tellez, Alejandra; Molina, Luciana; Honari, Golara; Sood, Apra; Barsoum, Wael; Taylor, James S

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of patch testing on surgical decision making and outcomes in patients evaluated for suspected metal hypersensitivity related to implants in bones or joints. Medical chart review. Tertiary care academic medical center. All patients who had patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis related to orthopedic implants. Patch testing. The surgeon's preoperative choice of metal implant alloy compared with patch testing results and the presence of hypersensitivity complications related to the metal implant on postsurgical follow-up. Patients with potential metal hypersensitivity from implanted devices (N = 72) were divided into 2 groups depending on timing of their patch testing: preimplantation (n = 31) and postimplantation (n = 41). History of hypersensitivity to metals was a predictor of positive patch test results to metals in both groups. Positive patch test results indicating metal hypersensitivity influenced the decision-making process of the referring surgeon in all preimplantation cases (n = 21). Patients with metal hypersensitivity who received an allergen-free implant had surgical outcomes free of hypersensitivity complications (n = 21). In patients who had positive patch test results to a metal in their implant after implantation, removal of the device led to resolution of associated symptoms (6 of 10 patients). The findings of this study support a role for patch testing in patients with a clinical history of metal hypersensitivity before prosthetic device implantation. The decision on whether to remove an implanted device after positive patch test results should be made on a case-by-case basis, as decided by the surgeon and patient.

  9. [Atopy patch test--when is it useful?].

    PubMed

    Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to introduce the atopy patch test (APT) as a model of cellular immunity reaction. APT is epicutaneous test performed with food and aeroallergens, and represents a good model for T lymphocyte hypersensitivity. It is compared with skin prick test (SPT). Its value is supported by the fact that atopic dermatitis is the result of complex immune interactions and involves both Coombs and Gell reactions type IV and I. In this review, we shortly discuss the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, distinction of extrinsic and intrinsic issues, and compare the value of APT with SPT and IgE determination. APT includes epicutaneous application of type I allergens known to elicit IgE mediated reactions, followed by evaluation of eczematous skin reaction after 48 and 72 hours. The limitations of ATP include the lack of test standardization, but there also are comparative advantages over SPT and specific IgE determination. We also briefly discuss the most important food and aeroallergens. APT has been recognized as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of food allergy and aeroallergens such as house dust mite, pollen and animal dander. APT is a useful diagnostic procedure in patients with atopic dermatitis allergic to inhalant allergens and in children with food allergy younger than 2 years. The sensitivity and specificity of the test greatly depend on the allergen tested and patient age.

  10. Patch test frequency to p-phenylenediamine: follow up over the last 6 years.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Basketter, David A; Jefferies, Donna; White, Ian R; Rycroft, Richard J G; McFadden, John P; Ho, Stephanie Y

    2007-01-01

    While the frequency of patch test reactivity to many cosmetic allergens has decreased over the last 20 years, we have previously shown that in our clinic, the patch test reactivity to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has remained stubbornly high between 2.5% and 4.2% in the years when patch testing was performed with 1% PPD. Further retrospective analysis of the PPD patch test frequency over the last 6 years shows an increasing rate of PPD patch test frequency, showing an upward linear trend. This increasing trend cannot be fully explained by any increase in patch testing of Southern Asian patients or of sensitization caused by PPD exposure from 'temporary henna tattoos'. An alternative explanation may be the increasing use of permanent hair dyes.

  11. Metal patch test results from 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Hiromitsu; Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

    2011-03-01

    Although metals are common contact allergens, clinical findings of metal contact dermatitis have varied. Such patients have subsequently become rare in Japan as gold dermatitis caused by ear piercing or baboon syndrome by broken thermometers. To evaluate such clinical findings and to determine the frequency of metal allergy, we analyzed the results of patch testing with 18 metals from 1990-2009. Nine hundred and thirty-one patients (189 men and 742 women, mean age 39.0years [standard deviation±17.8]) were tested. Metals were applied on the back for 2days, and the results read with the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Differences of positive rates between men and women, and patients from 1990-1999 and those from 2000-2009 were analyzed with the χ(2) -test. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The metal to which the most patients reacted was 5% nickel sulfate (27.2%), irrespective of sex and phase. Significantly more women reacted to nickel sulfate (P<0.01), mercuric chloride (P<0.05) and gold chloride (P<0.01) than men. Significantly more patients in the 1990s reacted to palladium chloride, mercuric chloride and gold chloride (all P<0.01) than from 2000-2009. Nickel has been the most common metal allergen and mercury-sensitivity has decreased over 19years in Japan.

  12. [Results of patch tests using basic allergens in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    1983-01-01

    A group of 853 construction industry workers exposed to irritants and allergens (mainly cement, lime, sand, water, lubricants and antiadhesive oils and a control group of 74 subjects (sawers) underwent patch tests after Jadassohn--Bloch with seven allergens most common in the construction industry working environment (compounds of chromium, nickel and cobalt, turpentine and three rubber allergens--mercantobenzothiazole, thiocarbamoyl and diphenylguanidine). Allergy was found in 25.5% of the construction industry workers, in this 7.7% were those with eczema and dermatitis, 17.8%--those with latent allergy (in 12.2% allergy was accompanied by dermatoses of non-allergic etiology, 5.6% construction workers no skin changes). The highest number of skin positive tests was that with chromium (22.4% of affected workers) and cobalt (12.4%). Most susceptible to allergy were: painters, bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, reinforcing concretors, terrazers, concretors, electricians, smiths and reinforcers. In addition, allergy was found to be dependent on age and length of employment.

  13. The different decomposition properties of diazolidinyl urea in cosmetics and patch test materials.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takahiro; Kajimura, Keiji; Taguchi, Shuzo

    2011-08-01

    Diazolidinyl urea is a formaldehyde-releasing compound that releases formaldehyde through its decomposition. However, there have been few reports about the decomposition properties of diazolidinyl urea in cosmetics and patch test materials. The aim of this study was to show how diazolidinyl urea decomposes in cosmetics and patch test vehicles, and to determine which cosmetic compounds should be evaluated in patch test studies of diazolidinyl urea. We fractionated diazolidinyl urea-dissolving buffers or diazolidinyl urea-containing cosmetics with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA), and characterized them in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and (1) H-nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Diazolidinyl urea-containing cosmetics and diazolidinyl urea patch test materials were also analysed with HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Diazolidinyl urea was decomposed to (4-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea (HU) and (3,4-bis-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea (3,4-BHU) in most of the cosmetic samples tested. The peak patterns of the patch test materials analysed with the HPLC-PDA were different from those of the cosmetic samples. CONCLUSIONS. The diazolidinyl urea-derived decomposition products differed between the cosmetics and patch test preparations. To test the contact sensitivity of the diazolidinyl urea present in cosmetics, patch tests with HU and 3,4-BHU in petrolatum should be performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Analysis of patch test referrals: influence of appropriateness of referrals on sensitization rate.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Borghi, Alessandro; Mantovani, Lucia; Virgili, Annarosa

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have addressed the frequency and the consequences of the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing. To analyse the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing among patients seen in the Allergy Unit, University of Ferrara, and to evaluate whether this selection influences the results of the test. One thousand six hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled, and 1528 patients were patch tested. On the basis of the history and clinical picture, the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing was judged. Of the patients, 82.30% attended the Allergy Unit with a clinical presentation and/or history considered to be an appropriate indication for patch testing. The rate of appropriate referrals for patch testing from dermatologists was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that for referrals from other physicians. The sensitization rate was significantly higher among the appropriate referrals than among the inappropriate ones, both in the entire sample (p < 0.001) and in atopic patients (p = 0.012). Clinical experience was seen to be crucial for the appropriate selection of patients. Furthermore, appropriate referral for patch testing was shown to influence the sensitization rate. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Usefulness of intradermal test and patch test in the diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to metamizol.

    PubMed

    Macías, E; Ruiz, A; Moreno, E; Laffond, E; Dávila, I; Lorente, F

    2007-12-01

    Metamizole is a pyrazolone derivative, and its most common reactions are IgE-mediated reaction and idiosyncratic reactions. Non-immediate reactions are poorly described and there are very few reports on non-immediate reactions to pyrazolones. We evaluated 12 patients (nine men) who consulted for a non-immediate reaction after metamizol administration. We performed cutaneous tests (skin prick tests and immediate and delayed intradermal tests) and epicutaneous tests, and, if necessary, an oral challenge test. All skin prick and intradermal tests, if necessary, were negative in immediate reading. Delayed intradermal tests were positive in six of 10 patients (60%) and epicutaneous tests were positive in four of 11 patients (36%). Three cases (25%), were diagnosed by a positive oral challenge test. Delayed-reading intradermal tests and patch tests are useful tools in the diagnosis of nonimmediate reactions to pyrazolones and should be considered the first step when evaluating these type of reactions. Intradermal test appears to be more sensitive than patch test. The positivity of skin tests suggests an immunological reaction, probably mediated by T lymphocytes, but further studies are required.

  16. The spectrum of cutaneous patch-test reactions in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hanifin, J M; Klas, P A

    1996-01-01

    We have outlined rationale and problems associated with three types of patch tests that may provide diagnostic help in patients with difficult-to-manage AD. Each of these methods is imperfect and in need of greater study using a critical approach, better techniques, more attention to irritant controls, and better definition of atopic populations. Proof of validity for aeroallergen patch testing will necessarily require large quantities of purified antigens. In spite of all these problems, patch testing can be useful and sometimes essential for the diagnosis and management of difficult AD.

  17. Influence of detergent washing powders on minimal eliciting patch test concentrations of nickel and chromium.

    PubMed

    Allenby, C F; Goodwin, B F

    1983-11-01

    Minimum eliciting levels of nickel have been estimated in 25 nickel-sensitive subjects, and of chromium in 14 chromium-sensitive subjects by patch tests with aqueous solutions of the respective metals. The minimum level of each metal required to provoke a patch test reaction was considerably greater than that found in fabric washing powder solutions and was in the majority of patients tested of the order of 112 ppm nickel (0.05% nickel sulphate) or 885 ppm hexavalent chromium (0.25% potassium dichromate). One nickel-sensitive subject and one chromium-sensitive subject reacted to 1 ppm of the respective metal. Fabric washing powder did not significantly alter the patch test reaction to nickel sulphate or provoke reactions in nickel- or chromium-sensitive subjects. EDTA significantly reduced the number and severity of patch test reactions to nickel sulphate but not those to potassium dichromate or trivalent chromium.

  18. Patch-test reaction patterns in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis often need to be patch tested in order to detect possible contact sensitization. However, it is unknown whether immunologic or other peculiarities of atopic skin are related to altered patch-test reaction patterns. Our study was aimed at answering this question, because patch-test reaction patterns are of considerable practical importance in the reading and interpretation of patch tests. Therefore, we compared patterns of patch-test reactions in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis and in control patients matched for sex, age, reason for testing and test centre. Patch-test results from 9 centres (2322 patients with a disposition to atopic dermatitis and 2126 matched controls) were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were tested with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, potassium dichromate, lanolin alcohol, formaldehyde and mercury ammonium chloride. Patch tests applied for 1 day with readings on days 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated in order to cover the early phase of the reactions. Not unexpectedly, we found that, compared to the matched controls, patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis tended to have more doubtful and irritant reactions on day 1. As a new observation, it turned out that they had less reactions of crescendo pattern and more strong reactions on day 3. All these differences were slight/insignificant. A higher skin irritability in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis is a likely explanation. In conclusion, standard methods for patch testing can be applied in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but minor differences in reaction patterns should be considered.

  19. Sensitization to petrolatum: an unusual cause of false-positive drug patch-tests.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, G; Schmutz, J L; Trechot, Ph; Commun, N; Barbaud, A

    2004-09-01

    We report on an unexpected sensitization to petrolatum diagnosed with the occurrence of multiple nonrelevant and false-positive drug patch-tests performed while investigating a patient suffering from many cutaneous adverse drug reactions. All the positive drug patch-tests were prepared with GILBERT vaseline. This petrolatum reaction is positive as it was tested with five other brands of petrolatums a few months later. As the same petrolatums, but from different batches were tested, patch-tests with GILBERT petrolatum were doubtful, while other petrolatums were positive. White petrolatum is a mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons of the methane series. The sensitizing impurities of petrolatum are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. phenanthrene derivatives. The purity of petrolatum depends on both the petroleum stock and on the production and packaging methods. Even if rare, contact sensitization to petrolatum can disturb the interpretation of drug patch-tests. It is necessary in the interpretation of drug patch-tests to test both in petrolatum and other vehicles and with all the different petrolatums used in preparing the material for drug patch-tests. So, it is essential to advise the patients sensitized to petrolatum to remove all the topical drugs, such as all the cosmetics, which contain petrolatum in their formulation.

  20. FOOT ECZEMA: THE ROLE OF PATCH TEST IN DETERMINING THE CAUSATIVE AGENT USING STANDARD SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Priya, K S; Kamath, Ganesh; Martis, Jacintha; D, Sukumar; Shetty, Narendra J; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda

    2008-01-01

    Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema. PMID:19881990

  1. [Should metal alloy discs be used for patch testing in suspected metal implant intolerance reaction?].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Geier, J; Dickel, H; Diepgen, T; Hillen, U; Kreft, B; Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Mahler, V

    2015-11-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, patch testing should not be done in a prophylactic-prophetic approach. Pre-implant patch testing should only be performed to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a reported respective history. In the case of implant-in particular arthroplasty-related complications like, for example, pain, effusion, skin changes, reduced range of motion, or loosening, orthopedic-surgical differential diagnostics should be performed first. Allergological workup of suspected metal implant allergy should be done with the DKG baseline series which contains nickel-, cobalt- and chromium-preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing proved that this approach does not give reliable information about metal allergy. Positive patch test reactions to the discs cannot be assigned to a specific metal within the disc alloy components. Furthermore, availability of such metal discs might be an invitation to uncritical testing. Accordingly, due to lack of benefit in comparison to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs.

  2. Assessment criteria for MEG/EEG cortical patch tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; An, Kwang-Ok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2003-08-01

    To validate newly developed methods or implemented software for magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) source localization problems, many researchers have used human skull phantom experiments or artificially constructed forward data sets. Between the two methods, the use of an artificial data set constructed with forward calculation attains superiority over the use of a human skull phantom in that it is simple to implement, adjust and control various conditions. Nowadays, for the forward calculation, especially for the cortically distributed source models, generating artificial activation patches on a brain cortical surface has been popularized instead of activating some point dipole sources. However, no well-established assessment criterion to validate the reconstructed results quantitatively has yet been introduced. In this paper, we suggest some assessment criteria to compare and validate the various MEG/EEG source localization techniques or implemented software applied to the cortically distributed source model. Four different criteria can be used to measure accuracy, degrees of focalization, noise-robustness, existence of spurious sources and so on. To verify the usefulness of the proposed criteria, four different results from two different noise conditions and two different reconstruction techniques were compared for several patches. The simulated results show that the new criteria can provide us with a reliable index to validate the MEG/EEG source localization techniques.

  3. Patch Test Series for Allergic Perineal Dermatitis in the Diapered Infant.

    PubMed

    Yu, JiaDe; Treat, James; Brod, Bruce

    Allergic perineal dermatitis (PD) due to diaper wipes, topical medicaments, or diapers has been reported. Although patch testing is the criterion standard for detection of allergic contact dermatitis in children, this is limited by body surface area, decreased tolerance of the patch testing procedure, and increased false-positive rates due to irritant reactions. Therefore, a targeted patch testing series is necessary to better screen diapered infants for possible allergic PD. We propose 2 patch test series (PD series 1 and 2) to screen infants with possible allergic PD. Allergens are chosen using existing sensitization data of common allergens in children, published case reports, and the collective experience of American Contact Dermatitis Society members through an electronic survey. PD series 1 includes 23 potential allergens found in wet wipes and topical diaper preparations. PD series 2 contains 10 potential allergens most commonly found in diapers. We believe that these judiciously chosen patch test series will increase the yield of detecting the causes of allergic PD while not exposing children to an unnecessarily large screening patch test panel.

  4. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  5. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  6. Variation in the amount of petrolatum preparation applied at patch testing.

    PubMed

    Bruze, Magnus; Frick-Engfeldt, Malin; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Isaksson, Marléne

    2007-01-01

    The elicitation of a positive patch test reaction in a given individual depends upon the dose of the sensitizer applied, the patch test technique and the occlusion time. The dose is determined by the concentration and volume/amount of test preparation applied. If the same amount/volume of a test preparation is applied all the time with the same test technique (same area of skin) and occlusion time, it is appropriate to use concentration as a dose parameter. Most contact sensitizers are incorporated in petrolatum (pet.). With pet. as vehicle, it is impossible to repeatedly apply an exact volume/amount. This study was performed to investigate the inter- and intra-individual variation of pet. preparation applied at patch testing by 3 technicians. Weighing demonstrated that the 3 technicians had about the same precision in their pet. application. The investigation demonstrates that there is both an inter-individual (statistically significant) and intra-individual variation in the amounts of pet. applied at patch testing for the 3 technicians. Presently, there is no recommendation on what amount of pet. preparation to apply, which merits a decision to be taken based on thorough investigations on the appropriate volumes of pet. preparation to be applied in various patch test systems.

  7. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  8. The optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole as a sensitizing component of tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    2014-09-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil results in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. To identify the optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole, and to investigate the relationship between a positive reaction to ascaridole and a positive reaction to oxidized tea tree oil. Three hundred and nineteen patients with eczema were patch tested with ascaridole 1%, 2%, and 5%, and 250 patients were patch tested with oxidized tea tree oil 5%. Readings were performed on D3 and D7 according to a patch test calibration protocol. With an increasing ascaridole test concentration, the frequency of positive reactions increased: ascaridole 1%, 1.4%; ascaridole 2%, 5.5%; and ascaridole 5%, 7.2%. However, the frequencies of irritant and doubtful reactions also increased, especially for ascaridole 5%. A positive reaction to ascaridole was related to a positive reaction to tea tree oil. This study is in support of ascaridole being a sensitizer. We recommend patch testing with ascaridole at 2%. The finding that every positive reaction to oxidized tea tree oil is accompanied by a positive reaction to ascaridole suggests that ascaridole might be a contact allergen in oxidized tea tree oil. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Extreme patch test reactivity to p-phenylenediamine but not to other allergens in children.

    PubMed

    Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    According to clinical impression, extreme patch test reactions (+++) to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are not uncommon in children. To investigate the patch test reactivity in children (aged 1-14 years) in comparison with other age groups and other allergens. A retrospective analysis was performed of data from the German Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, including all patients consecutively patch tested between 1994 and 2004 with PPD, and, for comparison, nickel, fragrance mix I, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The distribution of +, ++ and +++ grades of positive reactions among those with a positive reaction were analysed in five age strata. We found a strikingly higher proportion of +++ reactions to PPD in children than in all other age groups (p < 0.001). No such difference was observed for the other allergens. The main suspected exposures associated with extreme reactions to PPD in children were hair dyes and 'henna tattoos'. The high proportion of extreme patch test reactions to PPD, but not to other important allergens, in children reflects intense sensitization, probably because of a high induction dose from PPD-containing 'henna tattoos'. In children with a history of contact allergy to 'henna tattoos' or hair dyes, the standard patch test concentration of PPD 1% should be drastically reduced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  12. Patch testing for the diagnosis of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elzagallaai, Abdelbaset A; Knowles, Sandra R; Rieder, Michael J; Bend, John R; Shear, Neil H; Koren, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS), also known by the other names drug rash (reaction) with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), is a rare and potentially fatal reaction that occurs in susceptible patients after exposure to certain drugs, including aromatic anticonvulsants. Because of its ill-defined clinical picture and resemblance to other diseases, the diagnosis of AHS is often difficult and requires a safe and reliable diagnostic test. The skin patch test has been proven to be very useful for prediction and diagnosis of some types of hypersensitivity reactions such as delayed drug eruptions to beta-lactam antibacterials. However, the diagnostic value of patch testing for AHS is yet to be determined and its negative predictive values (NPVs) and positive predictive values (PPVs) are still unknown. This systematic review attempts to evaluate the usefulness of patch tests in the diagnosis of AHS and to examine different technical aspects of patch testing that may contribute to its performance. We included studies in which aromatic anticonvulsant drugs are the likely causes of the hypersensitivity reaction. Analysis of original publications from 1950 to August 2008 and cited in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE has revealed contradictory findings, possibly due mainly to the use of unstandardized methods. Numerous factors have been suggested to affect the final result of the test, including the following: type of drug tested; concentration of drug and vehicle used; timing of the test after exposure; and the clinical picture of the reaction. The PPV of the test in optimal conditions was as high as 80-90% depending on the drug tested. On the other hand, this value is around 10-20% in many other published studies. Although patch testing may be a useful diagnostic test for AHS, accurate determination of its sensitivity and specificity is yet to be achievable due to the lack of a gold standard test against

  13. Colophony in mascara as a cause of eyelid dermatitis. Chemical analyses and patch testing.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C; Ehrin, E

    1991-01-01

    Contact allergy to various components in cosmetics may cause eyelid dermatitis. Of 8 mascaras analysed with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 3 contained colophony. Patients with contact allergy to colophony showed positive patch test reactions when tested with the two mascaras with the highest content of colophony. One mascara without colophony but containing nickel, gave positive reactions in persons with contact allergy to nickel.

  14. Fragrance patch tests prepared in advance may give false-negative reactions.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Several of the ingredients in fragrance mix I (FM I) have been shown to evaporate from petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers to an extent that can be suspected to affect the patch test result. To compare the reactivity towards FM I and fragrance mix II (FM II) when they are applied in test chambers in advance and immediately prior to the patch test occasion. Seven hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients were simultaneously patch tested with duplicate samples of FM I and FM II. One sample was applied in the test chamber 6 days in advance (6D sample), and the other sample was applied immediately before the patients were patch tested (fresh sample). Twenty-two (2.8%) patients reacted exclusively to the fresh sample of FM I, 6 (0.7%) reacted exclusively to the 6D sample, and 22 (2.8%) reacted to both samples. The corresponding numbers for FM II were 9 (1.1%) for the fresh sample, 6 (0.7%) for the 6D sample and 12 (1.5%) for both samples. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of patients reacting to the fresh and 6D samples of FM I. No corresponding difference was observed for FM II. This can probably be explained by differences in volatilities between the ingredients of FM I and FM II. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials' human repeated insult patch test protocol.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; Api, Anne Marie

    2008-10-01

    With implementation of the dermal sensitization QRA approach for fragrance ingredients, IFRA/RIFM are recommending use of the RIFM standard human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT) protocol for generation of confirmatory human data for the induction of dermal sensitization in a normal human population. Details of this standard HRIPT protocol are provided in this paper. The study protocol consists of two phases--Induction and Challenge. In the Induction phase, patches treated with fragrance ingredients in 75% diethyl phthalate/25% ethanol are applied to backs of volunteers for 24h. Following patch removal there is a 24-h rest period and volunteers are patched again at the same site. This procedure is repeated to achieve 9 applications over a 3-week period. There is an approximate 2-week rest period followed by a Challenge phase of a single 24-h patch application of test article applied to a naïve site on the back. Skin reactions at the naïve site observed at Challenge may be suggestive of dermal sensitization, and a Rechallenge is performed to confirm the nature of the reactivity. This study is designed to confirm the No-Observed-Effect-Level for induction of dermal sensitization in a normal human population.

  16. A new occlusive patch test system comparable to IQ and Finn chambers.

    PubMed

    Sajun Merchant, Shaziya Z; Vaidya, Ashlesha D; Salvi, Anjali; Joshi, Rajiv S; Mohile, Rashmikant B

    2014-01-01

    A good patch test system should have good adhesion and contact, and minimal leakage; Finn and IQ patch test system have these properties but are expensive. To develop a new cost-effective occlusive patch test system that had good contact with the skin and was non-irritant. The system (designated Chamber X) was fabricated using a semi-permeable tape and a flexible virgin plastic chamber. Chamber X was developed by (i) selecting adhesive tape based on its non irritancy and adhesive potential (ii) testing plastic chamber material for its skin irritancy (iii) testing the assembled system against Finn, IQ and locally available chambers for irritancy, contact, leakage and occlusivity. Chamber X showed better occlusion than IQ, Finn and locally available chambers and was comparable to, (P > 0.05) IQ and Finn in terms of irritancy, contact and leakage. The results demonstrate that the Chamber X offers a cost effective patch test system comparable to IQ and Finn chambers in terms of safety, adhesion, leakage and occlusivity.

  17. Patch testing with serial dilutions of various isothiazolinones in patients hypersensitive to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, methylisothiazolinone (MI) on its own came into use as a preservative. Prior to that, MI was always present together with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). Can the pattern of reactivity to the separate active ingredients in allergic patients tell us something about the primary sensitizer? To investigate the potential pattern of cross-reactivity between the isothiazolinones tested, and to find the minimal elicitation concentration for each chemical, in order to determine whether the primary sensitizer is MCI or MI. Patients reacting to MCI/MI and/or MI were additionally patch tested with MCI/MI, MCI, MI, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (dichloro-OIT) in serial dilutions. Three different groups of reactors were seen. One group did not react to MI; another group reacted to both MCI and MI, but had higher patch test reactivity to MCI; and a third group reacted to both MCI and MI with very similar patch test reactivity, but reacted more often to OIT and dichloro-OIT. Patch testing with the active ingredients of MCI/MI in serial dilutions could give information on the primary sensitizer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A patch test confirmed phenobarbital-induced fixed drug eruption in a child.

    PubMed

    Chadly, Zohra; Aouam, Karim; Chaabane, Amel; Belhadjali, Hichem; Abderrazzak Boughattas, Naceur; Zili, Jamel Eddine

    2014-06-01

    A-10-year-old girl was referred to our department for multiple hyperpigmented plaques. One week previously, she had been given one suppository of acetylsalicylic acid - phenobarbital for fever. Twelve hours after the drug intake the child developed pruritic red plaques on the left thigh. Six weeks after resolution of the acute reaction, patch tests were performed separately, with phenobarbital and acetylsalicylic acid. On 48-hour reading, only the phenobarbital patch test on residual pigmented lesion was positive. Because of possible cross-reactions between aromatic anticonvulsants, subsequent patch tests using carbamazepine and phenytoin on residual pigmented lesions were performed. They were all negative at 48-hour reading. To our knowledge, only two isolated pediatric cases of Phenobarbital-induced FDE have been reported in the literature. In this case report, as it was difficult to determine whether phenobarbital or acetylsalicylic acid was responsible for this reaction, subsequent patch tests allowed the identification of the culprit component since it was positive to phenobarbital.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of an oral base-metal contact lesion following negative dermatologic patch tests.

    PubMed

    Lyzak, W A; Flaitz, C M; McGuckin, R S; Eichmiller, F; Brown, R S

    1994-08-01

    We report a confirmed case of intraoral contact mucositis secondary to nickel dental alloy hypersensitivity. The lesion resolved after removal of the offending prosthesis. The patient responded negatively to dermatologic patch tests, but a positive intraoral rechallenge confirmed the mucositis diagnosis. A nonreactive, gold alloy prosthesis was inserted for a successful result.

  20. Hydroxychloroquine-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis with positive patch-testing.

    PubMed

    Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.

  1. Frequency of positive patch test reactions to preservatives: The Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Chow, Elizabeth T; Avolio, Andrea M; Lee, Adriene; Nixon, Rosemary

    2013-02-01

    Preservatives are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The frequency of allergy to preservatives in Australia has been unknown to date. Our objectives are to report the frequency of positive preservative patch test reactions in Australia, comparing them to the published international data, as well as exploring the current regulations in place for preservative use in Australia. This was the first retrospective study of patch testing results, aggregated from four patch test clinics in three centres in Melbourne and Sydney. In all, 6845 patients were patch-tested during 1993-2006 and in this period the five most frequent preservative allergens were formaldehyde (4.6%), Euxyl K400 (containing methyldibromo glutaronitrile and phenoxyethanol) (3.3%), quaternium-15 (2.9%), diazolidinyl urea (2.4%), and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (2.3%). These were followed by dimethylol dimethyl DMDM hydantoin (2.1%), chloroacetamide (2.1%) and imidazolidinyl urea (1.9%). The least frequent sensitisers were parabens (1.1%), 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol (0.9%) and benzyl alcohol (0.4%). Formaldehyde was the most prevalent preservative allergen. Chloroacetamide allergy was more commonly seen in Australia. Parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and benzyl alcohol were the least frequent sensitisers. Household products in Australia are not required to list all ingredients preventing sensitised individuals from properly assessing their exposure. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Standardizing the Delivery of 20 μL of Hapten During Patch Testing.

    PubMed

    Selvick, Annika; Stauss, Kari; Strobush, Katrina; Taylor, Lauren; Picard, Alexandra; Doll, Andrea; Reeder, Margo

    2016-01-01

    The current method for patch test tray assembly requires hand dispensing a small volume of hapten onto chambers. Because of human error, this technique produces inaccurate and inconsistent results. The recommended volume of hapten for patch testing using Finn Chambers is 20 μL. The aims of this study were to create a device that standardizes the delivery of 20 μL and to compare it with the current hand dispensing technique. A device, named the Revolution, was created using the SolidWorks program. Five nurses in our Contact Dermatitis Clinic were asked to load 10 Finn Chambers using the current technique and also using the Revolution. Assembly time, volume of petrolatum, and accuracy of placement were measured. After the 3 trials, the nurses completed a survey on the 2 methods. The amount of petrolatum dispensed using the current technique ranged from 16 to 85 μL, with an average amount of 41.39 μL. The Revolution design dispensed an average of 19.78 μL. The current hand dispensing technique does not allow for accurate and consistent dispensing of 20 μL for patch testing. In contrast, the Revolution is an accurate and consistent device that can help standardize the patch testing method.

  3. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    PubMed

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Patch testing with a textile dye mix in a baseline series in two countries.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, Kristina; Goossens, An; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-06-01

    Disperse dyes are the most common contact sensitizers among textile dyes. The main aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix 6.6%. A total of 2,049 patients from Sweden and 497 from Belgium were tested with the mix, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, 0.3% each. Of the total number, 65 patients, 2.6%, tested positively to the mix, 4.2% of the Belgian patients and 2.1% of the Swedish patients. Patch testing with the mix 6.6% revealed significantly more patients with contact allergy compared with testing with a previous mix 3.2% (p < 0.01). Contact allergy to the mix was significantly more common in the Belgian than in the Swedish patients.

  5. Role of the skin patch test in diagnosing food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rokaite, Rūta; Labanauskas, Liutauras; Vaideliene, Laimute

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine peculiarities of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis and to evaluate the significance of skin patch test in determining the main food allergens. One hundred and eight children (57 boys and 51 girls) with atopic dermatitis were examined. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by standard diagnostic criteria, severity of the progress of the disease was determined using SCORAD index and the amount of total IgE in blood, skin prick and patch tests with the main food allergens were performed. The age of the patients varied from 6 months to 16 years, however, almost half (41%) of them were toddlers (1-3 years old). Mild form of atopic dermatitis was dominating (52%). Analysis of the total IgE amount in blood showed different degree of sensitivity of the children tested. Normal amount of the total IgE in blood was found in 73.1% of children with atopic dermatitis, and the increased total IgE amount was found only in 26.9% of children. Positive skin prick test with the standard and the most common food allergens was found only in 4.63% of children with atopic dermatitis, while the positive skin patch test with 25 food allergens was found in 68.5% of children. Depending on the type of the allergic reaction, immediate type reaction dominated only in 10.3% of children with atopic dermatitis, while the delayed type allergic reactions were characteristic to food allergies in 48.3% of children with atopic dermatitis. Food allergy was not found in one fifth of children with atopic dermatitis. Skin patch test is an informative and reliable diagnostic test in evaluating the delayed type allergic reactions. In about half of the tested persons with atopic dermatitis, food allergy appeared in delayed type allergic reactions. Therefore it is very important to do the skin patch test for toddlers and pre-school age children. The most common allergens found with the help of skin patch test are soy, milk, peanuts, carrot, egg whites, wheat, and

  6. Patch test reactivity to feverfew-containing creams in feverfew-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Fretté, Xavier C; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-09-01

    The Compositae plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) has long been recognized as an important sensitizer in European Compositae-allergic patients, mainly because of its content of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Recently, a parthenolide-depleted feverfew extract with claimed anti-inflammatory properties has been developed for use in cosmetics. The aim of the study was to test, on the basis of patch test reactions, whether persons with contact allergy to feverfew could tolerate creams containing this feverfew extract. Seven patients with feverfew contact allergy were patch tested with two creams containing the feverfew extract. Subsequently, the creams were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to detect parthenolide. Four of the patients tested positive to one of the creams; reactivity was associated with simultaneous positive reactions to parthenolide. This cream was analysed about 2 years later, and no parthenolide was detected, probably because of degradation of the compound. Topical products containing parthenolide-depleted feverfew extracts may elicit positive patch test reactions in feverfew-sensitive patients. The reactivity may be enhanced by simultaneous testing with parthenolide, but the reactivity is lost over time, probably because of degradation of parthenolide.

  7. Increase in contact allergy to fragrances: patch-test results 1989-1998.

    PubMed

    Lunder, T; Kansky, A

    2000-08-01

    We report the results of patch tests with fragrance-mix as a part of the standard series carried out over the last 10 years (1989-1998) during routine testing of 6129 patients in our department. 5.9% of the total number of patients who were patch tested were positive to fragrance mix. The sex ratio was 2.3:1 with a female predominance. In 1989-1993, the frequency of contact sensitivity to fragrance mix was 3.9% (4.9% for females and 2.1% for males). This rate rose both in female and male patients during the observed period of time and attained 8.9% (females) and 4.1% (males) in 1994-1998; the overall frequency in 1994-98 was 7.5%. This rising trend, which was statistically significant, might be the consequence of an increased use of cosmetics and toiletries containing fragrances in our population.

  8. Characteristics of patch test reactions to common preservatives incorporated in petrolatum and water, respectively.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Uter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The irritant properties of some preservatives and the use of water as the patch test vehicle for some of them call for a critical evaluation of patch test reactions to preservatives. To examine the association between test vehicle (petrolatum versus water) or the patients' age and history of atopic dermatitis, respectively, and certain patterns of reaction to preservatives. Data of 34,631 patients tested in 34 centres with 11 common preservatives were retrospectively analysed. The dynamic reaction patterns, reaction indices (RIs) and positivity ratios (PRs) were statistically evaluated. All preservatives yielded more crescendo reactions in older than in younger patients. For 10 of 11 preservatives, the percentage of crescendo reactions was slightly higher in patients without a history of atopic dermatitis, and for 10 of 11 agents the RI was higher in patients with a positive history of atopic dermatitis. No consistent vehicle-related effects on reaction characteristics were found. Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.5% in water and sodium benzoate 5% in petrolatum had the lowest RIs, highest PRs, and lowest proportions of crescendo reactions. Water as a vehicle is unlikely to affect the reaction patterns of preservatives. The generally used patch test preparations of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium benzoate need improvement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Permeability test for transdermal and local therapeutic patches using Skin PAMPA method.

    PubMed

    Vizserálek, Gábor; Berkó, Szilvia; Tóth, Gergő; Balogh, Réka; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Csányi, Erzsébet; Sinkó, Bálint; Takács-Novák, Krisztina

    2015-08-30

    Using the skin as absorption site presents unique advantages that have facilitated the progression of transdermal drug delivery in the past decades. Efforts in drug research have been devoted to find a quick and reproducible model for predicting the skin permeation of molecules. The Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) has been extended for prediction of transdermal permeation by developing a model with completely artificial membrane, which can mimic the permeation through the stratum corneum. The present study aims to extend the Skin PAMPA method for testing transdermal and local therapeutic patches. The original method was modified and seven commercially available transdermal and local therapeutic patches with four different active pharmaceutical ingredients (nicotine, fentanyl, rivastigmine and ketoprofen) were studied. Data were compared to the declared delivery rates that are indicated by the manufacturers. Ex vivo permeation study was also performed in order to compare the permeated amount of the released drugs obtained by the two methods. The flux across the artificial membrane as well as the human skin (ex vivo) has been calculated and compared to the in vivo flux deduced from the labelled delivery rate and the active area of the patches. The results suggest that Skin PAMPA system can serve as a useful tool for evaluation and classification of the transdermal patches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of checking for delayed reactions in pediatric patch testing.

    PubMed

    Matiz, Catalina; Russell, Kathryn; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    Patch testing is often performed with the final reading being completed at 72 hours. Studies in adults have shown that performing an additional reading several days later increases the yield of relevant positive reactions. We report a study of this matter in children. We conducted a prospective patch test study of 38 affected children aged 6 to 17 (mean 11.6 years), with presumed allergic contact dermatitis between April and July 2009. The patients were required to return at 48 hours for patch test removal and assessment of early reactions, at 72 to 96 hours (3-4 days) for evaluation of delayed reactions, and again at 168 to 216 hours (7-9 days) for a final late delayed reading. We tallied the number of patients with "equivocal" (+/?), +, ++, and +++ reactions and noted these as potential positive reactions by reading date. Twenty-five of the 38 children (66%) had a positive reaction at 48 hours; 32 children (84%) had a positive reaction at 72 hours (day 3); 19 children (50%) had a positive reaction at 168 to 216 hours (day 7-9). Of those 19, 16 (42%) had persistent reactions, while 5 children (13%) had new late delayed reactions. Among the new late delayed reactions, there were six allergens identified, four of which were considered of probable clinical relevance. When patch testing with Thin Layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous test panels, a delayed reading beyond 72 hours may be needed to identify the offending agent(s) responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in some children. Additional studies are needed to assess optimal readings schedules.

  11. A clinical and patch test study in a tall-oil rosin factory.

    PubMed

    Färm, G; Lidén, C; Karlberg, A T

    1994-08-01

    Rosin of different sources is commonly used in many technical products and is known to cause contact allergy. The aim of the present investigation was to study the frequency of occupational dermatoses and of contact allergy to rosin in a factory producing tall-oil rosin. 163/180 present employees and 17/35 former employees participated in the study, which consisted of interview, clinical examination and patch testing with a standard series and additional rosins. 1/4 of those examined had some kind of current skin lesion. There were 10 cases of hand eczema. 7 subjects were patch-test-positive to gum rosin in the standard series. This frequency is about the same as among dermatitis patients at our clinic. Only 1 reaction to tall-oil rosin and none to the modified rosins tested were found. No relation between a positive patch test reaction to rosin and current skin disease could be established. No case of ongoing occupational skin disease was proved.

  12. Comparison of European Standard Patch Test Results of 330 Patients from an Occupational Diseases Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Aslı; Tutkun, Engin; Yılmaz, Hınç

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD) is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38%) patients were female and 204 (62%) were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13) years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55%) patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126) and potassium dichromate (39/204) were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (P < 0.005). Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126) and in men was manufacturing (80/204). Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations. PMID:27807445

  13. Quantitative patch and repeated open application testing in hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde sensitive-patients.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang; Dickel, Heinrich; Szliska, Christiane; Schliemann, Sibylle; Eben, Ricarda; Ruëff, Franziska; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Löffler, Harald; Aberer, Werner; Frambach, Yvonne; Worm, Margitta; Niebuhr, Margarete; Hillen, Uwe; Martin, Vera; Jappe, Uta; Frosch, Peter J; Mahler, Vera

    2009-09-01

    To identify the concentration of the fragrance compound hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (INCI) (HICC) that is sufficiently low not to cause an allergic reaction in patients with proven sensitization. Repeated open application testing (ROAT) in 64 subjects with 2 preparations (perfume and cream) in different concentration (0.005-2.5%). Confirmatory patch testing with four preparations in two different concentrations (2.5% and 5%). The concentrations of HICC being tolerated by 90% of those sensitized to HICC are estimated as <88.2 ppm (cream) and <270 ppm (perfume) equivalent to 1.2 microg/cm(2) (perfume) and 4.9 microg/cm(2) (cream). Patch test preparations differed with regard to sensitivity (88.5-98.1%) and specificity (37.5-87.5%) against the ROAT result as external criterion. ROAT concentrations and the reaction strength in patch testing were inversely correlated (Kendall's tau-b: 0.69), both indicating the existence of different degrees of susceptibility. To protect 90% (50%) of people sensitized, the use concentration should be in the range of 0.009-0.027% (0.18-0.34%), depending on the product type. Taking into account these results, excessive concentrations should be avoided, as this would continue to sensitize people. Close monitoring is indispensable to prove the efficacy of any recommendations aiming to prevent induction.

  14. Clinical experience and patch testing using colophony (rosin) from different sources.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C

    1985-10-01

    Patients with suspected allergy to colophony were patch-tested with colophony (rosin) of different kinds (gum rosin, tall oil rosin). More cases of allergy were detected by testing with more than one type of colophony. Tall oil rosin produced a smaller number of positive reactions than the gum rosins tested, which suggests a lower allergenic activity. Venice turpentine was a useful additional screening substance. When different test concentrations were compared (20% and 5%) the lower concentration failed to reveal four of 30 cases. The patients' eczema had been caused chiefly by contact with colophony in their work.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  16. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Atsuko

    2010-05-01

    Case 1: 67-years-old woman with pollinosis noticed oppressive feeling of chest and back, and heart burn after accidental ingestion of her dental filling and dental treatment. Oral famotidine did not improve her symptom. Her peripheral blood eosinophils increased to 38.0%. As for the specific IgE, only cedar and cypress were positive. Case 2: a 42-years-old-woman with pollinosis and asthma repeated urticaria, heart burn, diarrhea and peripheral eosinophilia (25%). At her first visit to our department, her blood eosinophil increased to 52.9%, her serum IgG markedly increased in polyclonal pattern and overt all subclasses. The specific IgE was positive only for cypress. Because they revealed a remarkable infiltrates of eosinophils in the mucosa of alimentary tract, we diagnosed the 2 patient as eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In case 1, based on the history and patch-test-positive finding of formalin and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. In case 2, based on the patch-test-positive finding of garlic and sesame and improvement after removal of the two allergens, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. Although causative allergens of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are almost unknown, some cases are reported to be determined the allergens of foods and drugs. In our cases, patch test was useful to identify the allergens.

  17. Fixed drug eruption to cetirizine with positive lesional patch tests to the three piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Mariana; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo

    2007-07-01

    The H1-antihistamine cetirizine, a piperazine derivative widely used in daily practice, is rarely the cause of cutaneous drug reaction. Nevertheless, four cases of fixed drug eruption (FDE) as a result of this drug have been described recently. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman with a multilocalized FDE following oral intake of cetirizine for allergic rhinitis. Patch testing with hydroxyzine 1% and 10% in petrolatum (Chemotechnique), and with powdered Zyrtec (cetirizine) and Xyzal (levocetirizine) pills, prepared at 20% in water and at 20% in petrolatum, was performed in both residual lesions and healthy skin. Positive results (++) to these drugs (24 h occlusion and readings at days 2 and 3) were obtained in residual lesions only. These results allowed us to confirm the drug responsible for this FDE and to study cross-reactions between antihistamines of the same chemical family. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of FDE to cetirizine with positive patch testing to hydroxyzine, cetirizine, and levocetirizine. This case highlights the importance of patch testing in the study of cutaneous drug reactions, namely FDE.

  18. Patch-testing with serial dilutions of tixocortol pivalate and potential cross-reactive substances.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-01-01

    Of patch-tested patients with dermatitis, 4-5% are allergic to corticosteroids. Four groups of corticosteroids are recognized (A-D), where substances from the same group may cross-react. We investigated the potential cross-reactivity pattern and dose-response relationship for several corticosteroids from group A. We also included the corresponding aldehyde to hydrocortisone, as this degradation product has been proposed to be immunogenic. Eleven patients shown to be allergic to tixocortol pivalate were patch-tested with several corticosteroids from group A, as well as with the aldehyde, all in serial dilutions. All 11 reacted to both tixocortol pivalate and hydrocortisone. The dose-response relationship for the corticosteroids tended to be similar to sensitizers lacking anti-inflammatory potential. Patients with simultaneous reactions to many substances had high patch-test reactivity to tixocortol pivalate and hydrocortisone, while patients with few such reactions showed low reactivity (p=0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Several patients reacted to the aldehyde, supporting the theory that it is an intermediate in sensitization.

  19. Hairdressers with dermatitis should always be patch tested regardless of atopy status.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; White, Ian R; Mc Fadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L

    2010-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is common in hairdressers because of their exposure to chemicals used in hair dyes and permanent wave solutions. Atopic individuals are known to have a higher prevalence of leaving the profession due to morbidity associated with hand eczema. To assess which chemicals are responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers and whether the prevalence is the same according to atopy status. A total of 729 hairdressers who had been patch tested were retrospectively identified. Allergic reactions to relevant allergens from the extended European baseline series and hairdressing series were analysed against history of atopic eczema. Of the total, 29.9% of patients had a current or past history of atopic eczema. The most frequent positive allergens from the European baseline series were nickel sulfate (32.1%) and p-phenylenediamine (19.0%) and from the hairdressing series were glyceryl monothioglycolate (21.4%) and ammonium persulfate (10.6%). There was no significant difference between people with or without a history of atopic eczema, except for fragrance mix I and nickel sulfate. We present findings from the largest cohort of hairdressers patch tested from a single centre. It is necessary to patch test hairdressers with dermatitis, regardless of a history of atopy. Strategies to reduce prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis are required.

  20. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Patch testing with own cosmetics-- prospective study of testing and reporting of adverse effects to the Swedish Medical Products Agency.

    PubMed

    Tammela, Monica; Lindberg, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Inerot, Annica; Rudel, Jana; Berne, Berit

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) provides a voluntary reporting system for adverse reactions to cosmetics. However, the reporting is sparse, and the products involved are sometimes difficult to identify. To investigate how often patients referred for patch testing were tested with the cosmetic products that they had been using themselves, and to improve the reporting to the MPA by the use of photographic documentation of product labels. Consecutive patients at five dermatology departments who were patch tested with their own cosmetics were included. Reports including protocols of positive patch test results for the patients' own cosmetics and photographs/photocopies of product labels were sent to the MPA. Three hundred and sixteen of 948 patients (33%) were tested with their own cosmetics, and 15% of these tested positive with one or more products. The number of reports was more than three times higher than in corresponding periods in earlier years. For 79% of the products, photographs/photocopies of the containers were submitted, and for 30%, batch numbers were submitted. For a substantial number of patients, their own cosmetics were suspected of causing adverse reactions and were therefore tested. During the study, the number of reports to the MPA tripled, and the relevant products were easier to identify. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Review of magnetostrictive patch transducers and applications in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kwon, Young Eui

    2015-09-01

    A magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) is a transducer that exploits the magnetostrictive phenomena representing interactions between mechanical and magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Since MPT technology was mainly developed and applied for nondestructive ultrasonic testing in waveguides such as pipes and plates, this paper will accordingly review advances of this technology in such a context. An MPT consists of a magnetic circuit composed of permanent magnets and coils, and a thin magnetostrictive patch that works as a sensing and actuating element which is bonded onto or coupled with a test waveguide. The configurations of the circuit and magnetostrictive patch therefore critically affect the performance of an MPT as well as the excited and measured wave modes in a waveguide. In this paper, a variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type. The use of MPTs in wave experiments involving phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is also briefly introduced. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Test/analysis comparison of piezoelectric patch local behavior for vibroacoustic active control application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Corine; Balmes, Etienne; Clero, Franck

    2007-04-01

    To predict the effect of active control on aircraft or helicopter trim panels, made with honeycomb sandwich composite, one approach consists in modeling the panel by Finite Element Method. FEM with shell elements for the laminate and volume elements for the core is classically used in industry; in a previous study the homogenized modeling approach has been validated. The aim of the present paper is to make a test/analysis comparison of the dynamic behavior of a honeycomb core sandwich beam actuated by a piezoelectric patch. More precisely, the behavior in the vicinity of the piezoelectric actuator is characterized, in order to validate the modeling approach of honeycomb sandwich composite equipped with piezoelectric patches.

  4. [Contact allergens in the standard patch test series from 1980-2004 at the University Clinic Aachen].

    PubMed

    Hoeller Obrigkeit, D; Vens, N; Merk, H F; Schroeder, C M

    2005-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common disease whose specific therapy is avoidance of allergens. It is critical to identify frequency of occurrence of allergic reactions to initiate preventive measures (e.g. elimination of substances with an especially high allergic potential). This study analyzes results of patch testing performed between 1980 and 1993 at the University Clinic of the RWTH Aachen. Additionally, age and sex-related distribution was evaluated. The data is compared to published patch test results covering the years 1995-2001 and patch test results from 2004 in the University Clinic Aachen.

  5. Interlaboratory studies with a proposed patch test design to evaluate the irritation potential of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Annette; Chkarnat, Catherine; Degwert, Joachim; Ennen, Joachim; Fink, Ernst; Matthies, Wolfgang; Roethlisberger, Rudolf; Rossow, Uwe; Schnitker, Jörg; Tronnier, Hagen; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter

    2010-03-01

    Development of cosmetic products and household detergents necessitates comparative study designs to assess the skin tolerance of products. In initial tests, the epicutaneous patch test for irritation is widely used. This study was conducted to develop a protocol that would facilitate a comparison of results obtained when tests are conducted by different laboratories. 'In-house' and standardized patch test protocols were used to assess irritation potentials of surfactant-based products in intra- and interlaboratory studies using defined surfactant samples. The various in-house protocols tested did not consistently produce equivalent results. In order to develop a study design that yields comparable results, various factors were identified and adjusted. The standardized study protocol includes occlusive application of 70 microl of the test substance to the back of 30 subjects, defined reading times and schemes, assessments based mainly on erythema, and inclusion of sodium laureth sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate as positive controls as well as water as a negative control. Use of the standardized protocol and training of assessors improved the reliability and consistency of results whereby the irritation potentials of the references and test samples were ranked similarly by the laboratories.

  6. Concentrations and stability of methyl methacrylate, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde and nickel sulfate in commercial patch test allergen preparations

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Paul D.; Fowler, Joseph F.; Law, Brandon F.; Warshaw, Erin M.; Taylor, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Epicutaneous patch tests are used to reproduce allergy and diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Reliable allergen test preparations are required. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to measure the actual concentrations of nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4), methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde, and glutaraldehyde, and to compare them with the labelled concentrations, in commercial patch test allergen preparations found in dermatology clinics where patch testing is routinely performed. Materials and methods The commercial in-date and out-of-date patch test allergen preparations concentrations of NiSO4, methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde from one to three participating clinics were analysed with chromatographic or wet chemical techniques. Results NiSO4 and formaldehyde concentrations were at or above the labelled concentrations; however, formaldehyde loss occurred with storage. NiSO4 particulate was uniformly distributed throughout the petrolatum. ‘In-use’ methyl methacrylate reagent syringes all contained ≤ 56% of the 2% label concentration, with no observable relationship with expiration date. Lower methyl methacrylate cocentrations were consistently measured at the syringe tip end, suggesting loss resulting from methyl methacrylate’s volatility. The concentrations of glutaraldehyde patch test allergen preparations ranged from 27% to 45% of the labelled (1% in pet.) concentration, independently of expiration date. Conclusions Some false-negative methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde patch test results may be attributable to instability of the test preparations. PMID:24731086

  7. Concentrations and stability of methyl methacrylate, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde and nickel sulfate in commercial patch test allergen preparations.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul D; Fowler, Joseph F; Law, Brandon F; Warshaw, Erin M; Taylor, James S

    2014-05-01

    Epicutaneous patch tests are used to reproduce allergy and diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Reliable allergen test preparations are required. The purpose of the present study was to measure the actual concentrations of nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4 ), methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde, and glutaraldehyde, and to compare them with the labelled concentrations, in commercial patch test allergen preparations found in dermatology clinics where patch testing is routinely performed. The commercial in-date and out-of-date patch test allergen preparations concentrations of NiSO4 , methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde from one to three participating clinics were analysed with chromatographic or wet chemical techniques. NiSO4 and formaldehyde concentrations were at or above the labelled concentrations; however, formaldehyde loss occurred with storage. NiSO4 particulate was uniformly distributed throughout the petrolatum. 'In-use' methyl methacrylate reagent syringes all contained ≤ 56% of the 2% label concentration, with no observable relationship with expiration date. Lower methyl methacrylate cocentrations were consistently measured at the syringe tip end, suggesting loss resulting from methyl methacrylate's volatility. The concentrations of glutaraldehyde patch test allergen preparations ranged from 27% to 45% of the labelled (1% in pet.) concentration, independently of expiration date. Some false-negative methyl methacrylate, formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde patch test results may be attributable to instability of the test preparations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Testing metapopulation concepts: effects of patch characteristics and neighborhood occupancy on the dynamics of an endangered lagomorph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Metapopulation ecology is a field that is richer in theory than in empirical results. Many existing empirical studies use an incidence function approach based on spatial patterns and key assumptions about extinction and colonization rates. Here we recast these assumptions as hypotheses to be tested using 18 years of historic detection survey data combined with four years of data from a new monitoring program for the Lower Keys marsh rabbit. We developed a new model to estimate probabilities of local extinction and colonization in the presence of nondetection, while accounting for estimated occupancy levels of neighboring patches. We used model selection to identify important drivers of population turnover and estimate the effective neighborhood size for this system. Several key relationships related to patch size and isolation that are often assumed in metapopulation models were supported: patch size was negatively related to the probability of extinction and positively related to colonization, and estimated occupancy of neighboring patches was positively related to colonization and negatively related to extinction probabilities. This latter relationship suggested the existence of rescue effects. In our study system, we inferred that coastal patches experienced higher probabilities of extinction and colonization than interior patches. Interior patches exhibited higher occupancy probabilities and may serve as refugia, permitting colonization of coastal patches following disturbances such as hurricanes and storm surges. Our modeling approach should be useful for incorporating neighbor occupancy into future metapopulation analyses and in dealing with other historic occupancy surveys that may not include the recommended levels of sampling replication.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus-derived enterotoxins enhance house dust mite-induced patch test reactions in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Langer, Katja; Breuer, Kristine; Kapp, Alexander; Werfel, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Up to 65% of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) produce exotoxins with superantigenic properties that may also act as allergens leading to an induction of exotoxin-specific IgE antibodies. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) applied epicutaneously in a concentration of 10 micro g/cm(2), i.e. 200 micro g/ml, under occlusion induces cutaneous inflammation in patients with AD and healthy individuals. We performed patch tests in 32 adult patients with AD using different concentrations (i.e. 2-200 micro g/ml) of SEA, SEB and house dust mite (HDM) extract (500 micro g/ml). Furthermore, the respective enterotoxins and HDM extract were applied simultaneously to the same patch test site. Specific IgE levels to SEA, SEB and HDM were measured with the CAP FEIA. The rates of patch test reactions to SEA and SEB increased with rising enterotoxin concentrations. There were no differences in the rates of patch test reactions to SEA and SEB between patients sensitized to the corresponding enterotoxin and non-IgE-sensitized patients. The number of patch test reactions to the mixture of enterotoxin and HDM extract was higher than the number of patch test reactions to either the enterotoxins or HDM extract. We identified 11 patients with AD who reacted neither to the enterotoxins nor to HDM extract, but who showed patch test reactions to the mixture. These reactions were not predicted by the presence of enterotoxin- or HDM-specific IgE. Colonization with exotoxin-producing S. aureus may influence the outcome of patch tests in patients with AD.

  10. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the "European Standard" set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients - during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods - and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease.

  11. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  12. Dermatological screening and results of patch testing among Polish apprentice hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Krecisz, Beata; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota

    2011-02-01

    High prevalence of occupational dermatoses among hairdressers has been confirmed in many studies, while work-related skin disorders in apprentice hairdressers are less known. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of work-related skin disorders among apprentice hairdressers, and to identify the factors contributing to the development of dermatoses during vocational training. One hundred thirty-nine apprentice hairdressers, aged 17-19 years, were included in the study. A questionnaire survey, personal interview, dermatological examination and patch tests were conducted. Present or past work-related skin conditions affecting the hands were reported by 43.9% of individuals, and diagnosed in 25.9% on dermatological examination. Positive patch test results were found in 38.1%. The most frequent allergens were nickel (29.3% of all tested) and ammonium persulfate (8.3%). Allergic contact dermatitis was recorded in 27.3%, and was of occupational origin in 87.9% of all tested individuals. Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 51.1% of participants (this prevalence was higher than that based only on an interview). Survey responses revealed inadequate knowledge of the risk of occupational skin diseases and protective measures. It is necessary to implement an educational programme for apprentice hairdressers, in order to increase their knowledge of the risk of skin damage and to promote appropriate use of protective measures, starting from the earliest stages of their training. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  14. Patch testing with a textile dye mix--a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, Kristina; Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Bircher, Andreas; Diepgen, Thomas; Foti, Caterina; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Gonçalo, Margarida; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne D; Le Coz, Christophe; Maibach, Howard I; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-10-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers. However, they are not included in the majority of commercially available baseline patch test series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of eight disperse dyes at dermatology clinics in various countries. Two thousand nine hundred and seven consecutive dermatitis patients at 12 dermatology clinics representing nine countries were tested with a TDM at 6.6%, consisting of Disperse Blue 35, Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Orange 1 and 3, and Disperse Red 1 and 17, all at 1.0%, and Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124, each at 0.3%, provisionally included in the baseline series. Eighty-seven per cent of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the eight separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 108 patients (3.7%). The frequency of contact allergy varied from 2.1% to 6.9% in different centres. Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 57 of the TDM-positive patients (53%). The most frequent dye allergen among the TDM-positive patients was Disperse Orange 3. The contact allergy could have explained or contributed to the dermatitis in approximately one-third of the patients for whom clinical relevance of the TDM contact allergy was recorded. The TDM should be considered for inclusion in the European baseline series. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implants: opinions and practices of patch testing dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous metal hypersensitivity reactions (MHR) are common but rare with implanted devices. This study aimed to characterize the opinions of dermatologists who are actively evaluating/advising patients with MHR. A questionnaire was distributed to all individuals who attended the European Society of Contact Dermatitis (ESCD) 2012 and the American Contact Dermatitis Society 2013 meetings. A total of 119 individuals responded with a participation rates of 10% (ESCD) and 32% (American Contact Dermatitis Society). Ninety-six percent of the respondents evaluate MHR and 91% were attending physicians. Orthopedic and dental devices were common problems compared with cardiovascular devices. Patch testing is the top choice for evaluating MHR. Lymphocyte transformation and intradermal tests are rarely used. Eighty-two percent of the respondents evaluate plastic/glue components in symptomatic patients postimplant. Most dermatologists use a tray specifically for joint allergy or a history-based custom array of allergens. Those patients with a strong clinical history of metal allergy should be evaluated before metal implantation (54%), whereas others forgo evaluation and recommend a titanium implant based on history alone (38%). Diagnostic criteria for postimplant reactions were evaluated. Eight percent of the respondents felt that no evaluation was necessary, with ESCD respondents being significantly more likely to not recommend evaluation (P = 0.001). Metal hypersensitivity reactions consultation requests are common for preimplant and postimplant issues. Patch testing is currently the best test for MHR.

  16. Multicentre patch testing with a resol resin based on phenol and formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Inerot, Annica; Lidén, Carola; Matura, Mihaly; Stenberg, Berndt; Möller, Halvor; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR) included in most baseline patch test series. To investigate the rate of contact allergy to PFR-2 (a mixture of monomers and dimers from a resol resin based on phenol and formaldehyde) in a Swedish population, and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. Five centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 in their patch test baseline series for a period of 1.5 years. Of 2504 patients tested, 27 (1.1%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 27 individuals, 2 had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to PTBP-FR. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 6, to Myroxylon pereirae in 14, and to fragrance mix I in 15. The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.1%) merits its inclusion in the Swedish baseline series and possibly also in other baseline series. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium, M. pereirae, and fragrance mix I. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing.

    PubMed

    Gülseren, Duygu; Hapa, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Elçin, Gonca; Karaduman, Ayşen

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common disease of the oral mucosa with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to determine if food additives play a role in the etiology of RAS as well as to determine if patch testing can be used to detect which allergens cause RAS. This prospective study included 24 patients with RAS and 22 healthy controls. All the participants underwent patch testing for 23 food additives. In total, 21 (87.5%) RAS patients and 3 (13.6%) controls had positive patch test reactions to ≥1 allergens; the difference in the patch test positivity rate between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The most common allergen that elicited positive patch test results in the patient group was cochineal red (n = 15 [62.5%]), followed by azorubine (n = 11 [45.8%]) and amaranth (n = 6 [25%]). The present findings show that food additives might play a role in the etiology of RAS and that patch testing could be a method for determining the etiology of RAS. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Monitoring contact sensitization to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) by patch testing with PPD 0.3% in petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Bircher, Andreas; Weisshaar, Elke; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-07-01

    Being a contact allergen of general relevance, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is patch tested in the baseline series. However, PPD 1% in petrolatum may actively sensitize. Patch testing with PPD at 0.35% pet. proved to be safe, as far as active sensitization is concerned. To determine whether PPD 0.3% pet. reliably detects PPD sensitization. Patch testing with PPD 0.3% pet. and 1% pet. synchronously was performed in consecutive patients in a multicentre study within the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology. Altogether, 2042 patients were patch tested. PPD 1% pet. yielded 6.0% positive reactions (n = 123), and PPD 0.3% pet. yielded 4.7% (n = 95). The synchronous reproducibility of PPD reactions was similar as known from parallel patch tests with identical PPD concentrations. The diagnostic properties of PPD 0.3% pet. expressed as reaction index and positivity ratio were good. Of the 123 patients reacting to PPD 1% pet., 32 (26%) had no positive reaction to PPD 0.3% pet. In 22 of these 32 patients (69%), no clinical relevance could be found. As patch testing with PPD 0.3% pet. is reliable according to our results, we recommend replacing PPD 1% pet. in the baseline series with PPD 0.3% pet. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  20. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride: analysis of patch test dose-response studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli; Midander, Klara; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level of cobalt is important. To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized individuals, and thereby the basis for future prevention of cobalt allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fragrance allergy could be missed without patch testing with 26 individual fragrance allergens.

    PubMed

    Vejanurug, Patnapa; Tresukosol, Poohglin; Sajjachareonpong, Praneet; Puangpet, Pailin

    2016-04-01

    In 2003, the EU Cosmetics Directive stated that 26 fragrance substances must be listed on the cosmetic product ingredient labels. Not all of these 26 fragrance substances are detected by the usual screening markers comprising fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae. To evaluate the usefulness of testing with the 26 individual fragrance substances in addition to the standard fragrance screening markers. Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients were patch tested with our baseline series and the 26 specific fragrance substances required to be declared on cosmetic product ingredient labels in accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive. Positive reactions to at least either one of the 26 individual fragrance substances or the usual fragrance screening markers were seen in 84 of 312 patients (26.9%). Fifteen of these 84 patients (17.8%) reacted negatively to the fragrance screening markers. The most common individual fragrance allergens were cinnamyl alcohol (11.2%), cinnamal (9%), and hydroxycitronellal (3.8%). Sixty-two of 312 patients (19.8%) had at least one positive reaction to the fragrance screening markers. Additional patch testing with the 26 individual fragrance allergens, or with the commonest fragrance allergens identified within these 26, should be performed to optimize the detection of fragrance allergy. Cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal are important fragrance allergens in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Occupational Contact Dermatitis: Workers' Compensation Patch Test Results of Portland, Oregon, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Zinsmeister, Chris; Norris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Workers are exposed to potential irritants and allergens with constant introduction of new industrial chemicals in the workplace. Characterize the final diagnoses, demographics, occupations, exposures, clinical presentations, patch test results, dermatologic histories, and risk factors of workers evaluated for suspected work-related allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A retrospective chart review of 310 workers' compensation independent medical examinations evaluated for suspected work-related ACD was performed. Workers were seen in a community dermatology clinic in Portland, Oregon, from 2005 to 2014. Evaluation included history, physical examination, patch testing, and further diagnostic workup when indicated. Hand dermatitis was the most common presentation (n = 148, 47.7%). Prevalent occupations included health care workers (n = 51, 16.5%), custodial staff (n = 41, 13.2%), and machinists (n = 36, 11.6%). Allergic contact dermatitis (47.5%) was more common than irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (38.9%) in those diagnosed as having occupational skin disease (n = 185). The highest-frequency work-related allergens were thiuram mix (21 of 88, 23.9%), carba mix (20 of 88, 22.7%), potassium dichromate (9 of 88, 10.2%), and epoxy resin (9 of 88, 10.2%). Allergic contact dermatitis and ICD are common occupational skin disorders. In this population of workers' compensation referrals, ACD was more common, with 73.3% of those cases work related, compared with 86.7% of ICD. Blue collar work and wet work were risk factors for the development of ACD and ICD.

  3. Patch testing with budesonide in serial dilutions: the significance of dose, occlusion time and reading time.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide is advocated as a marker molecule for corticosteroid contact allergy. When patch testing corticosteroids, one must consider their sensitizing potential but also their anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the possibility of different time courses for such properties. The dose-response relationship for budesonide was therefore investigated with regard to dose, occlusion time, and reading time. 10 patients were patch tested with budesonide in ethanol in serial dilutions from 2.0% down to 0.0002% with occlusion times of 48, 24, and 5 h. Readings were on D2, D4, and D7. The 48-h occlusion picked up most positive reactors, 8/10. The D4 reading (48-h occlusion) detected most positive reactors, 8/10, and here 0.002% picked up most contact allergies. Late readings favoured high concentrations. The "edge effect" was noted for several concentrations at early readings. Due to the individual corticosteroid reactivity, the dose-response relationship and the time courses of the elicitation and the anti-inflammatory capacity, several features may be explained, i.e., that lower concentrations may detect budesonide allergy better at early readings, that patients with an "edge reaction" can have positive reactions to lower concentrations.

  4. Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful?

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Toni, Giulia; Minghetti, Sara; Tiengo, Silvia; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Topical remedies based on botanical ingredients are popular. To assess: (i) the usage of botanical substances in subjects affected with itching and chronic vulvar complaints; (ii) the incidence of side-effects associated with their use and the frequency of contact allergy; (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. Sixty-six patients were provided with a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Patients were patch tested with (i) the Italian baseline series, (ii) a topical medicament series, and (iii) a botanical series. Forty-two patients (63.6%) reported the use of natural topical products on the vulva. Seven (16.7%) noted adverse reactions; 27 showed positive reactions with the baseline series; 14 (21.2%) had at least one relevant reaction, mainly to allergens in topical products and cosmetics; and 2 (3%) showed positive reactions to the botanical series. Of the 7 patients complaining of adverse effects of botanical products, 3 (42.8%) showed relevant sensitization. The use of natural topical products is widespread among women affected with itching vulvar diseases. Contact dermatitis is a possible adverse effect. Botanical series are of questionable usefulness, owing to the wide variety of botanical ingredients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Immunophenotyping of the cutaneous cellular infiltrate after atopy patch testing in cats with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Thepen, T; Rutten, V P M G; van den Brom, W E; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Willemse, T

    2004-10-01

    Cats with spontaneously occurring atopic dermatitis have clinical and immunocytochemical characteristics compatible with these in humans with atopic dermatitis (AD). The atopy patch test (APT) has proven to be a valuable tool in elucidating the disease process in humans. Additionally, the APT is very specific and bypasses the problem of conflicting results due to differences in chronicity of lesions of AD patients. We adapted the APT for use in cats to explore the suitability of the APT as a tool to study the onset of allergic inflammation in cats with atopic dermatitis. APT were performed in AD cats (n = 6) and healthy cats (n = 10). All cats were patch tested with two allergens in three different dilutions and a diluent control. The allergens for the APT were selected from positive intradermal test and /or prick test results and consisted of: Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and a grass pollen mixture. APT were read after 10, 24 and 48 h, and punch biopsies for immunohistochemical evaluation were collected at these time points. Macroscopically positive APT reactions were observed in three out of six cats at 24 and/or 48 h with allergen concentrations of 25,000 and 100,000 NU/ml. Reactions were not observed at negative control sites and neither in control animals. A significantly increased number of IL-4+, CD4+, CD3+, MHC class II+ and CD1a+ cells was found in one AD cat with positive APT reactions. Five out of six AD cats had significantly increased IL-4+ T cell numbers at 24 and/or 48 h. Our data indicate that in cats, macroscopically positive patch test reactions can be induced, which have a cellular infiltrate similar to that in lesional skin. We found a high specificity and a macroscopically positive APT reaction in half of the cats, which is similar to what is seen in humans. Hence, the APT in cats might be a useful tool in studying the immunopathogenesis of feline atopic dermatitis.

  6. Results of patch testing with a specialized collection of plastic and glue allergens.

    PubMed

    Holness, D L; Nethercottdagger, J R

    1997-06-01

    Patch testing was performed on 235 patients with a specialized collection of plastic and glue components. Thirteen percent had a positive response to at least one of the allergens. Seventy-four percent of the responses were relevant to either the present or a past problem, and 64% were occupationally related. The substances that yielded the greater percentage of positive responses were ethylenediamine, triethylenetetramine, diethylenetriamine, diaminodiphenylmethane, melamine formaldehyde resin, phenol formaldehyde resin, cresylglycidylether, phenylglycidylether, and N, N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Of the 47 agents used, 26 did not elicit any positive responses. There were few distinguishing characteristics between those who exhibited a positive response to these agents and those who did not. In 12 cases (5% of those tested), the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis would have been missed if the plastics and glues components were not used.

  7. Clutter sensitivity test under controlled field conditions Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-27

    Theoretical research, controlled laboratory tests, and these field test results show that nonmetallic (and metallic) shallowly buried objects can be detected and imaged with the Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor. The sensor can be modeled as a high Q cavity which capitalizes on its resonant condition sensitivity to scattered waves from buried objects. When the RMPA sensor is swept over a shallowly buried object, the RMPA fed-point impedance (resistance), measured with a Maxwell bridge, changes by tens of percent. The significant change in unprocessed impedance data can be presented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical displays over the survey area. This forms silhouette images of the objects without the application of computationally intensive data processing algorithms. Because RMPA employed electromagnetic waves to illuminate the shallowly buried object, a number of questions and issues arise in the decision to fund or deny funding of the reconfiguration of the RMPA technology into a nonmetallic (metallic) land mine detector.

  8. DKG statement on the use of metal alloy discs for patch testing in suspected intolerance to metal implants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Geier, Johannes; Dickel, Heinrich; Diepgen, Thomas; Hillen, Uwe; Kreft, Burkhard; Schnuch, Axel; Szliska, Christiane; Mahler, Vera

    2015-10-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, 'prophetic'/prophylactic patch testing should not be performed. Pre-implant patch testing should only be done to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a corresponding history. In case of implant-related complications - in particular following replacement arthroplasty - such as pain, effusion, skin lesions, reduced range of motion or implant loosening, orthopedic causes should be ruled out first. Workup of suspected metal implant allergy should then be done using the DKG standard series, which includes nickel, cobalt, and chromium preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing have shown this particular approach to be ineffective with respect to providing reliable information on metal allergy. Any positive reaction in such tests cannot be assigned to a specific metal contained within the alloy. Furthermore, there is a risk of broad and indiscriminate use of these readily available discs. Accordingly, given the lack of additional benefit compared to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs.

  9. Recommendation of appropriate amounts of petrolatum preparation to be applied at patch testing.

    PubMed

    Bruze, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Frick-Engfeldt, Malin

    2007-05-01

    No recommendation exists on the amount of petrolatum (pet.) preparation to be applied in a Finn Chamber or van der Bend Chamber. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate amount of pet. preparation to apply in the Finn and van der Bend chambers. 12 volunteers were patch tested with green-coloured pet. in Finn and van der Bend chambers on the back on 3 occasions. Doses were 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg initially and on second and third occasion, 10 mg was removed in van der Bend Chambers and 35 mg was added. On day 2, the test sites were scored. A negative test equalled a test area not covered to 100%. A positive test meant a completely green-coloured test area. Minor and major spreading was noted. The amount of pet. preparation yielding at most 5% negative reactions and having the least number of reactions with major spreading equalled the appropriate amount. For van der Bend Chambers, all doses yielded more than 5% negative reactions. For the Finn Chamber, 30, 25, and 20 mg pet. yielded less than 5% negative reactions and with major spreading in 60%, 40%, and 25% of test sites. 20 mg pet. preparation was the optimal dose for the Finn Chambers.

  10. Patch testing with a textile dye mix and its constituents in a baseline series.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, Kristina; Goossens, An; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Among the textile dyes, disperse dyes are common sensitizers. To investigate whether patch testing with a textile dye mix consisting of eight disperse dyes would be equivalent to testing with the separate ingredients of the mix at the concentrations used in the mix. Researchers tested 1,780 consecutive patients with a mix consisting of Disperse Blue 35, Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Orange 1, Disperse Orange 31 (mislabeled as Disperse Orange 3), Disperse Red 1 and 17, all at 0.5%, and Disperse Blue 106 and 124, both at 0.1%, and with the ingredients at these concentrations. Testing with the labeled dyes at 1.0% was done on 500 of the patients and additionally on the remaining patients who reacted positively to the mix, any of the ingredients, p-phenylenediamine, or black rubber mix. Thirty-five patients (2%) reacted to the mix, and 34 patients were allergic to at least one ingredient tested at the lower concentration. The textile dye mix was as good a detector of contact allergy to the disperse dyes as was testing with any combination of the ingredients at the concentration in the mix. Increasing the concentration of the ingredients of the textile dye mix might increase the sensitivity of the mix.

  11. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with specific food elimination diet directed by a combination of skin prick and patch tests.

    PubMed

    Spergel, Jonathan M; Andrews, Timothy; Brown-Whitehorn, Terri F; Beausoleil, Janet L; Liacouras, Chris A

    2005-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently described disorder identified in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but unresponsive to conventional reflux therapies. Therapies have included corticosteroids, elemental diet, and diet restriction. We report our experience with skin prick and atopy patch testing and food elimination diets in patients diagnosed as having EE. To identify food antigens that cause EE and the characteristics of patients who respond to food elimination vs those who are unresponsive. Patients diagnosed as having EE had restricted diets based on skin prick and atopy patch testing results. Additional biopsies were performed after 4 to 8 weeks of restricted diet. Demographics, atopic tendencies, and food antigens were identified retrospectively in our food allergy database. A total of 146 patients diagnosed as having EE were evaluated with skin prick and atopy patch testing. Thirty-nine patients had unequivocal demonstration of food causing EE, with normalization of biopsy results on elimination and reoccurrence on reintroduction. An additional 73 patients, for a total 112 (77%) of 146 patients, had resolution of their EE as demonstrated by biopsy results. Fifteen (10%) of 146 patients were nonresponders manifested by no significant reduction in esophageal eosinophils despite restricted diet based on skin prick and atopy patch testing. Egg, milk, and soy were identified most frequently with skin prick testing, whereas corn, soy, and wheat were identified most frequently with atopy patch testing. In more than 75% of patients with EE, both symptoms and esophageal inflammation can be significantly improved with dietary elimination of foods. Skin prick and atopy patch testing can help identify foods in most patients.

  12. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; Castro, Paulo Carrara de

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk.

  13. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; de Castro, Paulo Carrara

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  14. 365 Patch Testing Results in Contact Dermatitis from the Allergist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Marcella; Michelis, Mary Ann; Lighvani, Sebastian; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Fonacier, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background Contact Dermatitis (CD) is a frequently encountered skin disease by allergists and dermatologists that results from contact with external allergens. Patch Testing (PT) remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of allergic CD. Studies evaluating PT from allergy practices are lacking. Methods A multi-center, retrospective chart review of PT within the last 5 years at allergy practices in 3 institutions. We report PT results using allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous Test (TT) and additional supplemental allergens [North American Contact Dermatitis (NACD) Panel, Dormer Cosmetic Panel, hairdresser's panel, corticosteroid panel and personal products]. Additionally, patient characteristics including age, gender, occupation, dermatitis site, history of atopic disease and final diagnosis were also obtained. Results A total of 427 patients (mean age = 49.8 years) were patch tested, 82% were female, 54% reported an atopic history (history of asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis or food allergy), 30% were tested with TT, 60% with NACD panel, 30% with cosmetic series, 15% with corticosteroid series and 35% with personal products. The 5 most common positive PT allergens were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix I, P-phenylenediamine, thimerosal and cobalt chloride. The most common dermatitis sites were eyelid/periorbital (31%), facial (25%) and trunk (21%). 56.9% of patients were positive to at least one TT allergen. 25.6% of patients were positive to both a TT and a supplemental allergen (these patients would have been “partially evaluated” with TT allergens alone as they are positive to at least 1 TT allergen and 1 supplemental allergen). 12.5% of patients were negative to a TT allergen and positive to at least 1 supplemental allergen only (these patients would have been “missed” as they are negative to all TT allergens, but positive to at least 1 supplemental allergen). Conclusions Nickel remains the most common allergen. When evaluating

  15. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed.

  16. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Allergy Plays a Role in Atopic Eczema as Shown in the Atopy Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma is rather well established, the role of allergy in atopic eczema (AE) is still controversial. By a technique called atopy patch test, aeroallergens like house dust mite, animal dander, or pollen were proven as relevant trigger factors in a subgroup of patients with AE. The atopy patch test is an epicutaneous patch test with such allergens known to elicit IgE-mediated reactions, and used for the evaluation of eczematous skin reactions. In a series of single-center and multicenter studies, a method was developed, standardized, and compared with other diagnostic techniques (radioallergosorbent test, skin prick test) in AE patients. With regard to clinical history, the most specific results were obtained with the atopy patch test (allergen-dependent, 69%-92%), whereas sensitivity was higher for skin prick test (range, 69%-82%) and specific IgE (range, 65%-94%). The characterization of a patient subgroup with relevant IgE-mediated allergy may lead to more efficient avoidance and eventually even specific immunotherapy strategies in the management of AE. PMID:23283386

  17. North American contact dermatitis group patch test results: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Maibach, Howard I; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Belsito, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for assessment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch-testing results from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends analyzed using χ statistics. Four thousand two hundred thirty-eight patients were tested; of these, 2705 patients (63.8%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2029 (48.0%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of ACD. Four hundred eight patients (9.6%) had occupationally related skin disease. There were 7532 positive allergic reactions. As compared with previous reporting periods (2009-2010 and 2000-2010), positive reaction rates statistically increased for 6 allergens: methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (5.0%; risk ratios [RRs]: 2.01 [1.60-2.52], 1.87 [1.61-2.18]), lanolin alcohol (4.6%; RRs 1.83 [1.45-2.30], 2.10 [1.79-2.47]), cinnamic aldehyde (3.9%; 1.69 [1.32-2.15], 1.53 [1.28-1.82]), glutaral (1.5%; 1.67 [1.13-2.48], 1.31 [1.00-1.71]), paraben mix (1.4%; 1.77 [1.16-2.69], 1.44 [1.09-1.92]), and fragrance mix I (12.1%; RRs 1.42 [1.25-1.61], 1.24 [1.14-1.36]). Compared with the previous decade, positivity rates for all formaldehyde-releasing preservatives significantly decreased (formaldehyde 6.6%; RR, 0.82 [0.73, 0.93]; quaternium-15 6.4% RR 0.75 [0.66, 0.85]; diazolidinyl urea 2.1%; RR, 0.67 [0.54, 0.84]; imidazolidinyl urea 1.6%, 0.60 [0.47, 0.77]; bronopol 1.6%; RR, 0.60 [0.46, 0.77]; DMDM hydantoin 1.6%; RR, 0.59 [0.54, 0.84]). Approximately a quarter of patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. In addition, approximately one-fourth to one-third of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been hypothetically missed by T

  18. Patch testing with a large series of metal allergens: findings from more than 1,000 patients in one decade at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark D P; Wang, Michael Z; Yiannias, James A; Keeling, James H; Connolly, Suzanne M; Richardson, Donna M; Farmer, Sara A

    2011-01-01

    The standard allergen series used in patch testing contains metals that most commonly cause allergic contact dermatitis, but testing with additional metal allergens is warranted for select patients. To report our experience with patch testing of metals. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 1,112 patients suspected of having metal allergies. Patients were seen from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2009. Patch testing was performed with 42 metal preparations (6 in the standard series, 36 in the metal series). Patch testing most commonly was performed for patients with oral disease (almost half the patients), hand dermatitis, generalized dermatitis, and dermatitis affecting the lips, legs, arms, trunk, or face. At least one positive reaction was reported for 633 patients (57%). Metals with the highest allergic patch-test reaction rates were nickel, gold, manganese, palladium, cobalt, Ticonium, mercury, beryllium, chromium, and silver. Metals causing no allergic patch-test reactions were titanium, Vitallium, and aluminum powder. Metals with extremely low rates of allergic patch-test reactions included zinc, ferric chloride, and tin. Reaction rates varied depending on metal salt, concentration, and timing of readings. Many metals not in the standard series were associated with allergic patch-test reactions. The many questions raised by these findings, concerning patch testing with individual metals, will be the subject of future studies.

  19. A clinical assessment of a patch test kit marketed to U.K. hairdressers for detecting hair dye allergy.

    PubMed

    Orton, D I

    2007-11-01

    In 2004 a U.K.-based company developed and marketed a patch test kit (Colourstart); Trichocare, Ridgmont, Beds, U.K.) for use by hairdressers. It is intended to assess whether clients have a 'problem with hair dye' and promotes itself as the 'only practical solution to sensitivity testing'. However, a patient presented with a hair dye reaction that had not been detected while using this patch test system. To assess the Colourstart system in the next seven consecutive patients presenting with a history of adverse reactions to hair dyes. The Colourstart system was tested in parallel with commercially available hair dye patch test reagents, where applicable. Only three of seven patients allergic to p-phenylenediamine were detected using this system and one patient allergic to toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate was not detected using this system. The results raise concerns about the sensitivity of this kit for consumer protection, but also wider questions about the regulation, use and interpretation of 'home diagnostic patch test kits' in general.

  20. Severe allergic reactions to para-phenylenediamine in children and adolescents: should the patch test concentration of PPD be changed?

    PubMed

    Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra; Kämmerer, Eva; Gillitzer, Claus; Schmitt, Jochen

    2012-04-01

    Semipermanent henna tattoos containing para-phenylenediamine (PPD) are a well-known cause of severe contact dermatitis, mainly in children. Another relevant exposure source to PPD are hair dyes, which are increasingly used by children and have also been reported to cause intense facial and scalp dermatitis. German patch test guidelines for children recommend that PPD should only be tested in patients who have had a henna tattoo, and then at a reduced concentration of PPD 0.5 % for 24 hours. We report on patch test results in four patients, three children and one adolescent, with a history of contact dermatitis to henna tattoos or hair dye. We used the recommended or even lower patch test concentrations of PPD with 24-hours exposure in all patients. All patients showed very strong patch test reactions to PPD and cross-reactions to related compounds even after dilution of PPD to as low as 0.05 %. Therefore, we suggest that in children with a history of allergic reactions to this compound, a titration test should be performed beginning at a concentration of maximal 0.05 %. This procedure has also been proposed previously based on a larger cases series in adults. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  1. Reaction profile in patch testing with allergens formed during vulcanization of rubber.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Christer; Pontén, Ann; Svedman, Cecilia; Bergendorff, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Vulcanization of rubber changes its allergen pattern. To estimate the contact allergic reactivity profile of users of finished rubber products. Twenty-four patients with known contact allergy to rubber accelerators were patch tested with 21 compounds found in chemical analyses of vulcanized rubber products. No diphenylguanidine, p-phenylenediamine antioxidants or thioureas were included in the study. Thiuram monosulfides formed during vulcanization showed generally stronger test reactions than the corresponding thiuram disulfides. We also obtained more positive thiuram reactions to the monosulfides than to the disulfides. A positive reaction to a dithiocarbamate was accompanied by a positive reaction to the corresponding thiuram, except for 1 patient. The nitrogen substituents showed only minor differences between the methyl, ethyl and pentamethylene groups, but the butyl derivatives gave, in most cases, a negative response. Dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides, formed between thiurams and mercaptobenzothiazoles during vulcanization, showed strong test reactions in almost all patients who were sensitive to dithiocarbamates, thiurams, or mercaptobenzothiazoles. We found thiuram monosulfides to be better markers of thiuram sensitivity than the corresponding disulfides or dithiocarbamates. Surprisingly, the dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides were good markers of both thiuram and mercaptobenzothiazole sensitivity. This is an unexpected finding that needs to be confirmed in a larger study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Patch test reactions to cosmetic allergens in 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 in Finland--a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, T; Rantanen, T; Alanko, K; Harvima, R J; Jolanki, R; Kalimo, K; Lahti, A; Lammintausta, K; Lauerma, A I; Laukkanen, A; Luukkaala, T; Riekki, R; Turjanmaa, K; Varjonen, E; Vuorela, A-M

    2005-07-01

    Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P < 0.001) and from 0.5% to 1.4% (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas the most prominent decreases were found with methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone and chlorhexidine diglugonate from 2.4% to 1.3% (P < 0.001) and from 1.2% to 0.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. The level of patch test sensitivity to methyldibromo glutaronitrile increased, although not significantly, from 1.0% to 1.5%. An increasing tendency was also found with hair dye chemicals 4-aminophenol and toluene-2,5-diamine or toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate from 1.3% to 3.8% and from 1.4% to 5.2%, respectively, while such a tendency was not found among permanent wave chemicals. The sensitivity level of fragrance mix remained the same (6% - 7%). We conclude that surveys revealing the state of sensitivity to cosmetic chemicals should be performed periodically in different countries.

  3. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-08-01

    Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. Our patch test database was screened for positive reactions to (meth)acrylates between 1993 and 2012. A selected group of 14 patients was tested with an isobornyl acrylate dilution series: 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.033%, and 0.01%. Readings were performed on D2, D3, and D7. One hundred and fifty-one patients were tested with our (meth)acrylate series; 24 had positive reactions. Most positive reactions were to 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and diethyleneglycol diacrylate. Hypothetical screening with 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate identified 91.7% of the 24 patients. No positive reactions were observed in 14 acrylate-positive patients tested with the isobornyl acrylate dilution series. The 0.3% isobornyl acrylate concentration induced irritant reactions in 3 patients. We report a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. However, this study provides insufficient support for isobornyl acrylate to be added to a (meth)acrylate series. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Late reactions to the patch-test preparations para-phenylenediamine and epoxy resin: a prospective multicentre investigation of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Hillen, U; Jappe, U; Frosch, P J; Becker, D; Brasch, J; Lilie, M; Fuchs, T; Kreft, B; Pirker, C; Geier, J

    2006-04-01

    Late patch-test reactions, developing at day (D) 7 or later have been described for several allergens. Late reactions may reflect patch-test sensitization. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and epoxy resins (ER) are potent allergens and therefore may potentially induce patch-test sensitization. Up to now, there has been no prospective study on the frequency of late reactions in routine patch testing with these allergens. To assess the frequency of late reactions to PPD and ER. In 1748 patients PPD (PPD-base, 1% pet.) and ER [based on diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, 1% pet.)], and in 812 patients, nickel sulphate (5% pet.) were removed from the test panel of the standard series and applied on the medial side of the upper arm. Patch-test occlusion time was 24 h in 588 (PPD and ER) and 241 patients (nickel sulphate), respectively, and 48 h in 1160 (PPD and ER) and 571 (nickel sulphate) patients, respectively. Patch tests were read on D1-3 and D2-3, respectively; additional late readings were performed on D7, D14 and D21 after patch-test application. Patients who were not able to return for all scheduled late readings were telephoned on D7, D14 or D21, and questioned about a reaction at the test sites. Patients were instructed to perform daily self-examination from D4 onwards and to return immediately to the clinic if a reaction at the upper arm became visible. Data of 1428 patients (ER and PPD) and 638 patients (nickel) were evaluable. In 25 patients (1.8%), patch tests became positive not before D7, among them 21 reactions to PPD (1.5%) and four reactions to ER (0.3%). In five of seven patients, repeated patch tests with PPD disclosed patch-test sensitization as the cause of the late reaction. All late reactions, except for one, occurred in patients in whom patch tests were applied for 48 h. No late reactions were seen with nickel sulphate. PPD (1% pet.) elicited late reactions in 1.5% of routine patch tests, the majority of them probably being caused by patch-test

  5. A correlation found between gold concentration in blood and patch test reactions in patients with coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Ekqvist, Susanne; Svedman, Cecilia; Lundh, Thomas; Möller, Halvon; Björk, Jonas; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-09-01

    Patients with dental gold restorations are known to have a higher level of gold concentration in blood (B-Au). To further investigate, in a study on patients with intracoronary stents and contact allergy to metals, the gold and nickel release from stainless steel stent with (Au stent) and without (Ni stent) gold plating. A total of 460 patients treated with stenting underwent patch testing with metals, and information on gold and nickel exposure and blood samples were collected. About 200 blood samples were randomly selected and the analysis of B-Au and nickel concentration in blood (B-Ni) was made using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. There was a correlation between the intensity of Au patch test reaction and B-Au (P < 0.001). This correlation could not be seen between Ni patch test reaction and B-Ni. A Au stent gave a fivefold higher B-Au than a Ni stent. Gold is released from the Au stent and patients with a Au stent have a fivefold higher B-Au than patients with an Ni stent. The patch test reactions for gold were correlated with B-Au.

  6. Allergy to tea tree oil: retrospective review of 41 cases with positive patch tests over 4.5 years.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Tim; Nixon, Rosemary; Tam, Mei; Tate, Bruce

    2007-05-01

    Tea tree oil use is increasing, with considerable interest in it being a 'natural' antimicrobial. It is found in many commercially available skin and hair care products in Australia. We retrospectively reviewed our patch test data at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Victoria over a 4.5-year period and identified 41 cases of positive reactions to oxidized tea tree oil of 2320 people patch-tested, giving a prevalence of 1.8%. The tea tree oil reaction was deemed relevant to the presenting dermatitis in 17 of 41 (41%) patients. Of those with positive reactions, 27 of 41 (66%) recalled prior use of tea tree oil and eight of 41 (20%) specified prior application of neat (100%) tea tree oil. Tea tree oil allergic contact dermatitis is under-reported in the literature but is sufficiently common in Australia to warrant inclusion of tea tree oil, at a concentration of 10% in petrolatum, in standard patch-test series. Given tea tree oil from freshly opened tea tree oil products elicits no or weak reactions, oxidized tea tree oil should be used for patch testing.

  7. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-04-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the development of HDCA. Eighty-four patients with suspected HDCA (32 men and 52 women) underwent patch testing using the TRUE Test system and their own hair dyes. The patients' demographic data, behavior associated with hair dyeing, and clinical manifestations of HDCA were examined retrospectively. Positive patch-test reactions to hair dyes occurred in 53.6% of patients who used hair dyes, and they were diagnosed with HDCA. Although there was a significant correlation between HDCA and PPD sensitization (p=0.001), only 40% of the patients with HDCA showed positive reactions to PPD. Of the 45 patients diagnosed with HDCA, only 7 (15.6%) were aware that their hair dyes contained allergens that caused HDCA. This study's findings show that PPD is an effective HDCA marker. However, we propose that investigations on hair dye components other than PPD should be conducted to develop and validate additional predictive HDCA markers.

  8. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. Objective To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the development of HDCA. Methods Eighty-four patients with suspected HDCA (32 men and 52 women) underwent patch testing using the TRUE Test system and their own hair dyes. The patients' demographic data, behavior associated with hair dyeing, and clinical manifestations of HDCA were examined retrospectively. Results Positive patch-test reactions to hair dyes occurred in 53.6% of patients who used hair dyes, and they were diagnosed with HDCA. Although there was a significant correlation between HDCA and PPD sensitization (p=0.001), only 40% of the patients with HDCA showed positive reactions to PPD. Of the 45 patients diagnosed with HDCA, only 7 (15.6%) were aware that their hair dyes contained allergens that caused HDCA. Conclusion This study's findings show that PPD is an effective HDCA marker. However, we propose that investigations on hair dye components other than PPD should be conducted to develop and validate additional predictive HDCA markers. PMID:25834356

  9. Additive value of patch testing custom epoxy materials from the workplace at the occupational disease specialty clinic in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Houle, Marie-Claude; Holness, D Linn; Dekoven, Joel; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to epoxy resins is one of the major causes of occupationally induced ACD. Testing of custom epoxy materials from the workplace is often performed to diagnose ACD. The objective of this study was to investigate the additive value of patch testing custom-made epoxy materials. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 24 patients who were tested to custom epoxy resin materials between January 2002 and July 2011. For 11 patients (46%), the testing of their materials from work had no additional value (negative results). For 13 patients (54%), there was an additional value of testing custom allergens. Of those, 7 patients (54%) had positive reactions to custom epoxy materials that reinforced the test results found with the commercially available allergens, and 6 (46%) patients had positive reactions only to custom epoxy materials. Therefore, for 6 patients (25%), there was a definite additive value of testing custom epoxy materials because the allergy was discovered with custom testing and not with the commercially available allergens. Because of the high percentage (54%) of patients with additive value of patch testing custom epoxy materials, we think that the inclusion of actual workplace epoxy materials should be strongly considered when patch testing patients with occupational epoxy exposure.

  10. Reflections on current food allergy controversies: specific IgE test application, patch testing, eosinophilic esophagitis, and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bahna, Sami L

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addresses four selected issues that are current controversies in the area of food allergy. First, the diagnostic proficiency of specific IgE (sIgE) measurement. sIgE testing has been a useful screening test; the higher the level, the more likely to be clinically relevant. However, published predictive values varied from one study to another. Levels derived from data on certain groups of patients reflect probabilities that can not be applied with certainty to individual patients. Several factors need to be considered in interpreting the value of sIgE in any particular patient. Definitive decisions require well-designed challenge testing. Second, a few studies suggested the usefulness of including patch testing in food allergy evaluation. It may reveal positive results that may or may not be clinically relevant. At present, its use is not generally accepted because of inconsistency in the reported findings and the lack of standardization of test materials and interpretation. It may possibly have a role in evaluating eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) more than in atopic dermatitis. Third, EE does not seem to be a new disease or is causing a miniepidemic. Its increasing diagnosis is probably because of a greater awareness and better biopsy assessment. Fourth, the usefulness of probiotics on allergy prevention or treatment has been reported by some studies but not by others. Appropriately designed studies are needed to identify the efficacious type(s) of probiotics, effective doses, method of administration, optimal time to begin, and duration of therapy.

  11. Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Shiny, T N; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants. METHODS Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10%, 20% and 30% conc. in pet. after informed consent. Positive reactions persisting on D3 and D4 were considered significant. RESULTS Clinical patterns were exanthematous drug rash with or without systemic involvement (DRESS) in 18 (75%), Stevens-Johnsons syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) overlap and TEN in 2 (8.3%) patients each, SJS and lichenoid drug eruption in 1 (4.2%) patient each, respectively. The implicated drugs were phenytoin in 14 (58.3%), carbamazepine in 9 (37.5%), phenobarbitone in 2 (8.3%), and lamotrigine in 1 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Twelve (50%) patients elicited positive reactions to implicated drugs; carbamazepine in 6 (50%), phenytoin alone in 4 (33.3%), phenobarbitone alone in 1 (8.3%), and both phenytoin and phenobarbitone in 1 (8.33%) patients, respectively. Cross-reactions occurred in 11 (92%) patients. Six patients with carbamazepine positive patch test reaction showed cross sensitivity with phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and/or lamotrigine. Three (75%) patients among positive phenytoin patch test reactions had cross reactions with phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and/or valproate. CONCLUSION Carbamazepine remains the commonest anticonvulsant causing ACDRs and cross-reactions with other anticonvulsants are possible. Drug patch testing appears useful in DRESS for drug imputability and cross-reactions established clinically. PMID:28396847

  12. Patch testing with preservatives at St John's from 1982 to 1993.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M C; White, I R; Rycroft, R J; Taub, N

    1995-10-01

    We have reviewed our patch test results for preservative allergy from 1982 to 1993. 8 preservatives were included: formaldehyde, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (Bronopol(TM)), quaternium-15 (Dowicil 200TM), imidazolidinyl urea (Germall 115TM), diazolidinyl urea (Germall IITM), parabens, 5-chloro-2methyl-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon CG(TM)) and 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane (one of the constituents of Euxyl K 400TM). Whereas the allergy rate to formaldehyde is quite stable, there is a slight increase in the imidazolidinyl urea allergy rate. Quaternium-15's rate is decreasing and 5-chloro-2-methyl-isothiazolin-3-one plus 2-methyl-isothiazolin-3-one's rate, after a rapid rise, seems to have stabilized. Although very important constituents of cosmetics, preservatives not only induce allergies on the face but also on the hands, and, as expected, the allergy rate in men and women generally differs. Among the 5 formaldehyde-releasers, there are some favoured simultaneous reactions: quaternium-15 and formaldehyde, and diazolidinyl urea and imidazolidinyl urea. Concomitant reactions between 1-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and formaldehyde are not common, and those between 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and diazolidinyl urea, and formaldehyde are not very common. This supports the hypothesis that allergic reactions to the Germalls are directed toward the initial molecule rather than to formaldehyde.

  13. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  14. Crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) did not cause skin irritation in humans in 48-h patch test.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Novick, Rachel M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2017-03-13

    Crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) is an industrial chemical used to wash and clean coal. On January 9th, 2014 approximately 10,000 gallons of a mixture containing crude MCHM were released into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia, contaminating the local water supply. Following the spill, residents reported numerous health complaints, and sought medical attention for ailments including rashes and itching. The relationship between the complaints and the spill were unknown, as such symptoms are reported frequently in the background. In this study, the primary irritation potential of crude MCHM was evaluated in 206 individuals who underwent 48 hour semi-occluded patch testing. MCHM concentrations assessed in this study were 1, 5, 15, and 100 ppm. No appreciable skin reactions were observed in individuals at any concentration. Three of the five concentrations evaluated were above the highest measured concentration of MCHM in the tap water of residents in West Virginia (3.7 ppm). The results of this study suggest that crude MCHM would not be a dermal irritant for the vast majority, if not all, potentially exposed persons at the concentrations in the water reported after the spill.

  15. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers. PMID:28396866

  16. Patch testing with hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate - cross-reactivity with p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Kügler, Katrin; Geier, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Adverse reactions to permanent hair dyes are frequent, and primarily result from sensitization to p-phenylenediamine (PPD). To investigate the degree of cross-reactivity to a chemically similar dye, hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate (HPPS), and whether this might be a dyeing alternative for patients who are sensitive to PPD. HPPS was patch tested in two concentrations in a total of 216 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis caused by hair dyes and/or hair cosmetics. A regular use test with a hair dye containing HPPS was suggested to every patient who had had an adverse reaction to a PPD hair dye in the past. Forty of 216 (19.9%) patients reacted to 1% PPD, whereas only 2/216 (0.9%) showed a positive reaction to 1% HPPS. Reactivity to 2% HPPS was only slightly higher (5/216, 2.3%). On the basis of the 43 PPD-positive patients, the reactivity to 2% HPPS amounted to 12%; the corresponding figure for toluene-2,5-diamine was 15% (5/33). In a use test on two PPD-positive patients with a hair dye containing HPPS, no adverse reaction was seen, even after several years of regular dyeing. CONCLUSIONS. HPPS may be an alternative hair dye for individuals not tolerating PPD-containing dyes. However, cross-reactivity with PPD and other aromatic amines may occur. HPPS is also a known sensitizer, and the risk of de novo sensitization can only be assessed by a controlled study on a large panel and under regular use conditions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    PubMed

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. 371 Cutaneous Response to Patch Tests with Dermatophagoides Farinae and Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus in Patients with Chronic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Calderin, Diego; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Rojas, Alejandro; Hernandez, Marisela; Gallego, Claudia; Mejia, Karla; Calva, Maricruz; Dominguez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhinitis is characterized clinical by chronic runny nose, sneezing, nasal itching, congestion and postnasal discharge, among other symptoms. It´s classified as allergic and non allergic. Skin prick testing is the principal diagnosis method for allergic rhinits. However, there is a group of patients with chronic rhinopathy that have negative skin tests, the objective of this study was to determine the cutaneous response to patch tests with Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients with chronic rhinitis. Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study. We included patients over 18 years old. They were divided into 3 groups; Group A patients who came for the first time with a history of chronic rhinopathy over 18 months of evolution and positive skin tests for aeroallergens; group B patients with chronic rhinitis with at least one year of evolution and negative skin tests; group C healthy volunteers. Patch test with farinae and pteronisyinnus were done in the subjects of all 3 groups, with readings at 48 and 72 hours. Results A total of 37 patients were studied, mean age 26.1 years. Twenty two were male subjects (60%). The mean lenghtof chronic rhinophaty was 10.8 years. Six patients had positive patch test to any of the mites tested; 2 (33%) in group A, 2 (33%) in group B and 2 (33%) of the control group, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions Although the results were not statistically significant, there were patients with chronic rhinitis wich had positive patch test for mites. This sensitization could be clinically significant for those patients.

  19. Modulation of atopy patch test reactions by topical treatment of human skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient.

    PubMed

    Billmann-Eberwein, C; Rippke, F; Ruzicka, T; Krutmann, J

    2002-01-01

    Measures directed at improving the skin barrier function are thought to be effective in preventing reexacerbation of atopic dermatitis, but direct proof of a prophylactic effect of emollients has been elusive. In the present study, the atopy patch test has been employed as a model for the initiation phase of atopic dermatitis in order to assess whether pretreatment of non-lesional skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient (Eucerin Omega Creme) has a prophylactic effect in patients with atopic dermatitis. Pretreatment of test sites with Eucerin Omega Creme either prevented or diminished the development of eczema, as compared with untreated control test sites in the same patients (n = 38). These studies indicate that the use of fatty acid-rich emollients prevents the development of atopic eczema. They also demonstrate that the atopy patch test can be used to assess the capacity of a given regimen to exert prophylactic effects in this disease. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Patch Testing for Evaluation of Hypersensitivity to Implanted Metal Devices: A Perspective From the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Crawford, Glen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheinman, Pamela L; Atwater, Amber Reck; Mowad, Christen; Brod, Bruce; Ehrlich, Alison; Watsky, Kalman L; Sasseville, Denis; Silvestri, Dianne; Worobec, Sophie M; Elliott, John F; Honari, Golara; Powell, Douglas L; Taylor, James; DeKoven, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society recognizes the interest in the evaluation and management of metal hypersensitivity reactions. Given the paucity of robust evidence with which to guide our practices, we provide reasonable evidence and expert opinion-based guidelines for clinicians with regard to metal hypersensitivity reaction testing and patient management. Routine preoperative evaluation in individuals with no history of adverse cutaneous reactions to metals or history of previous implant-related adverse events is not necessary. Patients with a clear self-reported history of metal reactions should be evaluated by patch testing before device implant. Patch testing is only 1 element in the assessment of causation in those with postimplantation morbidity. Metal exposure from the implanted device can cause sensitization, but a positive metal test does not prove symptom causality. The decision to replace an implanted device must include an assessment of all clinical factors and a thorough risk-benefit analysis by the treating physician(s) and patient.

  1. The impact of meteorological conditions on patch test results with 12 standard series allergens (fragrances, biocides, topical ingredients).

    PubMed

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Kränke, B; Schnuch, A; Gefeller, O; Pfahlberg, A

    2008-04-01

    Fluctuating irritability of the skin induced by low ambient temperature and humidity may compromise the reproducibility of patch testing. To assess the impact of temperature and absolute humidity at the time of patch testing on the occurrence of irritant or doubtful (IR/?), weak positive (+) and (strong) positive (++/+++) reactions, respectively, among 12 allergens included in the German Standard Series. Analysis of clinical data collected in the surveillance network IVDK (http://www.ivdk.org) between January 1993 and December 2001 (n = 73 691 patients) combined with meteorological data obtained by the national services in Germany and Austria. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk associated with temperature, absolute humidity and vapour pressure, respectively, adjusted for sex, age, atopic dermatitis and duration of patch test application. For low temperature and humidity, a relevant increase of IR/? reaction frequency was observed in the cases of paraben mix and (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone. Both IR/? and + reactions were significantly increased with respect to the allergens fragrance mix, oil of turpentine, methyldibromo glutaronitrile + phenoxyethanol and particularly formaldehyde, while ++/+++ reactions were hardly affected by weather conditions. The observed increase of IR/? reactions may be due to epidermal barrier function impairment. The impact of dry/cold weather on + reactions in terms of possibly false-positive reactions is restricted to few allergens. In the case of + reactions of unknown relevance, a re-test under warm conditions or verification tests such as the repeated open application test or the provocative use test may be recommendable.

  2. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    PubMed

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination.

  3. Sensitization to Rubber Accelerators in Northeastern Italy: The Triveneto Patch Test Database.

    PubMed

    Buttazzo, Silvia; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic rubbers containing rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin disease. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber gloves is frequent and has almost exclusively been attributed to contact sensitization to accelerators. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of rubber accelerators sensitization in the population living in northeastern Italy, to find time trend and a correlation with occupations, and to investigate co-sensitization between rubber accelerators. A population of 23,774 subjects was patch tested in 6 cities in northeastern Italy in the years 1996 to 2012 using carba mix 3%, thiuram mix 1%, benzothiazole (MBT) mix 1%, and isopropyl phenyl paraphenylamine diamine (IPPD) mix 0.6%. The overall frequency of carbamates, MBT, thiurams, and IPPD mix sensitization was 3.4%, 0.65%, 1.75%, and 0.83%, respectively. On a logistic regression analysis (control group: white-collar workers), we found a statistically significant association to carbamates (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.7) and thiurams (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) for health care workers. Thiuram sensitivity was also significantly associated with dermatitis in maids and restaurant workers (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6), hairdressers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.1), shop assistants (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8), construction workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.1), mechanics (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4), and professional drivers (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rubber accelerators have an important role in allergic contact dermatitis in the northeast of Italy and their sensitization is associated significantly with occupations that wear gloves or use chemical substances. Between rubber accelerators tested, carbamates sensitization is prevalent and increasing during considered years.

  4. [Results of patch test in hairdressers examined in the institute of occupational medicine in Łódź].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a significant health problem in hairdressers. The number of occupational skin diseases in this group constantly increases. The most frequent factors contributing to the skin damage include water, shampoos, detergents, conditioners, hair dyes, bleaches, permanent wave solutions, and components of gloves. A group of 121 hairdressers (106 women and 6 men) was selected from 4523 patients (2996 women and 1527 men) referred to the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, in 1995-2008, with suspected occupational skin disease. All hairdressers underwent dermatological examination and allergy tests (patch tests with allergens of the European Standard Series and Hairdressing Series, Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden; skin prick tests, Allergopharma, Germany). Females were more prevalent than males and constituted 94.6% of the study group. Of all the study participants, 30% were trainee hairdressers. At least one positive patch test reaction was found in 69.7% of patients whereas in 30.3% patch tests were negative. The most frequent contact allergens were: nickel sulfate (40% of females), p-phenylenediamine (one fourth of the study group), ammonium persulfate (23.2%), cobalt chloride (21.4%), 2,5-diaminotoluene sulfate (9.8%), formaldehyde (9.8%), ammonium thioglycolate (7.1%), and glyceryl monothioglycolate (7.1%). Moreover, we found positive patch test reactions to thimerosal (14.3%), palladium chloride (11.6%), potassium dichromate (5.3%) and fragrance mix (4.5%). Altogether, occupational origin of skin disease was confirmed in 46.4% of hairdressers with allergic contact dermatitis, in 48.2% of those diagnosed with irritant contact dermatitis and in 0.9% of hairdressers suffering from urticaria. 71% of trainee hairdressers were finally diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis, caused first of all by ammonium persulfate, p-phenylenediamine, nickel and thimerosal. In conclusion, it seems to be indispensable to implement health

  5. Testing the role of patch openness as a causal mechanism for apparent area sensitivity in a grassland specialist.

    PubMed

    Keyel, Alexander C; Bauer, Carolyn M; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Reed, J Michael

    2012-06-01

    Area sensitivity, species being disproportionately present on larger habitat patches, has been identified in many taxa. We propose that some apparently area-sensitive species are actually responding to how open a habitat patch is, rather than to patch size. We tested this hypothesis for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) by comparing density and occupancy to a novel openness index, patch area, and edge effects. Bobolink density and occupancy showed significant relationships with openness, but logistic models based on an openness occupancy threshold had greater explanatory power. Thresholds remained approximately consistent from June through August, and shifted to be more open in September. Variance partitioning supported the openness index as unique and relevant. We found no relationships between measures of body condition (body mass, body size, circulating corticosterone levels) and either openness or area. Our findings have implications for studies of area sensitivity, especially with regards to inconsistencies reported within species: specifically, (1) whether or not a study finds a species to be area sensitive may depend on whether small, open sites were sampled, and (2) area regressions were sensitive to observed densities at the largest sites, suggesting that variation in these fields could lead to inconsistent area sensitivity responses. Responses to openness may be a consequence of habitat selection mediated by predator effects. Finally, openness measures may have applications for predicting effects of habitat management or development, such as adding wind turbines, in open habitat.

  6. Simultaneous patch testing with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and their ingredients in southern Sweden between 2009 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2017-07-07

    Fragrance mix I (FM I) and fragrance mix II (FM II) are included in the European baseline series as screening substances for fragrance contact allergy. To investigate the frequency of allergic reactions to FM I, FM II and their ingredients in consecutively patch tested patients. A retrospective analysis of data from 4430 patients patch tested between 2009 and 2015 was performed. Of the patients, 6.5% were FM I-positive and 3.2% were FM II-positive. Forty-five per cent of FM I-positive patients did not have positive reactions to FM I ingredients. Thirty-five per cent of those who were FM II-positive did not have positive reactions to FM II ingredients. Twenty-seven per cent of those with positive reactions to one or more of the FM I ingredients were FM I-negative, and 36% of those who had positive reactions to one or more of the FM II ingredients were FM II-negative. The allergens with the highest pick-up rates were Evernia prunastri (1.8%), cinnamal (1.3%), citral (1.2%), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (1.2%). Significant differences were observed in the proportions of positive reactions to FM I, FM II, eugenol, isoeugenol, and farnesol when results from patch testing with materials from different suppliers were compared. There is a risk of missing fragrance contact allergy when testing with only the fragrance mixes is performed. The use of preparations from different suppliers may affect the patch test results. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diagnostic patch testing following tuberculosis-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions induces systemic reactions in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Lehloenya, R J; Todd, G; Wallace, J; Ngwanya, M R; Muloiwa, R; Dheda, K

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) to first-line antituberculosis drugs (FLTDs) is higher in HIV-tuberculosis coinfection. However, the utility of patch testing to identify the offending drug in this patient subgroup has been poorly studied. To identify drugs causing adverse drug reactions in patients with HIV-tuberculosis coinfection. Fourteen consecutive patients underwent diagnostic work-up (patch testing followed by a skin prick test and an oral rechallenge) to pinpoint the offending drug after developing FLTD-associated CADR, which included drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (n = 12), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, n = 1) and toxic epidermal necrolysis/SJS overlap (n = 1). A positive reaction to any of the three diagnostic modalities eliminated that drug from the regimen. Once patients were clinically stable postreaction, sequential and additive rechallenge with FLTDs was initiated. Eleven of the 14 participants with FLTD-associated CADR were HIV infected (median CD4 count 149 cells mm(-3) ). In this subgroup, patch testing resulted in generalized systemic reactions in 10 of 11 patients (91%). These included rash in 10 of 13 reactions (77%), eosinophilia in eight (62%), transaminitis in seven (54%) and fever in five (38%). Isoniazid caused six of 13 (46%) generalized systemic reactions, rifampicin four (31%), ethambutol two (15%) and pyrazinamide one reaction. Using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, five of 13 reactions were mild, six were moderate and two were severe. There were no life-threatening or fatal reactions. In HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis-associated CADR, although patch-testing reactions to FLTD are common and tend to be associated with systemic features, they are not life threatening or fatal. These data inform clinical practice in HIV-endemic settings. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Recommendation to test limonene hydroperoxides 0.3% and linalool hydroperoxides 1.0% in the British Baseline patch test series.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, C; Penfold, C M; Bourke, J F; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; Johnston, G A; Mughal, A A; Reckling, C; Sabroe, R A; Stone, N M; Thompson, D; Wilkinson, S M; Buckley, D A

    2017-05-11

    There is a significant rate of sensitisation worldwide to the oxidised fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool. Patch testing to oxidised terpenes is not routinely carried out; the ideal patch test concentration is unknown. To determine the best test concentrations for limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, added to the British baseline patch test series, to optimise detection of true allergy and minimise irritant reactions. During 2013-2014, 4563 consecutive patients in 12 UK centres were tested to hydroperoxides of limonene in petrolatum (pet.) 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1%, and hydroperoxides of linalool 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.25% pet. Irritant (IR) reactions were recorded separately from doubtful (?+) reactions. Concomitant reactions to other fragrance markers and clinical relevance were documented. Limonene hydroperoxide 0.3% gave positive reactions in 241 (5.3%) patients, irritant reactions in 93 (2.0%) and doubtful reactions in 110 (2.4%). Linalool hydroperoxide 1.0% gave positive reactions in 352 (7.7%), irritant reactions in 178 (3.9%), and doubtful reactions in 132 (2.9%). 119 patients with crescendo reactions to 0.3% limonene would have been missed if only tested with 0.1%. 131 patients with crescendo reactions to 1.0% linalool would have been missed if only tested with 0.25%. In almost two-thirds of patients with positive patch tests to limonene and linalool the reaction was clinically relevant. The majority of patients did not react to any fragrance marker in the baseline series. We recommend that limonene hydroperoxides be tested at 0.3% and linalool hydroperoxides at 1.0% in the British baseline patch test series. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Nickel sulphate and epoxy resin: differences in iron status and glutathione redox ration at the time of patch testing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sirje; Zilmer, Mihkel; Eisen, Maigi; Rehema, Aune; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Kersti

    2004-05-01

    The reactive patch test reaction is a useful model to characterize oxidative stress in acute allergic contact dermatitis. This model was used to study oxidative stress in the skin of individuals allergic to nickel and epoxy resin. The study included six and five patients, respectively, whose skin was simultaneously biopsied from a positive patch test site and from an apparently healthy area. The biopsies were homogenized and used for determination of iron content, unbound iron binding capacity, diene conjugate levels, and glutathione redox ratio. A positive test reaction to 5% nickel sulphate was accompanied by 2.5-fold increase in iron level as compared to apparently healthy skin (P<0.1). The percentage saturation of iron-binding capacity and the glutathione redox ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Reactive patch test responses to 1% epoxy resin were not accompanied by clear alterations in iron status or glutathione redox ratio. Our investigation showed that apart from oxidative burst caused by accumulation of inflammatory cells, hapten properties might also influence the oxidative stress status of the skin. The high incidence of nickel allergy may be attributed, at least in part, to the influence of nickel ions on the glutathione redox ratio and iron status of the skin.

  10. Determination of acid base balance and oil water partition coefficient of an atopy patch test of levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Lecordier, Julien; Lahet, Jean-Jacques; Courderot-Masuyer, Carol; Beaudoin, Etienne; Chaillot, Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Levofloxacin, a quinolone used in the treatment of an upper respiratory tract infection is involved in skin reactions. Patch tests are helpful for the aetiological diagnosis. Unfortunately, they are known for their lack of sensibility. A weak transcutaneous penetration due to the physicochemical characteristics of tested drugs is a well-known cause of false negative results but these characteristics are usually unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate physicochemical parameters by potentiometric method in order to optimize the transcutaneous penetration of a preparation for patch test. This method is applicable to a medium such as the preparation for patch test. In order to value the stability of the preparation, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the level of levofloxacin was effectuated. In our study, spectrophotometric and potentiometric data at T0 and six months later with the preparation showed the stability of the preparation. The proportions of non-ionized (45%) and ionized levofloxacin (55%) were not modified. Further experiments are needed to choose the minimal efficient dose of the suspected molecule able to detect a positive reaction in cases of allergic reaction. In addition, this method could be useful in qualitative and quantitative control of preparations made at hospital.

  11. Late reactions to patch test preparations with reduced concentrations of p-phenylenediamine: a multicentre investigation of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Uwe; Dickel, Heinrich; Löffler, Harald; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Mahler, Vera; Becker, Detlef; Brasch, Jochen; Worm, Margitta; Fuchs, Thomas; John, Sven M; Geier, Johannes

    2011-04-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) 1% in petrolatum has been shown in a prospective study to elicit late reactions in 1.5% of routine patch tests, which may be indicative of patch test sensitization. To assess the frequency of late reactions to reduced PPD patch test concentrations. In 1838 patients, PPD was tested at three concentrations (0.5% pet., group I; 0.4% pet., group II; and 0.35% pet., group III). Patch tests were read on D1 (D2) to D3 (D4); additional late readings were performed on D7, D14, and D21. Patients who were not able to return for all scheduled late readings were telephoned on D7, D14, and D21, and questioned about a reaction at the patch test sites. Data of 1666 patients (1069 women and 597 men) were eligible. Late reactions were observed in 9 patients, 3 in group I (0.49%) and 5 in group II (0.63%). In 7 of 8 of the patients with late reactions, patch tests were applied for 48 hr. On retesting, 4 of 5 patients became positive at D2 or D3. The occurrence of late reactions to PPD may be influenced by patch test concentration and duration. PPD 0.4-0.5% pet. may cause late reactions indicative of active sensitization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Positive atopy patch test reaction to Malassezia furfur in atopic dermatitis correlates with a T helper 2-like peripheral blood mononuclear cells response.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Catharina; Eshaghi, Hojjat; Linder, Maria Tengvall; Jakobson, Eva; Scheynius, Annika

    2002-06-01

    The yeast Malassezia furfur belongs to the normal cutaneous flora, but is also a triggering allergen that can contribute to atopic dermatitis. To illuminate the effect of circulating allergen-specific T cells in atopic dermatitis, the peripheral mononuclear cell response was correlated with the in vivo skin prick test and atopy patch test reactivity to M. furfur. None of 16 healthy controls showed any positive in vivo reaction. The 40 atopic dermatitis patients, of whom 18 had serum IgE reactivity to M. furfur, were subdivided according to their in vivo reaction to M. furfur extract into three groups: skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive (n = 12), skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative (n = 12), and skin prick test negative/atopy patch test negative (n = 16). The skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive and the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative groups had a significantly higher peripheral mononuclear cell stimulation index than the healthy controls. Interestingly, the stimulation index values in the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive group were significantly higher than in the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative group. In the M. furfur skin prick test positive atopic dermatitis patients (n = 24) a correlation was found between stimulation index and the M. furfur atopy patch test reactions, but not between stimulation index and M. furfur-specific serum IgE levels. Skin prick test positive and/or atopy patch test positive reactions to the recombinant M. furfur allergens rMal f 1, rMal f 5, and rMal f 6 were observed in 7, 14, and 16 of the 40 atopic dermatitis patients, respectively. Further, there was a correlation between production of the T helper 2-related cytokines interleukins 4, 5, and 13 and stimulation index to M. furfur extract, but not between the T helper 1-related interferon-gamma and stimulation index to M. furfur extract. Our data strongly suggest a relationship between

  13. Irritation and allergy patch test analysis of topical treatments commonly used in wound care: evaluation on normal and compromised skin.

    PubMed

    Trookman, Nathan S; Rizer, Ronald L; Weber, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Topical agents indicated for the treatment of superficial wounds have the potential to cause irritation or allergic contact dermatitis, particularly when applied to an impaired skin barrier. We sought to compare the irritancy potential of 5 topical wound care products commonly used in dermatologic practice on normal and compromised skin. Agents tested included Aquaphor Healing Ointment (AHO) (Beiersdorf Inc, Wilton, CT); bacitracin; Biafine Topical Emulsion (BTE) (OrthoNeutrogena, Los Angeles, CA); Neosporin (Poly/Bac/Neo) (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ); and Polysporin (Poly/Bac) (Johnson & Johnson). Study 1 assessed cumulative irritation using a modified human repeat insult patch test on normal back skin with an induction phase (test materials applied under occlusive patch 9 times at 48- to 72-hour intervals) and a challenge phase (test materials applied to original and naïve sites for 48 hours, 12-24 days postinduction). Irritation was graded for erythema and type IV allergy skin responses. Study 2 assessed the acute irritation potential of agents on tape-stripped ("wounded") back skin. Test sites were graded for erythema, transepidermal water loss, and skin color (Chroma Meter a∗) (Minolta, Osaka, Japan) at 48 and 72 hours poststripping. In study 1, cumulative irritation testing in 108 subjects classified AHO, bacitracin, Poly/Bac/Neo, and Poly/Bac as "mild," and BTE as "probably mild." In study 2 at 72 hours, mean clinical grading scores were significantly higher for BTE and Poly/Bac/Neo than AHO. Transepidermal water loss and colorimeter a∗ values were significantly lower for AHO and bacitracin compared with BTE. No allergic contact dermatitis was seen in either study. Patch test studies demonstrated that BTE showed the greatest irritancy potential in both normal and compromised skin whereas AHO showed the least. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodopropynylbutyl carbamate 0.2% is suggested for patch testing of patients with eczema possibly related to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Aberer, W; Uter, W

    2004-09-01

    Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) is a new preservative in medical and cosmetic leave-on products. Although cases of allergic contact dermatitis to IPBC have been reported, it is not known whether the usual test concentration of 0.1% is appropriate for screening tests with IPBC. To determine the concentration of IPBC that should be used in screening patch tests. An analysis was made of data filed by 26 centres of dermatology on patch tests performed with one or two concentrations of IPBC (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% or 0.5%) in 8106 unselected patients. Criteria used to determine the best test concentration of IPBC were the reaction index, the positivity ratio, the rate of crescendo reactions, and the relations between IPBC reactions and the MOAHLFA index irritant reactions to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), and allergic reactions to other contact allergens including preservatives. IPBC 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% yielded 0.5%, 0.8%, 1.3% and 1.7% positive reactions, but this increase was accompanied by an even greater increase in doubtful and irritant reactions. These figures and the other criteria examined suggested the range of suitable test concentrations of IPBC to lie between 0.2% and 0.3%. A detailed analysis of MOAHLFA indices and of associations between reactions to IPBC and reactions to other allergens and to SLS showed that most of the positive reactions to IPBC 0.2% can be assumed to be allergic ones and that with IPBC 0.2% fewer false-positive reactions can be expected than with IPBC 0.3%. Patch testing with IPBC 0.2% is suggested for patients with eczema possibly related to preservatives.

  15. Comparative assessment of the acute skin irritation potential of detergent formulations using a novel human 4-h patch test method.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael K; Kruszewski, Francis H; Al-Atrash, Jenan; Blazka, Mark E; Gingell, Ralph; Heitfeld, Fred A; Mallon, David; Snyder, Neil K; Swanson, Judith E; Casterton, Phillip L

    2005-12-01

    Predictive skin irritation test methods, which do not require use of animals, are needed for the pre-market assessment of detergent formulations. The utility of a novel and ethical human acute skin irritation patch test method, originally developed for chemical skin irritation assessment, was evaluated. In this IRB-approved method, subjects were patched under occlusion for increasing periods of time up to 4h in duration. The total incidence of positive skin reactions for test products was compared to a positive control (20% aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]). Acutely irritating formulas were defined as those showing a significantly increased or equal incidence of positive responders compared with that of SDS. The time of exposure required for 50% of subjects to show a positive skin reaction (TR50 value) was calculated for each product and enabled test product comparisons within and between studies. Using this approach, 24 detergent formulations of various types were tested in seven individual studies. The skin irritation profiles were generally consistent within product types, which could be categorized as follows (by decreasing irritancy): mold/mildew removers (average TR50 = 0.37 h) > disinfectants/sanitizers (0.64 h) > fabric softener concentrate (1.09 h) = aluminum wash (1.20 h) > 20% SDS (1.81 h) > liquid laundry detergents (3.48 h) > liquid dish detergents (4.16 h) = liquid fabric softeners (4.56 h) = liquid hand soaps (4.58 h) = shampoos (5.40 h) = hard surface cleaners (6.34 h) > powder automatic dish detergents (>16 h) = powder laundry detergents (>16 h). In addition to formulation effects, some seasonal effects were noted; particularly greater winter-time reactivity to 20% SDS and the hard surface cleaner and liquid laundry formulations. These results demonstrate the utility of this patch test method for the comparative skin irritation assessment of these different product types.

  16. The irritancy and allergenicity of 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Skane M-8), with recommendations for patch test concentration.

    PubMed

    Emmett, E A; Ng, S K; Levy, M A; Moss, J N; Morici, I J

    1989-01-01

    Preparations of 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Skane M-8) at 1000 p.p.m. a.i. and 500 p.p.m. a.i. in pet. induced allergy in a cumulative insult human patch test. Challenge patch testing using 250 p.p.m. a.i. Skane M-8 elicited allergy in 6 out of 6 sensitized individuals. Sensitized individuals did not cross react with Kathon biocide, (Kathon CG), a mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one. All pretrolatum preparations to which Tween 85 was added at 2.5% produced mild irritation in cumulative insult patch tests, but no irritation was observed with Tween 85 at 0.625%. We conclude that Skane M-8, 250 p.p.m. a.i. with Tween 85 0.625% in petrolatum is appropriate for patch testing for Skane M-8 allergy.

  17. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Menné, Torkil

    2009-11-01

    Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. To determine the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs of scissors and 7 (53.8%; 95% CI = 26.0 - 82.0) of 13 crochet hooks released an excessive amount of nickel. The prevalence of nickel allergy was higher among middle-aged and older female hairdressers than among young female hairdressers. The prevalence of nickel allergy was lower among young hairdressers in comparison to older hairdressers. This may possibly be a result of the European Union (EU) Nickel Directive or a consequence of a decreased use of nickel-releasing work tools in salons. When nickel allergic hairdressers present with hand eczema, their work tools should be investigated for nickel release.

  18. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus; Diepgen, Thomas; Elsner, Peter; Goossens, An; Goh, Chee-Leok; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard; Matsunaga, Kayoko; McFadden, John; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2 in an international population and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. Thirteen centers representing the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 into their patch test baseline series during a period of 6 months in 2012. Of 2259 patients tested, 28 (1.2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.2%) merits its inclusion into the international baseline series and possibly also into other baseline series after appropriate investigations. Significantly, overrepresented simultaneous allergic reactions were noted for M. pereirae and fragrance mix I.

  19. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. A study of the sensitization rate to cocamidopropyl betaine in patients patch tested in a university hospital of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sensitization to cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) in China has not been reported. This study is to evaluate the prevalence of CAPB sensitization in patients patch tested in Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing. 429 consecutive patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with CAPB 1.0% aqueous, 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) 1.0% aqueous as well as a modified European standard series of allergens from June 2005 to August 2006. 42 patients (9.8%) had a positive reaction to CAPB. 25 of them (59.5%) were considered relevant. Of those, 7 were head and/or neck dermatitis, 4 hand dermatitis, 1 cheilitis, and the other 13 patients were widespread dermatitis. 10 out of 429 (2.3%) patients reacted to DMAPA. Of those, 8 were relevant and 6 of them also reacted to CAPB. The rate of CAPB sensitization in our study is higher than previously reported elsewhere. CAPB is a common cosmetic allergen in Beijing. Both CAPB and DMAPA should be tested in patients with suspected cosmetic dermatitis.

  1. Atopy patch test in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome: comparison of petrolatum and aqueous solution as a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Oldhoff, J M; Bihari, I C; Knol, E F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; de Bruin-Weller, M S

    2004-04-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) is an in vivo model to study the induction of eczema by inhalant allergens. This study was designed to compare two commonly used APT methods. In the first method, the allergen is dissolved in aqueous solution, which is applied on tape-stripped skin. In the second method, the allergen is dissolved in petrolatum and applied without tape stripping. Thirteen patients with atopic dermatitis sensitized to inhalant allergens were patch tested using both methods. Reactions were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically after 48 h. Nine out of 13 patients displayed a positive reaction for both methods. One patient had a positive APT for the aqueous method alone and three for the petrolatum method alone. Reactions were significantly stronger when using the petrolatum method. Histological evaluation of the nine patients positive for both methods showed no significant differences in number of eosinophils, T-cells and neutrophils. The APT using the petrolatum vehicle induces a higher number of positive reactions and is significantly stronger relative to the APT using allergen in aqueous vehicle. The cellular influx in both test methods is comparable. Both methods can be used to study the mechanisms in the induction of eczema by inhalant allergens.

  2. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers: an analysis of patch test data from the Danish contact dermatitis group, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mortz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995 matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. Occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001) and hand eczema (p < 0.001) were observed significantly more often among hairdressers than among controls. Atopic dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p < 0.01). Allergens from the European baseline series with a statistically significant association with the occupation of hairdressing were p-phenylenediamine, thiuram mix, and benzocaine. Frequent sensitizers from the hairdressing series were ammonium persulfate, toluene-2,5-diamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide emerged as new sensitizers. These results indicate a healthy worker effect among hairdressers diagnosed with eczema. Ammonium persulfate and p-phenylenediamine remain frequent sensitizers in hairdressers with contact dermatitis. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide should be included in future surveillance studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Patch tests with commercial hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Ko, Hyun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The main allergen has been identified as para-phenylenediamine. To prevent the recurrence of contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, patients should discontinue the use of para-phenylenediamine-containing hair dye products. However, many patients are unable to discontinue their use for cosmetic or social reasons. Sometimes, they continue to have symptoms even after switching to so-called "less allergenic" hair dyes. To evaluate the safety of 15 commercially available hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine. We performed patch tests using 15 hair dyes that were advertised as "hypoallergenic," "no para-phenylenediamine" and "non-allergenic" products in the market. Twenty three patients completed the study and 20 (87.0%) patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one product. While four (26.7%) hair dye products contained para-phenylenediamine, 10 (66.7%) out of 15 contained m- aminophenol and 7 (46.7%) contained toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate. Only one product did not elicit a positive reaction in any patient. Small sample size and possibility of false-positive reactions. Dermatologists should educate patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine about the importance of performing sensitivity testing prior to the actual use of any hair dye product, irrespective of how it is advertised or labelled.

  4. p-Phenylenediamine sensitization is more prevalent in central and southern European patch test centres than in Scandinavian: results from a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus; Diepgen, Thomas; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M; Gonçalo, Margarida; Goossens, An; Le Coz, Christophe; McFadden, John; Rustemeyer, Thomas; White, Ian R; White, Jonathan M; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-06-01

    Positive patch test reactions to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are common. PPD is used in oxidative hair dyes and is also present in dark henna temporary 'tattoos'. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur. Because subjects sensitized to PPD are at risk of clinically severe reactions upon hair dyeing, there is a need for 'current' prevalence data on PPD sensitization. To compare PPD patch test results from dermatitis patients tested between 2003 and 2007 in 10 European patch test centres and to analyse the causes and determine relevance of positive PPD patch test reactions. Patch testing was performed using PPD (1% free base in petrolatum from Trolab (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbeck, Germany) or Chemotechnique (Malmö, Sweden), equivalent to 0.090 mg/cm(2) in the TRUE test from MEKOS Laboratories AS). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test. The weighted average prevalence was 4.6% among 21 515 patients. PPD sensitization occurred more often in centres located in Central and Southern Europe than in Scandinavian centres (odds ratio = 2.40; 95% confidence interval = 2.07-2.78). The overall proportion of positive patch test reactions to PPD that were registered as being of either current or 'past' relevance was high (weighted average 53.6% and 20.3%, respectively). Consumer hair dyeing was the most prominent cause of PPD sensitization (weighted average 41.8%). Furthermore, occupational hair dye exposure (10.6%) and cross-sensitization to textile dyes (12.6%) were frequently reported. PPD sensitization caused by exposure to hair dyes is frequent and remains a present problem for patients visiting contact dermatitis clinics, especially in patch test centres located in Central and Southern Europe.

  5. Contact allergy to acid and neutral fractions of rosins. Sensitization experiments in guinea pigs and patch testing in patients.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Boman, A; Holmbom, B; Lidén, C

    1986-01-01

    The allergenicity of two different types of rosins (gum rosin and tall oil rosin) was compared. The rosins were divided into their neutral and acid fractions. The neutral fraction of tall oil rosin failed to induce contact sensitivity in animals tested according to the Guinea pig maximization test method (GPMT). The neutral fraction of gum rosin as well as the two acid fractions gave significant responses. Relatively fewer dermatitis patients reacted to the neutral fraction compared with reactions to the unfractionated gum rosin when patch tested. Fewer reactions to tall oil rosin than to gum rosin (p less than 0.05) were observed. It is concluded that tall oil rosin is less allergenic than gum rosin, which may be due to the absence of allergens in its neutral fraction.

  6. Skin irritation to glass wool or continuous glass filaments as observed by a patch test among human Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Kido, Takamasa; Mogi, Sachiyo; Sugiura, Yumiko; Miyajima, Eriko; Kudo, Yuichiro; Kumazawa, Tatenao; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical.

  7. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  8. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  9. Distributions-per-level: a means of testing level detectors and models of patch-clamp data.

    PubMed

    Schröder, I; Huth, T; Suitchmezian, V; Jarosik, J; Schnell, S; Hansen, U P

    2004-01-01

    Level or jump detectors generate the reconstructed time series from a noisy record of patch-clamp current. The reconstructed time series is used to create dwell-time histograms for the kinetic analysis of the Markov model of the investigated ion channel. It is shown here that some additional lines in the software of such a detector can provide a powerful new means of patch-clamp analysis. For each current level that can be recognized by the detector, an array is declared. The new software assigns every data point of the original time series to the array that belongs to the actual state of the detector. From the data sets in these arrays distributions-per-level are generated. Simulated and experimental time series analyzed by Hinkley detectors are used to demonstrate the benefits of these distributions-per-level. First, they can serve as a test of the reliability of jump and level detectors. Second, they can reveal beta distributions as resulting from fast gating that would usually be hidden in the overall amplitude histogram. Probably the most valuable feature is that the malfunctions of the Hinkley detectors turn out to depend on the Markov model of the ion channel. Thus, the errors revealed by the distributions-per-level can be used to distinguish between different putative Markov models of the measured time series.

  10. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bygum, Anette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants were retested after 6 weeks. Ten of 19 (53%) evaluable patients with atopic dermatitis had at least one positive atopy patch test. However, there was no clear clinical relevance of the atopy patch test results when related to patient history and distribution of dermatitis. Reproducible and dose-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss and erythema, while measurement of capacitance did not distinguish between positive and negative reactions. The results of the present study do not support the routine use of atopy patch tests in the evaluation of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

  11. Cross-reactivity among p-amino group compounds in sulfonamide fixed drug eruption: diagnostic value of patch testing.

    PubMed

    Tornero, P; De Barrio, M; Baeza, M L; Herrero, T

    2004-08-01

    We studied 28 patients with fixed drug eruption (FDE) caused by sulfonamide antibiotics to investigate cross-reactivity between sulfonamide derivatives and p-amino compounds and to explore the usefulness of patch testing, as an alternative to controlled oral challenge testing (COCT), in diagnosis within this clinical area. COCT with sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethizole (SMZ), furosemide (FU), procaine (PRO) and glipizide (GPZ) was performed. Patch testing (PT) with SMX and SDZ was carried out. In all patients, the diagnosis of FDE was confirmed by positive COCT and allergy to trimethoprim ruled out by COCT. 42.8 and 31.8% of the SMX-induced FDE patients reacted to SMZ and SDZ, respectively. All patients (n = 28) tolerated FU, PRO and GPZ. COCT performed with the 3 sulfonamide antibiotics in 12 patients was positive in 2 subjects with the 3 drugs, in 2 patients only with SMX and SMZ and in the remaining 8, SMX was the only causative drug. PT was positive in 5 of 25 patients positive on COCT. The probability of obtaining a positive PT was higher among patients who had a residual lesion than that among those who lacked this. Cross-reactivity between different sulfonamide antibiotics is thus variable, being most likely between SMX and SMZ. We have found no cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and other sulfonamide derivatives or p-amino drugs in FDE. PT is a useful tool in the diagnosis of FDE, especially if there are residual lesions, because it avoided the need for COCT in 20% of patients.

  12. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  13. Results of tests of K5NA and a revised formulation of EPDM/cork patch material in MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    During prelaunch procedures at Kennedy Space Center some of the EPDM Thermal Protection System material was damaged on the Solid Rocket Booster stiffener stubs. The preferred solution was to patch the damaged areas with a cork-filled epoxy patching compound. Before this was done, however, it was requested that this patching technique be checked out by testing it in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility. Two tests were run in the HFG in 1980. The results showed the patch material to be adequate. Since that time, the formulation of the cork-filled epoxy material has been changed. It became necessary to retest this concept to be sure that the new material is as good as or better than the original material. In addition to the revised formulation material, tests were also made using K5NA as the patch material. The objectives of the tests reported herein were to: (1) compare the thermal performance of the original and the new cork-filled epoxy formulations, and (2) compare the K5NA closeout material to these epoxy materials. Material specifications are also discussed.

  14. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7440 Korean women during 12 years.

    PubMed

    An, S M; Ham, H; Choi, E J; Shin, M K; An, S S; Kim, H O; Koh, J S

    2014-02-01

    Cosmetics are products used over long periods by the public, and their safety is very important. Several types of human tests are used widely for the evaluation of cosmetics including single patch tests, in-use tests, human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). However, there is no clear and well-defined published objective and standardized criteria for primary skin irritation in regard to the large variety of cosmetic products. This study analysed human patch tests conducted from May 2001 to December 2012 with 4606 materials of prototype or finished cosmetic products on 7440 normal Korean women aged 18-60 years. The tested products were patched under occlusion for 24 or 48 h, and skin tolerance was assessed twice at 30 min and 24 h after patch removal using a 5-step scale according to the CTFA guidelines. Human patch tests for cosmetics were performed of 4606 cases, and 30-33 subjects participated in each case. The response in each case was calculated based on total subject number, skin reaction intensity and the number of respondents. The calculated response was standardized using the z-score, and a safety zone was provided in terms of human primary irritation in accordance with the human skin reaction evaluation criteria and usage or formula of cosmetics. This study established the safety criteria for irritation in the cosmetics field. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Lidocaine patch (5%) is no more potent than placebo in treating chronic back pain when tested in a randomised double blind placebo controlled brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5% Lidocaine patch is used for treating chronic neuropathic pain conditions such as chronic back pain (CBP), diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome, but is effective in a variable proportion of patients. Our lab has reported that this treatment reduces CBP intensity and associated brain activations when tested in an open labelled preliminary study. Notably, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch has not been tested against placebo for treating CBP. In this study, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch was compared with placebo in 30 CBP patients in a randomised double-blind study where 15 patients received 5% Lidocaine patches and the remaining patients received placebo patches. Functional MRI was used to identify brain activity for fluctuations of spontaneous pain, at baseline and at two time points after start of treatment (6 hours and 2 weeks). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in either pain intensity, sensory and affective qualities of pain or in pain related brain activation at any time point. However, 50% patients in both the Lidocaine and placebo arms reported a greater than 50% decrease in pain suggesting a marked placebo effect. When tested against an untreated CBP group at similar time points, the patch treated subjects showed significantly greater decrease in pain compared to the untreated group (n = 15). Conclusions These findings suggest that although the 5% Lidocaine is not better than placebo in its effectiveness for treating pain, the patch itself induces a potent placebo effect in a significant proportion of CBP patients. PMID:22531485

  16. Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.

    PubMed

    Kejlová, K; Jírová, D; Bendová, H; Kandárová, H; Weidenhoffer, Z; Kolárová, H; Liebsch, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the phototoxicity of bergamot oil obtained from four different suppliers. Spectral and chemical analyses were performed to identify presence of photoactive compounds in the test samples. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D PT). Confirmatory photopatch tests in a group of volunteers were performed using the first non-phototoxic concentration determined in the H3D PT. The spectral and chemical analyses revealed, that two samples of bergamot oil exhibited a potential for photoactivation. These oils were subsequently classified as phototoxic in the 3T3 NRU PT, however, only on the basis of borderline results and depending on the solvent used. H3D PT revealed clear classifications, correlating well with the findings of spectral and chemical analysis. The test was, however, not yet capable of precise prediction of safe, non-phototoxic concentrations. Additional endpoints, e.g. interleukin determination might be employed to increase the sensitivity of the test. Although the study showed the usefulness of the tiered testing strategy, currently, the extrapolation of in vitro results to human situation may be performed only to a limited extent.

  17. Comparison of human skin irritation patch test data with in vitro skin irritation assays and animal data.

    PubMed

    Jírová, Dagmar; Basketter, David; Liebsch, Manfred; Bendová, Hana; Kejlová, Kristina; Marriott, Marie; Kandárová, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to replace the rabbit skin irritation test have been underway for many years, encouraged by the EU Cosmetics Directive and REACH. Recently various in vitro tests have been developed, evaluated and validated. A key difficulty in confirming the validity of in vitro methods is that animal data are scarce and of limited utility for prediction of human effects, which adversely impacts their acceptance. This study examines whether in vivo or in vitro data most accurately predicted human effects. Using the 4-hr human patch test (HPT) we examined a number of chemicals whose EU classification of skin irritancy is known to be borderline, or where in vitro methods provided conflicting results. Of the 16 chemicals classified as irritants in the rabbit, only five substances were found to be significantly irritating to human skin. Concordance of the rabbit test with the 4-hr HPT was only 56%, whereas concordance of human epidermis models with human data was 76% (EpiDerm) and 70% (EPISKIN). The results confirm observations that rabbits overpredict skin effects in humans. Therefore, when validating in vitro methods, all available information, including human data, should be taken into account before making conclusions about their predictive capacity.

  18. Effects of different base agents on prediction of skin irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate using patch testing and repeated application test.

    PubMed

    Horita, Kotomi; Horita, Daisuke; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-03-06

    Animal testing for cosmetics was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2013; therefore, human tests to predict and ensure skin safety such as the patch test or usage test are now in demand in Japan as well as in the EU. In order to investigate the effects of different bases on the findings of tests to predict skin irritation, we performed patch testing (PT) and the repeated application test (RAT) using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a well-known irritant, dissolved in 6 different base agents to examine the effects of these bases on skin irritation by SLS. The bases for PT were distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream. The concentrations of SLS were 0.2% and 0.5%. Twelve different base combinations were applied to the normal back skin of 19 individuals for 24h. RAT was performed with distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream containing SLS at concentrations of 0.2%, 2%, and 5%, being applied to the arms of the same PT subjects. The test preparation of each base was applied at the same site, with 0.2% SLS being used in the first week, 2% SLS in the following week, and 5% SLS in the final week. The results of PT revealed that skin irritation scores varied when SLS at the same concentration was dissolved in a different base. The results of RAT showed that although skin irritation appeared with every base at a concentration of 5%, the positive rate was approximately the same. In conclusion, our results suggest that skin irritation elicited in PT depends on the base, while in RAT, it does not depend on the type of base employed.

  19. Use of the cytosensor microphysiometer to predict results of a 21-day cumulative irritation patch test in humans.

    PubMed

    Landin, Wendell E; Mun, Greg C; Nims, Raymond W; Harbell, John W

    2007-09-01

    The cytosensor microphysiometer (mu phi) was investigated as a rapid, relatively inexpensive test to predict performance of skin cleansing wipes on the human 21-day cumulative irritation patch test (21CIPT). It indirectly measures metabolic rate changes in L929 cells as a function of test article dose, by measuring the acidification rate in a low-buffer medium. The dose producing a 50% reduction in metabolic rate (MRD50), relative to the baseline rate, is used as a measure of toxicity. The acute toxicity of the mu phi assay can be compared to the chronic toxicity of the 21CIPT, which is based largely on the exposure of test agents to the epidermal cells, resulting in damage and penetration of the stratum corneum leading to cell toxicity. Two series of surfactant-based cleansing wipe products were tested via the mu phi assay and 21CIPT. The first series, consisting of 20 products, was used to determine a prediction model. The second series of 38 products consisted of routine product development formulas or marketed products. Comparing the results from both tests, samples with an MRD50 greater than 50 mg/ml provided a 21CIPT score consistent with a product that performs satisfactorily in the market. When the MRD50 was greater than 78 mg/ml, the 21CIPT score was usually zero. The mu phi may be more sensitive than the 21CIPT for ranking minimally irritating materials. The mu phi assay is useful as a screen for predicting the performance of a wet wipes formula on the 21CIPT, and concurrently reduces the use of animals for safety testing in a product development program for cleansing wipes.

  20. Patch test results in children and adolescents. Study from the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Dermatology Clinic, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing is an efficient method to identify the allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the results of patch tests in children and adolescents comparing these two age groups' results. METHODS Cross-sectional study to assess patch test results of 125 children and adolescents aged 1-19 years, with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, in a dermatology clinic in Brazil. Two Brazilian standardized series were used. RESULTS Seventy four (59.2%) patients had "at least one positive reaction" to the patch test. Among these positive tests, 77.0% were deemed relevant. The most frequent allergens were nickel (36.8%), thimerosal (18.4%), tosylamide formaldehyde resin (6.8%), neomycin (6.4%), cobalt (4.0%) and fragrance mix I (4.0%). The most frequent positive tests came from adolescents (p=0.0014) and females (p=0.0002). There was no relevant statistical difference concerning contact sensitizations among patients with or without atopic history. However, there were significant differences regarding sensitization to nickel (p=0.029) and thimerosal (p=0.042) between the two age groups under study, while adolescents were the most affected. CONCLUSION Nickel and fragrances were the only positive (and relevant) allergens in children. Nickel and tosylamide formaldehyde resin were the most frequent and relevant allergens among adolescents. PMID:26560213

  1. Patch test results in children and adolescents. Study from the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Dermatology Clinic, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Patch testing is an efficient method to identify the allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the results of patch tests in children and adolescents comparing these two age groups' results. Cross-sectional study to assess patch test results of 125 children and adolescents aged 1-19 years, with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, in a dermatology clinic in Brazil. Two Brazilian standardized series were used. Seventy four (59.2%) patients had "at least one positive reaction" to the patch test. Among these positive tests, 77.0% were deemed relevant. The most frequent allergens were nickel (36.8%), thimerosal (18.4%), tosylamide formaldehyde resin (6.8%), neomycin (6.4%), cobalt (4.0%) and fragrance mix I (4.0%). The most frequent positive tests came from adolescents (p=0.0014) and females (p=0.0002). There was no relevant statistical difference concerning contact sensitizations among patients with or without atopic history. However, there were significant differences regarding sensitization to nickel (p=0.029) and thimerosal (p=0.042) between the two age groups under study, while adolescents were the most affected. Nickel and fragrances were the only positive (and relevant) allergens in children. Nickel and tosylamide formaldehyde resin were the most frequent and relevant allergens among adolescents.

  2. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets Its Context.

    PubMed

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Measuring the similarity between the patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch size has a major impact on the matching quality and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g., 21 × 21 ) should be preferred over small ones (e.g., 7 × 7 ). However, this dense-sampling assumption is rarely true; in most cases, large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples. This phenomenon is a consequence of the curse of dimensionality, stating that the database size should grow exponentially with the patch size to ensure proper matches. This explains the favored choice of small patch size in most applications. Is there a way to keep the simplicity and work with small patches while getting some of the benefits that large patches provide? In this paper, we offer such an approach. We propose to concatenate the regular content of a conventional (small) patch with a compact representation of its (large) surroundings-its context. Therefore, with a minor increase of the dimensions (e.g., with additional ten values to the patch representation), we implicitly/softly describe the information of a large patch. The additional descriptors are computed based on a self-similarity behavior of the patch surrounding. We show that this approach achieves better matches, compared with the use of conventional-size patches, without the need to increase the database-size. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on three distinct problems: 1) external natural image denoising; 2) depth image super-resolution; and 3) motion-compensated frame-rate up conversion.

  4. Multicentre patch testing with compositae mix by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Hansson, Christer; Inerot, Annica; Lidén, Carola; Matura, Mihaly; Stenberg, Berndt; Möller, Halvor; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone mix detects contact allergy to these compounds present in the plant family Asteraceae. This marker is present in many baseline series. An additional marker is Compositae mix, which is not present in many baseline series. To investigate whether this allergen should be inserted into the Swedish baseline series, six dermatology centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included Compositae mix into their baseline series for 1.5 years. Of 2818 patients tested, 31 (1.1%) reacted to Compositae mix and 26 (0.9%) to Sesquiterpene lactone mix. Active sensitization to Compositae mix was noted in two cases. Only 0.4% of Asteraceae contact allergy cases would have been missed if Compositae mix had not been tested, a frequency too low to merit its inclusion in the baseline series. Due to obvious geographical differences in frequency in frequency of simultaneous allergic reactions to Compositae mix and Sesquiterpene lactone mix, the question as to whether specific baseline series (including Compositae mix or not as a "tail" substance) should be used in the different centres must be addressed. Another option could be to remove Sesquiterpene lactone mix from the baseline series and substitute it with Compositae mix.

  5. The role of patch testing in the evaluation of orthopedic implant-related adverse effects: current evidence does not support broad use.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Glen H

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of skin patch testing to evaluate patients for orthopedic, implant-related adverse effects. This may be done preoperatively to avoid implanting a material to which an individual may be allergic or postoperatively to implicate sensitivity as a cause for implant failure. There is emerging evidence that patch testing might have utility in the workup of implant-related adverse events; however, the level of evidence at the present time is weak and based only on a collection of case reports, series, and retrospective cohort studies (level IV evidence as per United States Department of Health and Human Services guidelines); there are no randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) with which to guide medical decision making. Recent reports have advocated that patch testing be broadly used in the preoperative evaluation of all patients self-reporting a history of metal sensitivity. In addition, several authors have advocated that patch test results should guide preoperative implant selection and postoperative implant removal. It is the opinion of this author that these recommendations are premature, lacking robust clinical evidence, and unfeasible given the broad-reaching logistical impact and societal costs involved. More robust clinical data are needed, and thorough cost-benefit analyses must be performed before such far-reaching and costly systematic practices should be broadly implemented.

  6. Application of Near-Field Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Testing for Evaluation of Fiber Breakage and Orientation Evaluation in CFRP Composite Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2005-04-01

    Near-field microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques have been successfully used for detecting defects such as disbond and delamination in complex composite structures. This paper presents the results of fiber breakage detection and fiber orientation determination in carbon fiber reinforced polymer patches which are used in aerospace industry and civil infrastructure.

  7. Patch testing with rubber series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Katharine L; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Mahler, Vera; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; Bauer, Andrea; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Rubber additives constitute an important group of contact allergens, particularly in certain occupations. To collect information regarding the current practice of using a 'rubber series' in Europe, and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning the prevalence of allergy in order to derive a recommendation for a 'European rubber series'. The following were performed: (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' consortium, (ii) analysis of rubber contact allergy data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, and (iii) a literature review. Information from 13 countries was available, from one or several departments of dermatology, and occasionally occupational health. Apart from some substances tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding important allergens was evident, but considerable variation existed between departments. An up-to-date 'European rubber series' is recommended, with the exclusion of substances only of historical concern. A 'supplementary rubber series' containing allergens of less proven importance, requiring further analysis, is recommended for departments specializing in occupational contact allergy. These should be continually updated as new evidence emerges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia; Brinkmeier, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menne, Torkil

    2005-04-01

    A new fragrance mix (FM II), with 6 frequently used chemicals not present in the currently used fragrance mix (FM I), was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe, as previously reported. In this publication, test results with the individual constituents and after repeated open application test (ROAT) of FM II are described. Furthermore, cosmetic products which had caused a contact dermatitis in patients were analysed for the presence of the individual constituents. In 1701 patients, the individual constituents of the medium (14%) and the highest (28%) concentration of FM II were simultaneously applied with the new mix at 3 concentrations (break-down testing for the lowest concentration of FM II (2.8%) was performed only if the mix was positive). ROAT was performed with the concentration of the FM II which had produced a positive or doubtful (+ or ?+) patch test reaction. Patients' products were analysed for the 6 target compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 50 patients (2.9%) showed a positive reaction to 14% FM II and 70 patients (4.1%) to 28% FM II. 24/50 (48%) produced a positive reaction to 1 or more of the individual constituents of 14% FM II and 38/70 (54.3%) to 28% FM II, respectively. If doubtful reactions to individual constituents are included, the break-down testing was positive in 74% and 70%, respectively. Patients with a positive reaction to 14% FM II showed a higher rate of reactions to the individual constituent of the 28% FM II: 36/50 (72%). Positive reactions to individual constituents in patients negative to FM II were exceedingly rare. If doubtful reactions are regarded as negative, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the medium concentration of FM II towards at least 1 individual constituent was 92.3% (exact 95% confidence interval 74.9-99.1%), 98.4% (97.7-99.0%), 48% (33.7-62.6%) and 99.9% (99.6-"100.0%), respectively. For the high concentration, the figures

  10. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  11. A comparative study of allergic contact dermatitis by patch test versus reflectance confocal laser microscopy, with nickel and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Sakanashi, Emi Nishijima; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the accuracy of reflectance confocal laser microscopy (RCLM) in observing allergic contact dermatitis in vivo. However, distinction of skin reactions from different reagents is not well understood. We sought to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis by RCLM images and compare with routine, visual patch test (PT) reading for 2 major allergen metals in Japan. The PT was performed on the upper back skin with 5% nickel sulfate (Ni) and 2% cobalt chloride (Co) in eight healthy volunteers and eleven patients. RCLM was used to calculate the thickness of the suprabasal epidermis after visual assessment of PT. Comparison of clinical scoring versus suprabasal epidermal thickness was observed. RCLM images of positive PT showed increased suprabasal epidermal thickness on day 2 (D2), and D3 for Co, whereas there was vesicle formation and an overall increase suprabasal epidermal thickness for Ni. In two of 3 doubtful positive PT to Co, RCLM images presented characteristics of irritant reactions; and one characteristic of a positive reaction. The frequency of Co doubtful-positive PT was higher than that of Ni. We found advantages in using RCLM for visualizing features of allergic contact dermatitis and found it a useful tool as an objective parameter in grading severity and types of PT reaction.

  12. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  13. The study of human skin irritation of a novel herbal skin care product and ingredients by human single closed patch testing.

    PubMed

    Wattanakrai, Penpun; Suwanachote, Suthida; Kulkollakarn, Sutinee; Rajatanavin, Natta

    2007-06-01

    The Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand (GPO) has developed many products using liposome nanotechnology and Thai herbal extracts. Evaluate the irritation potential of GPO products on human skin using the single application closed patch test under occlusion. The authors also studied the moisturizing efficacy of a commercial curmin extract cream (GPO curmin cream). Thirty-six female volunteers were tested with 12 test materials developed by GPO including liposome, curmin extract: tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC), and commercial curmin cream. Two and a half percent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as positive control. Standard Finn chambers on Scanpor tape with webril cotton were used as occlusive patch test devices. Cutaneous irritation responses were graded after patch removal and the incidence of irritation compared to the positive control was used for evaluation. Corneometer was used to measure skin hydration before and after application of curmin cream. All volunteers completed the present study. The skin irritation effects from the test materials were significantly lower (p-value < 0.001, McNemar statistic test) than the positive control. Measurement of skin hydration after twice daily application of GPO curmin cream was significantly higher (p-value < 0.001, paired t-test) than the control skin. The test materials and finished products developed by the GPO are not likely to induce skin irritation under normal conditions of use. Furthermore, twice-daily application of the commercial GPO curmin cream can significantly increase skin hydration.

  14. Patch test reactions to mite antigens: a GERDA multicentre study. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Dermato-Allergie.

    PubMed

    Castelain, M; Birnbaum, J; Castelain, P Y; Ducombs, G; Grosshans, E; Jelen, G; Lacroix, M; Meynadier, J; Mougeolle, J M; Lachapelle, J M

    1993-11-01

    We performed patch tests with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) antigens from 2 different sources in 355 non-randomly selected patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 398 subjects of a control group. The study demonstrated that contact sensitization to mites occurred in an appreciable % of AD cases (20.8%), using commonly available assay products. The differences recorded between the 2 materials tested were related to the concentration of P1 antigen. Non-atopic patients rarely showed positive reactions to Dp (0.75%), when strict criteria for readings were applied and if 2 readings were performed. Patients with positive patch tests did not necessarily show positive immediate skin tests. It would be useful to carry out tests systematically in atopic patients, even if it is not yet known what modern treatment would be best for the patient. Laboratories still do not provide standardized house dust mite preparations--measuring and codifying their biological activity--for use in patch tests. It is to be hoped that the extension of this type of test will lead to the production of better test materials, in syringes with homogeneous dispersion and concentration.

  15. Positive Patch-Test Reactions to Essential Oils in Consecutive Patients From North America and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Geier, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang

    Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but

  16. Wireless link design using a patch antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E

    2000-08-11

    A wireless link was designed using a patch antenna. In the process, several different models were tested. Testing proved a patch antenna was a viable solution for building a wireless link within the design specifications. Also, this experimentation provided a basis for future patch antenna design.

  17. Risks of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Elicited by Nickel, Chromium, and Organic Sensitizers: Quantitative Models Based on Clinical Patch Test Data.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Garry, Michael R

    2017-10-11

    Risks of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from consumer products intended for extended (nonpiercing) dermal contact are regulated by E.U. Directive EN 1811 that limits released Ni to a weekly equivalent dermal load of ≤0.5 μg/cm(2) . Similar approaches for thousands of known organic sensitizers are hampered by inability to quantify respective ACD-elicitation risk levels. To help address this gap, normalized values of cumulative risk for eliciting a positive ("≥+") clinical patch test response reported in 12 studies for a total of n = 625 Ni-sensitized patients were modeled in relation to observed ACD-eliciting Ni loads, yielding an approximate lognormal (LN) distribution with a geometric mean and standard deviation of GMNi = 15 μg/cm(2) and GSDNi = 8.0, respectively. Such data for five sensitizers (including formaldehyde and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were also ∼LN distributed, but with a common GSD value equal to GSDNi and with heterogeneous sensitizer-specific GM values each defining a respective ACD-eliciting potency GMNi /GM relative to Ni. Such potencies were also estimated for nine (meth)acrylates by applying this general LN ACD-elicitation risk model to respective sets of fewer data. ACD-elicitation risk patterns observed for Cr(VI) (n = 417) and Cr(III) (n = 78) were fit to mixed-LN models in which ∼30% and ∼40% of the most sensitive responders, respectively, were estimated to exhibit a LN response also governed by GSDNi . The observed common LN-response shape parameter GSDNi may reflect a common underlying ACD mechanism and suggests a common interim approach to quantitative ACD-elicitation risk assessment based on available clinical data. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  19. No Increased Risk of Knee Arthroplasty Failure in Patients With Positive Skin Patch Testing for Metal Hypersensitivity: A Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Dalibel; Wagner, Eric R; Larson, Dirk R; Davis, Mark P; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whether a positive skin patch test for metal allergy in patients with skin hypersensitivity to metals is associated with an increased risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Our aim was to determine whether patients with a history of metal allergy who had a positive skin patch test (SPT+) had worse outcomes after primary TKA compared with those with a negative skin patch test and compared with controls. Over 12 years, 127 patients underwent 161 TKA after skin patch testing (SPT; 56 were positive). Cases were matched by age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, implant type, and implant manufacturer to 161 control knee arthroplasties without any prior history of metal allergy and no SPT. Median follow-up was 5.3 years. Differences in outcome measures were assessed between groups. Patients with a SPT+ to metal did not have a higher complication, reoperation, or revision rates compared with patients with a SPT- and matched controls. Survivorship free of revision at 5 years was 98.1% for SPT+; 100% for SPT-; 97.6% for SPT+ controls, 99.0% for SPT- controls. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain between SPT+ and SPT- patients and matched controls. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of metal hypersensitivity on TKA outcomes and the role of SPT in patients before TKA. In this study, a SPT+ for metals was of little practical value in predicting the midterm outcome after TKA and cannot be strongly recommended as a method to guide the selection of implant type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to amoxicillin-clavulanate with multiple positivity to beta-lactam patch testing.

    PubMed

    Bomarrito, L; Zisa, G; Delrosso, G; Farinelli, P; Galimberti, M

    2013-09-01

    We present a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustolosis (AGEP) induced by amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by symptoms presentation and  histological features (Euroscar score point compatible with definite diagnosis). Patch testing performer six months later confirmed sensitization to the culprit drug and showed positivity also to other beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin G and cephalexin). We believe that a T cell delayed response to betalactams common ring could be involved.

  1. Patch testing with serial dilutions and thin-layer chromatograms of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Svedman, Cecilia; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Oak moss absolute (Evernia prunastri extract) contains a large number of substances, among them the potent allergens atranol and chloroatranol. Since 2008, their content in oak moss absolute has been restricted by the International Fragrance Association to a maximum level of 100 ppm each. To compare the elicitation capacities of a traditional (sample A) and a treated (sample B) oak moss absolute containing, in total, 27 000 and 66 ppm of atranol and chloroatranol, respectively, and to investigate reactions to components of oak moss absolute separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Fifteen oak moss-allergic subjects were patch tested with serial dilutions and TLC strips of samples A and B. Fifteen subjects reacted to sample A at concentrations ≤ 2.0%, and 2 subjects reacted to sample B at 2.0% but not to lower concentrations. Among 13 subjects reacting to the TLC strip of sample A, 11 reacted to spots with retardation factor values corresponding to those of atranol and/or chloroatranol, and 11 reacted to other areas on the TLC strip. Only one subject reacted to the TLC strip of sample B. The patch test reactivity of sample B was significantly lower than that of sample A. The TLC patch tests indicate the presence of sensitizers other than atranol and chloroatranol in oak moss absolute. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Mechanics and Repairers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998-2014.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Mathias, C G Toby; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Storrs, Frances J

    Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations. This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other). A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014. Of 38,784 patients patch tested, 691 (1.8%) were mechanics/repairers. Male sex (93.5%) and hand involvement (59.5%) were common overall. Occupationally related skin disease was more prevalent among vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers (52.7%) and other mechanics/repairers (41.4%) than electrical/electronic equipment mechanics/repairers (21.3%). Overall, carba mix, thiuram mix, and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone were the most common occupation-related clinically relevant allergens. Gloves, automotive vehicles, solvents, oils, lubricants, and fuels were the most common sources of responsible allergens. Common occupationally related allergens included rubber accelerators and the preservative methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone.

  3. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, ... cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side of the ...

  4. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... still remove the patch at your regular patch removal time. Do not apply extra patches to make ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not refrigerate or ...

  5. Spin Glass Patch Planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  6. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Silvestre, Juan F; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Data of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. The 'basic markers' were tested on 51 477 [fragrance mix II (FM II)] to 57 123 [Myroxylon pereirae, balsam of Peru] patients, and yielded positive reactions as follows: fragrance mix I 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae 5.4%, FM II 3.8%, colophonium 2.6%, and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde 1.7%, with some regional differences. Prevalences with TRUE Test(®) allergens were lower. Additional fragrances were tested on 3643 (trimethylbenzenepropanol) to 14 071 (oil of turpentine) patients, and yielded between 2.6% (Cananga odorata) and 0.7% (trimethylbenzenepropanol) positive reactions. Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 434 Frequency of Food-sensitization by Prick-to-Prick Test and Atopy Patch Test in Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    Maya, Jonathan; Rosas-Vargas, Miguel Angel; del Rio, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Background Food-allergy is a substantial and evolving health issue. We evaluate the frequency of food sensitization by prick-to-prick and atopy patch test (APT) in allergic children in a tertiary pediatric care center. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective study of prick-to-prick and APT tests made in atopic children attending to the Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology outpatient clinic aged 6 months to 19 years. Patients were stratified in 4 groups according to age (<1, 1–5, 6–10 and >11 years), and by atopy-related diagnosis (asthma, rhinitis, food allergy, atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy). Results Total of 170 prick-to-prick with fresh foods were made, 135 were positive with the next distribution: milk 28.8%, (95% CI, 21.3-36.3%), egg white 20.1% (95% CI, 13.5-26.8%), banana 19.4% (95% CI, 12.8-26%). Sensitization to milk was most common in children aged 1 to 5 years old with 26.9% (95% CI, 17.1-36.8%) compared with corn, nuts and peanuts P < 0.05. Sensitization to milk was the most frequent in the food allergy diagnosis group with 27.1% (95% CI,15.8-38.5%) compared with wheat, corn and peanuts P < 0.05. A total of 140 APT tests were made, 105 were positive with the next distribution: soybeans 53.3% (95% CI,43.8-62.8%), peanut and chocolate both with 50.5% (95% CI,40.9-60,.0). This finding was sustained in patients with atopic dermatitis with soybean 55.6% (95% CI,36.8-74.3) compared to egg yolk. Sensitization to soybeans was most common in children aged 1 to 5 years old with 52.1% (95% CI,40.6-63.6) compared to rice and egg yolk P < 0.05. A different distribution was found for the 6 to 10 years old aged group: peanut 41.9% (95% CI,27.1-56.6) compared with egg yolk P < 0.05. Conclusions Milk is the most common food-allergen found by prick-to-prick in children independent of age or allergic diagnosis, with statistical significant difference, when compared to other food-allergens, in the group of food-allergy diagnosis and in the 1

  9. Poor correlation between stated and found concentrations of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) in petrolatum patch-test preparations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Malin; Zimerson, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Marand, Asa; Skarping, Gunnar; Isaksson, Marléne; Bruze, Magnus

    2004-08-01

    Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is widely used in its polymeric form in the manufacturing of polyurethane products. Previous reports on MDI-related contact allergy have shown a pattern, where patients seem to react to their own MDI-based work material but not to commercial patch-test preparations, which contain 4,4'-MDI. Therefore, we performed chemical analyses of 14 commercial test preparations of 4,4'-MDI obtained from 8 European and 4 American dermatology departments as well as 2 preparations from 2 major European suppliers of patch-test allergens. A new method for monitoring 4,4'-MDI in petrolatum preparations was developed and the determination of 4,4'-MDI as the MDI-dibutylamine derivative using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed. None of the preparations obtained from the dermatology departments contained more than 12% of the concentration stated on the label. In most cases, 4,4'-MDI content was only a few percentages or less of the concentration stated. 7 of the 14 preparations were analysed before the expiry date. Yet, only 1 of them, a preparation directly obtained from the supplier, came close to the concentration stated on the label. Thus, using these preparations, patients will be tested with a lower concentration than intended, leading to possible false-negative reactions.

  10. Release of nickel ions from stainless steel alloys used in dental braces and their patch test reactivity in nickel-sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Lisby, Steen; Baadsgaard, Ole; Byrialsen, Kirsten; Menné, Torkil

    2003-06-01

    Nickel ions leached in sufficient quantities from nickel-containing alloys may induce nickel sensitization or elicit allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel-containing stainless steel alloys are generally considered safe for nickel-sensitive individuals to use. The study summarized in this paper investigated 3 parameters. First, the release of nickel was estimated in artificial saliva and sweat from 4 different stainless steel alloys frequently used in dental braces. Second, in a pilot study, oral mucosa cells harvested from 3 dental patients before and after the attachment of dental braces were analysed for possible nickel content. Third, patch test reactivity of the 4 stainless steel alloys was tested on 31 nickel-sensitive subjects. All 4 stainless steel alloys released small amounts of nickel ions into artificial saliva (<0.13 micro g/cm2/week) and artificial sweat (<0.05 micro g/cm2/week), but no measurable amounts of nickel were found in any of the oral mucosa samples. None of the 31 nickel-sensitive subjects reacted to patch testing with the 4 stainless steel alloys, indicating that these stainless steel alloys would be safe to use in direct and prolonged contact with the skin.

  11. Is it possible to improve the patch-test diagnostics for isocyanates? A stability study of petrolatum preparations of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Frick-Engfeldt, Malin; Zimerson, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Skarping, Gunnar; Isaksson, Marléne; Bruze, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that the concentration of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) in commercial test preparations was so low that patch testing with the same was not reliable. The stability of 4,4'-MDI in petrolatum (pet.) was compared with pet. preparations of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI), which consists of a complex mixture of monomeric isomers and oligomers of MDI. Preparations of 4,4'-MDI and PMDI were stored under 3 different conditions, i.e. at room temperature, refrigerated and frozen. They were analysed continuously during 1 year with regard to the content of 4,4'-MDI, 3-ring oligomers and 4-ring oligomers using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMDI preparations kept frozen were stable for a year. All other preparations failed to fulfil the requirements of stability, i.e. +/-20% of the initial concentration. Storage in a freezer prolonged the lifetime for 4,4'-MDI. The decrease in concentration for preparations kept at room temperature and refrigerated was less rapid in PMDI preparations than in 4,4'-MDI preparations. PMDI preparations are better suited for patch testing patients exposed to MDI because they are more stable and homogeneous than 4,4'-MDI preparations. They better reflect possible allergens that workers are exposed to because products used in industry contain both monomers and oligomers.

  12. Ready-to-use house dust mites atopy patch test (HDM-Diallertest), a new screening tool for detection of house dust mites allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, P H; Kalach, N; Soulaines, P; Donne, N; Dupont, C

    2009-10-01

    to assess the accuracy and safety of a ready-to-use atopy patch test (HDM-Diallertest, DBV Technologies, Paris) in the diagnosis of sensitization to house-dust mite (HDM) allergens in children with or without atopic dermatitis. prospective analysis of a systematic allergic work-up was carried out in 47 children, age 57.4+42 months (mean + SD, range 7 to 176 mo), presenting with isolated or combined atopic dermatitis (AD, n = 28) or other symptoms without AD (control group, n = 19). Children were routinely tested for specific HDM-IgE [against D. pteronyssinus (DPT) and D. farinae (DF)], and skin testing based on HDM (DPT & DF) skin prick test (SPT) and ready-to-use HDM-ATP (HDM-Diallertest), with a reading at 72 hours. 15 children (31.9%) exhibited specific IgE against both DPT and DF, 16 children (34.04%) exhibited positive SPT against DPT and 17 (36.1%) against DF. HDM-Diallertest was positive in 15 cases (31.9%). Among these, 9 exhibited with an eczematous reaction showed an excellent correlation with both SPT and specific IgE for DPT and DF, respectively 93.3%, 97.77%, 90.47%, and 90.47%. The different diagnostic techniques of HDM sensitization neither differ between groups, nor correlated specifically with the different clinical manifestations. No side effect was observed during and after patch testing, except for a local reaction without diffusion outside the local test area. The 3 diagnostic techniques exhibited a comparable level of accuracy for the diagnosis of HDM allergens sensitization. The excellent concordance of the highest class reactions of HDM-Diallertest with the other diagnostic techniques indicates a potential role as a screening tool for the detection of HDM sensitization in infancy.

  13. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  14. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  15. SafePatch

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.; Elko, S.

    2000-10-01

    Authenticating and upgrading system software plays a critical role in information security, yet practical tools for assessing and installing software are lacking in today's marketplace. The SafePatch tool provides the mechanism of performing automated analysis, notification, distribution, and installation of security patches and related software to network-based computer systems in a vendor-independent fashion. SafePatch assists in the authentication of software by comparing the system's objects with the patch's objects. SafePatch will monitor vendor's sites to determine when new patches are released and will upgrade system software on target systems automatically. This paper describes the design of SafePatch, motivations behind the project and the advantages of SafePatch over existing tools.

  16. Estradiol Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    Most brands of estradiol transdermal patches are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat ... different medication that does not contain estrogen. Most brands of estradiol transdermal patches are also sometimes used ...

  17. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  18. Birth Control Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  19. Birth Control Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  20. Positive patch- and photopatch-test reactions to methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol in patients with both atopic dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Soter, Nicholas A; Cohen, David E

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet filters are the most common topical photoallergens. Although currently not available on the US market, methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (referred to as bisoctrizole on product labels) represents a new class of UV filters that have both organic and inorganic properties and are widely available in different preparations in Europe, South America, and Asia. We report two patients with atopic dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis who had positive patch- and photopatch-test reactions, which suggested both an allergic contact and a photoallergic contact dermatitis from bisoctrizole. Neither patient could identify previous or current contact with the chemical; nonetheless, it is possible that either the allergic contact or photoallergic contact dermatitis from bisoctrizole led to their chronic actinic dermatitis.

  1. Chemical analysis of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate in petrolatum patch-test preparations.

    PubMed

    Frick-Engfeldt, Malin; Zimerson, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Marand, Asa; Skarping, Gunnar; Isaksson, Marléne; Bruze, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    Isocyanates with the general formula R-(N=C=O) are theoretically contact sensitizers. However, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from isocyanates is seldom reported. In previous reports, patients reacted to their isocyanate-based work materials but not to commercial patch-test preparations of isocyanates. Therefore, we suspected that the low frequency of reported ACD from isocyanates was partly due to inadequate commercial preparations. A past study also showed the concentrations of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) in petrolatum preparations to be much lower than declared. In this study, 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (1,6-HDI), and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) were investigated in a similar fashion. In preparations from 12 dermatology departments and two suppliers of patch-test allergens, we determined the isocyanate content as the isocyanate-dibutylamine derivative, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The preparations were considered stable if the ratio between the stated and found concentrations was within the range of 0.8 to 1.2. Although 28 of 36 investigated preparations had ratios outside of the stable range, they were in its vicinity, which indicates that preparations of 2,4-TDI, 1,6-HDI, and IPDI are more stable than are preparations of 4,4'-MDI where previously reported results showed ratios far outside of stable range. As opposed to preparations of 4,4'-MDI, preparations of 2,4-TDI, 1,6-HDI, and IPDI can be considered to be stable.

  2. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers, 10 years later: patch-test results in 300 hairdressers (1994 to 2003) and comparison with previous study.

    PubMed

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Malfeito, Juan; Ledo, Silvia

    2005-03-01

    In the last 20 years, the hairdressing profession has undergone important modifications, mainly because of a change in the substances and techniques used and improved occupational education. To evaluate the modifications in the hairdressing profession and its actual risk of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). We studied all 300 hairdressers seen in our department from 1994 to 2003 and compared the results with those of a previous study of 379 hairdressers who attended our department from 1980 to 1993. All were patch-tested with the European Standard series and specific hairdressing products. As previously, most of the workers were women (93%), with a mean age (23.7 years) slightly higher than that of the workers in our previous study. We found a significant increase in the frequency of positive patch-test responses (78.3% vs 58.8%) and OACD (58% vs 48.8%) with respect to our previous study. We also observed a significant increase in sensitization to most allergens, including p-phenylenediamine base (54% vs 45.9%), 4-aminobenzene (40.7% vs 31.9%), ammonium thioglycolate (2.7% to 12.3%), ammonium persulfate (7.9% to 14.3%), p-toluenediamine sulfate (6.8% to 15.3%), p-aminodiphenylamine (2.9% to 7.7%), o-nitro-4-phenylenediamine (2.1% to 7.3%), and aminophenols (0% to 9%), whereas a decrease was found in sensitization to Disperse Orange (17% vs 32.7%) and thioglycolic acid (15.3% to 3%). The high frequency and increase of sensitizations among hairdressers require urgent measures to improve protective measures and their application.

  3. Results of patch testing with fragrance mix 1, fragrance mix 2, and their ingredients, and Myroxylon pereirae and colophonium, over a 21-year period.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Andrea; Carbonez, An; Drieghe, Jacques; Goossens, An

    2013-05-01

    The frequency of fragrance contact allergy has shown a fluctuating trend over the years. To describe the frequency of positive reactions to the baseline screening agents and fragrance mix (FM) 1 and 2 components, to determine trends of the latter over the years, and to evaluate simultaneous reactions. This was a cross-sectional study on patch test results of 13 332 patients from January 1990 to December 2011. Of the total population, 9.6% reacted positively to FM 1, and 6% of 3416 tested with FM 2 reacted positively. Of those tested with both, 30.4% of 349 FM 1-positive patients reacted to FM 2, and 51.7% of 205 FM 2-positive patients reacted to FM 1. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) and FM 2 were tested simultaneously in 3401 patients: 6 reacted to HICC alone. Nine hundred and forty patients were tested with FM 1 ingredients and 205 with FM 2 ingredients; Evernia prunastri was the most frequent FM 1 allergen, and HICC was the most frequent FM 2 allergen. Simultaneous reactions were frequently observed. Fragrance-allergic subjects often show multiple positive reactions, some of which are highly significantly associated. Recently, there has been a decreasing trend in positivity for both Evernia prunastri and HICC, whereas a slight increase for cinnamyl alcohol has been observed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Dispersal, patch leaving, and distribution of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Northfield, Tobin D; Mizell, Russell F; Paini, Dean R; Andersen, Peter C; Brodbeck, Brent V; Riddle, T Charles; Hunter, Wayne B

    2009-02-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) and related species have caused millions of dollars in damage to southern California vineyards in recent years through the vectoring of Pierce's disease. However, the effects of surrounding vegetation on the dispersal and distribution of H. vitripennis are poorly understood. Therefore, the relationship between dispersal rates and patch quality was tested, as well as the basic predictions of the marginal value theorem. Additional experiments were conducted to compare the H. vitripennis distribution in an isolated crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) patch and a L. indica patch bordering two alternative host patches. In mark-release-recapture tests, H. vitripennis dispersed farther from the release point in a patch of low-quality host plants (Prunus persica) than in patches of high-quality host plants (L. indica). In addition, H. vitripennis remained in L. indica patches longer than in P. persica patches and adjusted patch residence times in P. persica in correlation with known changes in plant physiology. These data suggest that H. vitripennis follows the basic predictions of marginal value theorem. In distribution tests, H. vitripennis were more abundant in the patch center than patch edges in the isolated L. indica patch, but in a patch bordering cottonwood (Populus sp.) and peach (P. persica), H. vitripennis numbers were generally higher along the edges of the patch. These data suggest that alternate hosts bordering cropping systems may be important to the spatial dynamics of H. vitripennis. Implications of these spatial observations on the biology of H. vitripennis and potential control methods are discussed.

  5. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  6. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  7. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis.

  8. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  9. Two decades of p-phenylenediamine and toluene-2,5-diamine patch testing - focus on co-sensitizations in the European baseline series and cross-reactions with chemically related substances.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tatiana A; Heijnen, Rakita W; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2017-02-01

    Cross-reactions and co-sensitizations are of great importance in understanding contact allergy and exposure sources. To investigate common cross-reactions and co-sensitizations in p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized and toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA)-sensitized individuals. From our patch test population, 8036 patients patch tested with the European baseline series were extracted. Readings had to be performed at least on day 3 according to ICDRG guidelines. Two hundred and fifty-one patients were sensitized to PPD and/or TDA; 231 patients were sensitized to PPD, and 109 to TDA. Significant differences were observed regarding the strengths of patch test reactions to PPD and number of cross-reactions. For TDA, a difference was found between all reaction strengths, except between + and ++ strengths. PPD-sensitized individuals were more likely to be sensitized to carba mix, cobalt chloride, colophonium, p-tert-butyl phenolformaldehyde resin, paraben mix, and methylisothiazolinone. TDA-sensitized individuals were more often sensitized to carba mix. Cross-reactivity was commonly found among individuals sensitized to PPD or TDA, and was strongly related to the strength of the patch test reaction. Regarding co-sensitizations, a frequently appearing or common exposure source could not be determined. However, modification of the allergen by, for example, the skin microbiota may have caused the formation of molecules that are, for the human immune system, indistinguishable from PPD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patching for corneal abrasion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chris H L; Turner, Angus; Lim, Blanche X

    2016-07-26

    Published audits have demonstrated that corneal abrasions are a common presenting eye complaint. Eye patches are often recommended for treating corneal abrasions despite the lack of evidence for their use. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of the eye patch when used to treat corneal abrasions. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of patching for corneal abrasion on healing and pain relief. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2016), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenGrey) (January 1995 to May 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 9 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of included studies, unpublished 'grey' literature and conference proceedings and contacted pharmaceutical companies for details of unpublished trials. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared patching the eye with no patching to treat simple corneal abrasions. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Investigators were contacted for further information regarding the quality of trials. The primary outcome was healing at 24, 48 and 72 hours while secondary outcomes included measures of pain, quality of life and adverse effects. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included 12 trials which

  11. STS-121 Mission Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-01

    STS121-S-001 (June 2005) --- The STS-121 patch depicts the space shuttle docked with the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, overlaying the astronaut symbol with three gold columns and a gold star. The ISS is shown in the configuration that it will be in during the STS-121 mission. The background shows the nighttime Earth with a dawn breaking over the horizon. STS-121, ISS mission ULF1.1, is the final Shuttle Return to Flight test mission. This utilization and logistics flight will bring a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) will be delivered and stowed externally on ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew will also carry out testing of shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluate operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Peripheral blood lymphocyte typing as a useful tool to objectify the oral mucosa patch test in the diagnosis of allergic contact mucositis to nickel.

    PubMed

    Di Tola, Marco; Amodeo, Rachele; Marino, Mariacatia; Tabacco, Fabio; Casale, Rossella; Bove, Maurizio; Rossi, Alfredo; Cardelli, Patrizia; Picarelli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) exposure through the intestinal mucosa may cause a hypersensitivity reaction recently defined as allergic contact mucositis (ACM). This condition is identifiable by the oral mucosa patch test (omPT), a qualitative and subjective examination that requires clinical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate if a peripheral blood lymphocyte typing performed before and after the omPT for Ni may be able to objectify this examination for diagnostic purposes. Thirty patients with symptoms referable to the ingestion of Ni-rich foods were subjected to omPT for Ni. Before and after the omPT, each patient underwent blood sampling for the typing of total lymphocytes and their subsets (T, T helper or Th, T cytotoxic or Tc, B, natural killer or NK). Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. According to the omPT outcomes, 18 patients were defined as Ni-sensitive and the remaining 12 as controls. In Ni-sensitive patients, the number of total, T, Th, Tc, and B lymphocytes/μL whole blood increased after the omPT (p<0.0001 for the first three, p=0.0004 and p=0.0001 for the last two lymphocyte types). No omPT-dependent lymphocyte increase was observed in controls. The post/pre omPT cell ratio, especially if calculated for Th lymphocytes, appears to be an effective index for diagnostic purposes (sensitivity=100%, specificity=83.3%, Youden index=0.833, area under curve (AUC)=0.926, p<0.0001). In conclusion, the peripheral blood lymphocyte typing with calculation of post/pre omPT cell ratio has the potential to support the omPT in diagnosing ACM, with the advantage of providing quantitative and objective data.

  13. Frequent occurrence of T cell–mediated late reactions revealed by atopy patch testing with hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Raffaela; Moritz, Katharina; Marth, Katharina; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Blatt, Katharina; Hoermann, Gregor; Brodie, Tess M.; Kaider, Alexandra; Valent, Peter; Sallusto, Federica; Wöhrl, Stefan; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Late allergic reactions are common in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy and even occur with allergy vaccines with reduced IgE reactivity. Objective We sought to study atopy patch test (APT) reactions and T-cell responses to the recombinant birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and recombinant hypoallergenic T-cell epitope–containing Bet v 1 fragments in patients with birch pollen allergy with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods A clinical study was conducted in 15 patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (group 1), 5 patients with birch pollen allergy without AD (group 2), 5 allergic patients without birch pollen allergy (group 3), and 5 nonallergic subjects (group 4) by performing skin prick tests and APTs with rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. T-cell, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ and CCR4+ T-cell and cytokine responses were studied by thymidine uptake, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and Luminex technology, respectively. Results rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induced APT reactions in not only most of the patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (11/15) but also in most of those without AD (4/5). Patients with birch pollen allergy with AD had higher Bet v 1–specific proliferation of CLA+ and CCR4+ T cells compared with patients with birch pollen allergy without AD. There were no differences in Bet v 1–specific CLA+ and CCR4+ proliferation and cytokine secretion in patients with and without APT reactions. Conclusion Hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induce T cell–dependent late reactions not only in patients with birch pollen allergy with AD but also in those without AD, which can be determined based on APT results but not based on in vitro parameters. PMID:26518092

  14. Type IV sensitizations in physical therapists: patch test results of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Girbig, Maria; Hegewald, Janice; Seidler, Andreas; Bauer, Andrea; Uter, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Physical therapists frequently come in contact with materials that can potentially cause skin irritation and/or allergies. Nevertheless analyses of professionally relevant sensitization patterns are currently lacking. A descriptive analysis of the patch test results from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) was carried out considering patients employed full-time as physical therapists during the years 2007-2011. Information includes dermatologic diagnoses, possible contact substances and cofactors as well as the "hit list" of the most common allergens. Among the patients (n = 134) the most common diagnoses (1(st) and 2(nd) ) were allergic contact dermatitis (23.9 %), chronic irritant dermatitis (17.2 %) and atopic dermatitis (19.4 %). In 80 of the 134 patients (59.7 %), the skin lesions were located on the hands. In 62 (46.3 %) of the cases, skin disease was considered work-related. The contact with cosmetics, creams, disinfectants, topical medications and the use of gloves were relevant as putative triggering factors for the respondents. The most common allergens were nickel (II) sulfate (16.5 %), fragrance mix (12.2 %) and fragrance mix II (13.0 %). In this first comprehensive study of contact allergies among physical therapists in German-speaking countries, a link between skin disease and work was felt likely in nearly 50 % of the tested cohort. To which extent the results shown in this work can be confirmed and which consequences these have for occupational preventive measures should be examined in additional, preferably longitudinal studies. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  15. Bright Patches on Ariel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-05

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus five largest satellites. NASA Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers 1.56 million miles.

  16. Gemini 6 patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    The Gemini 6 patch is hexagonal in shape, reflecting the mission number; and the spacecraft trajectory also traces out the number "6". The Gemini 6 spacecraft is shown superimposed on the "twin stars" Castor and Pollux, for "Gemini".

  17. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    Lidocaine patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, ... for months or years after a shingles infection). Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local ...

  18. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance) including shaking of parts of the body, stiffness, slowed movements, and problems with balance. Rotigotine transdermal patches are also used to treat ...

  19. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  20. Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber footwear.

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, M A; Isama, K; Nakamura, A; Kantoh, H; Itoh, M; Miyoshi, K; Saito, S; Shono, M

    1994-01-01

    5 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear were investigated by a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis of causative rubber products. Our studies revealed 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and benzothiazyl disulfide (MBTS) (typical allergenic accelerators) as causative chemicals in 3 cases from children's rubber shoes, ladies' rubber boots and ladies' canvas shoes. These 3 patients reacted to mercaptobenzothiazole-type accelerators including MBT and MBTS. MBT and MBTS were determined in each item of causative footwear by chemical analysis, including extraction by shaking with acetone-chloroform (1:1) mixture at room temperature and determination using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Subsequently, we identified styrenated phenol (SP), a newly found allergenic antioxidant, as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' canvas shoes. The patient reacted to SP but not to MBT and MBTS, though SP, MBT and MBTS were determined in the causative shoes by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and HPLC. We also identified p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-F-R), (a known allergenic adhesive ingredient) as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' sneakers. The patient reacted to PTBP-F-R but not to p-tert-butylphenol (PTBP), MBT and MBTS. These 4 compounds were determined in the causative sneakers by GC, GC-MS and HPLC. Thus, our studies revealed that not only known allergens, such as MBT, MBTS and PTBP-F-R, but also a newly found one, such as SP, were important causes of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear.

  1. Expedition 12 patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-01

    ISS012-S-001 (September 2005) --- The Expedition 12 patch represents both mankind’s permanent presence in space and future dreams of exploration. The International Space Station (ISS), featured prominently in the center, will continue to grow in its capability as a world-class laboratory and test bed for exploration. The vision of exploration is depicted by the moon and Mars. The star symbolizes mankind's destiny in space and is a tribute to the space explorers who have been lost in its pursuit. The Roman numeral XII in the background signifies the 12th expeditionary mission to the ISS. The NASA insignia design for Shuttle flights and Space Station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and cosmonauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  2. Patch-augmented rotator cuff repair: influence of the patch fixation technique on primary biomechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Spreiter, Gregor; Audigé, Laurent; Ferguson, Stephen J; Flury, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the potential of patch augmentation to improve biomechanical stability and healing associated with rotator cuff repair. The biomechanical properties of three different patch-augmented rotator cuff repair techniques were assessed in vitro and compared with a standard repair. Dermal collagen patch augmentation may increase the primary stability and strength of the repaired tendon in vitro, depending on the technique used for patch application. Forty cadaveric sheep shoulders with dissected infraspinatus tendons were randomized into four groups (n = 10/group) for tendon repair using a knotless double-row suture anchor technique. A xenologous dermal extracellular matrix patch was used for augmentation in the three test groups using an "integrated", "cover", or "hybrid" technique. Tendons were preconditioned, cyclically loaded from 10 to 30 N at 1 Hz, and then loaded monotonically to failure. Biomechanical properties and the mode of failure were evaluated. Patch augmentation significantly increased the maximum load at failure by 61 % in the "cover" technique test group (225.8 N) and 51 % in the "hybrid" technique test group (211.4 N) compared with the non-augmented control group (140.2 N) (P ≤ 0.015). For the test group with "integrated" patch augmentation, the load at failure was 28 % lower (101.6 N) compared with the control group (P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in initial and linear stiffness among the four experimental groups. The most common mode of failure was tendon pullout. No anchor dislocation, patch disruption or knot breakage was observed. Additional patch augmentation with a collagen patch influences the biomechanical properties of a rotator cuff repair in a cadaveric sheep model. Primary repair stability can be significantly improved depending on the augmentation technique.

  3. Development and evaluation of a tampering resistant transdermal fentanyl patch.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bing; Engqvist, Håkan; Bredenberg, Susanne

    2015-07-05

    With the increasing number of misuse and abuse of opioids, the resistance to tampering becomes an important attribute for transdermal opioid patches. In this study, drug-containing geopolymer granules were integrated into an adhesive matrix to improve the resistance of fast drug release against some common abuse techniques. Bench testing showed that fentanyl loaded geopolymer granules had better resistance to tampering compared to a commercial fentanyl patch. Moreover, in a pilot in vivo study on a few rats, the granules showed potential to give similar drug plasma concentrations as the commercial fentanyl patch. After integrating geopolymer granules into an adhesive matrix, the new patch showed a better resistance against the investigated tampering tests compared with the commercially available patch. In this study, we showed that incorporating drug loaded geopolymer granules into a patch adhesive has potential to improve the resistance of the fentanyl patch against tampering without compromising the drug release.

  4. Chamber Tests with Human Subjects XX. Hypersensitivity to H as Demonstrated by Patch Tests Before and After Chamber Exposure to H Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-05-15

    intense erythema 4 a. erythema with edema b. dry scaling of scrotum c. maceration of axillary skin 5 a. vesicle b. numerous pinpoint vesicles c. crusting... skin reaction following exposure to H vapor in the man-chamber are discussed. Eight kodachrone prints, illustrating pertinent features, are included...Reactions for a Given Test Dose - 12 F. Changes in Threshold ------------------ 12 G. Abnormal Skin Reactions Following Chamber Exposures to H Vapor

  5. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  6. Pressure wall patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, Joel E. (Inventor); Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rigid patch body for placing over a damaged portion (hole) of an external wall of a pressurized vessel, such as a space vehicle or a habitat, is discussed. The rigid patch body allows an astronaut to make temporary repairs to the pressurized vessel from the exterior of the vessel, which enables more permanent repairs to be made from the interior of the vessel. The pressure wall patch of the present invention includes a floor surrounded by four side members. Each side member includes a threaded screw for anchoring the patch body to the external wall of the pressurized vessel and a recess in its lower surface for supporting an inflatable bladder for surrounding the damaged portion (hole) of the external wall to seal the area surrounding the damaged portion. This allows the vessel to be repressurized. The floor of the rigid patch body supports a source of gas that is connected to the gas supply valve and a gas supply gauge in communication with the gas supply valve and the inflatable bladder.

  7. Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongben; Sun, Jian

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel examplar-based inpainting algorithm through investigating the sparsity of natural image patches. Two novel concepts of sparsity at the patch level are proposed for modeling the patch priority and patch representation, which are two crucial steps for patch propagation in the examplar-based inpainting approach. First, patch structure sparsity is designed to measure the confidence of a patch located at the image structure (e.g., the edge or corner) by the sparseness of its nonzero similarities to the neighboring patches. The patch with larger structure sparsity will be assigned higher priority for further inpainting. Second, it is assumed that the patch to be filled can be represented by the sparse linear combination of candidate patches under the local patch consistency constraint in a framework of sparse representation. Compared with the traditional examplar-based inpainting approach, structure sparsity enables better discrimination of structure and texture, and the patch sparse representation forces the newly inpainted regions to be sharp and consistent with the surrounding textures. Experiments on synthetic and natural images show the advantages of the proposed approach.

  8. Selegiline Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can use baby oil or a medical adhesive removal pad to remove residue that will not come off with soap and water. Do not use alcohol, nail polish remover, or other solvents. Apply a new patch to a different area immediately by following steps 1 to 6.

  9. Oxybutynin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can use baby oil or a medical adhesive removal pad to remove residue that will not come off with soap and water. Do not use alcohol, nail polish remover, or other solvents. Apply a new patch to a different area immediately by following steps 1–5.

  10. Nitroglycerin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... press down on its center to lift the edges away from the skin. Hold the edge gently and slowly peel the patch away from ... your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.tell your doctor if you think you may ...

  11. Patch choice under predation hazard.

    PubMed

    Krivan, V; Vrkoc, I

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we study optimal animal movement in heterogeneous environments consisting of several food patches in which animals trade-off energy gain versus predation risk. We derive a myopic optimization rule describing optimal animal movements by fitness maximization assuming an animal state is described by a single quantity (such as weight, size, or energy reserves). This rule predicts a critical state at which an animal should switch from a more dangerous and more profitable patch to a less dangerous and less profitable patch. Qualitatively, there are two types of behavior: either the animal switches from one patch to another and stays in the new patch for some time before it switches again, or the animal switches between two patches instantaneously. The former case happens if animal state growth is positive in all patches, while the latter case happens if animal state growth is negative in one patch. In particular, this happens if one patch is a refuge. We consider in detail two special cases. The first one assumes a linear animal state growth while the second assumes a saturating animal state growth described by the von Bertalanffy curve. For the first model the proportion of time spent in the more profitable and more risky patch increases with profitability of this patch when state growth is positive in both patches. On contrary, if state growth is negative in the less profitable and safer patch, animals spend proportionally less time in the more profitable and more risky patch as its profitability increases. As a function of the predation risk in the more profitable patch the time spent there proportionally decreases. When animal state growth is described by the saturating curve, time spent in the more risky patch is a hump-shaped curve if state growth is positive in both patches. Our results extend the mu/f rule, which predicts that animals should behave in such a way as to minimize mortality risk to resource intake ratio.

  12. THE RELATION OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE IN CATECHOL COMPOUNDS AND DERIVATIVES TO POISON IVY HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN MAN AS SHOWN BY THE PATCH TEST.

    PubMed

    Keil, H; Wasserman, D; Dawson, C R

    1944-10-01

    1. Additional evidence is presented in support of the view which postulates a close chemical and biologic relation between the active ingredients in poison ivy and Japan lac. 2. Biologic evidence, based on the use of the patch test in man, is presented in support of the view that the active ingredient in poison ivy is a catechol derivative with a long, unsaturated side-chain in the 3-position. 3. Of the catechol compounds and derivatives studied, group reactions in patients sensitive to poison ivy leaves or extract were exhibited by the following compounds: 3-pentadecyl catechol (100 per cent of 21 cases), 4-pentadecyl catechol (38 per cent of 21 cases), "urushiol" dimethyl ether (33 per cent of 33 cases), 3-pentadecenyl-1'-veratrole (21 per cent of 14 cases), 3-methyl catechol (14 per cent of 21 cases), and hydrourushiol dimethyl ether (10 per cent of 20 cases). It has been found that 3-geranyl catechol shows a practically constant group reactivity in persons sensitive to poison ivy. 4. The uniformly positive group reaction to 3-pentadecyl catechol is notable since this substance possesses a saturated side-chain, whereas the active ingredient in poison ivy is known to have an unsaturated side-chain. 5. The group reactivity was not restricted to the 3-position, for in some instances 4-pentadecyl catechol also gave group reactions which, however, were less intense and less frequent than those shown by 3-pentadecyl catechol. This indicates that in some cases a long side-chain in the 4 position may be effective in producing group specific reactions. 6. Only an occasional person showed sensitiveness to 3-methyl catechol (short side-chain), and in one instance the group reactivity appeared to be specific for the 3-position. 7. The position of the side-chain in the catechol configuration has some bearing on the degree and incidence of group reactions in persons hypersensitive to poison ivy. 8. Evidence is presented to indicate that the introduction of double bonds in the

  13. THE RELATION OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE IN CATECHOL COMPOUNDS AND DERIVATIVES TO POISON IVY HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN MAN AS SHOWN BY THE PATCH TEST

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Harry; Wasserman, David; Dawson, Charles R.

    1944-01-01

    1. Additional evidence is presented in support of the view which postulates a close chemical and biologic relation between the active ingredients in poison ivy and Japan lac. 2. Biologic evidence, based on the use of the patch test in man, is presented in support of the view that the active ingredient in poison ivy is a catechol derivative with a long, unsaturated side-chain in the 3-position. 3. Of the catechol compounds and derivatives studied, group reactions in patients sensitive to poison ivy leaves or extract were exhibited by the following compounds: 3-pentadecyl catechol (100 per cent of 21 cases), 4-pentadecyl catechol (38 per cent of 21 cases), "urushiol" dimethyl ether (33 per cent of 33 cases), 3-pentadecenyl-1'-veratrole (21 per cent of 14 cases), 3-methyl catechol (14 per cent of 21 cases), and hydrourushiol dimethyl ether (10 per cent of 20 cases). It has been found that 3-geranyl catechol shows a practically constant group reactivity in persons sensitive to poison ivy. 4. The uniformly positive group reaction to 3-pentadecyl catechol is notable since this substance possesses a saturated side-chain, whereas the active ingredient in poison ivy is known to have an unsaturated side-chain. 5. The group reactivity was not restricted to the 3-position, for in some instances 4-pentadecyl catechol also gave group reactions which, however, were less intense and less frequent than those shown by 3-pentadecyl catechol. This indicates that in some cases a long side-chain in the 4 position may be effective in producing group specific reactions. 6. Only an occasional person showed sensitiveness to 3-methyl catechol (short side-chain), and in one instance the group reactivity appeared to be specific for the 3-position. 7. The position of the side-chain in the catechol configuration has some bearing on the degree and incidence of group reactions in persons hypersensitive to poison ivy. 8. Evidence is presented to indicate that the introduction of double bonds in the

  14. Polymer concrete patching manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Bartholomew, J.

    1982-06-01

    The practicality of using polymer concrete to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete bridge decks and pavements was demonstrated. This manual outlines the procedures for using polymer concrete as a rapid patching material to repair deteriorated concrete. The process technology, materials, equipment, and safety provisions used in manufacturing and placing polymer concrete are discussed. Potential users are informed of the various steps necessary to insure successful field applications of the material.

  15. exp 19 patch-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-03

    ISS019-S-001 (December 2008) --- Expedition 19 marks the final planned period of three person occupancy, prior to increasing the crew size to 6, and occurs in the final stages of International Space Station assembly. The patch emphasizes the earth, one of the major focuses of attention and study from the orbital research outpost. The design is stylized to highlight the beauty of the home planet and the station orbiting it, next to the sun now the unquestioned

  16. exp 19 patch-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-29

    ISS019-S-001A (December 2008) --- Expedition 19 marks the final planned period of three person occupancy, prior to increasing the crew size to 6, and occurs in the final stages of International Space Station assembly. The patch emphasizes the earth, one of the major focuses of attention and study from the orbital research outpost. The design is stylized to highlight the beauty of the home planet and the station orbiting it, next to the sun now the unquestioned

  17. Research and analysis of patch shape on microstrip patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ai-guo; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The shape of the radiating patch in the microstrip patch antenna is one of the many factors that affect the performance of the microstrip antenna.In this paper, on the premise of center frequency of 2.45 GHz, rectangular, circular and triangular microstrip patch antennas are designed and simulated respectively.The simulation results of the three microstrip patch antenna are analyzed, such as feed point position, return loss and radiation patterns.The influence of the shape of the radiation patch on the impedance bandwidth, gain and directivity of microstrip antennas is discussed.The simulation results show that the comprehensive performance of rectangular microstrip patch antenna is better than the other two, the comprehensive performance of triangular microstrip patch antenna is poor.

  18. Global Patch Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Hu, K.; Ling, X.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2017-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel global patch matching method that focuses on how to remove fronto-parallel bias and obtain continuous smooth surfaces with assuming that the scenes covered by stereos are piecewise continuous. Firstly, simple linear iterative cluster method (SLIC) is used to segment the base image into a series of patches. Then, a global energy function, which consists of a data term and a smoothness term, is built on the patches. The data term is the second-order Taylor expansion of correlation coefficients, and the smoothness term is built by combing connectivity constraints and the coplanarity constraints are combined to construct the smoothness term. Finally, the global energy function can be built by combining the data term and the smoothness term. We rewrite the global energy function in a quadratic matrix function, and use least square methods to obtain the optimal solution. Experiments on Adirondack stereo and Motorcycle stereo of Middlebury benchmark show that the proposed method can remove fronto-parallel bias effectively, and produce continuous smooth surfaces.

  19. Exp 36 Patch Final

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-10

    ISS036-S-001 (January 2012) --- The dynamic design of the Expedition 36 patch portrays the International Space Station?s (ISS) iconic solar arrays. The slanted angles denote a kinetic energy leading from the Earth in the lower right to the upper left tip of the triangular shape of the patch, representing the infinite scientific research, education, and long-duration spaceflight capabilities the ISS provides with each mission, as well as our goal for future exploration beyond the Space Station. The numbers 3 and 6 harmoniously intertwine to form expedition number 36 and its gray coloration signifies the unity and neutrality among all of the international partners of the ISS. The blue and gold color scheme of the patch represents the subtle way the central gold orbit wraps around the number 36 to form a trident at its lower right tip. The trident also symbolizes the sea, air, and land, all of which make up the Earth from where the trident originates in the design. The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Standardized tape stripping prior to patch testing induces upregulation of Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, TNF-α and IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA: new insights into the involvement of 'alarmins'.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Gambichler, Thilo; Kamphowe, Jeanette; Altmeyer, Peter; Skrygan, Marina

    2010-10-01

    The strip patch test is recommended if patch test results are presumed to be false-negative. It is under discussion whether the cutaneous inflammation induced by tape stripping is a pivotal element in enhancing the allergic contact dermatitis response. To investigate epidermal mRNA expression of mediators implicated in the regulation of inflammation induced by tape stripping according to our standardized protocol in human skin. Thirty-one healthy volunteers (median age 26 years, range 18-62 years) participated in the study. We measured epidermal mRNAs coding for cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-10, IL-8/CXCL8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)/RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed, and presumably secreted), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], an adhesion molecule [intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1)], heat shock proteins (Hsp27, Hsp70 and Hsp90), and the inflammasome complex [NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-3 (NALP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)/CARD5 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-5) and caspase-1] in tape-stripped skin of the upper back relative to untreated skin of the upper back, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology. Epidermal mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, and IL-8/CXCL8 were significantly upregulated, whereas CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly downregulated 6 hr after standardized tape stripping. Tape stripping the skin according to our standardized protocol shows immunostimulatory effects, with induction of keratinocyte-derived 'alarmins' and cytokines mounting an immune response, which may contribute to the increased sensitivity of the strip patch test versus the patch test. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis pattern in Kuwait: nickel leads the pack. In-depth analysis of nickel allergy based on the results from a large prospective patch test series report

    PubMed Central

    Almutawa, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Contact dermatitis is a relatively common dermatosis reported among several population groups from all around the globe. However, the data from Kuwait is unavailable. Patch tests are essential for the diagnosis of contact sensitization. Aim To determine a relative frequency and pattern of sensitizers to different allergens in patients of suspected contact dermatitis in Kuwait and, also to study the role of the commonest sensitizer in detail. Material and methods Patch tests were performed in 2461 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of contact dermatitis seen at our hospital between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Out of the total of 1381 (56.1%) patients with positive patch test results to at least one allergen, 546 (22.2%) patients with a single positive reaction to nickel only (single largest sensitizer) were selected as the study population for further detailed analysis. Results At least one positive patch test reaction was found in 1381 (56.12%) patients. Nickel was found to be the most common sensitizer seen in 546 (40%) patients. The mean age was 37.3 ±13.8 years and the mean duration of disease was 27.3 ±13.8 months. Most (387/546) patients sensitized were females. The forearms/hands and wrists were the most prevalent sites (52.56% of the participants). In 58.91% of women, dermatitis was more often confined to other sites, mostly ears and the neck due to earrings and necklaces. Just more than half of the number (51.09%) of nickel allergic patients were found in the age group of 15–25 years. Hairdressers/beauticians were the most affected group followed by house workers (housewives, cleaners, housekeepers). Conclusions Nickel is the single most common sensitizer found in our patients, and female sex, young age, occupation with long hours of contact to nickel are high risk factors. We recommend that a directive, which limits the release of nickel from products with extended skin contact, be approved in Kuwait. PMID:28670248

  2. Understanding patch departure rules for large carnivores: lion movements support a patch-disturbance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Marion; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Loveridge, Andrew J; Davidson, Zeke; Hunt, Jane E; Madzikanda, Hillary; Macdonald, David W

    2011-08-01

    We test two hypotheses that could account for patch departure by large mammalian carnivores. One hypothesis is the unsuccessful-hunt hypothesis, where carnivores leave an area after an unsuccessful hunt but continue hunting in the same area after a successful hunt. The second hypothesis is the patch-disturbance hypothesis, where carnivores depart the area after a successful hunt because of behavioral responses of prey to predator presence. We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Lions moved to a different area (≥ 5 km away) after 87% of the kills, which supports the patch-disturbance hypothesis for patch-departure behavior of large mammalian carnivores.

  3. Comparative study of patches for liquid cooled garments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were performed on 12 cooling patches of various designs to establish criteria for the evaluation of their performance in liquid-cooled suits in industrial, military and aerospace applications. The thermal effectiveness value was 0.088 for patch designs with a double spiral flow pattern, and 0.075 for patch designs with a parallel flow pattern. The ratio of thermal energy transfer rate to cooling-medium pumping power requirement is indicated as the prime performance characteristic to be considered in the selection and rating of cooling patches.

  4. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  5. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in North American Print Machine Operators Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Belsito, Donald V; DeKoven, Joel G; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; Sasseville, Denis; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fowler, Joseph F; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Taylor, James S

    Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in print machine operators (PMOs). The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of CD and characterize clinically relevant and occupationally related allergens among PMOs undergoing patch testing. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group data from 1998 to 2014. Of 39,332 patch-tested patients, 132 (0.3%) were PMOs. Among PMOs, most were male (75.0%) and white (92.4%). The majority were printing press operators (85.6%). The most frequent sites of dermatitis were hands (63.6%), arms (29.5%), and face/scalp (24.2%). More than half had an occupationally related skin condition (56.1%). Final diagnoses were most commonly allergic CD (58.3%) and irritant CD (33.3%). Cobalt (20.8%), carba mix (12.5%), thiuram mix (8.3%), and formaldehyde (8.3%) were the most frequent occupationally related allergens. The top allergen sources included inks (22.9%), gloves (20.8%), and coatings/dye/copy/photographic chemicals (14.6%). Allergic CD, irritant CD, and involvement of exposed body areas were common among PMOs. Common allergens included rubber accelerators, metals, and preservatives.

  6. Patch based predation in a southern Appalachian stream

    Treesearch

    C.A. Gibson; R.E. Ratajezak; G.D. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    Streams are characterized by high degrees of patchiness that could influence the role of predators in these systems. Here we assess the impact of predatory benthic fishes on benthic macroinvertebrate density, biomass, and community structure at the patch scale in a fourth order stream in the southern Appalachians. We tested the role of predation in two different patch...

  7. Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Dyes, C

    2004-07-16

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be formed in blood and almost all human tissues after alcohol consumption and to be incorporated from sebum into hair where they can be used as long-term markers for excessive alcohol consumption. In order to examine whether skin surface lipids which consist mainly of sebum are an equally useful matrix for measurement of FAEE as alcohol abuse markers, samples were collected by a wipe-test from the forehead of 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 10 death cases with known recent alcohol misuse and five death cases without indications of alcohol misuse. The samples were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to. The ratio mFAEE/mSQ ranged between 0.16 and 1.12 ng/microg (mean 0.34 ng/microg) for the teetotallers and between 0.08 and 0.94 ng/microg (mean 0.37 ng/microg) for the social drinkers with no significant difference between both groups. For the alcoholics 2.4-24.2 ng/microg (mean 13.1 ng/microg) were found. For two volunteers the course of mFAEE/mSQ 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after a single high alcohol dose was pursued by daily wipe tests. A strong increase of mFAEE/mSQ occurred between 7 and 12 days after the drinking event. This delay can be explained by the transition time of about 8 days between sebum production and its appearance on the skin surface known from literature. For seven social drinkers skin surface lipid samples were also collected using drug of abuse patches of the firm PharmCheck. The ratios mFAEE/mSQ in these samples were in the same range as from the wipe-test. The comparison with the self-reported ethanol amounts consumed the week before and during the test gave no good correlation (R2 = 0.42). It can be

  8. Expedition 17 Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-01

    ISS017-S-001B (Oct. 2007) --- The Expedition 17 patch is meant to celebrate current human achievements in space as well as symbolize the future potential for continuing exploration. The Earth, represented at the bottom of the patch, is the base from which all space exploration activities initiate. The International Space Station (ISS), shown in low Earth orbit, illustrates the current level of space operations. The arrow and star point outwards, away from the Earth, towards the wider universe indicating the direction of future activities as human beings build on what has already been accomplished. The flags, representing the home countries of the crew members, Russia and the United States, are touching, highlighting the cooperative nature of the space program and symbolizing the merger of science and technical knowledge of these two experienced space-faring nations. The NASA insignia design for space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  9. Expedition 17 Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-01

    ISS017-S-001D (Oct. 2007) --- The Expedition 17 patch is meant to celebrate current human achievements in space as well as symbolize the future potential for continuing exploration. The Earth, represented at the bottom of the patch, is the base from which all space exploration activities initiate. The International Space Station (ISS), shown in low Earth orbit, illustrates the current level of space operations. The arrow and star point outwards, away from the Earth, towards the wider universe indicating the direction of future activities as human beings build on what has already been accomplished. The flags, representing the home countries of the crew members, Russia and the United States, are touching, highlighting the cooperative nature of the space program and symbolizing the merger of science and technical knowledge of these two experienced space-faring nations. The NASA insignia design for space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  10. Expedition 17 Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-01

    ISS017-S-001C (Oct. 2007) --- The Expedition 17 patch is meant to celebrate current human achievements in space as well as symbolize the future potential for continuing exploration. The Earth, represented at the bottom of the patch, is the base from which all space exploration activities initiate. The International Space Station (ISS), shown in low Earth orbit, illustrates the current level of space operations. The arrow and star point outwards, away from the Earth, towards the wider universe indicating the direction of future activities as human beings build on what has already been accomplished. The flags, representing the home countries of the crew members, Russia and the United States, are touching, highlighting the cooperative nature of the space program and symbolizing the merger of science and technical knowledge of these two experienced space-faring nations. The NASA insignia design for space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  11. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  12. STS-62 crew patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-01

    STS062-S-001 (October 1993) --- The crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. The space shuttle Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The primary mission objectives of STS-62 include the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST-2) payloads. These payloads represent a multifaceted array of space science and engineering experiments. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions.

  14. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-08

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions.

  15. Expedition 13 crew patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-01

    ISS013-S-001 (January 2006) --- This patch commemorates the thirteenth expeditionary mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which continues the permanent human presence in space. The ISS is depicted in its configuration at the start of the six-month expedition with trailing elements from the country flags representing both of the crew members--cosmonaut Pavel V. Vinogradov and astronaut Jeffrey N. Williams. The crew members made the following statement about their patch: "The dynamic trajectory of the space station against the background of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon symbolizes the vision for human space exploration beyond Earth orbit and the critical role that the ISS plays in the fulfillment of that vision." The NASA insignia design for shuttle flights and station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  16. STS-128 patch Pathd

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-14

    STS128-S-001 (April 2009) --- The STS-128 patch symbolizes the 17A mission and represents the hardware, people and partner nations that contribute to the flight. The Space shuttle Discovery is shown in the orbit configuration with the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo in the payload bay. Earth and the International Space Station wrap around the Astronaut Office symbol reminding us of the continuous human presence in space. The names of the STS-128 crew members border the patch in an unfurled manner. Included in the names is the expedition crew member who will launch on STS-128 and remain on board ISS, replacing another Expedition crew member who will return home with STS-128. The banner also completes the Astronaut Office symbol and contains the U.S. and Swedish flags representing the countries of the STS-128 crew. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Statistics for Patch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, K. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the application of remote sensing it is common to investigate processes that generate patches of material. This is especially true when using categorical land cover or land use maps. Here we view some existing tools, landscape pattern indices (LPI), as non-parametric estimators of random closed sets (RACS). This RACS framework enables LPIs to be studied rigorously. A RACS is any random process that generates a closed set, which encompasses any processes that result in binary (two-class) land cover maps. RACS theory, and methods in the underlying field of stochastic geometry, are particularly well suited to high-resolution remote sensing where objects extend across tens of pixels, and the shapes and orientations of patches are symptomatic of underlying processes. For some LPI this field already contains variance information and border correction techniques. After introducing RACS theory we discuss the core area LPI in detail. It is closely related to the spherical contact distribution leading to conditional variants, a new version of contagion, variance information and multiple border-corrected estimators. We demonstrate some of these findings on high resolution tree canopy data.

  18. Cortical patch basis model for spatially extended neural activity.

    PubMed

    Limpiti, Tulaya; Van Veen, Barry D; Wakai, Ronald T

    2006-09-01

    A new source model for representing spatially distributed neural activity is presented. The signal of interest is modeled as originating from a patch of cortex and is represented using a set of basis functions. Each cortical patch has its own set of bases, which allows representation of arbitrary source activity within the patch. This is in contrast to previously proposed cortical patch models which assume a specific distribution of activity within the patch. We present a procedure for designing bases that minimize the normalized mean squared representation error, averaged over different activity distributions within the patch. Extension of existing algorithms to the basis function framework is straightforward and is illustrated using linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) spatial filtering and maximum-likelihood signal estimation/generalized likelihood ratio test (ML/GLRT). The number of bases chosen for each patch determines a tradeoff between representation accuracy and the ability to differentiate between distinct patches. We propose choosing the minimum number of bases that satisfy a constraint on the normalized mean squared representation accuracy. A mismatch analysis for LCMV and ML/GLRT is presented to show that this is an appropriate strategy for choosing the number of bases. The effectiveness of the patch basis model is demonstrated using real and simulated evoked response data. We show that significant changes in performance occur as the number of basis functions varies, and that very good results are obtained by allowing modest representation error.

  19. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the

  20. STS-102 Crew Patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-24

    STS102-S-001 (January 2001) --- The central image on the STS-102 crew patch depicts the International Space Station (ISS) in the build configuration that it will have at the time of the arrival and docking of Discovery during the STS-102 mission, the first crew exchange flight to the space station. The station is shown along the direction of the flight as will be seen by the shuttle crew during their final approach and docking, the so-called V-bar approach. The names of the shuttle crew members are depicted in gold around the top of the patch, and surnames of the Expedition crew members being exchanged are shown in the lower banner. The three ribbons swirling up to and around the station signify the rotation of these ISS crew members. The number two is for the Expedition Two crew who fly up to the station, and the number one is for the Expedition One crew who then return down to Earth. In conjunction with the face of the Lab module of the station, these Expedition numbers create the shuttle mission number 102. Shown mated below the ISS is the Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, that will fly for the first time on this flight, and which will be attached to the station by the shuttle crew during the docked phase of the mission. The flags of the countries that are the major contributors to this effort, the United States, Russia, and Italy are also shown in the lower part of the patch. The build-sequence number of this flight in the overall station assembly sequence, 5A.1, is captured by the constellations in the background. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Expedition Seven patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-01

    ISS007-S-001 (March 2003) --- The International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Seven patch consists of two elliptical orbits which evoke the histories of the two space programs from which the crew is drawn. The Russian and American flags are intersecting, representing the peaceful cooperation of the many countries contributing to the ISS. Two stars indicate the station's goals of contributing to life on Earth through science and commerce. The NASA insignia design for station space flights is reserved for use by the crew members and other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, such will be publicly announced.

  2. Expedition 10 patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-05-01

    ISS010-S-001 (May 2004) --- The Expedition 10 patch uses simple symbolism to describe the mission. The large Roman numeral "X," formed by the American and Russian flags, symbolizes the joint nature of this mission, as well as the fact that this flight is the 10th mission to stay on the International Space Station (ISS). The current configuration of the ISS is next to the name of the ISS Commander, while the Soyuz vehicle is placed next to the name of the Soyuz Commander. The single star and the black background signify this is a space mission. The NASA insignia design for shuttle flights and station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  3. sts-135patch only

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-25

    STS135-S-001 (27 Jan. 2011) --- The STS-135 patch represents the space shuttle Atlantis embarking on its mission to resupply the International Space Station. Atlantis is centered over elements of the NASA emblem depicting how the space shuttle has been at the heart of NASA for the last 30 years. It also pays tribute to the entire NASA and contractor team that made possible all the incredible accomplishments of the space shuttle. Omega, the last letter in the Greek alphabet, recognizes this mission as the last flight of the Space Shuttle Program. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Mapped Plot Patch Size Estimates

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the mapped plot design is relatively easy to analyze and describes existing formulas for mean and variance estimators. New methods are developed for using mapped plots to estimate average patch size of condition classes. The patch size estimators require assumptions about the shape of the condition class, limiting their utility. They may...

  5. Analgesic Microneedle Patch for Neuropathic Pain Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Pascual, Conrado; Lieu, Christopher; Oh, Seajin; Wang, Ji; Zou, Bende; Xie, Julian; Li, Zhaohui; Xie, James; Yeomans, David C; Wu, Mei X; Xie, Xinmin Simon

    2017-01-24

    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain. Local analgesic effects were evaluated in rats by testing behavioral pain sensitivity in response to thermal and mechanical stimuli using neuropathic pain models such as spared-nerve injury and diabetic neuropathy pain, as well as neurogenic inflammatory pain model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Unlike several conventional therapies, the AMN patches produced effective analgesia on neuropathic pain without disturbing the normal nociception and motor function of the rat, resulting from the high specificity of the delivered peptide against CGRP receptors. The AMN patches did not cause skin irritation or systemic side effects. These results demonstrate that dissolvable microneedle patches delivering CGRP antagonist peptide provide an effective, safe, and simple approach to mitigate neuropathic pain with significant advantages over current treatments.

  6. Expedition 11 patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-01

    ISS011-S-001 (January 2005) --- The emblem of the eleventh expedition to the International Space Station (ISS) emphasizes the roles of the United States and the Russian Federation in the multinational ISS partnership. The two rocket plumes, in the style of the flags of these two nations, represent the Russian Soyuz vehicles and the American space shuttles. The ISS image shows the configuration of the orbiting station at the start of the expedition, with docked Soyuz and Progress vehicles and the huge American solar panels. The names of the two crew members are shown on the margin of the patch. ISS Commander Sergei Krikalev and John Phillips, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, are expected to launch on a Soyuz vehicle and to be in orbit during the return to flight of the space shuttle. The crew explains, “The beauty of our home planet and the vivid contrasts of the space environment are shown by the blue and green Earth with the space station orbiting overhead, and by the bright stars, dark sky, and dazzling sun.” The NASA insignia design for shuttle flights and station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  7. Exp 45 Patch - FINALai

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS045-S-001 (July 2014) --- The Expedition 45 crew will conduct its journey of exploration and discovery from a summit whose foundation was built by past generations of pioneers, scientists, engineers and explorers. This foundation is represented by the book of knowledge at the bottom of the patch. Curves radiate from the book representing the flow of knowledge - and the hard work, sacrifice and innovation that makes human spaceflight possible. The pages written during Expedition 45 will serve to benefit humanity on Earth and in space. The International Space Station is represented by a single bright star soaring over the Earth, illuminating a path to future, more distant destinations. Note: The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  8. Whole-GUV patch-clamping.

    PubMed

    Garten, Matthias; Mosgaard, Lars D; Bornschlögl, Thomas; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bassereau, Patricia; Toombes, Gilman E S

    2017-01-10

    Studying how the membrane modulates ion channel and transporter activity is challenging because cells actively regulate membrane properties, whereas existing in vitro systems have limitations, such as residual solvent and unphysiologically high membrane tension. Cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) would be ideal for in vitro electrophysiology, but efforts to measure the membrane current of intact GUVs have been unsuccessful. In this work, two challenges for obtaining the "whole-GUV" patch-clamp configuration were identified and resolved. First, unless the patch pipette and GUV pressures are precisely matched in the GUV-attached configuration, breaking the patch membrane also ruptures the GUV. Second, GUVs shrink irreversibly because the membrane/glass adhesion creating the high-resistance seal (>1 GΩ) continuously pulls membrane into the pipette. In contrast, for cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), breaking the patch membrane allows the GPMV contents to passivate the pipette surface, thereby dynamically blocking membrane spreading in the whole-GMPV mode. To mimic this dynamic passivation mechanism, beta-casein was encapsulated into GUVs, yielding a stable, high-resistance, whole-GUV configuration for a range of membrane compositions. Specific membrane capacitance measurements confirmed that the membranes were truly solvent-free and that membrane tension could be controlled over a physiological range. Finally, the potential for ion transport studies was tested using the model ion channel, gramicidin, and voltage-clamp fluorometry measurements were performed with a voltage-dependent fluorophore/quencher pair. Whole-GUV patch-clamping allows ion transport and other voltage-dependent processes to be studied while controlling membrane composition, tension, and shape.

  9. Formulation study of oxybutynin patches.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Paola; Cilurzo, Francesco; Pagani, Stefania; Casiraghi, Antonella; Assandri, Riccardo; Montanari, Luisa

    2007-01-01

    The present feasibility study was designed to obtain a monolayer patch containing oxybutynin (OXY) avoiding chemical permeation enhancers. The highest flux was obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane matrix patch. Because OXY crystals were detected in the matrix within a week, two amino methylmethacrylate copolymers (Eudragit E or Eudragit RS) were used as OXY crystallization inhibitors. A preliminary in vivo study indicated that flux from the stabilized patches had to be increased about 30-40%. This goal was reached by occlusion with a polyethylene layer.

  10. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors in the striatum attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the patch compartment.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Logan, Mary Caroline; Fisher, Trevor J; Logue, Jordan B

    2017-02-05

    The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors. Numerous studies have examined patch-enhanced activity and the contribution of patch-associated μ opioid receptors to METH-induced repetitive behavior, but it is not known whether patch-enhanced activity occurs during METH-mediated reward, nor is it known if patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to METH reward. The goals of this study were to determine if blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors alters METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well activation of the patch and matrix compartments following METH-mediated CPP. A biased conditioning paradigm was used to assess CPP, and conditioning occurred over an 8-d period. Animals were bilaterally infused in the striatum with the μ-specific antagonist CTAP or vehicle prior to conditioning. Animals were tested for preference 24h after the last day of conditioning, sacrificed and the brains processed for immunohistochemistry. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors reduced METH-induced CPP, and reduced patch-enhanced c-Fos expression in the striatum following METH-mediated CPP. These data indicate that patch-enhanced activity is associated with METH-mediated reward and patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to this phenomenon.

  11. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  12. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  13. Formulation optimization of arecoline patches.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  14. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  15. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  16. The effect of habitat patch size on small mammal populations

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Yates; Susan C. Loeb; David C. Guynn

    1997-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to the conservation of bio­diversity and has 3 components: habitat loss, patch isolation, and patch size. The authors tested the effects of forest-clearing size on small mammal populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. These clearings act as islands for many species of small mam­mals, particularly old...

  17. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  18. Failure analysis and surety design of composite patching systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamoush, Sameer

    2004-08-01

    This work presents an experimental evaluation of patch repair of solid laminated composites. The study was focused on destructive and nondestructive tests of full-scale repaired panels under static tension loading conditions. The testing program consisted of ten panels: three pristine, three damaged, three repaired and one repaired with mismatched fiber orientation patch. The evaluated panels were (300 mm x 675 mm) in size and consisted of 6-ply ((-60 /60/0){sub s}) quasi-isotropic laminates. The destructive tests were performed by North Carolina A&T State University and the nondestructive tests were performed by Iowa State University using Pulse-echo C-scan, Air coupled TTU and Auto-Tap. Sandia National Laboratories validated the NDT tests by implementing NDE field methods. Based on the evaluation performed in this study, it appears that the patch repair is an effective means in retrofitting damaged solid composite laminates.

  19. Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat

    2012-12-04

    A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

  20. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Shape of patch edges affects edge permeability for meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Nams, Vilis O

    2012-09-01

    Human development typically fragments natural habitats into patches, affecting population and metapopulation dynamics via changes in animal behavior. Emigration from one habitat patch to another has a large effect on population and metapopulation dynamics. One factor that affects emigration is permeability of patch edges. This study looks at the effects of edge shape (convex, concave, and straight) on edge permeability for meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).. I tested five hypotheses for responses of animal movement to patch shape: (1) neutral edge response; (2) edge attraction; (3) edge avoidance; (4) time-minimizing, in which an animal attempts to minimize the time spent in inhospitable matrix, and thus travels as far as possible in the patch before crossing the edge; and (5) protection, in which an animal attempts to maximize protection while in the inhospitable matrix by keeping the patch close by. These hypotheses were tested by an experimental manipulation of meadow vole habitats. A strip was mowed with different edge shapes through an old field, and vole response was measured by tracking plates. Voles crossed edges at concave treatments twice as often compared to convex and straight shapes. Hypotheses (2) and (5) were supported. Although edge attraction causes a passive effect of a decrease in edge-crossing at concavities, this effect was eclipsed by the active effect of voles choosing to cross at concavities. The results can be generalized to edge tortuosity in general. Conservation biologists should consider edge shapes when exploring the effects of habitat fragmentation on animal populations.

  2. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  3. A novel transdermal patch incorporating meloxicam: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Ah, Young-Chang; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Ki, Han-Moi; Bae, Joon-Ho

    2010-01-29

    A monolithic drug-in-adhesive (MDIA) type patch containing meloxicam (MX) was designed with an acrylic adhesive, a solubility modulator increasing MX solubility, and enhancers. MDIA patches having one adhesive layer between the backing and the release liner give high productivity and improve patient compliance. The biggest problem to prepare MDIA patch including MX was poor solubility of MX. In this research, solubility modulators to increase solubility of MX and acrylic adhesives and skin permeation enhancers were investigated through solubility tests, in vitro skin permeation tests, and stability tests. Consequently, the composition of sodium methoxide (SM), an acrylic adhesive containing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blocks (MAS683), polyoxyethylene cetylether (BC-2), and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) made it possible for MX to be contained in an adhesive layer at a concentration of as much as 15 wt% without MX crystal and with high skin permeation over 400 microG/cm(2). Finally, the patch formulation containing MX (MX-patch) selected through our in vitro study was characterized by in vivo using an animal study to acquire pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and to confirm the anti-inflammatory efficacy of MX-patch. In the animal study, MX-patch was compared with a commercially available piroxicam patch (PX-patch). The amount of MX delivered from MX-patch to the skin surface was believed to be higher than the amount of MX diffused from the skin tissue to circulatory system because the plasma concentration of MX continuously increased up to 32 h, the end time of PK study, although the patch samples were detached at 24 h. PX-patch produced a C(max) at 8 h. MX-patch showed better significant efficacy than PX-patch in adjuvant arthritis model. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Patch Size and Isolation Predict Plant Species Density in a Naturally Fragmented Forest

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Montiel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest). We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes) of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each) per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha). As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically) with patch size and negatively associated (linearly) with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch). Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation), however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented. PMID:25347818

  5. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  6. MS lesion segmentation using a multi-channel patch-based approach with spatial consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechrez, Roey; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic method for segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain. The approach is based on similarities between multi-channel patches (T1, T2 and FLAIR). An MS lesion patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally a novel iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure spatial consistency of the detected lesions. A leave-one-out evaluation is done for each testing image in the MS lesion segmentation challenge of MICCAI 2008. Results are shown to compete with the state-of-the-art methods on the MICCAI 2008 challenge.

  7. Monocular Patching May Induce Ipsilateral “Where” Spatial Bias

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peii; Erdahl, Lillian; Barrett, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial bias is an asymmetry of perception and/or representation of spatial information —“where” bias —, or of spatially directed actions — “aiming” bias. A monocular patch may induce contralateral “where” spatial bias (the Sprague effect; Sprague (1966) Science, 153, 1544–1547). However, an ipsilateral patch-induced spatial bias may be observed if visual occlusion results in top-down, compensatory re-allocation of spatial perceptual or representational resources toward the region of visual deprivation. Tactile distraction from a monocular patch may also contribute to an ipsilateral bias. To examine these hypotheses, neurologically normal adults bisected horizontal lines at baseline without a patch, while wearing a monocular patch, and while wearing tactile-only and visual-only monocular occlusion. We fractionated “where” and “aiming” spatial bias components using a video apparatus to reverse visual feedback for half of the test trials. The results support monocular patch-induced ipsilateral “where” spatial errors, which are not consistent with the Sprague effect. Further, the present findings suggested that the induced ipsilateral bias may be primarily induced by visual deprivation, consistent with compensatory “where” resource re-allocation. PMID:19100274

  8. Local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches.

    PubMed

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; Mechant, E; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2011-01-01

    Molecular markers can provide valuable information on the spread of resistant weed biotypes. In particular, tracing local spread of resistant weed patches will give details on the importance of seed migration with machinery, manure, wind or birds. This study investigated the local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches in the southwest region of the province West-Flanders (Belgium). During the summer of 2009, leaf and seed samples were harvested in 27 patches, distributed over 10 sugar beet fields and 1 maize field. The fields were grouped in four local clusters. Each cluster corresponded with the farmer who cultivated these fields. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) procedure identified the Ser264 to Gly mutation in the D1 protein, endowing resistance to metamitron, a key herbicide applied in sugar beet. The majority of the sampled plants within a patch (97% on average) carried this mutation. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed with 4 primer pairs and yielded 270 molecular markers, polymorphic for the whole dataset (303 samples). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that a significant part of the genetic variability was attributed to variation among the four farmer locations (12 %) and variation among Chenopodium album patches within the farmer locations (14%). In addition, Mantel tests revealed a positive correlation between genetic distances (linearised phipt between pairs of patches) and geographic distances (Mantel-coefficient significant at p = 0.002), suggesting isolation-by-distance. In one field, a decreased genetic diversity and strong genetic relationships between all the patches in this field supported the hypothesis of a recent introduction of resistant biotypes. Furthermore, genetic similarity between patches from different fields from the same farmer and from different farmers indicated that seed transport between neighbouring fields is likely to have an important impact on the

  9. Microneedle Patches as Drug and Vaccine Delivery Platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao; Shan, Hu; Tong, Chunyi

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous delivery is the ideal method for delivering therapeutic reagents or vaccines into skin. With their promise of self-administration, cost-effective and high efficiency, microneedle patches have been studied intensively as therapeutic and vaccination delivery platform that replaces injection by syringe. This review aims to summarize the recent advancements of microneedle patches in application for drugs and vaccine delivery. We reviewed the most of recently published papers on microneedle patches, summarized their evolution, classification, state-of the-art capabilities and discussed promising application in drugs and vaccine delivery. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, microneedle patches have been improved by switching from undissolving to dissolving microneedles, and their safety has also improved dramatically. As a drug delivery tool, microneedle patches can deliver bioactive molecular of different physical size. Additionally, microneedle patches can be coated or encapsulate with DNA vaccine, subunit antigen, inactivated or live virus vaccine. Combining clinical results with the results of patient interview, microneedle patches are found to be feasible and are predicated to soon be acceptable for the medical service. In this review, we summarized the evolution, current and future application of microneedle patches as delivery vehicle for drugs and vaccines. Compared with traditional delivery tools, microneedle patches have many advantages, such as providing pain-free, non-invasive, convenient route for reagent administration and delivery, with no cold chain required for storage and transportation as well as decreasing sharp medical waste, needle-caused injury and transmission of blood-borne infectious disease in rural area. However, even though there are dramatic progress in preclinical investigation of microneedle patches, further testing will be required for clinical application. Further research should be implemented in multiple fields

  10. Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy and number of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites in Nephila webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    How fully a suitable habitat patch is utilized by organisms depends crucially on patch size and isolation. Testing this interplay is made difficult in many systems by the arbitrariness of defining a "habitat patch", measuring its boarders, and relatively low detection probability of the inhabitants. Spider webs as habitat patches for obligate web kleptoparasites are free from these problems. Each individual web is a highly discrete and readily measured habitat patch, and the detection probability of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites is very nearly 1. Hence, spider webs emerge as simple systems for ecological models such as patch occupancy and metapopulation biology. Recently, I showed that the distribution of kleptoparasites among host webs relates both to web (patch) size as well as patch connectivity. Here, I test the relative importance of patch size versus isolation in explaining patch occupancy and abundance of inhabitants. I find that (1) web size is the better predictor of patch occupancy and abundance. (2) Web size is overall positively correlated with abundance, but predicts it most precisely among interconnected webs and not at all among the most isolated webs. Hence, patch occupancy and inhabitant abundance is explained by a rather complex interplay between patch size and isolation.

  11. Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy and number of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites in Nephila webs.

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    How fully a suitable habitat patch is utilized by organisms depends crucially on patch size and isolation. Testing this interplay is made difficult in many systems by the arbitrariness of defining a "habitat patch", measuring its boarders, and relatively low detection probability of the inhabitants. Spider webs as habitat patches for obligate web kleptoparasites are free from these problems. Each individual web is a highly discrete and readily measured habitat patch, and the detection probability of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites is very nearly 1. Hence, spider webs emerge as simple systems for ecological models such as patch occupancy and metapopulation biology. Recently, I showed that the distribution of kleptoparasites among host webs relates both to web (patch) size as well as patch connectivity. Here, I test the relative importance of patch size versus isolation in explaining patch occupancy and abundance of inhabitants. I find that (1) web size is the better predictor of patch occupancy and abundance. (2) Web size is overall positively correlated with abundance, but predicts it most precisely among interconnected webs and not at all among the most isolated webs. Hence, patch occupancy and inhabitant abundance is explained by a rather complex interplay between patch size and isolation.

  12. Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166897.html Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch? Early results look promising for ... TUESDAY, June 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental flu vaccine patch with dissolving microneedles appears safe and ...

  13. Evaluation of adhesive properties of patches based on acrylic matrices.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, P; Cilurzo, F; Montanari, L

    1999-01-01

    Adhesion is an essential property of the dermal and transdermal therapeutic systems (TS). It is influenced by the composition and the thickness of the matrix and also by the characteristics of the backing layer. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the "thumb tack test," the "tack rolling ball test," and the "peel adhesion 180 degrees test" in the development studies and quality control of TS. These tests were performed on two series of placebo patches in which the backing layer was made of artificial silk (series 1) and polyurethane film (series 2). The patches of both series were prepared using five different mixtures of a hydrophilic adhesive copolymer and a hydrophobic nonadhesive copolymer as matrices. Plastoid E 35 L, a copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and neutral methacrylic esters, was used as the adhesive polymer. Eudragit NE 40 D, a copolymer of ethylacrylate and methylmethacrylate, was used as the nonadhesive copolymer. In the standard procedure for the peel adhesion 180 degrees test, used in the tape industries, the adherent is made of stainless steel. Because the latter has a high surface energy, it was not suitable for the analysis of the patches with a polyurethane backing layer. Therefore, the critical surface tension of five alternative materials (rubber, polysiloxane, polyethylene, nylon, polyvinyl chloride) was evaluated. Polyethylene was selected for the modified peel adhesion 180 degrees test, and better results were obtained in terms of feasibility of the test and ability to discriminate between the different patches prepared.

  14. Polar cap hot patches: Enhanced density structures different from the classical patches in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Moen, J.; Lockwood, M.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Foster, J. C.; Zhang, S.-R.; Wang, Y.; Themens, D. R.; Zhang, B.-C.; Xing, Z. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Based on in situ and ground-based observations, a new type of "polar cap hot patch" has been identified that is different from the classical polar cap enhanced density structure (cold patches). Comparing with the classical polar cap patches, which are transported from the dayside sunlit region with dense and cold plasma, the polar cap hot patches are associated with particle precipitations (therefore field-aligned currents), ion upflows, and flow shears. The hot patches may have the same order of density enhancement as classical patches in the topside ionosphere, suggesting that the hot patches may be produced by transported photoionization plasma into flow channels. Within the flow channels, the hot patches have low-energy particle precipitation and/or ion upflows associated with field-aligned currents and flow shears. Corresponding Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal scintillation measurements indicate that hot patches may produce slightly stronger radio signal scintillation in the polar cap region than classical patches. A new type of polar cap patches, "polar cap hot patches," is identified to differentiate enhanced density structures from classical patches. Hot patches are associated with particle precipitations, ion upflows, field-aligned currents, and shear flows in the polar cap. Hot patches may lead to slightly stronger ionospheric scintillations of GNSS signals in the polar cap region than classical patches.

  15. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  16. Palmar herald patch in pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Polat, Mualla; Yildirim, Yasemin; Makara, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limited inflammatory disorder of the skin. The initial clinical features of typical cases are the appearance of a herald patch. The herald patch is commonly located on the thigh, upper arm, trunk or neck; rarely the patch may be on the face, scalp or penis. There are no reports of a palmar herald patch in pityriasis rosea. In this article we present a 14-year-old male patient who had a palmar herald patch with truncal lesions of pityriasis rosea. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Mitral Valve Mechanics Following Posterior Leaflet Patch Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Q.; Honge, Jesper L.; Ostli, Bjorn; Levine, Robert A.; Hagège, Albert; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten L.; Jensen, Morten O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted on the chordae tendineae. Data were acquired before and after 12 mm posterior and 5 mm apical posterior papillary muscle displacement to simulate the effect from one of the main contributors of FIMR, before and after patch augmentation. Results The effect of displacing the posterior papillary muscle induced tethering on the intermediate chordae tendineae to the posterior leaflet, and resulted in a 39.8% force increase (p = 0.014). Posterior leaflet patch augmentation of the FIMR valve induced a 31.1% force decrease (p = 0.007). There was no difference in force between the healthy and the repaired valve simulations (p = 0.773). Conclusion Posterior leaflet patch augmentation significantly reduced the forces exerted on the intermediate chordae tendineae from the posterior papillary muscle following FIMR simulation. As changes in chordal tension lead to a redistribution of the total stress exerted on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling. PMID:23610985

  18. A nanofibrous electrospun patch to maintain human mesenchymal cell stemness.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, L; Furman, N Toledano; Wang, Xin; Lupo, C; Martinez, J O; Mohamed, M; Taraballi, F; Tasciotti, E

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated in regenerative medicine because of their crucial role in tissue healing. For these properties, they are widely tested in clinical trials, usually injected in cell suspension or in combination with tridimensional scaffolds. However, scaffolds can largely affect the fates of MSCs, inducing a progressive loss of functionality overtime. The ideal scaffold must delay MSCs differentiation until paracrine signals from the host induce their change. Herein, we proposed a nanostructured electrospun gelatin patch as an appropriate environment where human MSCs (hMSCs) can adhere, proliferate, and maintain their stemness. This patch exhibited characteristics of a non-linear elastic material and withstood degradation up to 4 weeks. As compared to culture and expansion in 2D, hMSCs on the patch showed a similar degree of proliferation and better maintained their progenitor properties, as assessed by their superior differentiation capacity towards typical mesenchymal lineages (i.e. osteogenic and chondrogenic). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis and longitudinal non-invasive imaging of inflammatory response revealed no sign of foreign body reaction for 3 weeks. In summary, our results demonstrated that our biocompatible patch favored the maintenance of undifferentiated hMSCs for up to 21 days and is an ideal candidate for tridimensional delivery of hMSCs. The present work reports a nanostructured patch gelatin-based able to maintain in vitro hMSCs stemness features. Moreover, hMSCs were able to differentiate toward osteo- and chondrogenic lineages once induces by differentiative media, confirming the ability of this patch to support stem cells for a potential in vivo application. These attractive properties together with the low inflammatory response in vivo make this patch a promising platform in regenerative medicine.

  19. "Patch"ing up our tumor signaling knowledge.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

    2013-05-01

    The tumor suppressor Patched1 (Ptch1) possesses well-described roles in regulating sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the skin and preventing the formation of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). In this issue, Kang et al. extend their previous work to show that a naturally occurring allele of Ptch1 found in FVB mice promotes early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth without aberrant activation of the SHH pathway. The study reveals new roles for Ptch1 that lie at the nexus between BCC and SCC formation.

  20. Analysis of Stub Loaded Microstrip Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna fed by a coaxial probe and reactively loaded by a open circuited microstrip line has been used previously to produce circular polarization[ l] and also as a building block for a series fed microstrip patch array [2]. Rectangular and circular patch antennas loaded with a microstrip stub were previously analyzed using the generalized Thevenin theorem [2,3]. In the Thevenin theorem approach, the mutual coupling between the patch current and the surface current on the stub was not taken into account. Also, the Thevenin theorem approach neglects continuity of current at the patch-stub junction. The approach in this present paper includes the coupling between the patch and stub currents as well as continuity at the patch-stub junction.

  1. Data-driven interactive 3D medical image segmentation based on structured patch model.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyun; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel three dimensional interactive medical image segmentation method based on high level knowledge of training set. Since the interactive system should provide intermediate results to an user quickly, insufficient low level models are used for most of previous methods. To exploit the high level knowledge within a short time, we construct a structured patch model that consists of multiple corresponding patch sets. The structured patch model includes the spatial relationships between neighboring patch sets and the prior knowledge of the corresponding patch set on each local region. The spatial relationships accelerate the search of corresponding patch in test time, while the prior knowledge improves the segmentation accuracy. The proposed framework provides not only fast editing tool, but the incremental learning system through adding the segmentation result to the training set. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is useful for fast and accurate segmentation of target objects from the multiple medical images.

  2. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  3. A large-scale deforestation experiment: effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Gonçalo; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2007-01-12

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  4. Nicotine patch use in pregnant smokers: smoking abstinence and delivery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, D R; Ogburn, P L; Hurt, R D; Croghan, I T; Ramin, K D; Offord, K P; Moyer, T P

    2002-02-01

    To describe smoking abstinence and fetal effects of pregnant smokers who received 8 weeks of nicotine patch therapy. One-sample study of 21 pregnant women smoking > or = 15 cigarettes/day during their third trimester of pregnancy despite physician advice to stop. Nicotine patch therapy (22 mg/24 h) was initiated during the first day of a 4-day in-hospital study and continued for a total of 8 weeks. Subjects returned weekly until delivery, at 4 weeks after delivery, and at 6 and 12 months after patch therapy. Fetal growth and well-being were assessed using ultrasound examinations and non-stress tests. Eight of 21 subjects completed all 8 weeks of patch therapy according to the protocol. Five subjects (24%) discontinued using the nicotine patch, owing to adverse skin reactions. There were eight subjects (38%) who were biochemically confirmed abstinent from smoking at the time of delivery; of these, seven were continuously abstinent from the start of patch therapy. Centile weight for gestational age did not change significantly over time for 12 subjects with serial ultrasound measurements available at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks following initiation of patch therapy. In all cases, non-stress tests remained reactive or became reassuring with observation. No significant preterm deliveries occurred (gestational ages of 36.3-41.1 weeks). Three infants suffered severe neonatal morbidity; however, these problems were unrelated to nicotine patch therapy. Nicotine patch therapy has potential benefit for pregnant smokers who continue to smoke despite physician advice to stop.

  5. Omnidirectional Lamb waves by axisymmetrically-configured magnetostrictive patch transducer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Kyung; Kim, Hoe Woong; Kim, Yoon Young

    2013-09-01

    This work presents the generation of omnidirectional Lamb waves by a new magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) and investigates its generation mechanism. Although MPTs have been widely used for wave transduction in plates and pipes, no investigation reports the generation of omnidirectional Lamb waves in a plate by an MPT. For the generation, we propose an axisymmetrically-configured MPT that installs multiple axisymmetric turns of coil outside of a permanent cylindrical magnet located above the center of a circular magnetostrictive patch. After confirming the omnidirectivity of the proposed MPT experimentally, the mechanism of the Lamb wave generation and its frequency characteristics are investigated. It is also shown that the Lamb wave is most efficiently generated in a test plate when its wavelength is equal to two-thirds of the magnetostrictive patch diameter. If this wavelength¿patch diameter relation holds, the second radial extensional vibration mode of the patch of the proposed MPT is shown to be the mode responsible for generating the Lamb wave in a plate.

  6. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    Treesearch

    Nick Haddad

    2000-01-01

    Corridors have been proposed to reduce isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes, yet little research has evaluated the types of landscapes in which corridors will be most effective. I tested the hypothesis that corridors increase patch colonization by a butterfly, Junonia coenia, regardless of the butterfly's...

  7. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  8. Face recognition under variable illumination via sparse representation of patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shouke; Liu, Rui; Feng, Weiguo; Zhu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work is to recognize faces under variations in illumination. Previous works have indicated that the variations in illumination can dramatically reduce the performance of face recognition. To this end - ;an efficient method for face recognition which is robust under variable illumination is proposed in this paper. First of all, a discrete cosine transform(DCT) in the logarithm domain is employed to preprocess the images, removing the illumination variations by discarding an appropriate number of low-frequency DCT coefficients. Then, a face image is partitioned into several patches, and we classify the patches using Sparse Representation-based Classification, respectively. At last, the identity of a test image can be determined by the classification results of its patches. Experimental results on the Yale B database and the CMU PIE database show that excellent recognition rates can be achieved by the proposed method.

  9. Glibenclamide transdermal patches: physicochemical, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mutalik, S; Udupa, N

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, matrix type transdermal patches containing glibenclamide were prepared using different ratios of ethyl cellulose (EC)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Eudragit RL-100 (ERL)/Eudragit RS-100 (ERS) by solvent evaporation technique. The possible drug and polymer interaction was studied by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and HPTLC analysis. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physicochemical studies (thickness, weight variation, drug content, moisture content and uptake, and flatness), in vitro release and in vitro permeation studies through mouse skin. The results suggested that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Variations in drug release/permeation profiles among the formulations studied were observed. The microphotographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of pores on the surface of the patches after in vitro skin permeation studies. Based on physicochemical and in vitro skin permeation studies, the formulations with EC:PVP (3:2) and ERL:ERS (4:1) were selected for in vivo experiments. The hypoglycemic activity of the patches in comparison with oral glibenclamide administration was studied for acute (24 h) and long-term (6 weeks) effect in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Various biochemical parameters (serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine transaminase, aspertate transaminase, urea, and creatinine and liver protein and glycogen content) and histopathological (liver, pancreas and stomach) studies were carried out in diabetic mice after treating for 6 weeks. The patches were subjected to skin irritation test (by both visual observation and histopathological evaluation), oral glucose tolerance test and pharmacokinetic evaluation in mice. The results revealed that the patches successfully prevented the severe hypoglycemia in the initial hours, which is the major side effect associated with

  10. Exp 41 Patch - Final Approved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-14

    ISS041-S-001 (July 2013) --- The Expedition 41 crew members have released their patch and have written some text to go along with it: ?Portraying the road of human exploration into our vastly unknown universe, all elements of the Expedition 41 patch build from the foundation, our Earth, to the stars beyond our solar system. The focus of our six-month expedition to the International Space Station (ISS) is Earth and its inhabitants as well as a scientific look out into our universe. The distinguishing ISS solar arrays reach onward and serve as the central element, with the icon of an atom underneath representing the multitude of research onboard that will bring new discoveries for the benefit of humanity. The sun is rising over Earth?s horizon, spreading its light along the road of human exploration. Equipped with the knowledge and inspiration gained from ISS, our successful multinational cooperation will lead human space exploration to the moon, Mars, and ultimately, the stars. We are Expedition 41. Join us for the adventure.? Photo credit: NASA Note: The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  11. STS_134_patch_OL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    STS134-S-001 (March 2010) --- The design of the STS-134 crew patch highlights research on the International Space Station (ISS) focusing on the fundamental physics of the universe. On this mission, the crew of the space shuttle Endeavour will install the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment - a cosmic particle detector. By studying subatomic particles in the background cosmic radiation and searching for antimatter, dark-matter, and dark energy, it will help scientists better understand the evolution and properties of our universe. The shape of the patch is inspired by the international atomic symbol, and represents the atom with orbiting electrons around the nucleus. The burst near the center refers to the origin of the universe. The space shuttle Endeavour and ISS fly together into the sunrise over the limb of the Earth, representing the dawn of a new age?understanding the nature of the universe. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Adaptation of prey and predators between patches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2009-06-21

    Mathematical models are proposed to simulate migrations of prey and predators between patches. In the absence of predators, it is shown that the adaptation of prey leads to an ideal spatial distribution in the sense that the maximal capacity of each patch is achieved. With the introduction of co-adaptation of predators, it is proved that both prey and predators achieve ideal spatial distributions when the adaptations are weak. Further, it is shown that the adaptation of prey and predators increases the survival probability of predators from the extinction in both patches to the persistence in one patch. It is also demonstrated that there exists a pattern that prey and predators cooperate well through adaptations such that predators are permanent in every patch in the case that predators become extinct in each patch in the absence of adaptations. For strong adaptations, it is proved that the model admits periodic cycles and multiple stability transitions.

  13. OFFICIAL STS-5 CREW PATCH/INSIGNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-08-31

    S82-35627 (20 Aug. 1982) --- This is the official crew patch for the fifth (note five points of the star) NASA Space Transportation System (STS-5) flight, scheduled for November of this year. The STS-5 flight following four successful test flights. It will call for the Columbia to be manned by four astronauts ? a space agency first. Crew members for the flights are Vance D. Brand, commander; Robert F. Overmyer, pilot; and William B. Lenoir and Joseph P. Allen, mission specialists. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Scale-dependent feedbacks between patch size and plant reproduction in desert grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svejcar, Lauren N.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Duniway, Michael C.; James, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant reproductive success and plant patch size govern transitions from highly to sparsely vegetated states in drylands, yet there is scant empirical evidence for these mechanisms. Scale-dependent feedback models suggest that an optimal patch size exists for growth and reproduction of plants and that a threshold patch organization exists below which positive feedbacks between vegetation and resources can break down, leading to critical transitions. We examined the relationship between patch size and plant reproduction using an experiment in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort and success of a dominant grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) would vary predictably with patch size. We found that focal plants in medium-sized patches featured higher rates of grass reproductive success than when plants occupied either large patch interiors or small patches. These patterns support the existence of scale-dependent feedbacks in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and indicate an optimal patch size for reproductive effort and success in B. eriopoda. We discuss the implications of these results for detecting ecological thresholds in desert grasslands.

  15. Slime moulds use heuristics based on within-patch experience to decide when to leave.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2015-04-15

    Animals foraging in patchy, non-renewing or slowly renewing environments must make decisions about how long to remain within a patch. Organisms can use heuristics ('rules of thumb') based on available information to decide when to leave the patch. Here, we investigated proximate patch-departure heuristics in two species of giant, brainless amoeba: the slime moulds Didymium bahiense and Physarum polycephalum. We explicitly tested the importance of information obtained through experience by eliminating chemosensory cues of patch quality. In P. polycephalum, patch departure was influenced by the consumption of high, and to a much lesser extent low, quality food items such that engulfing a food item increased patch-residency time. Physarum polycephalum also tended to forage for longer in darkened, 'safe' patches. In D. bahiense, engulfment of any food item increased patch residency irrespective of that food item's quality. Exposure to light had no effect on the patch-residency time of D. bahiense. Given that these organisms lack a brain, our results illustrate how the use of simple heuristics can give the impression that individuals make sophisticated foraging decisions.

  16. Compliance and patching and atropine amblyopia treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun

    2015-09-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been a great advancement in knowledge pertaining to compliance with amblyopia treatments. The occlusion dose monitor introduced quantitative monitoring methods in patching, which sparked our initial understanding of the dose-response relationship for patching amblyopia treatment. This review focuses on current compliance knowledge and the impact it has on patching and atropine amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  18. Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

  19. Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

  20. Measurement and control of electrostatic patch potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    Electrostatic patch potentials hinder many precision measurements, particularly measurements of the Casimir force. Despite the improved force sensitivity achieved over the last decade, only recently have attempts been made to measure and quantify the effects of patch potentials. Here we present an analysis of patch potentials measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and discuss methods to control these potentials (e.g. humidity, material choice, etc).

  1. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  2. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  3. Patch definition in metapopulation analysis: a graph theory approach to solve the mega-patch problem.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Siegel, David A; Raimondi, Peter T; Alberto, Filipe

    2014-02-01

    The manner in which patches are delineated in spatially realistic metapopulation models will influence the size, connectivity, and extinction and recolonization dynamics of those patches. Most commonly used patch-definition methods focus on identifying discrete, contiguous patches of habitat from a single temporal observation of species occurrence or from a model of habitat suitability. However, these approaches are not suitable for many metapopulation systems where entire patches may not be fully colonized at a given time. For these metapopulation systems, a single large patch of habitat may actually support multiple, interacting subpopulations. The interactions among these subpopulations will be ignored if the patch is treated as a single unit, a situation we term the "mega-patch problem." Mega-patches are characterized by variable intra-patch synchrony, artificially low inter-patch connectivity, and low extinction rates. One way to detect this problem is by using time series data to calculate demographic synchrony within mega-patches. We present a framework for identifying subpopulations in mega-patches using a combination of spatial autocorrelation and graph theory analyses. We apply our approach to southern California giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests using a new, long-term (27 years), satellite-based data set of giant kelp canopy biomass. We define metapopulation patches using our method as well as several other commonly used patch delineation methodologies and examine the colonization and extinction dynamics of the metapopulation under each approach. We find that the relationships between patch characteristics such as area and connectivity and the demographic processes of colonizations and extinctions vary among the different patch-definition methods. Our spatial-analysis/graph-theoretic framework produces results that match theoretical expectations better than the other methods. This approach can be used to identify subpopulations in metapopulations

  4. Succession of macrofauna on macroalgal wrack of an exposed sandy beach: effects of patch size and site.

    PubMed

    Olabarria, C; Lastra, M; Garrido, J

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we used experimental manipulation of algal wrack to test hypotheses about influences on macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting the upper shore level of different sites along an exposed sandy beach. First, we hypothesized that decomposition of algal wrack depends on wrack patch size and site. With respect to macrofauna, we tested the hypotheses that (1) abundance of colonising individuals and species vary with wrack patch size, (2) succession (i.e. sequence of colonisation and species replacement) depends on time, and (3) as a result, macrofaunal assemblages associated with wrack patches vary with the patch size and time. We also predicted that responses could be different across sites because of their slightly different environmental conditions. The decomposition of wrack patches was similar in all sites and was dependent on wrack patch size. It was strongly influenced by time-specific environmental and/or biological factors. The pattern of colonisation, i.e. total number of species and individuals, varied among wrack patch sizes. Small patches had fewer species and individuals than medium and large patches. Nevertheless, pattern of colonisation varied among species, across sites and through time. Colonisation of wrack patches was rapid (i.e. within 3 days) for most species. There was some evidence to support the hypothesis that macrofaunal assemblages change in response to patch size and time.

  5. Hierarchical patch dynamics and animal movement pattern.

    PubMed

    Fauchald, Per; Tveraa, Torkild

    2006-09-01

    In hierarchical patch systems, small-scale patches of high density are nested within large-scale patches of low density. The organization of multiple-scale hierarchical systems makes non-random strategies for dispersal and movement particularly important. Here, we apply a new method based on first-passage time on the pathway of a foraging seabird, the Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica), to quantify its foraging pattern and the spatial dynamics of its foraging areas. Our results suggest that Antarctic petrels used a nested search strategy to track a highly dynamic hierarchical patch system where small-scale patches were congregated within patches at larger scales. The birds searched for large-scale patches by traveling fast and over long distances. Once within a large-scale patch, the birds concentrated their search to find smaller scale patches. By comparing the pathway of different birds we were able to quantify the spatial scale and turnover of their foraging areas. On the largest scale we found foraging areas with a characteristic scale of about 400 km. Nested within these areas we found foraging areas with a characteristic scale of about 100 km. The large-scale areas disappeared or moved within a time frame of weeks while the nested small-scale areas disappeared or moved within days. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is the dominant food item of Antarctic petrels and we suggest that our findings reflect the spatial dynamics of krill in the area.

  6. Collection of analytes from microneedle patches.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Andrey V; Zvezdin, Vasiliy N; Samant, Pradnya; Grenader, Mark I; Zemlyanova, Marina; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-11-04

    Clinical medicine and public health would benefit from simplified acquisition of biological samples from patients that can be easily obtained at point of care, in the field, and by patients themselves. Microneedle patches are designed to serve this need by collecting dermal interstitial fluid containing biomarkers without the dangers, pain, or expertise needed to collect blood. This study presents novel methods to collect biomarker analytes from microneedle patches for analysis by integration into conventional analytical laboratory microtubes and microplates. Microneedle patches were made out of cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by micromolding. Microneedle patches were shown to swell with water up to 50-fold in volume, depending on degree of polymer cross-linking, and to collect interstitial fluid from the skin of rats. To collect analytes from microneedle patches, the patches were mounted within the cap of microcentrifuge tubes or formed the top of V-bottom multiwell microplates, and fluid was collected in the bottom of the tubes under gentle centrifugation. In another method, microneedle patches were attached to form the bottom of multiwell microplates, thereby enabling in situ analysis. The simplicity of biological sample acquisition using microneedle patches coupled with the simplicity of analyte collection from microneedles patches integrated into conventional analytical equipment could broaden the reach of future screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of biomarkers in healthcare and environmental/workplace settings.

  7. Collection of Analytes from Microneedle Patches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical medicine and public health would benefit from simplified acquisition of biological samples from patients that can be easily obtained at point of care, in the field, and by patients themselves. Microneedle patches are designed to serve this need by collecting dermal interstitial fluid containing biomarkers without the dangers, pain, or expertise needed to collect blood. This study presents novel methods to collect biomarker analytes from microneedle patches for analysis by integration into conventional analytical laboratory microtubes and microplates. Microneedle patches were made out of cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by micromolding. Microneedle patches were shown to swell with water up to 50-fold in volume, depending on degree of polymer cross-linking, and to collect interstitial fluid from the skin of rats. To collect analytes from microneedle patches, the patches were mounted within the cap of microcentrifuge tubes or formed the top of V-bottom multiwell microplates, and fluid was collected in the bottom of the tubes under gentle centrifugation. In another method, microneedle patches were attached to form the bottom of multiwell microplates, thereby enabling in situ analysis. The simplicity of biological sample acquisition using microneedle patches coupled with the simplicity of analyte collection from microneedles patches integrated into conventional analytical equipment could broaden the reach of future screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of biomarkers in healthcare and environmental/workplace settings. PMID:25367229

  8. Relating the South Atlantic Anomaly and geomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Pinheiro, Katia J.

    2017-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region of weak geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface, which is commonly attributed to reversed flux patches (RFPs) on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). While the SAA is clearly affected by the reversed flux region below the South Atlantic, we show that the relation between the intensity minimum at Earth's surface and RFPs is not straightforward. We map a field-dependent intensity kernel (Constable, 2007a) to study the relation between the radial geomagnetic field at the CMB and the field intensity at Earth's surface. Synthetic tests highlight the role of specific patches (reversed and normal) in determining the location of the surface intensity minimum and demonstrate that the SAA can indeed be explained by a few intense patches. We show that the level of axial dipolarity of the field determines the stability of the relation between the SAA minimum and RFPs. The present position of the SAA minimum is determined by the interplay among several robust geomagnetic flux patches at the CMB. The longitude of the SAA minimum appears near the longitude of the Patagonia RFP due to the low-latitude normal flux patches (NFPs) near Africa and mid-Atlantic which diminish the effect of the Africa RFPs. The latitude of the SAA minimum is lower than the Patagonia RFP latitude due to the South Pacific high-latitude NFP and the axial dipole effect. The motion of the SAA minimum is explained by the motions and changes in intensity of these robust geomagnetic flux patches. Simple secular variation (SV) scenarios suggest that while the SAA path can be explained by advection, its intensity decrease requires magnetic diffusion. In addition these SV scenarios provide some speculative predictions for the SAA.

  9. Two Holes in 'Wooly Patch'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ground two holes in a relatively soft rock called 'Wooly Patch' near the base of the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater on Mars. This approximately true-color image from the panoramic camera was taken on sol 200 (July 25, 2004) and generated using the camera's 600-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. It shows the natural red and reddish-brown color of the rock. Scientists speculate that this relatively soft rock (compared to others analyzed by Spirit) may have been modified by water. Small cracks in the surface outside the drill holes may be the result of interactions with water-rich fluids.

  10. Pretreatment of pericardial patches with antibiotics does not alter patch healing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hualong; Kuwahara, Go; Wang, Mo; Brownson, Kirstyn; Foster, Trenton; Yamamoto, Kota; Xing, Ying; Dardik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pretreatment with antibiotics is commonly performed prior to surgical implantation of prosthetic materials. We have previously shown that pericardial patches are infiltrated by macrophages and arterial stem cells after implantation into an artery. We hypothesized that antibiotic pretreatment would diminish the number of cells infiltrating into the patch, potentially affecting early neointimal formation. Methods: Bovine pericardial patches were pretreated with saline, bacitracin (500 U/ml), or cephalexin (10 mg/ml) for 30 minutes prior to implantation into the Wistar rat infrarenal aorta. Patches were retrieved on day 7 or day 30, and analyzed for histology and cell infiltration; markers of proliferation, apoptosis, vascular cell identity, and M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes were examined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Extracted proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Results: At day 7, pericardial patches pretreated with either bacitracin or cephalexin showed similar amounts of neointimal thickening (p=0.55) and cellular infiltration (p=0.42) compared to control patches. Patches pretreated with antibiotics showed similar proliferation (p=0.09) and apoptosis (p=0.84) as control patches. The cell composition of the neointima in pretreated patches was similar to control patches, with a thin endothelial layer overlying a thin layer of SMC (p=0.45), and containing similar numbers of CD34-positive (p=0.26) and VEGFR2-positive (p=0.31) cells. Interestingly, within the body of the patch, there were fewer macrophages (p=0.0003) and a trend towards fewer EPC (p=0.051). There were no M1 macrophages in or around any of the patches; M2 macrophages were present around the patches and there was no difference in numbers of M2 macrophages surrounding control patches and patches pretreated with antibiotics (p=0.24). There was no difference in neointimal thickness at day 30 between control patches and patches pretreated with antibiotics (p=0

  11. Fast exact nearest patch matching for patch-based image editing and processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Meng; Nie, Yongwei; Dong, Zhao

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an efficient exact nearest patch matching algorithm which can accurately find the most similar patch-pairs between source and target image. Traditional match matching algorithms treat each pixel/patch as an independent sample and build a hierarchical data structure, such as kd-tree, to accelerate nearest patch finding. However, most of these approaches can only find approximate nearest patch and do not explore the sequential overlap between patches. Hence, they are neither accurate in quality nor optimal in speed. By eliminating redundant similarity computation of sequential overlap between patches, our method finds the exact nearest patch in brute-force style but reduces its running time complexity to be linear on the patch size. Furthermore, relying on recent multicore graphics hardware, our method can be further accelerated by at least an order of magnitude (≥10×). This greatly improves performance and ensures that our method can be efficiently applied in an interactive editing framework for moderate-sized image even video. To our knowledge, this approach is the fastest exact nearest patch matching method for high-dimensional patch and also its extra memory requirement is minimal. Comparisons with the popular nearest patch matching methods in the experimental results demonstrate the merits of our algorithm. © 2011 IEEE

  12. HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U. [DOE-Molecular Biology Institute

    HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

  13. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  14. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  15. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  16. Development of Forced Patches in Steep Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve Sepulveda, A.; Yager, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Bed surface patchiness occurs in most gravel-bedded rivers. This spatial variability in grain size and sorting impacts bed load transport. Laboratory experiments have shown that patches can arise from a local sediment transport-supply imbalance, grain to grain interactions or size-selective cross-stream transport in the presence of topographically forced heterogeneous flow fields. It is still unknown if these mechanisms can explain the formation of patches in high gradient channels with large roughness elements, which create spatial and temporal variations in depth, velocity and shear stress and alter pressure gradients, centrifugal forces, boundary friction and along and cross-stream changes in fluid momentum. To understand how these forced patches (spatially persistent due to strong topographic controls) form, a set of flume experiments using staggered immobile boulders and steep slopes wasconducted through different stages of patch evolution, starting from a flat uniform bed until patch geometry was stable in time and sediment fluxes were in equilibrium. Areas, changes in elevation, stream and crosswise sediment fluxes, and grains size distributions for patches located upstream, downstream and between boulders were measured for five different discharges. Flow field properties were obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional model to explain the influence of different components of the momentum equations on patch formation and evolution. We present these flume measurements and numerical modeling results to determine how the formation of patches is influenced by immobile boulders and the relative submergence of these roughness elements.

  17. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Formulation study of tea tree oil patches.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Paola; Casiraghi, Antonella; Cilurzo, Francesco; Gambaro, Veniero; Montanari, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil (TTO), the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia are well documented. In order to optimize its therapeutic activity, TTO patches were designed. The aim of this work was the formulation of monolayer patches containing TTO. Moreover, the performance of oleic acid (OA) as a skin penetration enhancer in patches was evaluated. Terpinen-4-ol (T4OL), the main component of TTO, was the marker used to evaluate TTO skin permeability. The permeation study was performed through human epidermis by using Franz diffusion cells. Patches were prepared by using methacrylic copolymers, Eudragit E100 (EuE100) or Eudragit NE (EuNE), and a silicone resin, BioPSA7-4602 (Bio-PSA). TTO and OA contents were fixed at 10% w/w and 3% w/w, respectively. The patches were prepared by a casting method and characterised in terms of T4OL content and skin permeability. All the selected polymers were suitable as the main component of the patch matrix. Since the main critical issue in the use of TTO is related to its toxicity after absorption, the local administration of TTO can take advantage of the use of patches based on EuE100 because of the high retained amount and the low permeation of T4OL. In this matrix, OA slightly increased the T4OL retained amount, improving the efficacy and safety of TTO patches.

  19. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Nichole K; Horton, Zachary A; Bettendorf, Matthew; Frye, Ira; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    The lidocaine patch 5% was developed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. Anecdotal experience at our institution suggests the lidocaine patch 5% decreases narcotic usage in patients with traumatic rib fractures. This trial was developed to define the patch's efficacy. Patients with rib fractures admitted to the trauma service at our Level I trauma center were enrolled and randomized in a 1 to 1 double-blind manner to receive a lidocaine patch 5% or placebo patch. Fifty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 2007 to August 2008. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. The primary outcomes variable was total narcotic use, analyzed using the 1-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The secondary outcomes variables included non-narcotic pain medication, average pain score, pulmonary complications, and length of stay. Significance was defined based on a 1-sided test for the primary outcome and 2-sided tests for other comparisons, at p < 0.05. Thirty-three patients received the lidocaine patch 5% and 25 received the placebo patch. There were no significant differences in age, number of rib fractures, gender, trauma mechanism, preinjury lung disease, smoking history, percent of current smokers, and need for placement of chest tube between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups. There was no difference between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups, respectively, with regard to total IV narcotic usage: median, 0.23 units versus 0.26 units; total oral narcotics: median, 4 units versus 7 units; pain score: 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 6.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM); length of stay: 7.8 +/- 1.1 versus 6.2 +/- 0.7; or percentage of patients with pulmonary complications: 72.7% versus 72.0%. The lidocaine patch 5% does not significantly improve pain control in polytrauma patients with traumatic rib fractures.

  20. Safe patch version 0.9 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M

    1999-03-01

    The SafePatch version 0.9 provides automated analysis of network-based computer systems to determine the status of security patches and distributes needed patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed and what patches are installed on a system. SafePatch will distribute needed patches to the remote system for later installation. For those patches that are installed, SafePatch checks the permissions and ownership of the files referenced in the patch and reports on the attributes that differ from those recommended by the patch. SafePatch also ensures that the system software is authentic (that is, belonging to either a release of an operating system or a patch). The process SafePatch uses to authenticate the software on a system is more reliable and secure than other vendor-specific tools. SafePatch compares the remote system's files with the files from the patches to determine what is actually installed and what needs to be installed. This approach ensures accurate reporting of a system's patch status. It also allows SafePatch to identify files that do not belong to either the original system distribution (for example, Solaris 2.5) or to any patch. These unidentified files may be customized or trojan. Either way these files should be investigated further to determine their exact origin.

  1. Patch scales in coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, Bernardo R.

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological processes are coupled to environmental variability is a major challenge for ecologists. Here, I assimilate patterns of oceanographic variability with ecological field studies in an attempt to quantify spatial and temporal scales of coupling. Using coastal time series of chlorophyll-a concentration from remote sensing, the first chapter examines the alongshore extent of coastal regions subject to similar temporal patterns of oceanographic variability in Western North America (WNA) and North-Central Chile (Chile). I found striking interhemispherical differences in the length of coastal sections under similar oceanographic regimes, with the Chile region showing longshore coherency over much smaller spatial scales (˜60 km) than on the coast of WNA (˜140 km). Through a spatial analysis of coastal orientation I suggest that the characteristic length scales may be traced to the geomorphologic character of the ocean margins. The second chapter examines spatial patterns of primary production through long-term means of coastal chlorophyll-a concentration and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) cover and explores their relationship with coastal geomorphology and sea surface temperature (SST). Spatial analyses showed a striking match in length scales around 180--250 km. Strong anticorrelations at small spatial lags and positive correlations at longer distances suggest little overlap between patches of kelp and coastal chlorophyll-a. In agreement with findings from the previous chapter, I found that coastal patches could be traced back to spatial patterns of coastal geomorphology. Through SST time series and long-term datasets of larval recruitment in Santa Cruz Island, California, the third chapter examines temporal patterns of oceanographic variability as determinants of ecological patterns. SST time series from sites experiencing low larval recruitment rates were dominated by strong temporal variability. These sites

  2. Combined Approach of Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer for Protein-Ligand Binding Prediction in CSAR 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-06-27

    The Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) benchmark exercise provides a unique opportunity for researchers to objectively evaluate the performance of protein-ligand docking methods. Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer, molecular surface-based methods for predicting binding ligands of proteins developed in our group, were tested on both CSAR 2013 and 2014 benchmark exercises in combination with an empirical scoring function-based method, AutoDock, while we only participated in CSAR 2013 using Patch-Surfer. The prediction results for Phase 1 task in CSAR 2013 showed that Patch-Surfer was able to rank all the four designed binding proteins within top ranks, outperforming AutoDock Vina. In Phase 2 of 2013, PL-PatchSurfer correctly selected the correct ligand pose for two target proteins. PL-PatchSurfer performed reasonably well in ranking ligands according to their binding affinity and in selecting near-native ligand poses in 2013 Phase 3 and 2014 Phase 1, respectively, although AutoDock Vina showed better performance. Lastly, in the 2014 Phase 2 exercise, the PL-PatchSurfer scores computed for ligands to target protein pairs correlated well with their pIC50 values, which was better or comparable to results by other participants. Overall, our methods showed fairly good performance in CSAR 2013 and 2014. Unique characteristics of the methods are discussed in comparison with AutoDock.

  3. Mucoadhesive multiparticulate patch for the intrabuccal controlled delivery of lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Cristina; Fini, Adamo; Ospitali, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate patches for the controlled release of lidocaine in the oral cavity. Mucoadhesive buccal patches, containing 8 mg/cm(2) lidocaine base, were formulated and developed by solvent casting method technique, using a number of different bio-adhesive and film-forming semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers (Carbopol, Poloxamer, different type Methocel) and plasticizers (PEG 400, triethyl citrate); the patches were evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and permeation using a modified Franz diffusion cell. A lidocaine/Compritol solid dispersion in the form of microspheres, embedded inside the patch, alone or together with free lidocaine, was also examined to prolong the drug release. The effects of the composition were evaluated considering a number of technological parameters and the release of the drug. All the formulations tested offer a variety of drug release mechanisms, obtaining a quick or delayed or prolonged anesthetic local activity with simple changes of the formulation parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Image Quality Assessment Based on Inter-Patch and Intra-Patch Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fei; Lu, Zongqing; Wang, Can; Sun, Wen; Xia, Shu-Tao; Liao, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR) image quality assessment (IQA) scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC). On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25793282

  5. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    vice versa, with the aid of two RF PIN diodes that act as RF switches. The proposed structure which is simple; consists of a single-layer single fed radiating E-shaped patch and RF switch placed on each of its slots at an appropriate location. The design targets WLAN IEEE 802.11b/g frequency band (2.4- 2.5 GHz) as one example of the wireless applications. The idea is based on the first proposed design. In other words, if one of the switches is ON and the other is OFF, the two slot lengths will become effectively unequal and circular polarization will be obtained. If the states of the two switches are reversed, circular polarization with opposite orientation will be obtained at the same frequency band. Full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS is again used for the analysis. Complete detailed DC biasing circuit of the switches for integration with the antenna is presented. Also, characterizations of the microwave components used in the biasing circuit are discussed. Antenna prototype has been fabricated and tested. Simulation results along with the measured one, for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain agree well, showing wide bandwidth and high gain for the two circularly polarized modes.

  6. Studies on turbulent mixing in stratified turbulent patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilva, Induruwage Prabhath Darshana

    A research program aimed towards understanding turbulent mixing in stably stratified fluids and the possible causes of such mixing was carried out giving particular attention to turbulent patches that are ubiquitous in stratified environments. The research program consists of three interrelated investigations of laboratory experimental nature, namely: (1) mixing in non-collapsing stratified turbulent patches; (2) mixing in collapsing turbulent patches; and (3) generation of turbulence owing to the interaction between the mean velocity shear and internal gravity waves (critical-layer phenomena). In the first two cases sustained oscillations of a monoplanar grid were used to generate turbulence. The third series of experiments was conducted in a stratified shear flow tank and the waves were artificially introduced. In the latter case only preliminary test runs were conducted and the major task was to complete the development of a novel Richardson number probe to be used in future experiments. Various properties of oscillating grid turbulence in homogeneous fluids were investigated as a precursor to the stratified turbulence studies. These included spatial and temporal decay laws and the influence of wall-induced secondary circulations. The results were found to be in conformity with previous theoretical predictions. The studies on noncollapsing turbulent patches in stratified fluids revealed that the initial stages of patch growth are unaffected by the stratification, but as the patch grows stratification becomes important and arrests the turbulent front propagating drastically, at a time of order 4N(sub 0)(exp -1) where N(sub 0) is the buoyancy frequency. Thereafter the patch grows slowly owing to the local mixing events at the interfaces caused by wave breaking. The time evolution of the buoyance frequency N within the patch, the buoyancy lengthscale, the overturning lengthscale, the Thorpe lengthscale, the maximum Thorpe displacement, Available Potential Energy

  7. Robustness of metacommunities with omnivory to habitat destruction: disentangling patch fragmentation from patch loss.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jinbao; Bearup, Daniel; Wang, Yeqiao; Nijs, Ivan; Bonte, Dries; Li, Yuanheng; Brose, Ulrich; Wang, Shaopeng; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position. The resulting trophic structure varies depending on the degree of habitat loss and fragmentation, due to a tradeoff between bottom-up control on omnivores (dominated by patch loss) and dispersal limitation on intermediate consumers (dominated by patch fragmentation). Overall, we find that omnivory increases system robustness to habitat destruction relative to a simple food chain. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. A case of secondary syphilis with mucous patches on the hard palate.

    PubMed

    Ban, M; Ohtani, M; Seishima, M

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of secondary syphilis showing mucous patches on the hard palate is reported. A 31-year-old male had two erosive patches which were slightly raised on his hard palate. A linear lesion was also present on the inside of his right alveolar process. Many red-brown macules on his abdomen and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy accompanied these symptoms. The serological tests for syphilis were positive: VDRL test 1:512, TPHA test 1:20,480, and IgM-FTA-ABS test 1:40. Immunohistochemical staining with rabbit monoclonal antibody to Treponema pallidum by the biotin-streptoavidin system detected treponemal organisms in the paraffin-embedded specimen from his mucous patch. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis was made, and he was given amoxicillin (AMPC) at 750 mg per day for 4 weeks. His eruptions, including the mucous patch, healed in a week.

  9. Pairwise Operator Learning for Patch Based Single-image Super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-14

    Motivated by the fact that image patches could be inherently represented by matrices, single-image super-resolution is treated as a problem of learning regression operators in a matrix space in this paper. The regression operators that map low-resolution image patches to high-resolution image patches are generally defined by left and right multiplication operators. The pairwise operators are respectively used to extract the raw and column information of low-resolution image patches for recovering high-resolution estimations. The patch based regression algorithm possesses three favorable properties. Firstly, the proposed super-resolution algorithm is efficient during both training and testing, because image patches are treated as matrices. Secondly, the data storage requirement of the optimal pairwise operator is far less than most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because only two small sized matrices need to be stored. Lastly, the super-resolution performance is competitive with most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because both raw and column information of image patches is considered. Experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed patch-based single-image superresolution algorithm.

  10. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations.

  11. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  12. A procedure of landscape services assessment based on mosaics of patches and boundaries.

    PubMed

    Martín de Agar, Pilar; Ortega, Marta; de Pablo, Carlos L

    2016-09-15

    We develop a procedure for assessing the environmental value of landscape mosaics that simultaneously considers the values of land use patches and the values of the boundaries between them. These boundaries indicate the ecological interactions between the patches. A landscape mosaic is defined as a set of patches and the boundaries between them and corresponds to a spatial pattern of ecological interactions. The procedure is performed in two steps: (i) an environmental assessment of land use patches by means of a function that integrates values based on the goods and services the patches provide, and (ii) an environmental valuation of mosaics using a function that integrates the environmental values of their patches and the types and frequencies of the boundaries between them. This procedure allows us to measure how changes in land uses or in their spatial arrangement cause variations in the environmental value of landscape mosaics and therefore in that of the whole landscape. The procedure was tested in the Sierra Norte of Madrid (central Spain). The results show that the environmental values of the landscape depend not only on the land use patches but also on the values associated with the pattern of the boundaries within the mosaics. The results also highlight the importance of the boundaries between land use patches as determinants of the goods and services provided by the landscape.

  13. Expedition 52 Crew Patch-042517

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    ISS052-s-001 (01/27/2016) --- Orbiting the Earth continuously since 1998, the International Space Station (ISS) is one of our greatest engineering achievements. It is depicted in gold, symbolic of constancy and excellence. Flying directly toward a sunrise represents the ISS’s contributions to a bright future. That sunrise and the Earth beneath ituses blue, white, red, and green, the combined national colors of Italy, Russia, and the United States, symbolizing the crew’s cohesiveness. Crewmember names are in blue symbolizing devotion and loyalty. The white border represents sunlight unscattered by the Earth’s atmosphere. Symbolic of new Russian and U.S. spacecraft that will further human exploration, the patch is shaped as a capsule. The number 52 is drawn as a path eventually leading to Mars. Finally, the stars symbolize the values of leadership, trust, teamwork, and excellence lived by mission control teams throughout the history of human space programs, as well as their global vigilance in operating the ISS.

  14. STS-74 patch or insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-13

    STS074-S-001 (July 1995) --- Designed by crew members, this STS-74 crew patch depicts the space shuttle Atlantis docked to Russia's Mir Space Station. The central focus is on the Russian-built Docking Module (DM), drawn with shading to accentuate its pivotal importance to both mission STS-74 and the NASA - Mir Program. The rainbow across the horizon represents Earth's atmosphere, the thin membrane protecting all nations, while the three flags across the bottom show those nations participating in STS-74 - Russia, Canada and the United States. The sunrise is symbolic of the dawn of a new era in NASA space flight - that of space station construction. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale.

  16. Group-Living Herbivores Weigh Up Food Availability and Dominance Status when Making Patch-Joining Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stears, Keenan; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Shrader, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus). When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits). However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual’s patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions. PMID:25271889

  17. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale. PMID:27375630

  18. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and load the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports

  19. Patch shape, connectivity, and foraging by oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent J

    2005-06-01

    We examined how corridors and patch shape affect foraging by the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) by deploying foraging trays and live traps in experimental landscapes with 3 different patch types: patches connected with a corridor, unconnected patches with projecting corridorlike portions (winged patches), and unconnected rectangular patches. Corridors did not lead to different levels of activity of P. polionotus among the 3 patch types. Rather, corridors influenced activity by changing patch shape: foraging in seed trays and total number of captures of P. polionotus tended to be greater at the patch center than at the patch edge, but only in connected and winged patches where corridors or wings increased the amount of patch edge relative to the amount of core habitat in the patch. P. polionotus avoided open microhabitats near the patch edge in winged and connected patches, but not open microhabitats near the patch interior, suggesting that predation risk caused shifts in foraging near edges in connected and winged patches. Foraging in corridors and wings was generally low, suggesting that both are high-risk habitats where predation risk is not ameliorated by proximity to vegetative cover. By changing patch shape, corridors caused changes in within-patch activity of P. polionotus, changing foraging patterns and potentially altering the dynamics of P. polionotus and the seeds they consume.

  20. Electrostatic patch potentials in Casimir force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between interacting surfaces. The force can be minimized by applying a potential to one of the two surfaces. However, electrostatic patch potentials remain and contribute an additional force which can obscure the Casimir force signal. We will discuss recent measurements of patch potentials made with Heterodyne Amplitude-Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy that suggest patches could be responsible for >1% of the signal in some Casimir force measurements, and thus make the distinction between different theoretical models of the Casimir force (e.g. a Drude-model or a plasma-model for the dielectric response) difficult to discern.

  1. Impact of Host Plant Connectivity, Crop Border and Patch Size on Adult Colorado Potato Beetle Retention

    PubMed Central

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C.; Colpitts, Bruce G.; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  2. Scattering from arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, Capers R.

    1992-01-01

    The scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry based on Galerkin's technique with subdomain rooftop basis functions. A shape function is introduced that allows a rectangular grid approximation to the arbitrarily shaped patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle theta(i), phi(i). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the electromagnetic scattering is calculated for a given angle. Comparisons are made with other calculated results as well as with measurements.

  3. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  4. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptive patch is a very effective method of birth control, but it does not prevent the spread of ... period, you must use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  5. Resistively Loaded Microstrip-Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Marion C.

    1993-01-01

    Strips of thin resistive material added near two edges of conventional micro-strip-patch antenna. Bandwidth doubled by simple modification. Optimum bandwidth performance obtained by adjustment of shapes, resistances, and locations of resistive strips.

  6. Broadband Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    300152 1 of 14 BROADBAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA AND METHOD STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...thereon or therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The...present invention provides a method and apparatus for a broadband circularly polarized patch antenna. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] A

  7. The Smart Patches and Wearable Band (W-Band) for comfortable sleep monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulki; Yan, Long; Roh, Taehwan; Hong, Sunjoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Smart Patches and Wearable Band (W-Band) are proposed for comfortable sleep monitoring system which recognizes and diagnoses sleep disorders. By using Planar Fashionable Circuit Board (P-FCB) techniques, the Smart Patches are implemented with the plain fabric patch so that it can have light weight and small size. And the stretchability of the W-Band can achieve user convenience, low manufacturing cost, and low power consumption all at once. The data display program is developed on the external PC so that the user can check the monitoring result after wake-up. The proposed sleep monitoring system is fully implemented and tested on the human during normal sleep.

  8. Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Pujitha; Culurciello, Eugenio; Yang, Youshan; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Kindlmann, Peter J; Sigworth, Fred J

    2010-10-15

    We present the first, fully integrated, two-channel implementation of a patch-clamp measurement system. With this "PatchChip" two simultaneous whole-cell recordings can be obtained with rms noise of 8pA in a 10kHz bandwidth. The capacitance and series-resistance of the electrode can be compensated up to 10pF and 100MΩ respectively under computer control. Recordings of hERG and Na(v) 1.7 currents demonstrate the system's capabilities, which are on par with large, commercial patch-clamp instrumentation. By reducing patch-clamp amplifiers to a millimeter size micro-chip, this work paves the way to the realization of massively parallel, high-throughput patch-clamp systems for drug screening and ion-channel research. The PatchChip is implemented in a 0.5μm silicon-on-sapphire process; its size is 3×3mm(2) and the power consumption is 5mW per channel with a 3.3V power supply.

  9. Pulse Dynamics in Endocytic Protein Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-03-01

    During the process of endocytosis in yeast, submicron-sized protein patches assemble, exert forces on the membrane to bend it, and finally disassemble. The patches contain an initial coat that establishes the endocytic site and binds cargo, polymers of the protein actin, ``nucleation-promoting factors'' (NPFs) that catalyze actin polymerization, and curvature-generating proteins. We model the dynamics of protein patches in yeast using a variant of the activator-inhibitor ``Fitzhugh-Nagumo'' model. We treat NPFs as the activator, and polymerized actin as the inhibitor, on the basis of findings that the lifetime of NPF patches is extended when actin polymerization is inhibited. Using this model, we find that as the polymerization rate is reduced, there is a discontinuous transition from protein pulses to persistent patches. We also find, surprisingly, that in some parameter regimes reducing the polymerization rate can increase the polymerized-actin content of the patch. We present data for NPF dynamics budding yeast, which confirm some of the predictions of the model. Supported by NIH under Grant R01-GM107667.

  10. Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Pujitha; Culurciello, Eugenio; Yang, Youshan; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Kindlmann, Peter J.; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first, fully-integrated, two-channel implementation of a patch-clamp measurement system. With this “PatchChip” two simultaneous whole-cell recordings can be obtained with rms noise of 8 pA in a 10 kHz bandwidth. The capacitance and series-resistance of the electrode can be compensated up to 10 pF and 100 MΩ respectively under computer control. Recordings of hERG and Nav 1.7 currents demonstrate the system's capabilities, which are on par with large, commercial patch-clamp instrumentation. By reducing patch-clamp amplifiers to a millimeter size micro-chip, this work paves the way to the realization of massively-parallel, high-throughput patch-clamp systems for drug screening and ion-channel research. The PatchChip is implemented in a 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire process; its size is 3 × 3 mm2 and the power consumption is 5 mW per channel with a 3.3 V power supply. PMID:20637803

  11. Management of prosthetic patch infection after CEA.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ross

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that 0.5-1% of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy with prosthetic patch closure of the arteriotomy will develop patch infection. One third occur within the first 2 months after surgery, while two-thirds occur after >6 months have elapsed. Wound infection and abscess formation is the commonest mode of presentation in early cases, while chronic sinus discharge and false aneurysm formation are the commonest presentations in late cases. The commonest infecting organisms are Staphylococci/Streptococci (90%) and this should be borne in mind when planning antibiotic therapy before cultures are available. Most patch infections present (semi)-electively and patch rupture is relatively rare (10%), thereby enabling the surgeon to undertake careful evaluation of the patients overall clinical and anatomical status, whilst planning the optimal treatment strategy. If necessary, the patient should be transferred to a tertiary center for treatment. This is not an operation to be undertaken by an inexperienced surgeon. Operative planning should involve checking the original operation note (did the patient tolerate carotid clamping under locoregional anesthesia and therefore might tolerate carotid ligation), is there evidence of contralateral cranial nerve lesions (a contraindication to major open surgery) and has the surgeon planned for adequate distal exposure of the internal carotid artery. Patch excision and autologous reconstruction (usually vein) is the current 'gold standard' treatment, but highly selected patients can be successfully treated by less invasive surgery (including insertion of a covered stent). Patch excision and prosthetic reconstruction should be avoided.

  12. Systemic photosensitivity due to a contraceptive patch.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Loureiro, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2010-08-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are a known but rarely reported cause of photosensitivity. A 35-year-old female developed several episodes of a prurigionous papulovesicular eruption located on sun-exposed areas that resolved without scarring in days. She had been using a transdermal contraceptive (EVRA: norelgestromin and ethinyloestradiol) for 3 years, and once it was stopped, the patient became asymptomatic. She had another episode after the use of oral contraceptives (YAZ: ethinyloestradiol and drospirenone). The biopsy of the lesions showed a spongiotic dermatitis. Minimal erythema dose was diminished when the patient was using EVRA and YAZ and became normal when they were withdrawn. Phototesting with UVA, photopatch testing and blood porphyrins were normal. Antinuclear antibodies were 1/80 initially and were 1/320 6 months later. Anti-deoxyribonucleic acid antibodies, extractable nuclear antigens, anti Ro and Anti La were negative and no systemic symptoms had developed. When all hormonal contraceptives were stopped, the patient became asymptomatic. We report a case of systemic photosensitivity induced by the contraceptive patch. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases induced by transdermal contraceptives have been reported previously.

  13. Structural Health Monitoring of a Bonded Composite Patch Repair on a Fatigue-Cracked F-111C Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    fractographic observations just prior to failure of the wing in the fatigue test . For the patch system, based on the use of the bond-strength test as a...Environmental degradation of the adhesive bond would be manifested in the test as low strength and failure at the aluminium alloy surface - termed adhesive...34: Patch segments showing the bond test results. The location of the bond test plugs are shown together with the bond strength in MPa and failure

  14. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-Rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared patches using the disc-diffusion method against the yeast Candida albicans and five bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus bronchispti. In this work, we highlighted the possibility of occurrence of a synergistic action between carvacrol and tetracycline. The best formulation was selected based on microbiological tests, drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesive performance, and swelling index. Physical characteristics of the selected formulations were determined. These included pH, patch thickness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, and patch stability. PMID:21617783

  15. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  16. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in a landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  17. Effects of an emergent vegetation patch on channel reach bathymetry and stability during repeated unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kevin A.; Crowe Curran, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    While research into the interaction between in-channel vegetation, flow, and bed sediment has increased in recent years, there is still a need to understand how unsteady flows affect these processes, particularly in terms of channel bed adjustments. In this study, flume experiments tested two flood hydrograph sizes run over sand/gravel and sand/silt beds to evaluate reach scale impacts of a midchannel vegetation patch of variable stem density on channel bathymetry and stability. Alternating flood hydrographs with periods of low, steady flow created flow sequences reflective of an extended unsteady flow regime, thereby simulating time scales consisting of multiple flood events. Digital elevation models provided detailed measurements of channel change following each flood event to enable analysis over each unsteady flow sequence. The vegetation patch created characteristic channel bathymetries dependent on sediment mixture and patch density that in all cases resulted in a more variable bed structure than channels without a patch. Reach scale stability, quantified based on net volumetric bed change, only occurred with a sparse patch in the low flood sequence, corresponding with little variation in surface composition and structure. In most other cases, scour measured at the patch prevented stability at the reach scale, especially in the finer substrate. Overall, findings show that a channel may only adjust to a stable bathymetry upon addition of a midchannel vegetation patch within a limited range of flow regimes and patch stem densities, and that for the experimental conditions tested here, in-stream patches generally did not enhance reach scale bed stability.

  18. Theory of patch inverse boundary element method (IBEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Nicholas; Williams, Earl G.; Herdic, Peter; Klos, Jacob; Palumbo, Daniel; Silcox, Richard; Slanka, Bernard

    2005-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography (NAH) based on boundary element methods require the measurement of the near-field pressure field over a conformal and close surface in order to recover the acoustic field on a nearby surface. In this work a new technique called patch IBEM is introduced. This new technique eliminates the need to measure over an entire closed surface, but instead the measurements are taken over a small area to reconstruct the acoustic field. Patch IBEM is used for the reconstruction of the acoustic field over a fuselage panel in a Boeing 757 aircraft, using measurement taken at Boeing's interior noise test facility (INTF). The measurements taken include a 120 mikes planar array positioned conformal to the fuselage panel surface and a 50 mikes spherical array. Results will be showed when the fuselage panel is excited by a shaker. [Work supported by ONR and NASA.

  19. Truncated stacked elliptical patch antenna for broadband performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay; Sharma, Brajraj; Sharma, K. B.; Bhatnagar, D.

    2013-01-01

    A new design of a single-feed truncated elliptical patch antenna with and without slots for broadband performance with stacked arrangement is proposed in this paper and its performance is tested in free space. This multilayered rectangular microstrip antenna is designed and analyzed by using the ie3d simulation software. In between conducting and ground plane, designed antenna has two glass epoxy fr-4 substrates separated by an air substrate to attain broadband performance. The impedance bandwidth of designed antenna is better than 2.11GHz or 60% with respect to the central frequency. The simulated e plane co and cross radiation patterns are identical in shape for most of the part of bandwidth however at higher frequency side due to the presence of higher modes and cross polarization the radiation pattern are no more directive normal to patch geometry.

  20. Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Laesser, Barbara Eva; Hardaker, Andrea; Riddoch, Nicholas; Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-09-15

    The exponential growth of the human population and its increasing industrial development often involve large scale modifications of the environment. In the marine context, coastal urbanisation and harbour expansion to accommodate the rising levels of shipping and offshore energy exploitation require dredging to modify the shoreline and sea floor. While the consequences of dredging on invertebrates and fish are relatively well documented, no study has robustly tested the effects on large marine vertebrates. We monitored the attendance of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to a recently established urbanised foraging patch, Aberdeen harbour (Scotland), and modelled the effect of dredging operations on site usage. We found that higher intensities of dredging caused the dolphins to spend less time in the harbour, despite high baseline levels of disturbance and the importance of the area as a foraging patch.

  1. Mental confusion associated with scopolamine patch in elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Won; Suh, Mee Kyung; Chin, Juhee; Na, Duk L

    2009-01-01

    Mental confusion or delirium can occur after application of scopolamine patch. However, predisposing factors for scopolamine-induced delirium are not known. It is expected that undetected incipient dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be prone to develop mental confusion after applying the scopolamine patch. For the past 5 years, we found seven elderly women who had experienced transdermal scopolamine-induced mental confusion. They underwent neuropsychological tests after recovery from mental confusion (mean duration from onset to the test: 66 days). The results showed that all the patients were impaired in at least one of cognitive domains, fulfilling the criteria of MCI. These findings suggest that scopolamine patch-induced mental confusion should be included in the differential diagnoses of mental confusion in elderly, especially in travel situation, and that older people with undetected MCI are prone to develop scopolamine patch-induced mental confusion.

  2. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  3. Effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine gum as individual versus combined treatments for tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, K O; Schneider, N G; Lunell, E

    1993-01-01

    Nicotine gum and transdermal nicotine have been shown to relieve withdrawal and double success rates over placebo in trials of smoking cessation. This study tested whether combining the two methods would relieve withdrawal more effectively compared to either treatment alone. Twenty-eight smokers served as their own controls in each of four conditions: active gum + active patch (double active), active gum + placebo patch (gum only active), placebo gum + active patch (patch active) and placebo gum + placebo patch (double placebo). This "double placebo" design controls sensory, psychological and ritual variables associated with each drug form. Withdrawal symptoms were rated four times daily for 3 days in each condition. Total baseline (smoking) withdrawal scores using visual analogue scales (VAS) averaged 101.1. During cessation, total withdrawal increased to 187.0 for the double placebo condition, 142.2 for the active gum/placebo patch treatment and 128.3 for the active patch/placebo gum treatment. The double active condition equalled smoking with score 99.2. All pairwise comparisons were significant (P < 0.001) except between the two single active conditions and between smoking versus the double active condition. Significant time-of-day effects by treatment on withdrawal were observed for the double placebo condition (P < 0.05) with less withdrawal in the morning. The findings suggest: 1) combining nicotine gum with transdermal nicotine may be superior to either treatment alone, 2) more symptoms may be nicotine specific (relieved by replacement) than previously thought.

  4. Complex interaction of dendritic connectivity and hierarchical patch size on biodiversity in river-like landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Francesco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and land use changes are causing major biodiversity losses. Connectivity of the landscape or environmental conditions alone can shape biodiversity patterns. In nature, however, local habitat characteristics are often intrinsically linked to a specific connectivity. Such a link is evident in riverine ecosystems, where hierarchical dendritic structures command related scaling on habitat capacity. We experimentally disentangled the effect of local habitat capacity (i.e., the patch size) and dendritic connectivity on biodiversity in aquatic microcosm metacommunities by suitably arranging patch sizes within river-like networks. Overall, more connected communities that occupy a central position in the network exhibited higher species richness, irrespective of patch size arrangement. High regional evenness in community composition was found only in landscapes preserving geomorphological scaling properties of patch sizes. In these landscapes, some of the rarer species sustained regionally more abundant populations better tracking their own niche requirements compared to landscapes with homogeneous patch size or landscapes with spatially uncorrelated patch size. Our analysis suggests that altering the natural link between dendritic connectivity and patch size strongly affects community composition and population persistence at multiple scales. The experimental results are demonstrating a principle that can be tested in theoretical metacommunity models and eventually be projected to real riverine ecosystems.

  5. Coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration.

    PubMed

    Weigang, Helene C

    2017-08-07

    The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2017

  6. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Nersissian, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Colour patches are complex traits, the components of which may evolve independently through a variety of mechanisms. Although usually treated as simple, two-dimensional characters and classified as either structural or pigmentary, in reality colour patches are complicated, three-dimensional structures that often contain multiple pigment types and structural features. The basic dermal chromatophore unit of fishes, reptiles and amphibians consists of three contiguous cell layers. Xanthophores and erythrophores in the outermost layer contain carotenoid and pteridine pigments that absorb short-wave light; iridophores in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum. Changes in any one component of a chromatophore unit can drastically alter the reflectance spectrum produced, and for any given adaptive outcome (e.g. an increase in visibility), there may be multiple biochemical or cellular routes that evolution could take, allowing for divergent responses by different populations or species to similar selection regimes. All of the mechanisms of signal evolution that previously have been applied to single ornaments (including whole colour patches) could potentially be applied to the individual components of colour patches. To reach a complete understanding of colour patch evolution, however, it may be necessary to take an explicitly multi-trait approach. Here, we review multiple trait evolution theory and the basic mechanisms of colour production in fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and use a combination of computer simulations and empirical examples to show how multiple trait evolution theory can be applied to the components of single colour patches. This integrative perspective on animal colouration opens up a host of new questions and hypotheses. We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary

  7. The patch distributed producer-scrounger game.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yasunori; Toquenaga, Yukihiko

    2009-09-21

    Grouping in animals is ubiquitous and thought to provide group members antipredatory advantages and foraging efficiency. However, parasitic foraging strategy often emerges in a group. The optimal parasitic policy has given rise to the producer-scrounger (PS) game model, in which producers search for food patches, and scroungers parasitize the discovered patches. The N-persons PS game model constructed by Vickery et al. (1991. Producers, scroungers, and group foraging. American Naturalist 137, 847-863) predicts the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) of frequency of producers (q;) that depends on the advantage of producers and the number of foragers in a group. However, the model assumes that the number of discovered patches in one time unit never exceeds one. In reality, multiple patches could be found in one time unit. In the present study, we relax this assumption and assumed that the number of discovered patches depends on the producers' variable encounter rate with patches (lambda). We show that q; strongly depends on lambda within a feasible range, although it still depends on the advantage of producer and the number of foragers in a group. The basic idea of PS game is the same as the information sharing (parasitism), because scroungers are also thought to parasitize informations of locations of food patches. Horn (1968) indicated the role of information-parasitism in animal aggregation (Horn, H.S., 1968. The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in the Brewer's blackbird (euphagus cyanocephalus). Ecology 49, 682-646). Our modified PS game model shows the same prediction as the Horn's graphical animal aggregation model; the proportion of scroungers will increase or animals should adopt colonial foraging when resource is spatiotemporally clumped, but scroungers will decrease or animals should adopt territorial foraging if the resource is evenly distributed.

  8. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  9. Measuring Radiation Patterns of Reconfigurable Patch Antennas on Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus and technique have been devised for measuring the radiation pattern of a microwave patch antenna that is one of a number of identical units that have been fabricated in a planar array on a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The apparatus and technique are intended, more specifically, for application to such an antenna that includes a DC-controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) actuator for switching the antenna between two polarization states or between two resonance frequencies. Prior to the development of the present apparatus and technique, patch antennas on wafers were tested by techniques and equipment that are more suited to testing of conventional printed-circuit antennas. The techniques included sawing of the wafers to isolate individual antennas for testing. The equipment included custom-built test fixtures that included special signal launchers and transmission-line transitions. The present apparatus and technique eliminate the need for sawing wafers and for custom-built test fixtures, thereby making it possible to test antennas in less time and at less cost. Moreover, in a production setting, elimination of the premature sawing of wafers for testing reduces loss from breakage, thereby enhancing yield.

  10. The effect of direct interspecific competition on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Rihab; Wajnberg, Eric; Monge, Jean-Paul; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-01-01

    The presence of competitors may affect the pay-off of individuals' foraging strategies. They should therefore modify their resource exploitation decisions accordingly. In such a direct competition situation, theory predicts that individuals should stay longer on a resource patch than when foraging alone. However, models predicting patch residence time focus on intraspecific competition without agonistic interactions. Here, we investigate the patch use strategies of females of two parasitoid species, Eupelmus vuilleti and Dinarmus basalis, attacking the same host, Callosobruchus maculatus, knowing that D. basalis is more aggressive and can exclude E. vuilleti during pairwise contests for single hosts. Our results showed that time allocation and oviposition strategies differed in relation to the species and type of competition (i.e., presence/absence of competitor, simultaneous/sequential female introduction or resident/intruder female). Eupelmus vuilleti females tended to wait in the patch surroundings for D. basalis females' departure to return and exploit hosts parasitized by the opponent (after destruction of her eggs). In contrast, D. basalis females tended to self-superparasitize and stay motionless near the hosts. After detecting an E. vuilleti female entering the patch, they attacked and chased her permanently from the patch. Females of both species spent less time in the patch when faced with a competitor than when alone. This study is the first to test the influence of direct interspecific competition and arrival order on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid species, and highlights the necessity to include agonistic behaviors in theoretical models predicting optimal patch residence time in competitive situations.

  11. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch.

    PubMed

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-07-25

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection.

  12. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  13. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    SciTech Connect

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-08-24

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. Furthermore, these patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  14. Activated Membrane Patches Guide Chemotactic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Inbal; Skoge, Monica L.; Charest, Pascale G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Firtel, Richard A.; Loomis, William F.; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells are able to crawl on surfaces and guide their motility based on environmental cues. These cues are interpreted by signaling systems which couple to cell mechanics; indeed membrane protrusions in crawling cells are often accompanied by activated membrane patches, which are localized areas of increased concentration of one or more signaling components. To determine how these patches are related to cell motion, we examine the spatial localization of RasGTP in chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions where the vertical extent of the cell was restricted. Quantitative analyses of the data reveal a high degree of spatial correlation between patches of activated Ras and membrane protrusions. Based on these findings, we formulate a model for amoeboid cell motion that consists of two coupled modules. The first module utilizes a recently developed two-component reaction diffusion model that generates transient and localized areas of elevated concentration of one of the components along the membrane. The activated patches determine the location of membrane protrusions (and overall cell motion) that are computed in the second module, which also takes into account the cortical tension and the availability of protrusion resources. We show that our model is able to produce realistic amoeboid-like motion and that our numerical results are consistent with experimentally observed pseudopod dynamics. Specifically, we show that the commonly observed splitting of pseudopods can result directly from the dynamics of the signaling patches. PMID:21738453

  15. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    SciTech Connect

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-08-24

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. Furthermore, these patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  16. Transdermal patch drug delivery interactions with exercise.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Thomas L; Gillespie, Nicole

    2011-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems, such as the transdermal patch, continue to be a popular and convenient way to administer medications. There are currently several medications that use a transdermal patch drug delivery system. This article describes the potential untoward side effects of increased drug absorption through the use of a transdermal patch in individuals who exercise or participate in sporting events. Four studies have been reported that demonstrate a significant increase in the plasma concentration of nitroglycerin when individuals exercise compared with rest. Likewise, several case reports and two studies have been conducted that demonstrate nicotine toxicity and increased plasma nicotine while wearing a nicotine patch in individuals who exercise or participate in sporting events compared with rest. Healthcare providers, trainers and coaches should be aware of proper transdermal patch use, especially while exercising, in order to provide needed information to their respective patients and athletes to avoid potential untoward side effects. Particular caution should be given to individuals who participate in an extreme sporting event of long duration. Further research that includes more medications is needed in this area.

  17. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  18. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules, serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient, but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles, and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. Here we demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  20. Plant community response to landscape connectivity and patch shape.

    SciTech Connect

    Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-07-01

    Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abstract. Land transformation is the single most important factor promoting the global loss of terrestrial biological diversity. Remaining habitat fragments contain more edges, less interior habitat, and are more isolated from other habitat fragments, all of which decrease rates of colonization following local extinctions, reduce reproductive rates and gene flow between populations, and ultimately lead to species extinctions. The best approach to prevent species loss, therefore, is to preserve greater areas of habitat. In many cases, however, habitat has already been fragmented and strategies are needed to configure and manage the remaining land. Land managers often create reserve networks that incorporate the use of landscape corridors, linear strips of habitat connecting isolated patches, to reduce species loss by increasing colonizations and decreasing extinctions. Most empirical tests of corridors have been limited to individuals and populations, leaving corridor effects on diversity largely unknown, especially at large spatial scales. Additionally, only a handful of studies have examined corridor effects on plants, which may be especially sensitive to the abiotic changes resulting from alterations in patch shape due to dispersal limitation. Using one of the best-replicated, large-scale habitat fragmentation experiments, I tested explicitly for corridor effects on plant community diversity and composition by examining the established plant community and the soil seedbank. My experimental design distinguished among the three possible ways corridors can affect between-patch processes: by acting as a movement conduit between connected patches (“connectivity effects”), by increasing area alone (“area effects”), and by intercepting organisms moving across the landscape and filtering them into connected patches (“drift-fence effects”). Additionally, I tested for the

  1. Assessment of the effectiveness of nontransdermal energy patches on muscle endurance and power.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Smith, Doug B; Stemm, John D; Warren, Aric J; O'Brien, Matt S; Glass, Rob G

    2008-05-01

    Claims of recently developed energy patches suggest that organic nanoscale biomolecular "antennas" produced by L and D-stereoisomers resonate at frequencies in unison with molecules in the cells inducing electron flow to assists in recruiting calcium ions, allowing greater muscle fiber recruitment during muscle contraction. The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of energy patches in the performance of selected muscle power and endurance measures. After a 5-minute warm-up and stretch, 41 college varsity football players (age, 20.37 +/- 1.24 years; height, 169.91 +/- 7.44 cm; weight, 109.45 +/- 19.85 kg) were pre-tested on 102-kg maximal bench press repetitions, standing vertical jump, grip strength, peak torque, torque to body weight, total work, average power, and average torque as measured by 50 repetitions of leg extensions at 180 degrees .s. The following week, the players were randomly assigned the experimental or placebo patches. After placement of the patches, the participants again completed a 5-minute warm-up, followed by the identical pre-test protocol. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to compare resultant data. No significant group interaction effects were found between experimental and placebo patches for maximal bench press repetitions (p = 0.48), vertical jump distance (p = 0.39), grip strength (p = 0.29), total work (p = 0.26), torque to body weight (p = 0.05), average peak torque (p = 0.08), and average power (p = 0.05). A significant increase occurred in the experimental group for peak torque (p = 0.04). It was concluded that the energy patches significantly improved performance over placebo patches in one of the eight variables tested and registered near significance in two additional variables. However, inconsistency in overall results demands further studies to determine the reliability in improvement of performance in the presence of energy patches.

  2. Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna Feed Network (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-09

    patch antenna can achieve a gain of 9dB. Simply a patch can be seen as a pair of imaginary dipoles in parallel separated by the width of the patch. The...Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna Feed Network Behnam Jamali School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering The University of Adelaide...paper presents a comparative study of patch antenna feed structures. That includes microstrip line feed, inset feed, coaxial feed, aperture coupled

  3. SuperPatchMatch: an Algorithm for Robust Correspondences using Superpixel Patches.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Remi; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Bugeau, Aurelie; Coupe, Pierrik; Papadakis, Nicolas

    2017-05-29

    Superpixels have become very popular in many computer vision applications. Nevertheless, they remain underexploited since the superpixel decomposition may produce irregular and non stable segmentation results due to the dependency to the image content. In this paper, we first introduce a novel structure, a superpixel-based patch, called SuperPatch. The proposed structure, based on superpixel neighborhood, leads to a robust descriptor since spatial information is naturally included. The generalization of the PatchMatch method to SuperPatches, named SuperPatchMatch, is introduced. Finally, we propose a framework to perform fast segmentation and labeling from an image database, and demonstrate the potential of our approach since we outperform, in terms of computational cost and accuracy, the results of state-of-the-art methods on both face labeling and medical image segmentation.

  4. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  5. Evolution of density- and patch-size-dependent dispersal rates.

    PubMed Central

    Poethke, Hans Joachim; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Based on a marginal value approach, we derive a nonlinear expression for evolutionarily stable (ES) dispersal rates in a metapopulation with global dispersal. For the general case of density-dependent population growth, our analysis shows that individual dispersal rates should decrease with patch capacity and-beyond a certain threshold-increase with population density. We performed a number of spatially explicit, individual-based simulation experiments to test these predictions and to explore further the relevance of variation in the rate of population increase, density dependence, environmental fluctuations and dispersal mortality on the evolution of dispersal rates. They confirm the predictions of our analytical approach. In addition, they show that dispersal rates in metapopulations mostly depend on dispersal mortality and inter-patch variation in population density. The latter is dominantly driven by environmental fluctuations and the rate of population increase. These conclusions are not altered by the introduction of neighbourhood dispersal. With patch capacities in the order of 100 individuals, kin competition seems to be of negligible importance for ES dispersal rates except when overall dispersal rates are low. PMID:11916481

  6. Role of Bacterial Communities in the Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani Bare Patch Disease of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuntao; Hulbert, Scot H.; Schroeder, Kurtis L.; Mavrodi, Olga; Mavrodi, Dmitri; Dhingra, Amit; Schillinger, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease. PMID:24056471

  7. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets. PMID:25167137

  8. Vegetation patches increase wind-blown litter accumulation in a semi-arid steppe of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yuchun; Xin, Xiaoping; Xu, Xingliang; Wang, Xu; Yan, Ruirui; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-12-01

    Litter decomposition is an important source of soil organic matter and nutrients; however, few studies have explored how vegetation patches affect wind-driven litter mobility and accumulation. In this study, we aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) vegetation patches can reduce litter removal and facilitate litter accumulation, (2) litter mobility results in the heterogeneous redistribution of carbon and nutrients over the land surface, and (3) litter removal rates differ among different litter types (e.g., leaf and stem). Four vegetation patch types and six litter types were used to investigate the impacts of vegetation patches on litter mobility and accumulation. The results show that compared with almost bare ground patches, patches with vegetation cover had significantly higher litter accumulation, with the shrub patch type having the highest accumulation amount. The rate of litter removal due to wind was highest for the almost bare surface type (P4) and lowest for the shrub patch (P1) and Stipa grandis community (P2) types. There were significant differences in the removal rate among the different litter types. These findings indicate that wind-based litter redistribution among bare, S. grandis-dominated, and shrub-dominated patches is at least partially responsible for increasing the spatial heterogeneity of resources on a landscape scale.

  9. Can we go beyond burned area assessment with fire patch metrics from global remote rensing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Pereira Messias, Joana; Ruffault, Julien; Chuvieco, Emilio; Mouillot, Florent

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major event influencing global biogeochemical cycles and contribute to the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Global burned area (BA) datasets from remote sensing have provided the fruitful information for quantifying carbon emissions in global biogeochemical models, and for DGVM's benchmarking. Patch level analysis from pixel level information recently emerged as an informative additional feature of the regime as fire size distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of global BA products to accurately represent characteristics of fire patches (size, complexity shape and spatial orientation). We selected a site in the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado), one of the most fire prone biome and one of the validation test site for the ESA fire-Cci project. We used the pixel-level burned area detected by Landsat, MCD45A1 and the newly delivered MERIS ESA fire-Cci for the period 2002-2009. A flood-fill algorithm adapted from Archibald and Roy (2009) was used to identify the individual fire patches (patch ID) according to the burned date (BD). For each patch ID, we calculated a panel of patch metrics as area, perimeter and core area, shape complexity (shape index and fractal dimension) and the feature of the ellipse fitted over the spatial distribution of pixels composing the patch (eccentricity and direction of the main axis). Paired fire patches overlapping between each BA products were compared. The correlation between patch metrics were evaluated by linear regression models for each inter-product comparison according to fire size classes. Our results showed significant patch overlaps (>30%) between products for patches with areas larger than 270ha, with more than 90% of patches overlapping between MERIS and MCD45A1. Fire Patch metrics correlations showed R2>0.6 for all comparisons of patch Area and Core Area, with a slope of 0.99 between MERIS and MCD45A1 illustrating the agreement between the two global products. The

  10. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  11. History of electrophysiology and the patch clamp.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We provide a historic outlook on the development of the concept of bioelectricity, with emphasis on the neuromuscular junction as a model that revolutionized our thinking of the nerve, nervous, and muscle tissue excitability. We abridge some crucial experiments in defining the electrical excitability of biological cells. We also provide an insight into developments of tools and methods, which gradually yielded a contemporary "palette" of electrophysiology approaches, including the patch clamp. Pioneering steps in this journey, ranging from Galvani's experiments using the Leyden jar to those of Neher and Sakmann using a gigaseal patch-clamp approach, are pictorially illustrated. This chapter is meant to be a perspective to the following sections in this volume dedicated to patch-clamp methods and protocols.

  12. Tunable nano dispersed LC based patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Afaque; Yadav, Harsh; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents Patch antenna based on pure and Nano dispersed liquid crystals (LCs) for earth and space applications. Patch antenna are one of the most attractive antennas designed for RF frequency. To fulfill the demand of modern antenna i.e. tunability, a design of LC based patch antenna with optimum frequency of 15 GHz is investigated. In this design, NLC and ZnO doped NLC were used as a dielectric substrate. Its dielectric permittivity was controlled by biasing voltage. The dielectric properties of the 4-Cyano-4' -pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and NLC doped with Zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles was studied at room temperature. The concentration of doping material was 0.5% by w.t. in ZnO. Results shows that dielectric parameters are strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Moreover, Using doped NLC as dielectric substrate one gets more tunability or shift in resonant frequency in the proposed geometry.

  13. Deformation of Polar Cap Patches During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Ridley, A. J.; Nicolls, M. J.; Coster, A. J.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Hampton, D.

    2015-12-01

    Polar cap patches refer to the islands of high F-region plasma density within the polar cap. Their formation on the dayside and deformation on the nightside are not well understood. The F-layer ionosphere density is strongly influenced by electric field, thermospheric wind as well as soft particle precipitation. This study combines observations from multiple instruments, including Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar, GPS TEC and optical instruments, as well as the Global Ionosphere and Thermosphere Model (GITM), to investigate the effects of highly structured electric fields and winds on the deformation of polar cap patches during substorms. We will also discuss variations of the auroral emissions associated with the patch evolution.

  14. Cell repair: Revisiting the patch hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasma membrane damage elicits a complex and dynamic cellular response. A vital component of this response, membrane resealing, is thought to arise from fusion of intracellular membranous compartments to form a temporary, impermeant patch at the site of damage; however, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm visually. By utilizing advanced microscopy technologies with high spatiotemporal resolution in wounded Xenopus laevis oocytes, we provide the first direct visualization of the membrane fusion events predicted by the patch hypothesis; we show the barrier formed by patching is capable of abating exchange of material across the plasma membrane within seconds. Profound changes also occur to the plasma membrane surrounding wounds; lipid remodeling is accompanied by membrane fusion events, both conventional (e.g., exocytosis) and novel (e.g., “explodosis”). Further, we reveal additional complexity in wound-induced subcellular patterning, supporting existing evidence that extensive interactions between lipid, protein, and ionic signaling pathways shape the cellular wound response. PMID:28042380

  15. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  16. Dynamics of skimming flow in the wake of a vegetation patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Bailey, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    Dryland vegetation is often spatially patchy, and so affects wind flow in complex ways. Theoretical models and wind tunnel testing have shown that skimming flow develops above vegetation patches at high plant densities, resulting in little or no wind erosion in these zones. Understanding the dynamics of skimming flow is therefore important for predicting sediment transport and bedform development in dryland areas. However, no field-based data are available describing turbulent airflow dynamics in the wake of vegetation patches. In this study, turbulent wind flow was examined using high-frequency (10 Hz) sonic anemometry at four measurement heights (0.30 m, 0.55 m, 1.10 m and 1.65 m) along a transect in the lee of an extensive patch of shrubs (z = 1.10 m height) in Namibia. Spatial variations in mean wind velocity, horizontal Reynolds stresses and coherent turbulent structures were analysed. We found that wind velocity in the wake of the patch effectively recovered over ∼12 patch heights (h) downwind, which is 2-5 h longer than previously reported recovery lengths for individual vegetation elements and two-dimensional wind fences. This longer recovery can be attributed to a lack of flow moving around the obstacle in the patch case. The step-change in roughness between the patch canopy and the bare surface in its wake resulted in an initial peak in resultant horizontal shear stress (τr) followed by significant decrease downwind. In contrast to τr , horizontal normal Reynolds stress (u‧2 ‾) progressively increased along the patch wake. A separation of the upper shear layer at the leeside edge of the patch was observed, and a convergence of τr curves implies the formation of a constant stress layer by ∼20 h downwind. The use of τr at multiple heights is found to be a useful tool for identifying flow equilibration in complex aerodynamic regimes. Quadrant analysis revealed elevated frequencies of Q2 (ejection) and Q4 (sweep) events in the immediate lee of the

  17. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive patches of salbutamol sulfate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Puratchikody, Ayrivan; Prasanth, Viswanadhan Vasantha; Mathew, Sam Thomas; Kumar, Balaraman Ashok

    2011-06-01

    Buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate were prepared using five different water soluble polymers in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. A 32 full factorial design was used to design the experiments for each polymer combination. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm and showed an increase in mass whenever PEG-400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of all patches approached neutral. Eight formulations which had shown high folding endurance (> 300) were selected for evaluation. Patches prepared with PEG-400 showed a high swelling index. The residence time of the tested patches ranged between 105 and 130 min. Formulations A10, A32, B10 and B32 fitted the Higuchi model best, whereas formulations A19 and B19 showed super case II transport drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period of 6 months.

  18. Constituents of smoke from cigarettes made from diverted nicotine replacement therapy patches.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Boland, Martin; Hefler, Marita; Thomas, David P

    2016-03-01

    Anecdotes of nicotine replacement therapy patch misuse associated with the introduction of smoke-free prisons have been reported by media internationally, including Canada in 2006, New Zealand in 2011 and Australia in 2014. This study identifies chemical compounds released through diverted nicotine replacement therapy patches when they are smoked. Two samples were produced: (i) shredded 21 mg nicotine replacement therapy patches rolled with tea leaves into a cigarette; and (ii) patches boiled in water and tea leaves, and then dried tea leaves rolled into a cigarette. The smoke was tested for nicotine, caffeine and toxins. High-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry were used to detect the presence and quantity of nicotine and caffeine. A specialised laboratory was contracted to test the presence of toxins. Nicotine was liberated when the two samples were burnt but not if the nicotine replacement therapy patches were boiled in water alone. High concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, toluene, xylene and heavy metals were also released. Nicotine is released when diverted nicotine replacement therapy patches are smoked, as are caffeine and harmful toxins. These toxins have the potential to cause short- and long-term health damage. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Patch Clamping Protoplasts from Vascular Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Keller, Christopher P.; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for the isolation of protoplasts (Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Avena sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana) in preparation for ion flux studies using patch clamp electrophysiology. Protoplasts that have been exposed to hydrolytic, cell wall degrading, enzymes for as little as 5 minutes form gigaseals (seal resistance higher than 10 giga Ohm) with the patch pipette with success rates greater than 40%. Sealing of these protoplasts is fast, averaging less than 2 minutes. This method yields high rates of gigaseal formation in a variety of tissues from both monocots and dicots and will enhance data collection in ion flux studies of plasma membranes of vascular plants. PMID:16668586

  20. Epidural blood patch and acute varicella.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Bergman, Bradley D; Berger, Ines H

    2004-12-01

    We present the case of a 38-yr-old woman who required an epidural blood patch in the context of acute varicella (chickenpox). The unique risks in this case include the possible triggering of central nervous system complications after the introduction of viremic blood into the epidural or intrathecal space. However, the risk was believed to be acceptable because the patient was receiving antiviral coverage. She enjoyed complete relief of her headache but experienced transient back and leg pain. Leptomeningeal irritation caused by acute varicella infection may put patients at increased risk for pain after epidural blood patch.

  1. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  2. Design of a Composite Membrane with Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Cuccu, Fabrizio; Emamizadeh, Behrouz; Porru, Giovanni

    2010-10-15

    This paper is concerned with minimization and maximization problems of eigenvalues. The principal eigenvalue of a differential operator is minimized or maximized over a set which is formed by intersecting a rearrangement class with an affine subspace of finite co-dimension. A solution represents an optimal design of a 2-dimensional composite membrane {Omega}, fixed at the boundary, built out of two different materials, where certain prescribed regions (patches) in {Omega} are occupied by both materials. We prove existence results, and present some features of optimal solutions. The special case of one patch is treated in detail.

  3. Testosterone patches for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    There is some suggestion of a link between sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women and low circulating concentrations of testosterone.1 This underlies the development of a new transdermal testosterone patch (black triangle down Intrinsa - Procter & Gamble) that has recently been licensed in the UK for the treatment of women who have hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) following a menopause induced by surgery (i.e. bilateral salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy) and who are receiving concomitant oestrogen replacement therapy.2 Here we discuss the diagnosis of HSDD, as well as the evidence for using transdermal testosterone patches in women in whom this diagnosis is made.

  4. Patches for Carotid Artery Endarterectomy: Current Materials and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akihito; Nishibe, Toshiya; Dardik, Herbert; Dardik, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Patch angioplasty is commonly performed after carotid endarterectomy. Randomized prospective trials and meta-analyses have documented improved rates of perioperative and long-term stroke prevention as well as reduced rates of restenosis for patches compared to primary closure of the arteriotomy. Although use of vein patches is considered to be the “gold standard” for patch closure, newer generations of synthetic and biological materials rival outcomes associated with vein patches. Future bioengineered patches are likely to optimize patch performance, both by achieving minimal stroke risk and long-term rates of restenosis, as well as by minimizing the risk of unusual complications of prosthetic patches such as infection and pseudoaneurysm formation; in addition, lessons from bioengineered patches will likely enable construction of bioengineered and tissue-engineered bypass grafts. PMID:19563972

  5. Critical patch sizes for food-web modules.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Fagan, William F; Denno, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Because patch size and connectivity may strongly impact the assemblage of species that occur on a patch, the types of food-web interactions that occur among those species may also depend on spatial structure. Here, we identify whether food-web interactions among salt-marsh-inhabiting arthropods vary with patch size and connectivity, and how such changes in trophic structure might feed back to influence the spatial distribution of prey. In a multiyear survey, patch-restricted predators exhibited steeper occupancy-patch-size relationships than herbivores, and species' critical patch sizes were correlated with overall rarity. As a result, the presence of food-web modules depended strongly on patch size: large and well-connected patches supported complex food-web modules, but only the simplest modules involving the most abundant species were found on small patches. Habitat-generalist spiders dominated on small patches, and predation pressure from such species may contribute to the observed lower densities of mesopredators on small patches. Overall, patch size and connectivity influenced the types of modules present on a patch through differential loss of rare, patch-restricted predators, but predation by generalist predators may be a key mechanism influencing the spatial structure of certain prey species.

  6. Grid flexibility and patching techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G.; Smith, L. W.; Yung, C. N.; Barthelson, S. H.; Dewitt, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use; many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

  7. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  8. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  9. Polansky with STS-127 patch in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-25

    ISS020-E-024567 (25 July 2009) --- Astronaut Mark Polansky, STS-127 commander, places the STS-127 patch above a hatch in the Kibo laboratory, which adds to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have lived and worked on the International Space Station.

  10. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  11. Stott signs crew patch in Joint Airlock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-07

    S128-E-007938 (7 Sept. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20 flight engineer, poses for a photo after signing the STS-128 patch, which was added to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who performed spacewalks from the Quest airlock of the International Space Station.

  12. Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

  13. sts-130patch-design-finalthreads

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-18

    STS130-S-001 (September 2009) --- The STS-130 patch was designed by the crew to reflect both the objectives of the mission and its place in the history of human spaceflight. The main goal of the mission is to deliver Node 3 and the Cupola to the International Space Station (ISS). Node 3, named ?Tranquility,? will contain life support systems enabling continued human presence in orbit aboard the ISS. The shape of the patch represents the Cupola, which is the windowed robotics viewing station, from which astronauts will have the opportunity not only to monitor a variety of ISS operations, but also to study our home planet. The image of Earth depicted in the patch is the first photograph of Earth taken from the moon by Lunar Orbiter I on Aug. 23, 1966. As both a past and a future destination for explorers from planet Earth, the moon is thus represented symbolically in the STS-130 patch. The space shuttle Endeavour is pictured approaching the ISS, symbolizing the space shuttle's role as the prime construction vehicle for the ISS. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  15. Expedition 40 patch added to Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-139596 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the Unity node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson (left), Expedition 40 commander, adds the Expedition 40 patch to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station. Russian cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (center) and Oleg Artemyev, both flight engineers, look on.

  16. Poindexter with Mission Patch in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-16

    ISS023-E-024158 (16 April 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, poses for a photo after adding his crew's patch to the growing collection, in the Unity node, of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station.

  17. Expedition 40 patch added to Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-139592 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the Unity node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson (left), Expedition 40 commander, adds the Expedition 40 patch to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station. Russian cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (center) and Oleg Artemyev, both flight engineers, look on.

  18. Kopra with STS-127 patch in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-25

    ISS020-E-024573 (25 July 2009) --- Astronaut Tim Kopra, Expedition 20 flight engineer, signs the Expedition 20 patch in the Kibo laboratory, which was added to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have lived and worked on the International Space Station.

  19. Barratt with Expedition 19 patch in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-25

    ISS020-E-024587 (25 July 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, signs the Expedition 19 patch in the Kibo laboratory, which was added to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have lived and worked on the International Space Station.

  20. The post-operative analgesic effects of epidurally administered morphine and transdermal fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pekcan, Zeynep; Koc, Bahattin

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the analgesic and side effects of epidural morphine or a fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Twenty female mongrel dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. The dogs were allocated to one of two groups: epidural morphine or transdermal fentanyl patch. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Morphine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) was administered epidurally in the epidural morphine group and a transdermal fentanyl patch was applied 24 hours before the operation in the fentanyl patch group. The heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, plasma cortisol concentration, and sedation and analgesia scores were recorded during the 24 hour post-operative period. Adverse effects such as vomiting, anorexia, skin reactions, urinary retention, and time to start licking the surgical site were also recorded. p<0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analyses utilized anova for repeated measures, Friedman tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests and independent sample t-tests as relevant. Pain scores were lower in the epidural group than in the fentanyl group at all post-operative times. The dogs in the epidural morphine group were calm and relaxed, whereas discomfort and vocalization were recorded in the fentanyl patch group. The sedation scores were higher in the fentanyl patch group throughout the 12 hour period. Salivation and anorexia lasted longer in the fentanyl patch group than in the epidural morphine group. Plasma cortisol concentrations were high in the early post-operative period in both groups. The fentanyl patch group had higher cortisol concentrations than the epidural morphine group. Slight erythema was recorded in two dogs when the patches were removed. Epidurally administered morphine provided better analgesia and caused fewer adverse effects than the fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary

  1. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    DOE PAGES

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; ...

    2016-08-24

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties.more » At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. Furthermore, these patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.« less

  2. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun